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Sample records for positive difference favoring

  1. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young...

  2. Positive Surgical Margins in Favorable-Stage Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Catherine E; Drew, Peter A; Morris, Christopher G; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Mendenhall, William M; Amdur, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    The significance of positive margin in favorable-stage well-differentiated thyroid cancer is controversial. We report outcomes of positive-margin patients with a matched-pair comparison to a negative-margin group. A total of 25 patients with classic-histology papillary or follicular carcinoma, total thyroidectomy +/- node dissection, stage T1-3N0-1bM0, positive surgical margin at primary site, adjuvant radioactive iodine (I-131), and age older than 18 years were treated between 2003 and 2013. Endpoints were clinical and biochemical (thyroglobulin-only) recurrence-free survival. Matched-pair analysis involved a 1:1 match with negative-margin cases matched for overall stage and I-131 dose. Recurrence-free survival in positive-margin patients was 71% at 10 years. No patient was successfully salvaged with additional treatment. Only 1 patient died of thyroid cancer. Recurrence-free survival at 10 years was worse with a positive (71%) versus negative (90%) margin (P=0.140). Cure with a microscopically positive margin was suboptimal (71%) despite patients having classic-histology papillary and follicular carcinoma, favorable stage, and moderate-dose I-131 therapy.

  3. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs. mono-gender groups.

  4. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  5. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program – “In Favor of Myself” – on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Methods Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Results Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to “In Favor of Myself”. Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain “thin”. At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Conclusions Girls exhibited more gains than boys from ‘In Favor of Myself’ which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs

  6. Citation bias favoring positive clinical trials of thrombolytics for acute ischemic stroke: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misemer, Benjamin S; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-09-28

    Citation bias occurs when positive trials involving a medical intervention receive more citations than neutral or negative trials of similar quality. Several large clinical trials have studied the use of thrombolytic agents for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with differing results, thereby presenting an opportunity to assess these trials for evidence of citation bias. We compared citation rates among positive, neutral, and negative trials of alteplase (tPA) and other thrombolytic agents for stroke. We used a 2014 Cochrane Review of thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute stroke to identify non-pilot, English-language stroke trials published in MEDLINE-indexed journals comparing thrombolytic therapy with control. We classified trials as positive if there was a statistically significant primary outcome difference favoring the intervention, neutral if there was no difference in primary outcome, or negative for a significant primary outcome difference favoring the control group. Trials were also considered negative if safety concerns supported stopping the trial early. Using Scopus, we collected citation counts through 2015 and compared citation rates according to trial outcomes. Eight tPA trials met inclusion criteria: two were positive, four were neutral, and two were negative. The two positive trials received 9080 total citations, the four neutral trials received 4847 citations, and the two negative trials received 1096 citations. The mean annual per-trial citation rates were 333 citations per year for positive trials, 96 citations per year for neutral trials, and 35 citations per year for negative trials. Trials involving other thrombolytic agents were not cited as often, though as with tPA, positive trials were cited more frequently than neutral or negative trials. Positive trials of tPA for ischemic stroke are cited approximately three times as often as neutral trials, and nearly 10 times as often as negative trials, indicating the presence of

  7. Why Koreans are More Likely to Favor "Apology," While Americans are More Likely to Favor "Thank You"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Eun; Park, Hee Sun

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether apologies or thanks are preferred in asking favors in the United States and Korea, and how this relates to perceptions of reduction in positive and negative face threats. In the first study (n = 224), participants composed an e-mail message where a favor was asked. In the second (n = 807), participants completed…

  8. Oral Health Status of Institutionalized Older Women from Different Socioeconomic Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Irigoyen-Camacho, A Esther; Sánchez-García, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between oral health and socioeconomic position in institutionalized older women in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was performed in two groups: high socioeconomic position (HSEP), living in a private retirement home, and low socioeconomic position (LSEP), living in a public assistance center. Oral health was determined by edentulism, oral hygiene, healthy teeth, experience of dental caries, missing and filled teeth, gingival bleeding, dental calculus, and periodontal disease. A latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify oral health status in dentate. Included were 170 women (HSEP 54.1% and LSEP 45.8%), average age 77.3 (SD = 9.3) years. Oral health status was formed: Edentulous 32.4% HSEP and 67.6% LSEP; Class 1 Unfavorable 0% HSEP and 100% LSEP; Class2 Slightly favorable 41.2% HSEP and58.8% LSEP; and Class3 Favorable 84.6% HSEP and 15.4% LSEP. There was a statistically significant association between socioeconomic position (p < .001) and oral health status. The oral health of women studied was not optimal. Higher socioeconomic position was associated with better oral health status.

  9. The effect of "in favor of myself": preventive program to enhance positive self and body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noaa; Tamir, Snait

    2013-01-01

    Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group), aged 12-14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented.

  10. Sex Differences and Bone Metastases of Breast, Lung, and Prostate Cancers: Do Bone Homing Cancers Favor Feminized Bone Marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Farach-Carson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated differences in bone metastasis formation from breast, lung, and prostate cancer exist in clinical studies, but have not been systematically reviewed. Differences in the bone marrow niche can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, to genetic variations that affect sex hormone levels, or to the direct effects of sex hormones, natural or exogenously delivered. This review describes the present understanding of sex-associated and sex hormone level differences in the marrow niche and in formation of bone metastasis during the transition of these three cancers from treatable disease to an often untreatable, lethal metastatic one. Our purpose is to provide insight into some underlying molecular mechanisms for hormonal influence in bone metastasis formation, and to the potential influence of sexual dimorphism, genetic differences affecting sex assignment, and sex hormone level differences on the bone niche and its favorability for metastasis formation. We reviewed publications in PubMed and EMBASE, including full length manuscripts, case reports, and clinical studies of relevance to our topic. We focused on bone metastasis formation in breast, lung, and prostate cancer because all three commonly present with bone metastases. Several clear observations emerged. For breast cancer bone metastasis formation, estrogen receptor (ER signaling pathways indicate a role for ER beta (ERβ. Estrogen influences the bone microenvironment, creating and conditioning a favorable niche for colonization and breast cancer progression. For lung cancer, studies support the hypothesis that females have a more favorable bone microenvironment for metastasis formation. For prostate cancer, a decrease in the relative androgen to estrogen balance or a “feminization” of bone marrow favors bone metastasis formation, with a potentially important role for ERβ that may be similar to that in breast cancer. Long-term estrogen administration or androgen blockade in males

  11. Geodynamic condition of formation of favorable structural positions for ore-grade gold placement in auminzatau-beltau ore area (the central kyzyl kum, western uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janibekov, Bobir Omonovich; Turapov, M. K.

    2017-09-01

    Work is directed on studying of a geodynamic condition under which the structural positions controlling process of endogenous ore formation were formed. It is shown that explosive region tectonics under the influence of regional tectonic efforts formed structural elements (positions) which controlled formation of gold deposits. It is recognized that structural positions are defined by variety of systems of disjunctive dislocation and their relationship among themselves. Formation of favorable positions depends as well on morphology of ore controlling structures, on degree of their tectonic activity and spatial situation in relation to the direction of tectonic (geodynamic) efforts.

  12. The Effect of “In Favor of Myself”: Preventive Program to Enhance Positive Self and Body Image among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noaa; Tamir, Snait

    2013-01-01

    Background Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. Methods A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group), aged 12–14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. Results The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. Conclusions In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented. PMID:24265681

  13. Reaching the limits of reciprocity in favor exchange: The effects of generous, stingy, and matched favor giving on social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kan; Xu, Erica; Huang, Xu; Liu, Wu; Tang, Yipeng

    2018-06-01

    Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence. An experimental study and a field study lend support to our propositions. Our study complements the literature by offering a complete picture of how three types of favor giving among group members shape their social status in different ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Acharyya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum position of the optical window (OW of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D large-signal (L-S simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.

  15. J-ACT II. Differences in rate of valid recanalization and of a favorable outcome by site of MCA occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Teruyuki

    2010-01-01

    The background and purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the effects of alteplase differ with occlusion site of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). An exploratory analysis was made of 57 patients enrolled on the Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial II (J-ACT II). The residual vessel length (mm), determined on pretreatment MR angiography (MRA), was used to reflect the occluded site. The proportions of patients with valid recanalization (modified Mori grade 2-3) at 6 and 24 hours, and a favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1 at 3 months) were compared between the groups dichotomized according to their lengths of residual vessel. Multiple logistic regression models were generated to elucidate the predictors of valid recanalization and a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that 5 mm was the practical cutoff length for the dichotomization. In patients with M1 length <5 mm (n=12), the frequencies of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours (16.6%/25.0%) were significantly low compared with those (62.2%/82.2%) of 45 patients with a residual M1 length of ≥5 mm and M2 occlusions (p=0.008 for 6 hours, p<0.001 for 24 hours). The proportion of a favorable outcome was also small in patients with M1 length <5 mm (8.3%), as compared to the others (57.8%, p=0.004). In logistic regression models, the site of MCA occlusion (<5 mm) was the significant predictor of valid recanalization at 6/24 hours and of a favorable outcome. In patients with acute MCA occlusion, residual vessel length <5 mm on MRA can identify poor responders. (author)

  16. A generalização a partir do tratamento com fricativas: ambientes favoráveis versus ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros The generalization through the treatment with fricatives: favorable environments versus unfavorable and neutral environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan

    2013-01-01

    and neutral environments. There were eight sessions and, after them, a new speech evaluation was performed in order to verify the types of generalization that were obtained. The generalization percentages were compared between the groups by statistical test Mann-Whitney (p<0.05. At the end of therapy, it was observed an increasing in generalization percentage for all the subjects. In the comparison between the groups, no statistical difference was found to the analyzed generalizations. However, there was an advantage to for the favorable group regarding to the generalizations "to another position in the word" and "inside a sound class". The obtained results can be related to the small number of subjects or to other factors mentioned in the article.

  17. Local systematic differences in 2MASS positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    We have found that positions in the 2MASS All-sky Catalog of Point Sources show local systematic differences with characteristic length-scales of ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 arcminutes when compared with several catalogs. We have observed that when 2MASS positions are used in the computation of proper motions, the mentioned systematic differences cause systematic errors in the resulting proper motions. We have developed a method to locally rectify 2MASS with respect to UCAC4 in order to diminish the systematic differences between these catalogs. The rectified 2MASS catalog with the proposed method can be regarded as an extension of UCAC4 for astrometry with accuracy ˜ 90 mas in its positions, with negligible systematic errors. Also we show that the use of these rectified positions removes the observed systematic pattern in proper motions derived from original 2MASS positions.

  18. SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation is a favorable prognosticator and a novel indicator for G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Wang, Zheng; Bao, Zhaoshi; Yan, Wei; You, Gan; Wang, Yinyan; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Quangeng; Jiang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Hypermethylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3) promoter has been reported to predict a poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We explored the function of SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation in GBM cohorts, including analysis of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), when a large number of gene loci are simultaneously hypermethylated. A whole genome promoter methylation profile was performed in a cohort of 33 GBM samples, with 13 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ≥ 18 months) and 20 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ≤ 9 months). The SOCS3 promoter methylation status was compared between the two groups. In addition, we investigated the relationship of SOCS3 promoter methylation and G-CIMP status. Interestingly, in our present study, we found that SOCS3 promoter methylation was statistically significantly higher in the 13 LTS than that in the 20 STS. Furthermore, high SOCS3 promoter methylation detected via pyro-sequencing predicted a better prognosis in an independent cohort containing 62 GBM patients. This correlation was validated by the dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA) and the Chinese Cancer Genome Atlas(CGGA). In addition, we found that hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter was tightly associated with the G-CIMP-positive GBM patients. Using a total of 359 clinical samples, we demonstrate that SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation status has a favorable prognostic value in GBM patients because of whole genome methylation status. Particularly, the hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter indicates positive G-CIMP status.

  19. SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation is a favorable prognosticator and a novel indicator for G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3 promoter has been reported to predict a poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. We explored the function of SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation in GBM cohorts, including analysis of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, when a large number of gene loci are simultaneously hypermethylated.A whole genome promoter methylation profile was performed in a cohort of 33 GBM samples, with 13 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ≥ 18 months and 20 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ≤ 9 months. The SOCS3 promoter methylation status was compared between the two groups. In addition, we investigated the relationship of SOCS3 promoter methylation and G-CIMP status.Interestingly, in our present study, we found that SOCS3 promoter methylation was statistically significantly higher in the 13 LTS than that in the 20 STS. Furthermore, high SOCS3 promoter methylation detected via pyro-sequencing predicted a better prognosis in an independent cohort containing 62 GBM patients. This correlation was validated by the dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA and the Chinese Cancer Genome Atlas(CGGA. In addition, we found that hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter was tightly associated with the G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.Using a total of 359 clinical samples, we demonstrate that SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation status has a favorable prognostic value in GBM patients because of whole genome methylation status. Particularly, the hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter indicates positive G-CIMP status.

  20. Different positions of uncertain lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    On the basis of my ethnographic research in Denmark and Spain, I will investigate and compare four different positions of illegality in two different national contexts. Legal and institutional practices on the one hand produce the conditions for migrant illegality as such, but are also decisive...... for both the lived experience as irregular migrant and the opportunities for agency and strategizing among migrants....

  1. Analysis of Naval Ammunition Stock Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    not manipulated to be in favor of any system based on the assumption that stock positioned closer to demand would result in more favorable delivery...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David Sharp and Eric

  2. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  3. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturelli Ophelia S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functionally similar proteins can differ substantially in their robustness to mutations and capacity to evolve new functions, but it has remained unclear whether any of these differences might be due to evolutionary selection for these properties. Results Here we use laboratory experiments to demonstrate that evolution favors protein mutational robustness if the evolving population is sufficiently large. We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. Conclusion Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. We suggest that this phenomenon could contribute to the mutational robustness and evolvability of viruses and bacteria that exist in large populations.

  4. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  5. 11 CFR 7.20 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 7.20 Section... of Special Commission Employees § 7.20 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Except as provided at 11 CFR... a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or herself, or for another person...

  6. Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  7. Who takes the most revenge? Individual differences in negative reciprocity norm endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Robert; Lynch, Patrick; Aselage, Justin; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    The authors report that beliefs favoring the reciprocation of unfavorable treatment form a unitary factor that is distinct from beliefs favoring the reciprocation of favorable treatment. Individual differences in endorsement of this negative reciprocity norm were related to (a) beliefs that people are generally malevolent; (b) inclination toward anger in everyday life; (c) anger, disagreement, and ridicule directed toward a new acquaintance who treated participants unfavorably; and (d) reduced anxiety, positive emotional engagement, and encouragement of a new acquaintance who treated participants favorably. These findings suggest that individual differences in endorsement of the negative norm of reciprocity influence the extent of vengeance.

  8. Scientific citations favor positive results: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyx, Bram; Urlings, Miriam J E; Swaen, Gerard M H; Bouter, Lex M; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-08-01

    Citation bias concerns the selective citation of scientific articles based on their results. We brought together all available evidence on citation bias across scientific disciplines and quantified its impact. An extensive search strategy was applied to the Web of Science Core Collection and Medline, yielding 52 studies in total. We classified these studies on scientific discipline, selection method, and other variables. We also performed random-effects meta-analyses to pool the effect of positive vs. negative results on subsequent citations. Finally, we checked for other determinants of citation as reported in the citation bias literature. Evidence for the occurrence of citation bias was most prominent in the biomedical sciences and least in the natural sciences. Articles with statistically significant results were cited 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.8) times more often than articles with nonsignificant results. Articles in which the authors explicitly conclude to have found support for their hypothesis were cited 2.7 (CI 2.0-3.7) times as often. Article results and journal impact factor were associated with citation more often than any other reported determinant. Similar to what we already know on publication bias, also citation bias can lead to an overrepresentation of positive results and unfounded beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlates of Perceived Favorability of Online Courses for Quantitative versus Qualitative Undergraduate Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert; Drennan, Rob B., Jr.; Kapanjie, Darin

    2016-01-01

    An online survey tested the association among background, technological, and course-related variables with perceived favorability of online courses for two independent samples of fall 2015 and spring 2016 business undergraduates taking at least one online or hybrid course. Results showed that perceived learning was a consistent positive correlate…

  10. Promising reciprocity: When proposing a favor for a request increases compliance even if the favor is not accepted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Ruiz, Clément; Pascual, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Research has reported that reciprocity is an important social norm in relationships. In previous studies on reciprocity, participants' behavior was examined after receiving a favor from someone. In a series of field studies, we examined the effect of a statement that proved that a solicitor was someone who respected this principle. Confederates solicited participants for money or a cigarette in exchange for stamps or money, respectively. It was found that the participants complied more readily with the request in the promised favor condition, but most of them refused to take the promised favor. We conclude that individuals were led to help those who respected the putative norm of reciprocity in their social interaction.

  11. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 12 CFR 560.110 - Most favored lender usury preemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Most favored lender usury preemption. 560.110... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.110 Most favored... permits its most favored lender to charge late fees, then a savings association located in that state may...

  13. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  15. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  16. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  17. Favorable effects of skeletal muscle on bone are distinguished according to gender and skeletal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Min Kim

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Higher RASM was significantly associated with lower risk for osteoporosis and the areas at the femur neck and total hip appeared to more likely be affected positively by muscle. Moreover, because males showed faster muscle loss with aging than females, the bones of males may be more prone to favorable effects of muscle.

  18. Influence of different positive emotions on persuasion processing: a functional evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L

    2010-04-01

    Much research has found that positive affect facilitates increased reliance on heuristics in cognition. However, theories proposing distinct evolutionary fitness-enhancing functions for specific positive emotions also predict important differences among the consequences of different positive emotion states. Two experiments investigated how six positive emotions influenced the processing of persuasive messages. Using different methods to induce emotions and assess processing, we showed that the positive emotions of anticipatory enthusiasm, amusement, and attachment love tended to facilitate greater acceptance of weak persuasive messages (consistent with previous research), whereas the positive emotions of awe and nurturant love reduced persuasion by weak messages. In addition, a series of mediation analyses suggested that the effects distinguishing different positive emotions from a neutral control condition were best accounted for by different mediators rather than by one common mediator. These findings build upon approaches that link affective valence to certain types of processing, documenting emotion-specific effects on cognition that are consistent with functional evolutionary accounts of discrete positive emotions. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz Server, Ela; Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Yiğit, Özgür; Yasak, Ahmet Görkem; Erdim, Çağrı

    2018-01-01

    To identify the vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions in patients with positional vertigo with no specific diagnosis. Patients with history of vestibular symptoms associated with changes in head position were enrolled into the study. Healthy volunteers were evaluated as control group. Doppler ultrasonography examination of the cervical segment of the vertebral arteries was performed under three different head positions: (i) supine position, (ii) head hyperextended and rotated to the right side and (iii) head hyperextended and rotated to the left side. In the study group, right and left vertebral artery blood flow was significantly lower in the ipsilateral hyperextended position compared to standard supine position (respectively p = .014; p = .001), but did not differ significantly when compared between the standard supine and contralateral hyperextended positions (respectively = .959; p = .669). In the control group, left and right vertebral artery blood flow did not differ significantly when the head was hyperextended to the right or left sides compared to standard supine position (p > .05). Our data demonstrated that the etiology of vestibular complaints in patients with undiagnosed positional vertigo might be related to impairment in vertebral artery blood flow according to head positions.

  20. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment

  1. Facility for sustained positive affect as an individual difference characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola S. Schutte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies investigated a proposed new individual difference characteristic or trait, facility for sustained positive affect, consisting of tendencies that allow individuals to maintain a high level of positive mood. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the creation of a measure, the self-congruent and new activities (SANA scale which identified two core aspects of sustainable positive affect, engaging in self-congruent activities and engaging in new activities. A higher level of facility for sustainable affect, as operationalized by the SANA scale, was associated with maintenance of positive mood for a month, fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work satisfaction, mindfulness, personal expansion and growth, and emotional intelligence. The results provided initial evidence that facility to maintain positive affect may be an emotion-related individual difference characteristic.

  2. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT GAMING POSITIONS BASED ON SOME BASIC AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Tomić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the structure competition activities, and its character can be defined as a hypothetical model of the anthropological characteristics of football players of different gaming positions. Based on hypothetical models of different football players' position can make a division into two groups of players based on game systems that are commonly used in modern football, which is 4-4-2, and the common anthropological characteristics, structure and nature of activities carried out by during the game, so the first group consists of players with smaller volumes of engagement in the game (goalkeeper, two central defenders and two strikers and the second group 190 CRNOGORSKA SPORTSKA AKADEMIJA, „Sport Mont“ časopis br. 31,32,33. consists of players with greater scope to engage in the game (two foreign players and four defensive midfielder (midfielder . The aim is to determine the difference between players of different players' positions on the basis of some basic and specific motor abilities. The sample of 206 football players aged 18 ± 0.5 years is divided into 5 subsamples according to examinees gaming position: forwarders (45, midfield players (47, defenders (41, central defenders (44 and goalkeepers (29. The battery of 16 tests (in which the results are expressed in distance and time - metric. It can be concluded that there are differences between players of different players' positions on the team in relation to the basic and specific motor skills.

  3. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  4. Does the Supine Position Affect the Nasal Profile in Rhinoplasty Patients? A Comparison of Nasal Anthropometric Measurements in Different Body Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Ryu, In Yong; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Kun Hee

    2017-10-16

    Rhinoplasty surgeons are aware that the nasal profile differs according to body position, namely, the erect position in the consultation room vs the supine position on the operating table. It is not clear whether this difference is caused by an optical illusion or skin laxity due to positional change. To evaluate anthropometric measurements of the nose with different body positions and determine whether the supine position affects the nasal profile. In this retrospective study, 103 patients who underwent primary rhinoplasty were enrolled. Preoperatively, all patients underwent lateral cephalography in the erect position, and facial computed tomography (CT), in the supine position. We measured four nasal anthropometric parameters (the nasofrontal, nasolabial, and nasomental angles, and Simon's ratio) on lateral cephalograms and facial CT images, and compared these parameters between the two body positions. The nasofrontal angle was greater on facial CT than on cephalograms (P sex, or body mass index (P > 0.05 each). We found no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the two positions in the nasolabial angle, nasomental angle, or Simon's ratio. The supine position does affect the nasal profile, especially in the radix area. Surgeons need to consider this difference in patients undergoing rhinoplasty. 2. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Position difference regularity of corresponding R-wave peaks for maternal ECG components from different abdominal points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie-Min; Liu Hong-Xing; Huang Xiao-Lin; Si Jun-Feng; Guan Qun; Tang Li-Ming; Liu Tie-Bing

    2014-01-01

    We collected 343 groups of abdominal electrocardiogram (ECG) data from 78 pregnant women and deleted the channels unable for experts to determine R-wave peaks from them; then, based on these filtered data, the statistics of position difference of corresponding R-wave peaks for different maternal ECG components from different points were studied. The resultant statistics showed the regularity that the position difference of corresponding maternal R-wave peaks between different abdominal points does not exceed the range of 30 ms. The regularity was also proved using the fECG data from MIT—BIH PhysioBank. Additionally, the paper applied the obtained regularity, the range of position differences of the corresponding maternal R-wave peaks, to accomplish the automatic detection of maternal R-wave peaks in the recorded all initial 343 groups of abdominal signals, including the ones with the largest fetal ECG components, and all 55 groups of ECG data from MIT—BIH PhysioBank, achieving the successful separation of the maternal ECGs. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum Haya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP (N = 2327, a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10% experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not

  7. Vantage sensitivity: individual differences in response to positive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2013-07-01

    The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individual differences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individual differences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Physical performance and positional differences among young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gabriel A; Gabbett, Tim J; Maia, Marianna F; Santana, Haroldo; Miranda, Humberto; Lima, Vicente

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association among anthropometric, physical performance parameters, and dynamic postural control attributes of young female volleyball athletes, and to determine if differences exist in these attributes according to playing position. Forty-three young female volleyball players participated in this study. Players were divided by position into hitters (N.=17), middle blockers (N.=8), setters (N.=10), and liberos (N.=8). Stature, body mass, vertical jump (VJ), peak power, horizontal jump (HJ), sit-and-reach (SRT), star excursion balance (SEBT), and agility (e.g. shuttle run and Illinois agility test) tests were assessed on non-consecutive days in randomized order. No difference was found between groups for SRT, peak power, VJ, and HJ (P≤0.05). Middle blockers and hitters were taller than setters (P≤0.05). Middle blockers were also taller than liberos (P=0.017). Significant differences were observed among groups for agility tests, with hitters significantly faster than setters (P=0.023) and middle blockers (P=0.037). In addition, liberos were significantly faster than setters (P=0.032) and middle blockers (P=0.046), during the Illinois agility test. No difference was observed between groups for reach distance scores in the SEBT. These results demonstrate important positional differences in agility measures of young female volleyball players. Coaches can use this information to determine the type of physical profile that is needed for specific positions and to design training programs to maximize strength, power, and neuromuscular development of young female volleyball athletes.

  9. A different perspective: introducing positive criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Elisha, Ety

    2011-04-01

    Positive criminology is a new conceptual perspective of criminology, encompassing several theories and models. Positive criminology refers to a focus on individuals' encounters with forces and influences that are experienced as positive, which distance them from deviance and crime, whether by means of formal and informal therapy programs and interventions, such as self-help groups; through emphasis of positive social elements, such as exposure to goodness, social acceptance, and reintegrative shaming; or based on positive personal traits, such as resilience and coherence. The perspective of positive criminology broadens that of traditional criminology, which focuses mainly on understanding the factors and processes that lead individuals and groups to what is defined as deviant and criminal behavior. Positive criminology is implemented in treatment and rehabilitation of individuals and groups that have demonstrated deviant and criminal behavior, by emphasizing positive experiences that may potentially prevent or discourage continued criminal behavior. Positive criminology is also expressed in prevention based on a positive approach.

  10. PENGARUH LARGE POSITIVE ABNORMAL BOOK-TAX DIFFERENCES TERHADAP PERSISTENSI LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of Large Positive Abnormal Book-Tax Differences (LPABTD on earnings persistence and accruals persistence. This study used unbalanced panel data of listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2006-2011. It is hypothesized that firms with LPABTD exhibit lower earnings and accruals persistence than other firms with Large Positive Normal Book-Tax Differences (LPNBTD. The results provide evidence which is consistent with the hypotheses. It is shown that firms with LPABTD exhibit lower earnings quality than other firms with LPNBTD.

  11. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  12. Acupuncture Deqi Intensity and Propagated Sensation along Channels May, Respectively, Differ due to Different Body Positions of Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture as an essential component of complementary and alternative medicine is gradually recognized and accepted by the mainstream of contemporary medicine. For obtaining preferable clinical effectiveness, Deqi is commonly regarded as efficacy predictor and parameter which is necessary to be achieved. Influential factors for acupuncture efficacy, like Deqi sensation as well as propagated sensation along channels (PSCs, enjoyed a long history in acupuncture basic research. Concerning this study, taking into account different positions on acupuncture Deqi sensation and PSCs, we would like to attest whether different body positions for subjects during needling procedure yield differed acupuncture Deqi sensation, particularly in terms of intensity, and PSCs. Methods. We used self-controlled method and selected 30 healthy subjects to perform needle insertion at Futu point (ST32 bilaterally. Then they were instructed to record the value of intensity of acupuncture sensation and the length and width of PSCs after removing the needle. Results. In regard to intensity of Deqi, kneeling seat position is stronger than supine position, accounting for 90% of the total number of subjects. In length of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 56.7%. In width of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 66.7%. Conclusion. Our findings show that needle inserting at Futu point (ST32 in kneeling seat position achieve better needle sensation and provide reference for clinical.

  13. Parent-Child Positive Touch: Gender, Age, and Task Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined gender, age, and task differences in positive touch and physical proximity during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- ( M  = 53.50 months, SD  = 3.54) and 6-year-old ( M  = 77.07 months, SD  = 3.94) children participated in this study. Positive touch was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past emotions). Fathers touched their children positively more frequently during the play-related storytelling task than did mothers. Both mothers and fathers were in closer proximity to their 6-year-olds than their 4-year-olds. Mothers and fathers touched their children positively more frequently when reminiscing than when playing. Finally, 6-year-olds remained closer to their parents than did 4-year-olds. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.

  14. Lumpectomy Plus Tamoxifen or Anastrozole With or Without Whole Breast Irradiation in Women With Favorable Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, Richard; Gnant, Michael; Kwasny, Werner; Tausch, Christoph; Handl-Zeller, Leonore; Pakisch, Brigitte; Taucher, Susanne; Hammer, Josef; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Gero; Schmid, Marianne; Sedlmayer, Felix; Stierer, Michael; Reiner, Georg; Kapp, Karin; Hofbauer, Friedrich; Rottenfusser, Andrea; Poestlberger, Sabine; Haider, Karin; Draxler, Wolfgang; Jakesz, Raimund

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In women with favorable early breast cancer treated by lumpectomy plus tamoxifen or anastrazole, it remains unclear whether whole breast radiotherapy is beneficial. Methods and Material: Between January 1996 and June 2004, the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) randomly assigned 869 women to receive breast radiotherapy ± boost (n 414) or not (n = 417) after breast-conserving surgery (ABCSG Study 8A). Favorable early breast cancer was specified as tumor size <3 cm, Grading 1 or 2, negative lymph nodes, positive estrogen and/or progesterone receptor status, and manageable by breast-conserving surgery. Breast radiotherapy was performed after lumpectomy with 2 tangential opposed breast fields with mean 50 Gy, plus boost in 71% of patients with mean 10 Gy, in a median of 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was local relapse-free survival; further endpoints were contralateral breast cancer, distant metastases, and disease-free and overall survival. The median follow-up was 53.8 months. Results: The mean age was 66 years. Overall, there were 21 local relapses, with 2 relapses in the radiotherapy group (5-y rate 0.4%) vs. 19 in the no-radiotherapy group (5.1%), respectively (p = 0.0001, hazard ratio 10.2). Overall relapses occurred in 30 patients, with 7 events in the radiotherapy group (5-y rate 2.1%) vs. 23 events in the no-radiotherapy group (6.1%) (p = 0.002, hazard ratio 3.5). No significant differences were found for distant metastases and overall survival. Conclusion: Breast radiotherapy ± boost in women with favorable early breast cancer after lumpectomy combined with tamoxifen/anastrazole leads to a significant reduction in local and overall relapse

  15. The Study of Relationship Between Work Teams and Favoring Knowledge Management (Case: Bank Keshavarzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamze Jamshidi Kohsari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a process that has been recently generated as an activity which isvery important in the dynamic environment, and in the competitive scene. We believe that KM is aprocess which its organizational knowledge is created from the individual knowledge of themembers of the organization. The relevant studies have indicated that organizing based on workteams could be considered a way to create the appropriate context for KM. However, thisorganizing based on work teams is not enough; it only has the necessary characteristics of the workteams that favor KM. Moreover, based on studies done, we distinguish which characteristics ofwork teams favor the KM process in its different phases (i.e. creation, transfer and integration. Inthis study, we conducted multiple regression and analysis of variance.Complementary skills (H2 and a climate of trust (H3 in work teams were more importantfactors that favor the management of organizational knowledge.This research is based on the Zarraga and Perez studies in 2006.

  16. Quantum-chemical studies on the favored and rare tautomers of neutral and redox adenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyńska, Ewa D; Makowski, Mariusz; Zientara-Rytter, Katarzyna; Kolczyńska, Katarzyna; Stępniewski, Tomasz M; Hallmann, Małgorzata

    2013-02-21

    All possible twenty-three prototropic tautomers of neutral and redox adenine (nine amine and fourteen imine forms, including geometric isomerism of the exo ═NH group) were examined in vacuo {DFT(B3LYP)/6-311+G(d,p)}. The NH → NH conversions as well as those usually omitted, NH → CH and CH → CH, were considered. An interesting change of the tautomeric preference occurs when proceeding from neutral to reduced adenine. One-electron reduction favors the nonaromatic amine C8H-N10H tautomer. This tautomeric preference is similar to that (C2H) for reduced imidazole. Water molecules (PCM model) seem to not change this trend. They influence solely the relative energies. The DFT vertical detachment energy in the gas phase is positive for each tautomer, e.g., 0.03 eV for N9H-N10H and 1.84 eV for C8H-N10H. The DFT adiabatic electron affinity for the favored process, neutral N9H-N10H → reduced C8H-N10H (ground states), is equal to 0.18 eV at 0 K (ZPE included). One-electron oxidation does not change the tautomeric preference in the gas phase. The aromatic amine N9H-N10H tautomer is favored for the oxidized molecule similarly as for the neutral one. The DFT adiabatic ionization potential for the favored process, neutral N9H-N10H → oxidized N9H-N10H (ground states), is equal to 8.12 eV at 0 K (ZPE included). Water molecules (PCM model) seem to influence solely the composition of the tautomeric mixture and the relative energies. They change the energies of the oxidation and reduction processes by ca. 2 eV.

  17. A Favorable Course of Palliative Sedation: Searching for Indicators Using Caregivers' Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, T.; Rietjens, J.A.C.; Deliens, L.; Ribbe, M.W.; Swart, S.J.; Loer, S.A.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Comparing characteristics of a favorable sedation course during palliative sedation to a less favorable course based on the reports Dutch physicians and nurses.Results:Cases identified as having a favorable sedation course less often concerned a male patient (P = .019 nurses' cases),

  18. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  19. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. - Highlights: • Mechanism-based, position-specific isotope modeling of micropollutants degradation. • Simultaneous description of concentration and primary and secondary isotope effects. • Key features of the model are demonstrated with three illustrative examples. • Model as a tool to explore reaction mechanisms and to design experiments. - We propose a modeling approach incorporating mechanistic information and

  20. Sensorimotor modulation differs with load type during constant finger force or position.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Kirimoto

    Full Text Available During submaximal isometric contraction, there are two different load types: production of a constant force against a rigid restraint (force task, and maintenance of position against a constant load (position task. Previous studies reported that the time to task failure during a fatigue task was twice as long in the force task compared with the position task. Sensory feedback processing may contribute to these differences. The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of load types during static muscle contraction tasks on the gating effect, i.e., attenuation of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs and the cortical silent period (cSP. Ten healthy subjects contracted their right first dorsal interosseus muscle by abducting their index finger for 90 s, to produce a constant force against a rigid restraint that was 20% of the maximum voluntary contraction (force task, or to maintain a constant position with 10° abduction of the metacarpophalangeal joint against the same load (position task. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs were recorded from C3' by stimulating either the right ulnar or median nerve at the wrist while maintaining contraction. The cortical silent period (cSP was also elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Reduction of the amplitude of the P45 component of SEPs was significantly larger during the position task than during the force task and under control rest conditions when the ulnar nerve, but not the median nerve, was stimulated. The position task had a significantly shorter cSP duration than the force task. These results suggest the need for more proprioceptive information during the position task than the force task. The shorter duration of the cSP during the position task may be attributable to larger amplitude of heteronymous short latency reflexes. Sensorimotor modulations may differ with load type during constant finger force or position tasks.

  1. Gender Differences in Output Quality and Quantity under Competition and Time Constraints: Evidence from a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Shurchkov

    2009-01-01

    Gender gaps in income and level of position in the workplace are widespread. One explanation for this inequality is that the genders perform differently under competitive conditions, as previous experimental studies have found a significant gender gap in competitive tasks that are perceived to favor men. In this paper, we use a verbal task that is perceived to favor women and find no gender difference under competition per se. We also reject the hypothesis that a .stereotype threat. explains ...

  2. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan or similar favor of monetary value which stems from a family relationship such as that between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is...

  3. The physical environment of positive places: Exploring differences between age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina E; Broberg, Anna; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-02-01

    Features of the physical environment have an impact on the human behaviour. Thus, planners and policymakers around the world should aim at providing environments that are perceived as being of good quality, in which the residents enjoy spending time and moving around in. It is widely acknowledged that urban environmental quality associates with well-being, but there is currently very little research examining which features of urban environments people of different ages perceive as appealing in their living environments. Individuals experience different age-related developmental environments throughout their life course. Thus, the usage and perceptions of different spaces can also differ between various age groups. Public Participation GIS datasets collected in 2009 and 2011 in Helsinki Metropolitan Area were used to study places perceived as being positive by adults (n=3119) and children (n=672). Participants marked points on a map that were overlaid with GIS data to study whether the physical environment of positive places of different age groups differed. The results demonstrated that the physical environment differs significantly in the positive places of different age groups. The places of adult age groups were characterized by green, blue and commercial spaces, whereas sports, residential and commercial spaces characterize children's and adolescents' places. Older adults' places were found to be closest to home, while adolescents' places were the most distant. Providing appealing environments for all age groups in one setting remains problematic but should nevertheless be strived for, especially in the urban context where a constant competition over different usages of space occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Positional Differences in Elite Basketball: Selecting Appropriate Training - Load Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilar, Luka; Castellano, Julen; Jukic, Igor; Casamichana, David

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of this paper was to study the structure of interrelationships among external training load measures and how these vary among different positions in elite basketball. Eight external variables of jumping (JUMP), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC) and change of direction (COD), and two internal load variables (RPE and sRPE) were collected from 13 professional players with 300 session records. Three playing positions were considered: guards (n=4), forwards (n=4) and centers (n=5). High and total external variables (hJUMP and tJUMP, hACC and tACC, hDEC and tDEC, hCOD and tCOD) were used for the principal component analysis. Extraction criteria were set at the eigenvalue of greater than one. Varimax rotation mode was used to extract multiple principal components. The analysis showed that all positions had two or three principal components (explaining almost all of the variance), but the configuration of each factor was different: tACC, tDEC, tCOD and hJUMP for centers, hACC, tACC, tCOD and hJUMP for guards, and tACC, hDEC, tDEC, hCOD, and tCOD for forwards are specifically demanded in training sessions and, therefore, these variables must be prioritized in load monitoring. Furthermore, for all playing positions, RPE and sRPE have high correlation with the total amount of ACC, DEC and COD. This would suggest that, although players perform the same training tasks, the demands of each position can vary. A particular combination of external load measures is required to describe training load of each playing position, especially to better understand internal responses among players.

  5. Radiological differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J K; Fagan, J J; Wojno, M; Manning, K; Harris, T

    2018-07-01

    HIV-positive children are possibly more prone to developing cholesteatoma. Chronic inflammation of the middle ear cleft may be more common in patients with HIV and this may predispose HIV-positive children to developing cholesteatoma. There are no studies that describe the radiological morphology of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. Compare the radiological differences of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational analytical review of patients with cholesteatoma at our institute over a 6 year period. Forty patients were included in the study, 11 of whom had bilateral cholesteatoma and therefore 51 ears were eligible for our evaluation. HIV-positive patients had smaller (p=0.02) mastoid air cell systems (MACS). Forty percent of HIV-positive patients had sclerotic mastoids, whereas the rate was 3% in HIV-negative ears (p<0.02). Eighty-two percent of the HIV-positive patients had bilateral cholesteatoma compared to 7% of the control group (p<0.02). There was no difference between the 2 groups with regards to opacification of the middle ear cleft, bony erosion of middle ear structures, Eustachian tube obstruction or soft tissue occlusion of the post-nasal space. HIV-positive paediatric patients with cholesteatoma are more likely to have smaller, sclerotic mastoids compared to HIV-negative patients. They are significantly more likely to have bilateral cholesteatoma. This may have implications in terms of surveillance of HIV-positive children, as well as, an approach to management, recurrence and follow-up. HIV infection should be flagged as a risk factor for developing cholesteatoma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective This position statement aimed to update the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in 2010 regarding recommendations for hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women. This updated position statement further distinguishes the emerging differences in the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio between estrogen therapy (ET) and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT) at various ages and time intervals since menopause onset. Methods An Advisory Panel of expert clinicians and researchers in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the 2010 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. Results Current evidence supports the use of HT for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women when the balance of potential benefits and risks is favorable for the individual woman. This position statement reviews the effects of ET and EPT on many aspects of women’s health and recognizes the greater safety profile associated with ET. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms and to prevent osteoporosis in women at high risk of fracture. The more favorable benefit-risk ratio for ET allows more flexibility in extending the duration of use compared with EPT, where the earlier appearance of increased breast cancer risk precludes a recommendation for use beyond 3 to 5 years. PMID:22367731

  7. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  8. The "common good" phenomenon: Why similarities are positive and differences are negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans; Koch, Alex; Unkelbach, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Positive attributes are more prevalent than negative attributes in the social environment. From this basic assumption, 2 implications that have been overlooked thus far: Positive compared with negative attributes are more likely to be shared by individuals, and people's shared attributes (similarities) are more positive than their unshared attributes (differences). Consequently, similarity-based comparisons should lead to more positive evaluations than difference-based comparisons. We formalized our probabilistic reasoning in a model and tested its predictions in a simulation and 8 experiments (N = 1,181). When participants generated traits about 2 target persons, positive compared with negative traits were more likely to be shared by the targets (Experiment 1a) and by other participants' targets (Experiment 1b). Conversely, searching for targets' shared traits resulted in more positive traits than searching for unshared traits (Experiments 2, 4a, and 4b). In addition, positive traits were more accessible than negative traits among shared traits but not among unshared traits (Experiment 3). Finally, shared traits were only more positive when positive traits were indeed prevalent (Experiments 5 and 6). The current framework has a number of implications for comparison processes and provides a new interpretation of well-known evaluative asymmetries such as intergroup bias and self-superiority effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A favorable course of palliative sedation: searching for indicators using caregivers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, Tijn; Rietjens, Judith A C; Deliens, Luc; Ribbe, Miel W; Swart, Siebe J; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2015-03-01

    Comparing characteristics of a favorable sedation course during palliative sedation to a less favorable course based on the reports Dutch physicians and nurses. Cases identified as having a favorable sedation course less often concerned a male patient (P = .019 nurses' cases), reached the intended sedation depth significantly quicker (P sedation (P = .015 physicians' cases), and had a shorter total duration of sedation compared (P sedation course. A favorable course during palliative sedation seems more probable when health care professionals report on a (relatively) shorter time to reach the required depth of sedation and when a deeper level of sedation can be obtained. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Favorable outcomes in locally advanced and node positive prostate cancer patients treated with combined pelvic IMRT and androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilleby, Wolfgang; Narrang, Amol; Tafjord, Gunnar; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Russnes, Kjell Magne; Stensvold, Andreas; Hole, Knut Håkon; Tran, Phuoc; Eilertsen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The most appropriate treatment for men with prostate cancer and positive pelvic nodes, N+, is an area of active controversy. We report our 5-years outcomes in men with locally advanced prostate cancer (T1-T4N0-N1M0) treated with definitive radiotherapy encompassing the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (intensity modulated radiotherapy, IMRT) and long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Of the 138 consecutive eligible men all living patients have been followed up to almost 5 years. Survival endpoints for 5-year biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression proportional hazards models were constructed for all survival endpoints. The RTOG morbidity grading system for physician rated toxicity was applied. Patients with locally advanced T3-T4 tumors (35 %) and N1 (51 %) have favorable outcome when long-term ADT is combined with definitive radiotherapy encompassing pelvic lymph nodes. The 5-year BFFS, RFS, PCSS and OS were 71.4, 76.2, 94.5 and 89.0 %, respectively. High Gleason sum (9–10) had a strong independent prognostic impact on BFFS, RFS and OS (p = 0.001, <0.001, and 0.005 respectively). The duration of ADT (= > 28 months) showed a significant independent association with improved PCSS (p = 0.02) and OS (p = 0.001). Lymph node involvement was not associated with survival endpoints in the multivariate analysis. The radiotherapy induced toxicity seen in our study population was moderate with rare Grade 3 GI side effects and up to 11 % for Grade 3 GU consisting mainly of urgency and frequency. Pelvic IMRT in combination with long-term ADT can achieve long-lasting disease control in men with N+ disease and unfavorable prognostic factors. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0540-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  11. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  12. The experience of forming a favorable image of the territory through marketing: a review of foreign press

    OpenAIRE

    Bacherikova Mariya L.

    2017-01-01

    A favorable image of the territory is a factor of attracting investors, tourists and labor force. Using of image approach to foreign territory management practice is already producing positive effects, but there are some difficulties in Russia, particularly in the Far East. Authors explore scientific publications in a foreign press, describing various marketing techniques used to territorial image forming in foreign countries. The territorial image is its image from the point of view of diff...

  13. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com. Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCAadministered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748 collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705, 2% (n = 18 were tied and 3% (n = 25 were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4% were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis. Six hundred thirteen (87.6% of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude

  14. Sex differences in the shoulder joint position sense acuity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafadar, Amir K; Côté, Julie N; Archambault, Philippe S

    2015-09-30

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) is the most expensive form of work disability. Female sex has been considered as an individual risk factor for the development of WMSD, specifically in the neck and shoulder region. One of the factors that might contribute to the higher injury rate in women is possible differences in neuromuscular control. Accordingly the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of sex on shoulder joint position sense acuity (as a part of shoulder neuromuscular control) in healthy individuals. Twenty-eight healthy participants, 14 females and 14 males were recruited for this study. To test position sense acuity, subjects were asked to flex their dominant shoulder to one of the three pre-defined angle ranges (low, mid and high-ranges) with eyes closed, hold their arm in that position for three seconds, go back to the starting position and then immediately replicate the same joint flexion angle, while the difference between the reproduced and original angle was taken as the measure of position sense error. The errors were measured using Vicon motion capture system. Subjects reproduced nine positions in total (3 ranges × 3 trials each). Calculation of absolute repositioning error (magnitude of error) showed no significant difference between men and women (p-value ≥ 0.05). However, the analysis of the direction of error (constant error) showed a significant difference between the sexes, as women tended to mostly overestimate the target, whereas men tended to both overestimate and underestimate the target (p-value ≤ 0.01, observed power = 0.79). The results also showed that men had a significantly more variable error, indicating more variability in their position sense, compared to women (p-value ≤ 0.05, observed power = 0.78). Differences observed in the constant JPS error suggest that men and women might use different neuromuscular control strategies in the upper limb. In addition, higher JPS

  15. Satisfaction and social position: within nation differences compared accross nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT Within countries, there is little relationship between individual satisfaction and social position as measured by gender, age, income and education. This well-known pattern of non-difference remains after correction for measurement error. The pattern is quite similar across

  16. Information Content Moderates Positivity and Negativity Biases in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M.; Popham, Lauren E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Emery, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets. PMID:23421322

  17. Information content moderates positivity and negativity biases in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Dennis, Paul A; Emery, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets.

  18. Equilibrium positions due to different cooling processes in superconducting levitation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navau, C; Sanchez, A; Pardo, E; Chen, D-X

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium position of a superconducting levitation device is determined not only by the geometry and electromagnetic properties of its components, but also by the cooling process of the superconductor. In this work we study the dependence of the equilibrium positions upon the cooling process by introducing diagrams of a new kind which display the different possibilities for a given levitation system. Using the critical state model and the principle of magnetic energy, we calculate different diagrams of this type for the case of a cylindrically symmetric permanent magnet-superconductor system. The results allow us to find out, for a given levitation system, which cooling process improves the capabilities of the system

  19. Menor valor: ¿oferta más favorable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alirio Ramírez Rusinque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La más importante transformación establecida por la Ley 1150 de 2007 en la contratación estatal radicó en la determinación del menor valor como la oferta más favorable para las entidades estatales, cuando se trate de la adquisición o suministro de bienes y servicios de características técnicas uniformes y de común utilización. Por ello, reviste de gran importancia realizar un análisis desde el punto de vista jurídico y normativo, que permita establecer si la mutación sufrida al concepto de oferta más favorable trajo consigo los fines perseguidos por la reforma, o en su defecto fue perjudicial la solución, al afectar el deber de selección objetiva, los principios de la contratación estatal de igualdad, eficacia, transparencia, planeación y equilibrio financiero del contrato y el principio constitucional de la libre competencia. Para de esta forma establecer si el modelo del menor valor como criterio de la oferta más favorable resulta eficiente jurídicamente en el campo de la contratación estatal, y si las reglas establecidas en la actualidad permiten el desarrollo armónico del sistema establecido por la Ley 1150 de 2007.

  20. Ancient and recent positive selection transformed opioid cis-regulation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew V Rockman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the cis-regulation of neural genes likely contributed to the evolution of our species' unique attributes, but evidence of a role for natural selection has been lacking. We found that positive natural selection altered the cis-regulation of human prodynorphin, the precursor molecule for a suite of endogenous opioids and neuropeptides with critical roles in regulating perception, behavior, and memory. Independent lines of phylogenetic and population genetic evidence support a history of selective sweeps driving the evolution of the human prodynorphin promoter. In experimental assays of chimpanzee-human hybrid promoters, the selected sequence increases transcriptional inducibility. The evidence for a change in the response of the brain's natural opioids to inductive stimuli points to potential human-specific characteristics favored during evolution. In addition, the pattern of linked nucleotide and microsatellite variation among and within modern human populations suggests that recent selection, subsequent to the fixation of the human-specific mutations and the peopling of the globe, has favored different prodynorphin cis-regulatory alleles in different parts of the world.

  1. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the German Socio-economic Panel to examine gender differences in the extent to which self-reported subjective well-being was associated with occupying a high-level managerial position in the labour market, compared with employment in non-leadership, non-high-level managerial positions, unemployment, and non-labour market…

  2. Is there a Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Favorable Surgical Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Kent, K. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Summary Satisfaction of patients with their health care is gaining importance as a measure of hospital quality due to public reporting of these values and an increasing connection between hospital reimbursement and scores on the current tool to measure satisfaction, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey. We found that high hospital and surgical volume and low rates of risk-adjusted mortality are associated with high patient satisfaction. However, other favorable patient outcomes are not consistently associated with positive satisfaction scores on HCAHPS. Contributors to patients' perceptions of their care are likely multifactorial and not related just to outcomes traditionally assessed by surgeons or hospitals. Moving in a direction of patient centered care, with a focus on increased understanding and involvement of patients in the care process, will likely strengthen the relationship between surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:26299501

  3. Chronotype, sport participation, and positive personality-trait-like individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID.

  4. Lateral decubitus position vs. lithotomy position: which is the best way to minimize patient’s pain perception during transrectal prostate biopsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Hyun Song

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Considering the distinctive nature in terms of psychological stress and anal tone of position which is generally selected between lithotomy and left lateral decubitus (LLD, we postulated its effect on pain perception during biopsy, and investigated their association. Materials and Methods A prospective study for comparison of two biopsy positions which were perform in a different working day was conducted for 208 men (lithotomy position=86, LLD=122. The decision on the position was made solely based on the patient’s preference for the biopsy day, and all procedures were performed according to the identical protocol (12-core biopsy with intrarectal lidocaine gel, probe, and needle. The maximal degree of pain during the entire process was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS, immediately after biopsy. After propensity matching, a total of 152 patients were finally selected (lithotomy group=76, LLD=76, then peri-biopsy parameters were compared. Results Between groups, no differences were observed across all variables including age, obesity, prostate volume, serum PSA, international prostate symptom score, and cancer detection rate, except mean (±standard deviation VAS score (3.89±2.01 vs. 4.58±2.22, p=0.049. VAS score showed significant association solely with patient’s position (Pearson’s coefficient=-0.165, p=0.042. In multiple linear regression models regarding the effect of clinical variables on VAS score, patient position was a single independent predictor favoring lithotomy position to decrease perceived pain (B=-0.928, p=0.024. Conclusions These data suggest lithotomy position as a proper way to perform transrectal prostate biopsy with routine use of topical lidocaine gel in comparison with conventional LLD position.

  5. A Perron-Frobenius Theorem for Positive Quasipolynomial Matrices Associated with Homogeneous Difference Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui The Anh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the classical Perron-Frobenius theorem for positive quasipolynomial matrices associated with homogeneous difference equations. Finally, the result obtained is applied to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of positive system.

  6. [Biological and social correlates of favorable and unfavorable neurosis course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsembaev, K T

    2003-01-01

    Four hundred ninety seven patients with neurosis of Astana (Kazakhstan) community, 116 men and 381 women, have been studied. The patients were traced in 5-year follow up study. Favorable and unfavorable types of the disorder were established, the latter being characterized by transforming into neurotic personality development. The influence of endogenous and environmental factors on neurosis prognosis was examined. To elaborate adequate measures for preventing neurotic personality development, criteria for favorable and unfavorable prognosis of neurotic disorders were suggested.

  7. Fluid electrolyte excretion during different hypokinetic body positions of trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different body positions on renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes after exposure to 364 days of decreased number of steps per day (hypokinesia, HK). The studies were performed on 18 endurance trained male volunteers aged 19-24 years who had an average of VO 2max 67 ml/kg body/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the 1st group subjected to 12 h orthostatic position (OP) and 12 h clinostatic position (CP)/day, the 2nd group exposed to 8 h orthostatic position and 14 h clinostatic position/day, and the 3rd group submitted to 10 h orthostatic position and 16 h clinostatic position/day for 364 days. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under an average of 3000 steps/day for 364 days. Diuresis and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium as well as excretion of creatine were determined in 24-h urine samples. By the end of the hypokinetic period all volunteers, regardless of their body position during HK, manifested a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes as compared to prehypokinetic period values. It was concluded that prolonged restriction of motor activity induced a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes in endurance trained subjects regardless to their body position and duration thereof per day.

  8. Interaction Heterogeneity can Favorably Impact Colloidal Crystal Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Ian C.; Crocker, John C.; Sinno, Talid

    2017-10-01

    Colloidal particles with short-ranged attractions, e.g., micron-scale spheres functionalized with single-stranded DNA oligomers, are susceptible to becoming trapped in disordered configurations even when a crystalline arrangement is the ground state. Moreover, for reasons that are not well understood, seemingly minor variations in the particle formulation can lead to dramatic changes in the crystallization outcome. We demonstrate, using a combination of equilibrium and nonequilibrium computer simulations, that interaction heterogeneity—variations in the energetic interactions among different particle pairs in the population—may favorably impact crystal nucleation. Specifically, interaction heterogeneity is found to lower the free energy barrier to nucleation via the formation of clusters comprised preferentially of strong-binding particle pairs. Moreover, gelation is inhibited by "spreading out over time" the nucleation process, resulting in a reduced density of stable nuclei, allowing each to grow unhindered and larger. Our results suggest a simple and robust approach for enhancing colloidal crystallization near the "sticky sphere" limit, and support the notion that differing extents of interaction heterogeneity arising from various particle functionalization protocols may contribute to the otherwise unexplained variations in crystallization outcomes reported in the literature.

  9. Indicators chest rheography at swimmers at rest and after exercise in different body positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Sinyugina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Study of chest rheography for skilled swimmers when the dosage of physical activity in different body positions. Materials and Methods: the study involved 20 qualified swimmers for middle and long distance. Results: studies changes rheographic indicators from qualified swimmers in response to exercise in different positions of the body showed a clear dependence of the structure and functional hemodynamic changes the position of the body in which the exercise is carried out. Conclusions: found that when evaluating the success of readiness of swimmers and planning training loads must be based on indicators of physical performance obtained during exercise in a horizontal position of the body.

  10. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickle, D.G.; Jones, C.A.; Gallagher, G.L.; Young, P.; Dubyk, W.S.

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  11. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylana de Souza Belchior

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. METHOD Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. RESULTS The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. CONCLUSION The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams.

  12. Phase 2 Trial of De-intensified Chemoradiation Therapy for Favorable-Risk Human Papillomavirus–Associated Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Amdur, Robert J.; Tepper, Joel; Qaqish, Bahjat; Green, Rebecca; Aumer, Shannon L.; Hayes, Neil; Weiss, Jared; Grilley-Olson, Juneko; Zanation, Adam; Hackman, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a prospective, multi-institutional, phase 2 study of a substantial decrease in concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) intensity as primary treatment for favorable-risk, human papillomavirus–associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The major inclusion criteria were: (1) T0 to T3, N0 to N2c, M0; (2) human papillomavirus or p16 positive; and (3) minimal/remote smoking history. Treatment was limited to 60 Gy intensity modulated radiation therapy with concurrent weekly intravenous cisplatinum (30 mg/m"2). The primary study endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate based on required biopsy of the primary site and dissection of pretreatment positive lymph node regions, regardless of radiographic response. Power computations were performed for the null hypothesis that the pCR rate is 87% and n=40, resulting in a type 1 error of 14.2%. Secondary endpoint measures included physician-reported toxicity (Common Toxicity Terminology for Adverse Events, CTCAE), patient-reported symptoms (PRO-CTCAE), and modified barium swallow studies. Results: The study population was 43 patients. The pCR rate was 86% (37 of 43). The incidence of CTCAE grade 3/4 toxicity and PRO-CTCAE severe/very severe symptoms was as follows: mucositis 34%/45%, general pain 5%/48%, nausea 18%/52%, vomiting 5%/34%, dysphagia 39%/55%, and xerostomia 2%/75%. Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities were 11%. Thirty-nine percent of patients required a feeding tube for a median of 15 weeks (range, 5-22 weeks). There were no significant differences in modified barium swallow studies before and after CRT. Conclusions: The pCR rate with decreased intensity of therapy with 60 Gy of IMRT and weekly low-dose cisplatinum is very high in favorable-risk oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, with evidence of decreased toxicity compared with standard therapies. (ClinicalTrials.gov) ID: (NCT01530997).

  13. Phase 2 Trial of De-intensified Chemoradiation Therapy for Favorable-Risk Human Papillomavirus–Associated Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chera, Bhishamjit S., E-mail: bchera@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Amdur, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida School of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida School of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Tepper, Joel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Qaqish, Bahjat [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Green, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Aumer, Shannon L. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hayes, Neil; Weiss, Jared; Grilley-Olson, Juneko [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Zanation, Adam; Hackman, Trevor [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); and others

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To perform a prospective, multi-institutional, phase 2 study of a substantial decrease in concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) intensity as primary treatment for favorable-risk, human papillomavirus–associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The major inclusion criteria were: (1) T0 to T3, N0 to N2c, M0; (2) human papillomavirus or p16 positive; and (3) minimal/remote smoking history. Treatment was limited to 60 Gy intensity modulated radiation therapy with concurrent weekly intravenous cisplatinum (30 mg/m{sup 2}). The primary study endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate based on required biopsy of the primary site and dissection of pretreatment positive lymph node regions, regardless of radiographic response. Power computations were performed for the null hypothesis that the pCR rate is 87% and n=40, resulting in a type 1 error of 14.2%. Secondary endpoint measures included physician-reported toxicity (Common Toxicity Terminology for Adverse Events, CTCAE), patient-reported symptoms (PRO-CTCAE), and modified barium swallow studies. Results: The study population was 43 patients. The pCR rate was 86% (37 of 43). The incidence of CTCAE grade 3/4 toxicity and PRO-CTCAE severe/very severe symptoms was as follows: mucositis 34%/45%, general pain 5%/48%, nausea 18%/52%, vomiting 5%/34%, dysphagia 39%/55%, and xerostomia 2%/75%. Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities were 11%. Thirty-nine percent of patients required a feeding tube for a median of 15 weeks (range, 5-22 weeks). There were no significant differences in modified barium swallow studies before and after CRT. Conclusions: The pCR rate with decreased intensity of therapy with 60 Gy of IMRT and weekly low-dose cisplatinum is very high in favorable-risk oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, with evidence of decreased toxicity compared with standard therapies. (ClinicalTrials.gov) ID: (NCT01530997).

  14. Assessing the efficiency of different CSO positions based on network graph characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzenfrei, R; Urich, C; Möderl, M; Rauch, W

    2013-01-01

    The technical design of urban drainage systems comprises two major aspects: first, the spatial layout of the sewer system and second, the pipe-sizing process. Usually, engineers determine the spatial layout of the sewer network manually, taking into account physical features and future planning scenarios. Before the pipe-sizing process starts, it is important to determine locations of possible weirs and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) based on, e.g. distance to receiving water bodies or to a wastewater treatment plant and available space for storage units. However, positions of CSOs are also determined by topological characteristics of the sewer networks. In order to better understand the impact of placement choices for CSOs and storage units in new systems, this work aims to determine case unspecific, general rules. Therefore, based on numerous, stochastically generated virtual alpine sewer systems of different sizes it is investigated how choices for placement of CSOs and storage units have an impact on the pipe-sizing process (hence, also on investment costs) and on technical performance (CSO efficiency and flooding). To describe the impact of the topological positions of these elements in the sewer networks, graph characteristics are used. With an evaluation of 2,000 different alpine combined sewer systems, it was found that, as expected, with CSOs at more downstream positions in the network, greater construction costs and better performance regarding CSO efficiency result. At a specific point (i.e. topological network position), no significant difference (further increase) in construction costs can be identified. Contrarily, the flooding efficiency increases with more upstream positions of the CSOs. Therefore, CSO and flooding efficiency are in a trade-off conflict and a compromise is required.

  15. Positional role and competitive-level differences in elite-level men's basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Chtara, Mokhtar; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the physical attributes of elite men's basketball players according to age and specific individual positional roles. Forty-five players from 3 national basketball teams (Under-18 years, Under-20 years, and Senior) were measured for anthropometry (height, body mass, percentage body fat), explosive power (5 jumps and vertical jump), speed (5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint), agility (T-test), strength (bench press and squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and intermittent high-intensity endurance performance (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test [Yo-Yo IR1]). Data on match frequency, training routines, and playing experience were also collected. Under-18 players were significantly (p agility (p Under-20 > Under-18, p agility and 5- and 10-m performances. Power forwards and centers were stronger than the rest of players' positions in the bench press 1RM (p basketball. Differences were particularly evident in intermittent high-intensity endurance and agility performance. Sprint training possibly should be individualized when dealing with positional roles in elite men's basketball. Strength and conditioning coaches should use Yo-Yo IR1 to assess specific endurance in players of different age and positional role.

  16. Li7(BH)5(+): a new thermodynamically favored star-shaped molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, Juan J; Vásquez-Espinal, Alejandro; Beltran, Maria J; Ruiz, Lina; Islas, Rafael; Tiznado, William

    2015-07-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of Lin(BH)5(n-6) systems (where n = 5, 6, and 7) were explored using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) program, in order to find their global minima conformations. This search predicts that the lowest-energy isomers of Li6(BH)5 and Li7(BH)5(+) contain a (BH)5(6-) pentagonal fragment, which is isoelectronic and structurally analogous to the prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon anion C5H5(-). Li7(BH)5(+), along with Li7C5(+), Li7Si5(+) and Li7Ge5(+), joins a select group of clusters that adopt a seven-peak star-shape geometry, which is favored by aromaticity in the central five-membered ring, and by the preference of Li atoms for bridging positions. The theoretical analysis of chemical bonding, based on magnetic criteria, supports the notion that electronic delocalization is an important stabilization factor in all these star-shaped clusters.

  17. Evaluation of different jumping tests in defining position-specific and performance-level differences in high level basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Pehar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of jumping ability in basketball is well known, but there is an evident lack of studies that have examined different jumping testing protocols in basketball players at advanced levels. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of different tests of jumping capacity in identifying differences between (i playing position and (ii competitive levels of professional players. Participants were 110 male professional basketball players (height: 194.92±8.09 cm; body mass: 89.33±10.91 kg; 21.58±3.92 years of age; Guards, 49; Forwards, 22; Centres, 39 who competed in the first (n = 58 and second division (n = 52. The variables included anthropometrics and jumping test performance. Jumping performances were evaluated by the standing broad jump (SBJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, reactive strength index (RSI, repeated reactive strength ability (RRSA and four running vertical jumps: maximal jump with (i take-off from the dominant leg and (ii non-dominant leg, lay-up shot jump with take-off from the (iii dominant leg and (iv non-dominant leg. First-division players were taller (ES: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.35-1.16, moderate differences, heavier (0.69, 0.29-1.10, had higher maximal reach height (0.67, 0.26-1.07, moderate differences, and had lower body fat % (-0.87, -1.27-0.45, moderate differences than second-division players. The playing positions differed significantly in three of four running jump achievements, RSI and RRSA, with Centres being least successful. The first-division players were superior to second-division players in SBJ (0.63, 0.23-1.03; 0.87, 0.26-1.43; 0.76, 0.11-1.63, all moderate differences, for total sample, Guards, and Forwards, respectively. Running vertical jumps and repeated jumping capacity can be used as valid measures of position-specific jumping ability in basketball. The differences between playing levels in vertical jumping achievement can be observed by assessing vertical jump scores together with differences

  18. Evaluation of different jumping tests in defining position-specific and performance-level differences in high level basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehar, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Sisic, Nedim; Spasic, Miodrag; Uljevic, Ognjen; Krolo, Ante; Milanovic, Zoran; Sattler, Tine

    2017-09-01

    The importance of jumping ability in basketball is well known, but there is an evident lack of studies that have examined different jumping testing protocols in basketball players at advanced levels. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of different tests of jumping capacity in identifying differences between (i) playing position and (ii) competitive levels of professional players. Participants were 110 male professional basketball players (height: 194.92±8.09 cm; body mass: 89.33±10.91 kg; 21.58±3.92 years of age; Guards, 49; Forwards, 22; Centres, 39) who competed in the first (n = 58) and second division (n = 52). The variables included anthropometrics and jumping test performance. Jumping performances were evaluated by the standing broad jump (SBJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), reactive strength index (RSI), repeated reactive strength ability (RRSA) and four running vertical jumps: maximal jump with (i) take-off from the dominant leg and (ii) non-dominant leg, lay-up shot jump with take-off from the (iii) dominant leg and (iv) non-dominant leg. First-division players were taller (ES: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.35-1.16, moderate differences), heavier (0.69, 0.29-1.10), had higher maximal reach height (0.67, 0.26-1.07, moderate differences), and had lower body fat % (-0.87, -1.27-0.45, moderate differences) than second-division players. The playing positions differed significantly in three of four running jump achievements, RSI and RRSA, with Centres being least successful. The first-division players were superior to second-division players in SBJ (0.63, 0.23-1.03; 0.87, 0.26-1.43; 0.76, 0.11-1.63, all moderate differences, for total sample, Guards, and Forwards, respectively). Running vertical jumps and repeated jumping capacity can be used as valid measures of position-specific jumping ability in basketball. The differences between playing levels in vertical jumping achievement can be observed by assessing vertical jump scores together with differences

  19. Condylar position analysis with a new electronic condylar position measuring instrument E-CPM: influence of different examiners and a working bite on reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle-Hinz, K; Rybczynski, A; Jakstat, H; Ahlers, M O

    2009-01-01

    Condylar position analysis facilitates a quantitative comparison of the condylar position with and without a bite record, different records and changed influencing factors. Handling by the examiner when positioning the model is a significant factor with regard to the accuracy of the examination. Measurement accuracy could be improved when positioning the models by using special working bites, hence the objective of the experiments described in this study consisted in examining the extent to which the measuring results are influenced by different examiners and by using working bites. In the first trial, one examiner performed ten measurements without and with an interposed working bite for five model pairs in each case. In the second trial, nine examiners (three specialized dentists, three dental assistants, three students) performed ten measurements in each case without and with an interposed working bite. The three-dimensional position was read digitally with the E-CPM (Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg/Vienna, Austria), recorded by means of spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel) and diagnostic software (CMDfact, CMD3D module, dentaConcept, Hamburg), and evaluated with graphing software (Sigma Plot, Systat Software, USA). In the first trial, it was shown that the reproducibility of mounting was improved markedly (p <0.01) by using bite records in the form of working bites. In the second trial, it was shown that the mean error increased significantly (p <0.01) when several examiners performed the measurements compared with the results of one examiner alone. No significantly different results occurred (p < 0.01) in the comparison of the different groups of examiners with different educational and training backgrounds. This applied for the mounting methods without and with working bite. On the other hand, the reproducibility of mounting improved distinctly (p<0.01) in every group of examiners when working bites were used. Reproducibility of condylar position analysis was

  20. The Effects of Mothers' Protective Parenting and Alcohol Use on Emerging Adults' Alcohol Use: Testing Indirect Effects Through Prototype Favorability Among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Michael J; Turrisi, Rob; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Marzell, Miesha

    2018-06-07

    We examined how mothers' protective parenting and alcohol use influenced changes in offspring's heavy drinking among a sample of African American youth. The conceptual model also tested indirect effects of mothers' behaviors, through changes in the youths' social images (i.e., prototypes) of heavy drinkers, derived from the prototype willingness (PW) model. Participants were 686 emerging adults (55% female) from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS), an ongoing prospective study of African American families. Three waves of FACHS data were used as follows: T3 during 10th grade (M age = 16.3 years), T4 shortly after high school (M age = 19.4 years), and T5 3 years later (M age = 22.1 years). Mothers' self-reports of protective parenting and alcohol use were assessed at T4. Two separate path models tested the study hypotheses. The first model specified direct and indirect effects of mothers' protective parenting and alcohol use. The second model added interaction terms between the protective parenting behaviors and mothers' alcohol use. The analyses were first conducted using the full sample and then repeated separately for female and male participants. Maternal alcohol use had a positive and direct effect on offspring's alcohol use. Mothers' endorsement of alcohol-related rules inhibited normative increases in the favorability of the offspring's social image of heavy drinkers (prototype) while her warmth was positively related to these increases. Maternal alcohol use amplified the positive association between mothers' warmth and the daughters' increased drinking. For sons, maternal alcohol use increased the positive association between alcohol-related rules and increased prototype favorability. Results indicated clear gender differences in how mothers' behaviors influence her offspring's alcohol use during the transition to emerging adulthood. Interventions that target culturally specific risk and protective factors within the family environment are

  1. Comparison of Natural Head Position in Different Anteroposterior Malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hedayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The facial esthetics after orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery may be affected by the patient’s natural head position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural head position for the three skeletal classes of malocclusion.Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 102 lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients aged 15 to 18 years; class I (n=32, class II (n=40 and class III (n=30. Nine landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton and three landmarks of the cervical vertebrae were determined. Variables consisted of two angles for cervical posture (OPT/Hor and CVT/Hor, three angles for craniofacial posture (SN/Ver, PNS-ANS/Ver, and ML/Ver and five for craniofacial angulation (SN/OPT, SN/CVT, PNS-ANS/OPT, PNS-ANS/CVT, ML/CVT. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and post hoc tests.Results: PNS-ANS/Ver and SN/Ver differed significantly (p<0.05 among the three groups. There were no significant differences between class I and class II malocclusions for the indicator angles of cranial posture except for ML/Ver. The SN/CVT was significantly different for class I compared to class III patients. A head posture camouflaging the underlying skeletal class III was observed in our population.Conclusion: A more forward head posture was observed in skeletal class III participants compared to skeletal class I and II and that class III patients tended to incline their head more ventral compared to class I participants. These findings may have implications for the amount of jaw movements during surgery particularly in patients with a class III malocclusion

  2. Differences in biological maturation, anthropometry and physical performance between playing positions in youth team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Fransen, Job; Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    It was the goal of this cross-sectional study to examine differences in maturity, anthropometry and physical performance between youth handball players across different playing positions (i.e. goalkeeper, back, pivot and wing). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), accounting for biological maturation, was used to assess positional differences in 472 male youth handball players from three age groups: U14, U15 and U16. Differences in age at peak height velocity were found in all age groups. Backs were significantly more mature than wings in U14 and U15 and than wings and pivots in U16. Furthermore, backs are overall taller, have a bigger arm span and perform best on tests for strength, agility and speed, especially in the U15 age group. Therefore, it can be concluded that youth players with the most advanced maturation status and the most favourable anthropometry and physical fitness scores, are consistently positioned in the back position. Players with a less advanced maturity status and an overall smaller stature are placed on the wing or pivot positions. In conclusion, it seems that anthropometrical and maturational characteristics are used by coaches to directly and/or indirectly select players for specific field positions. This strategy is risky since anthropometry and maturity status change over the years.

  3. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to: (1) Obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the employee and his parents... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an employee shall...

  4. 78 FR 56174 - In-Core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... 52 [Docket No. PRM-50-105; NRC-2012-0056] In-Core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for rulemaking; denial...-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core to enable...

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the area northeast of Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.; Edmond, C.L.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Rock and steam-sediment samples were collected to define areas favorable for uranium deposits northeast of Gunnison, Colorado. Areas considered most favorable for further exploration are: (1) the Bronco Mountain area, approximately 10 mi south of Taylor Park Reservoir, (2) the area near the Big Red mine, and (3) the area 5 mi north-northeast of Taylor Park Reservoir. On the basis of known deposits in the Marshall Pass and Cochetopa districts, fault contacts between Precambrian granites and Paleozoic or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are favorable structural sites

  6. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Emadi, Naghmeh [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Mohamad [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions in vitro. Two acrylic models were fabricated from a cast with normal occlusion. Straight and 75 degree mesially and lingually angulated pins were placed, and standardized panoramic radiographs were taken at standard position, at an 8 degree downward tilt of the occlusal plane compared to the standard position, at an 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior occlusal plane, and at a 10 degree downward tilt of the right and left sides of the model. On the radiographs, the length of the pins above (crown) and below (root) the occlusal plane, total pin length, crown-to-root ratio, and angulation of pins relative to the occlusal plane were calculated. The data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and LSD multiple comparisons tests. Significant differences were noted between the radiographic measurements and true values in different positions on both models with linear (P<0.001) and those with angulated pins (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were observed between the angular measurements and baselines of the natural head posture at different positions for the linear and angulated pins. Angular measurements on panoramic radiographs were sufficiently accurate and changes in the position of the occlusal plane equal to or less than 10 degree had no significant effect on them. Some variations could exist in the pin positioning (head positioning), and they were tolerable while taking panoramic radiographs. Linear measurements showed the least errors in the standard position and 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior part of the occlusal plane compared to other positions.

  7. [The physical development of children in families with different financial position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, I A; Khomich, M M

    2010-01-01

    Physical development is one of the important health indices in children. Anthropometric data were analyzed in 660 and 113 children from rich and poor families, respectively. The performed investigation revealed the following features of physical development of children in families with different financial position: (1) impaired physical development is equally common in the families with low (284.85% per hundred) and high (292.04% per hundred) incomes (p > 0.05); (2) the pattern of distribution of different types of physical development is not determined by the financial position of a family; however, it may be noted that there is a preponderance of children with disharmonious development in the high-income families due to excess weight for both average age indices and height. Every seven child from a high-income family has excess weight. Naturally, the lower financial position of a family is, the higher proportion of children with nutritional state below the average low values is; (3) the children in low-income families have lower height. The revealed specific features may be largely accounted for by specific nutritional features and motor activity in children, which should be kept in mind in working out the programs on therapeutic-and-prophylactic work with these population categories.

  8. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Muralidhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml. Material and methods: We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results : EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258, and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270. Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022. Conclusions : Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease.

  9. A STUDY ON GROSS FEATURES AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF ADULTS VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasukurthy Ashalatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendix is derived from a Latin word (Pendere meaning at the end. It is a narrow worm-like tubular diverticulum, which arises from the posteromedial wall of caecum about 2 cms below the ileocaecal junction and is suspended by a peritoneal fold known as mesoappendix. The body of appendix is kinked on itself where the free border of mesoappendix ends. Hence, it is coiled like a worm and so is named the ‘Vermiform Appendix’. The appendix is taken up for study in view of its different positions, varying anatomical relations, and the clinical complications when pathologically affected. The relations, measurements, positions, and arterial supply were studied by gross dissection in 61 specimens (Adults – 33 and foetuses – 28 from the population of Krishna and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done on 31 adult specimens, out the length of the appendix, the diameter of the appendix at base, length of the caecum, length of ascending colon were measured. The position of the appendix was classified as per Datta’s classification. Mesenteric attachment to the vermiform appendix were noted. Even arterial supply of the appendix was studied. RESULTS Length of the appendix in adults varied from 2.00 to 25.00 cm as described by different authors, the average being 3.00 to 12.50 cm. The length of the caecum in adults were ranging from 5 to 8 cm. In the present study, the length of appendix was 14.4 cm The origin of the appendicular artery was from inferior division of ileocolic artery. A single appendicular artery is observed in all the specimens almost coinciding with studies of Michels et al. In the present study, in adults, the mesoappendix was extending to the tip in 19 specimens and extending to a variable extent in 14 specimens. Regarding the positions, in adults, they were retrocaecal, retrocolic, and subcaecal positions were 21.21% and splenic, promontory, and pelvic positions were 78

  10. Definition and Validation of “Favorable High-Risk Prostate Cancer”: Implications for Personalizing Treatment of Radiation-Managed Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, Vinayak; Chen, Ming-Hui; Reznor, Gally; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Martin, Neil E.; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To define and validate a classification of favorable high-risk prostate cancer that could be used to personalize therapy, given that consensus guidelines recommend similar treatments for all radiation-managed patients with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: We studied 3618 patients with cT1-T3aN0M0 high-risk or unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radiation at a single institution between 1997 and 2013. Favorable high-risk was defined as T1c disease with either Gleason 4 + 4 = 8 and prostate-specific antigen 20 ng/mL. Competing risks regression was used to determine differences in the risk of prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) after controlling for baseline factors and treatment. Our results were validated in a cohort of 13,275 patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Results: Patients with favorable high-risk disease had significantly better PCSM than other men with high-risk disease (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.996, P=.049) and similar PCSM as men with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease (AHR 1.17, 95% CI 0.50-2.75, P=.710). We observed very similar results within the SEER-Medicare cohort (favorable high-risk vs other high-risk: AHR 0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.41, P<.001; favorable high-risk vs unfavorable intermediate-risk: AHR 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-1.36, P=.268). Conclusions: Patients with favorable high-risk prostate cancer have significantly better PCSM than other patients with high-risk disease and similar PCSM as those with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease, who are typically treated with shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy. This new classification system may allow for personalization of treatment within high-risk disease, such as consideration of shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy for favorable high-risk disease.

  11. Definition and Validation of “Favorable High-Risk Prostate Cancer”: Implications for Personalizing Treatment of Radiation-Managed Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, Vinayak [Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States); Reznor, Gally [Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, Illinois (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sweeney, Christopher J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Department of Urology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To define and validate a classification of favorable high-risk prostate cancer that could be used to personalize therapy, given that consensus guidelines recommend similar treatments for all radiation-managed patients with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: We studied 3618 patients with cT1-T3aN0M0 high-risk or unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radiation at a single institution between 1997 and 2013. Favorable high-risk was defined as T1c disease with either Gleason 4 + 4 = 8 and prostate-specific antigen <10 ng/mL or Gleason 6 and prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL. Competing risks regression was used to determine differences in the risk of prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) after controlling for baseline factors and treatment. Our results were validated in a cohort of 13,275 patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Results: Patients with favorable high-risk disease had significantly better PCSM than other men with high-risk disease (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.996, P=.049) and similar PCSM as men with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease (AHR 1.17, 95% CI 0.50-2.75, P=.710). We observed very similar results within the SEER-Medicare cohort (favorable high-risk vs other high-risk: AHR 0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.41, P<.001; favorable high-risk vs unfavorable intermediate-risk: AHR 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-1.36, P=.268). Conclusions: Patients with favorable high-risk prostate cancer have significantly better PCSM than other patients with high-risk disease and similar PCSM as those with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease, who are typically treated with shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy. This new classification system may allow for personalization of treatment within high-risk disease, such as consideration of shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy for favorable high-risk disease.

  12. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  13. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  14. Differences among Job Positions Related to Communication Errors at Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Ishida, Toshiro

    In a previous study, we classified the communicatio n errors at construction sites as faulty intention and message pattern, inadequate channel pattern, and faulty comprehension pattern. This study seeks to evaluate the degree of risk of communication errors and to investigate differences among people in various job positions in perception of communication error risk . Questionnaires based on the previous study were a dministered to construction workers (n=811; 149 adminis trators, 208 foremen and 454 workers). Administrators evaluated all patterns of communication error risk equally. However, foremen and workers evaluated communication error risk differently in each pattern. The common contributing factors to all patterns wer e inadequate arrangements before work and inadequate confirmation. Some factors were common among patterns but other factors were particular to a specific pattern. To help prevent future accidents at construction sites, administrators should understand how people in various job positions perceive communication errors and propose human factors measures to prevent such errors.

  15. Sex differences in concomitant medication with benzodiazepines or antidepressants in first-break schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, C.A.W.; Knegtering, H; Bruggeman, R; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2005-01-01

    During a first episode of psychosis, treatment with antipsychotic drugs can improve both positive and negative symptoms. If sufficient amelioration does not occur, adding psychotropic comedication may result in a favorable outcome. To establish sex differences in psychotropic comedication use, we

  16. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  17. The role of positive selection in determining the molecular cause of species differences in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foord Steven M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Related species, such as humans and chimpanzees, often experience the same disease with varying degrees of pathology, as seen in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, or differing symptomatology as in AIDS. Furthermore, certain diseases such as schizophrenia, epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders are far more frequent in humans than in other species for reasons not associated with lifestyle. Genes that have undergone positive selection during species evolution are indicative of functional adaptations that drive species differences. Thus we investigate whether biomedical disease differences between species can be attributed to positively selected genes. Results We identified genes that putatively underwent positive selection during the evolution of humans and four mammals which are often used to model human diseases (mouse, rat, chimpanzee and dog. We show that genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection pressure during human evolution are implicated in diseases such as epithelial cancers, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and Alzheimer's disease, all of which differ in prevalence and symptomatology between humans and their mammalian relatives. In agreement with previous studies, the chimpanzee lineage was found to have more genes under positive selection than any of the other lineages. In addition, we found new evidence to support the hypothesis that genes that have undergone positive selection tend to interact with each other. This is the first such evidence to be detected widely among mammalian genes and may be important in identifying molecular pathways causative of species differences. Conclusion Our dataset of genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection in five species serves as an informative resource that can be consulted prior to selecting appropriate animal models during drug target validation. We conclude that studying the evolution of functional and biomedical disease differences

  18. Validation of favor code linear elastic fracture solutions for finite-length flaw geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    One of the current tasks within the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the continuing development of the FAVOR (Fracture, analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) computer code. FAVOR performs structural integrity analyses of embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with stainless steel cladding, to evaluate compliance with the applicable regulatory criteria. Since the initial release of FAVOR, the HSST program has continued to enhance the capabilities of the FAVOR code. ABAQUS, a nuclear quality assurance certified (NQA-1) general multidimensional finite element code with fracture mechanics capabilities, was used to generate a database of stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for a range of axially and circumferentially oriented semielliptical inner-surface flaw geometries applicable to RPVs with an internal radius (Ri) to wall thickness (w) ratio of 10. This database of SIRCs has been incorporated into a development version of FAVOR, providing it with the capability to perform deterministic and probabilistic fracture analyses of RPVs subjected to transients, such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS), for various flaw geometries. This paper discusses the SIFIC database, comparisons with other investigators, and some of the benchmark verification problem specifications and solutions

  19. Work stress among university teachers: gender and position differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Maslić Seršić, Darja

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to stress at work in university teachers and see if there were differences between men and women as well as between positions. The study was carried out online and included a representative sample of 1,168 teachers employed at universities in Croatia. This included all teaching positions: assistants (50%), assistant professors (18%), associate professors (17%), and full professors (15%). Fifty-seven percent of the sample were women. The participants answered a questionnaire of our own design that measured six groups of stressors: workload, material and technical conditions at work, relationships with colleagues at work, work with students, work organisation, and social recognition and status. Women reported greater stress than men. Assistant professors, associate professors, and full professors reported greater stress related to material and technical conditions of work and work organisation than assistants, who, in turn, found relationships with colleagues a greater stressor. Full professors, reported lower exposure to stress at work than associate professors, assistant professors, and assistants.

  20. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2017-03-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV- female couples, 98 HIV- male/HIV+ female couples, and 38 HIV-positive concordant couples, were included in the analyses. We collected data using the computer-assisted personal interview method. We used a linear mixed-effects regression model to assess whether gender differences in depressive symptoms varied across couple types. HIV-positive women reported a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms than their partners/spouses. HIV-positive women with HIV-positive partners had higher depressive symptoms than those with HIV-negative partners, whereas HIV-positive men reported similar levels of depressive symptoms regardless of their partners' serostatus. Among the concordant couples, those with the highest annual family income showed the greatest gender differences in depressive symptoms. We suggest that family interventions should be gender- and couple-type specific and that mental health counseling is warranted not only for HIV-positive women but also for HIV-negative women in an HIV-affected relationship.

  1. Science Curriculum Components Favored by Taiwanese Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Yung; Hu, Reping; Changlai, Miao-Li

    2005-09-01

    The new 1-9 curriculum framework in Taiwan provides a remarkable change from previous frameworks in terms of the coverage of content and the powers of teachers. This study employs a modified repertory grid technique to investigate biology teachers' preferences with regard to six curriculum components. One hundred and eighty-five in-service and pre-service biology teachers were asked to determine which science curriculum components they liked and disliked most of all to include in their biology classes. The data show that the rank order of these science curriculum components, from top to bottom, was as follows: application of science, manipulation skills, scientific concepts, social/ethical issues, problem-solving skills, and the history of science. They also showed that pre-service biology teachers, as compared with in-service biology teachers, favored problem-solving skills significantly more than manipulative skills, while in-service biology teachers, as compared with pre-service biology teachers, favored manipulative skills significantly more than problem-solving skills. Some recommendations for ensuring the successful implementation of the Taiwanese 1-9 curriculum framework are also proposed.

  2. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformations through different reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. [1] Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342. [2] Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M

  3. Life-history differences favor evolution of male dimorphism in competitive games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Johansson, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Many species exhibit two discrete male morphs: fighters and sneakers. Fighters are large and possess weapons but may mature slowly. Sneakers are small and have no weapons but can sneak matings and may mature quickly to start mating earlier in life than fighters. However, how differences in competitive ability and life history interact to determine male morph coexistence has not yet been investigated within a single framework. Here we integrate demography and game theory into a two-sex population model to study the evolution of strategies that result in the coexistence of fighters and sneakers. We incorporate differences in maturation time between the morphs and use a mating-probability matrix analogous to the classic hawk-dove game. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that male dimorphism evolves more easily in our model than in classic game theory approaches. Our results also revealed an interaction between life-history differences and sneaker competitiveness, which shows that demography and competitive games should be treated as interlinked mechanisms to understand the evolution of male dimorphism. Applying our approach to empirical data on bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and bullhorned dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus) indicates that observed occurrences of male dimorphism are in general agreement with model predictions.

  4. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  5. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content

  6. A new source difference artificial neural network for enhanced positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Deepak; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Bhattacharya, Prabir

    2012-01-01

    Integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) units provide reliable navigation solution compared to standalone INS or GPS. Traditional Kalman filter-based INS/GPS integration schemes have several inadequacies related to sensor error model and immunity to noise. Alternatively, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks with three layers have been implemented to improve the position accuracy of the integrated system. However, MLP neural networks show poor accuracy for low-cost INS because of the large inherent sensor errors. For the first time the paper demonstrates the use of knowledge-based source difference artificial neural network (SDANN) to improve navigation performance of low-cost sensor, with or without external aiding sources. Unlike the conventional MLP or artificial neural networks (ANN), the structure of SDANN consists of two MLP neural networks called the coarse model and the difference model. The coarse model learns the input–output data relationship whereas the difference model adds knowledge to the system and fine-tunes the coarse model output by learning the associated training or estimation error. Our proposed SDANN model illustrated a significant improvement in navigation accuracy of up to 81% over conventional MLP. The results demonstrate that the proposed SDANN method is effective for GPS/INS integration schemes using low-cost inertial sensors, with and without GPS

  7. “Covalent Hydration” Reactions in Model Monomeric Ru 2,2'-Bipyridine Complexes: Thermodynamic Favorability as a Function of Metal Oxidation and Overall Spin States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Cape, Jonathan L.; Hurst, James K.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2011-09-05

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the plausibility of water addition to the simple mononuclear ruthenium complexes, [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 2+}/{sup 3+} and [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)RuOH]{sup 3+}, in which the OH fragment adds to the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. Activation of bpy toward water addition has frequently been postulated within the literature, although there exists little definitive experimental evidence for this type of 'covalent hydration'. In this study, we examine the energetic dependence of the reaction upon metal oxidation state, overall spin state of the complex, as well as selectivity for various positions on the bipyridine ring. The thermodynamic favorability is found to be highly dependent upon all three parameters, with free energies of reaction that span favorable and unfavorable regimes. Aqueous addition to [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 3+} was found to be highly favorable for the S = 1/2 state, while reduction of the formal oxidation state on the metal center makes the reaction highly unfavorable. Examination of both facial and meridional isomers reveals that when bipyridine occupies the position trans to the ruthenyl oxo atom, reactivity toward OH addition decreases and the site preferences are altered. The electronic structure and spectroscopic signatures (EPR parameters and simulated spectra) have been determined to aid in recognition of 'covalent hydration' in experimental systems. EPR parameters are found to uniquely characterize the position of the OH addition to the bpy as well as the overall spin state of the system.

  8. Implant-supported mandibular removable partial dentures: Functional, clinical and radiographical parameters in relation to implant position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Speksnijder, Caroline M; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Kerdijk, Wouter; Meijer, Henny J A; Cune, Marco S

    2017-06-01

    Patients with a Kennedy class I situation often encounter problems with their removable partial denture (RPD). To assess the functional benefits of implant support to RPDs, the clinical performance of the implants and teeth and to determine the most favorable implant position: the premolar (PM) or molar (M) region. Thirty subjects received 2 PM and 2 M implants. A new RPD was made. Implant support was provided 3 months later. In a cross-over model, randomly, 2 implants (PM or M) supported the RPD during 3 months. Masticatory performance was assessed using the mixing ability index (MAI). Clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. Non-parametric statistical analysis for related samples and post hoc comparisons were performed. Masticatory performance differed significantly between the stages of treatment (P < .001). MAI-scores improved with implant support although the implant position had no significant effect. No complications to the implants or RPD were observed and clinical and radiographical parameters for both implants and teeth were favorable. Higher scores for bleeding on probing were seen for molar implants. Implant support to a Kennedy class I RPD significantly improves masticatory function, regardless of implant position. No major clinical problems were observed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Expressions of positive emotion in women's college yearbook pictures and their relationship to personality and life outcomes across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, L; Keltner, D

    2001-01-01

    To test hypotheses about positive emotion, the authors examined the relationship of positive emotional expression in women's college pictures to personality, observer ratings, and life outcomes. Consistent with the notion that positive emotions help build personal resources, positive emotional expression correlated with the self-reported personality traits of affiliation, competence, and low negative emotionality across adulthood and predicted changes in competence and negative emotionality. Observers rated women displaying more positive emotion more favorably on several personality dimensions and expected interactions with them to be more rewarding; thus, demonstrating the beneficial social consequences of positive emotions. Finally, positive emotional expression predicted favorable outcomes in marriage and personal well-being up to 30 years later. Controlling for physical attractiveness and social desirability had little impact on these findings.

  10. Prospective assessment of positioning-related pain in robotic urologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kevin B; Pape, Kelsey; Heilbronn, Chase; Levin, Michael; Cher, Michael L

    2018-03-01

    This was a prospective study to assess positioning-related pain in 20 awake volunteers in the dorsal lithotomy (DL) and lateral decubitus (LD) positions. Each volunteer was put through the series of discrete, sequential steps used to achieve a final position; each step had two options. The Wong-Baker scale (WB) was used to rate pain for each option and the preferred option and ad lib comments were recorded. We found that awake volunteers could clearly and immediately distinguish differences in pain levels between position options. For the DL position, volunteers favored having the arms slightly flexed and pronated as opposed to being straight and supinated reflected by statistically less painful WB scores and option preference. Volunteers preferred having the neck flexed as opposed to being flat. For the LD position, volunteers reported statistically lower pain scores and preference for a foam roll for axilla support as opposed to a rolled blanket, the table flexed without the kidney rest as opposed to a raised kidney rest, and the over arm board as oppose to stacked blankets for contralateral arm support. Ad lib comments from the volunteers supported the above findings. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate objective preferences for variations in surgical positioning using awake volunteers. This exercise with awake volunteers resulted in immediate changes in positioning for real robotic surgery patients in our practice.

  11. Positional differences in the cardiorespiratory, autonomic, and somatic profiles of professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Semjon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to optimize training in soccer, knowledge about the specific position fitness demands and characteristics is required. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether there are position specific differences in somatic, cardiorespiratory and autonomic cardiac profiles of professional senior Czech soccer players. Methods: All players (N = 120 were divided into six groups according to field positions: goalkeeper (GK; n = 11, external defenders (ED; n = 15, central defenders (CD; n = 18, external midfielders (EM; n = 18, central midfielders (CM; n = 24 and forwards (F; n = 34. Players underwent anthropometrical and heart rate variability (HRV assessment, and a maximal incremental running test in order to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and heart rate. HRV variables were transformed using the natural logarithm (Ln. Results: GK and CD were significantly (p = .005 heavier than ED, EM, CM, and F; while F were significantly (p = .026 heavier than CM and EM. GK and CD were significantly (p = .008 taller than ED, EM, CM, F; and EM were significantly (p = .041 shorter than CM and F. The only significant (p = .043 difference in percentage of body fat was observed in CD compared with CM. A significantly (p = .021 lower VO2max was observed for GK compared with ED, CD, EM, CM, and F. Supine HRV was significantly (p = .039 lower for Ln LF/HF in GK compared with F. Standing HRV was significantly (p = .03 lower for Ln LF in CD compared with both ED and F, significantly (p = .028 higher for Ln LF/HF in ED compared with CD and EM. Conclusions: In soccer, specific positions are associated with different height, body mass and aerobic capacity. A lower VO2max and vagal activity in GK compared with other playing positions may not be considered as disadvantage for performance in this specific playing position.

  12. Human rights: common meaning and differences in positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Doise

    Full Text Available Human rights are defined as normative social representations embedded in institutional juridical definitions. Research findings show that human rights can be studied as normative social representations implying a degree of common understanding across cultures together with organized differences within and between cultures. Important factors in modulating individual positioning in the realm of human rights are experiences of social conflict and injustice, beliefs about the efficiency of various social actors to have rights enforced and attitudes of liberalism or collectivism. On the other hand, an ethnocentric use of human rights is well documented and has been experimentally studied. Generally, concerns about these rights expressed by citizens of Western countries become much stronger when non-Western countries are involved, whereas violations of these rights in their own country are often not severely condemned.

  13. A significant shift in favor of nuclear energy since 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    A new opinion poll shows a general trend in Europe in favor of nuclear energy: 44% of the people interrogated are for nuclear energy while only 37% were for in 2005. About 40% of the people against nuclear energy would change their mind if a safe and definitive solution for the management of radioactive waste was found. The survey also shows that more people are aware of the assets of nuclear energy in terms of energy independence and greenhouse gas emission. The countries where the support is the strongest are the Czech Republic (64%), Lithuania (64%), Sweden (62%) and Finland (61%). In France, the biggest nuclear energy producer in Europe, the rate of favorable opinion for nuclear energy remains constant at 52%. (A.C.)

  14. Most children with eosinophilic esophagitis have a favorable outcome as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, M; Jacobs, J W; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Wo, J M

    2017-01-01

    The disease progression of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) from childhood into adulthood is unclear. To determine the clinical outcome of patients who were diagnosed with EoE as children, and who now are young adults. Children (adults (≥18 years old) were identified, and a structured telephone interview was conducted to obtain follow-up data on symptom prevalence (dysphagia to solids and liquids, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, and heartburn/regurgitation), food impaction, medication usage, health-care utilization, and resolution of atopy/food allergies. A favorable outcome was defined if EoE symptoms were resolved or improved by subjects' assessment. Unfavorable outcomes was defined as symptoms same or worse. Clinical variables that predicted a favorable outcome as an adult were examined. Mayo Dysphagia Scale (MDQ-30: scored 0-100) was administered to validate the outcome assessment. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio and unpaired t-test were used. Fifty-eight subjects (64% male) who met study criteria were enrolled. Mean age at diagnosis was 12 years (range 4-17) and mean duration of follow-up was 8.3 years (2-16). As children, the most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (54%), dysphagia (33%), and vomiting (24%). As young adults, 47 subjects (81%) had a favorable outcome. Total MDQ-30 scores were 4.6 (0-30) and 14.1 (0-50) in subjects with favorable outcome and unfavorable outcome, respectively (P = 0.015). Two-thirds of subjects did not use steroids or proton pump inhibitors in the preceeding 12 months. Male children with EoE were four times more likely to have a favorable outcome as young adults compared with female children. Females were more likely to report nausea/vomiting as young adults (odds ratio 3.23, CI 0.97-10.60). Of all presenting symptoms in EoE children, dysphagia was the most likely to persist into adulthood (odds ratio 6.29, CI 1.85-21.38). Eighty one percent of EoE children had a favorable outcome as young adults. Most patients

  15. Observational study of differences in head position for high notes in famous classical and non-classical male singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante Andrade, Pedro; Švec, Jan G

    2016-07-01

    Differences in classical and non-classical singing are due primarily to aesthetic style requirements. The head position can affect the sound quality. This study aimed at comparing the head position for famous classical and non-classical male singers performing high notes. Images of 39 Western classical and 34 non-classical male singers during live performances were obtained from YouTube. Ten raters evaluated the frontal rotational head position (depression versus elevation) and transverse head position (retraction versus protraction) visually using a visual analogue scale. The results showed a significant difference for frontal rotational head position. Most non-classical singers in the sample elevated their heads for high notes while the classical singers were observed to keep it around the neutral position. This difference may be attributed to different singing techniques and phonatory system adjustments utilized by each group.

  16. Predictors of favorable soft tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Park, Ki-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cephalometric factors that help predict favorable soft-tissue profile outcomes following treatment with the Class II Twin-block appliance. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients treated with the Class II Twin-block appliance were retrospectively analyzed. Profile silhouettes were drawn from the cephalograms and evaluated by three orthodontists in order to determine the extent of improvement. Samples were divided into a favorable group (upper 30% of visual analogue scale [VAS] scores, n = 14) and an unfavorable group (lower 30% of VAS scores, n = 14). Skeletal and soft-tissue measurements were performed on the cephalograms and an intergroup comparison was conducted. An independent t -test revealed that the following pre-treatment values were lower in the favorable group compared to the unfavorable group: lower incisor to mandibular plane angle, lower incisor to pogonion distance, point A-nasion-point B angle, sella-nasion line (SN) to maxillary plane angle, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, and symphysis inclination. The favorable group had a larger incisor inclination to occlusal plane. Moreover, the favorable group showed larger post-treatment changes in gonial angle, B point projection, and pogonion projection than did the unfavorable group. Class II malocclusion patients with a low divergent skeletal pattern and reduced lower incisor protrusions are likely to show more improvement in soft-tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

  17. Uranium favorability of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, G.D.; Brogdon, L.D.; Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-10-01

    Results are presented of a project to identify and delineate units and (or) facies that are favorable for uranium in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. To aid in this evaluation, an assessment of the probable uranium rocks (Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains) was necessary. Surface samples were collected from igneous and sedimentary rocks. Stream-sediment samples were also collected. However, the main emphasis of the investigation of the sedimentary units was on the identification of sedimentary facies trends in the subsurface and an evaluation of the uranium favorability within units studied. The area investigated centers along the Red River, the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. The project area encompasses approximately 17,000 sq. mi. It includes all or parts of Cooke, Montague, Clay, Wichita, Wilbarger, Hardeman, Baylor, Knox, and Archer Counties in Texas and Love, Jefferson, Cotton, Tillman, Jackson, Stephens, Carter, Comanche, Harmon, and Greer Counties in Oklahoma

  18. Positional differences in reactive hyperemia provide insight into initial phase of exercise hyperemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, Jeffrey L; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Gray, Eric J; Clifford, Philip S

    2015-09-01

    Studies have reported a greater blood flow response to muscle contractions when the limb is below the heart compared with above the heart, and these results have been interpreted as evidence for a skeletal muscle pump contribution to exercise hyperemia. If limb position affects the blood flow response to other vascular challenges such as reactive hyperemia, this interpretation may not be correct. We hypothesized that the magnitude of reactive hyperemia would be greater with the limb below the heart. Brachial artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and blood pressure (finger-cuff plethysmography) were measured in 10 healthy volunteers. Subjects lay supine with one arm supported in two different positions: above or below the heart. Reactive hyperemia was produced by occlusion of arterial inflow for varying durations: 0.5 min, 1 min, 2 min, or 5 min in randomized order. Peak increases in blood flow were 77 ± 11, 178 ± 24, 291 ± 25, and 398 ± 33 ml/min above the heart and 96 ± 19, 279 ± 62, 550 ± 60, and 711 ± 69 ml/min below the heart (P different responses depending on limb position. To determine whether these differences were due to mechanisms intrinsic to the arterial wall, a second set of experiments was performed in which acute intraluminal pressure reduction for 0.5 min, 1 min, 2 min, or 5 min was performed in isolated rat soleus feed arteries (n = 12). The magnitude of dilation upon pressure restoration was greater when acute pressure reduction occurred from 85 mmHg (mimicking pressure in the arm below the heart; 28.3 ± 7.9, 37.5 ± 5.9, 55.1 ± 9.9, and 68.9 ± 8.6% dilation) than from 48 mmHg (mimicking pressure in the arm above the heart; 20.8 ± 4.8, 22.6 ± 4.4, 31.2 ± 5.8, and 49.2 ± 7.1% dilation). These data support the hypothesis that arm position differences in reactive hyperemia are at least partially mediated by mechanisms intrinsic to the arterial wall. Overall, these results suggest the need to reevaluate studies employing positional

  19. Association mapping and favorable QTL alleles for fiber quality traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 ... identified favorable QTL alleles and typical accessions for fiber quality are excellent genetic resources for future cotton .... Field management followed respective local practices.

  20. HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donadi Eduardo Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80 for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80 for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.

  1. When and why are reliable organizations favored?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethiraj, Sendil; Yi, Sangyoon

    of the ensuing work examined only corollary implications of this observation. We treat the observation as a research question and ask: when and why are reliable organizations favored by evolutionary forces? Using a simple theoretical model, we direct attention at a minimal set of variables that are implicated...... shocks, reliable organizations can in fact outperform their less reliable counterparts if they can take advantage of the knowledge resident in their historical choices. While these results are counter-intuitive, the caveat is that our results are only an existence proof for our theory rather than...

  2. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood. 

  3. Societal Conditions and the Gender Difference in Well-Being: Testing a Three-Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Li, Chen; Diener, Edward F

    2017-03-01

    Findings from a meta-analysis on gender differences in self-esteem (Zuckerman et al., 2016) suggest that the relation between the degree to which societal conditions are favorable to women and gender difference in self-esteem might be quadratic; when conditions improve, women's self-esteem (relative to that of men) trends downward but when conditions continue to improve, women's self-esteem begins to trend upward. Testing whether these relations generalize to subjective well-being, the present study found a quadratic relation between improving societal conditions and the gender difference in life satisfaction and positive affect (women are lower than men when societal conditions are moderately favorable compared to when they are at their worst and at their best); the relation was linear for negative emotion (women report more negative emotions than men when societal conditions are better). Directions for future research that will address potential explanations for these results are proposed.

  4. Differences in the origins of kinetochore-positive and kinetochore-negative micronuclei: A live cell imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Erkang, E-mail: erkangj@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Most Kinetochore-negative micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Most Kinetochore-positive micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-positive micronuclei at the higher frequency than kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-negative micronuclei at the higher rate than kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes and broken chromosome bridges produced K−MNi and/or K+MNi. - Abstract: Micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxicity and chromosomal instability. Classification of kinetochore-negative (K−MNi) and kinetochore-positive micronuclei (K+MNi) improves the specificity and sensitivity of the micronucleus (MN) test; however, the fundamental differences in the origins of K−MNi and K+MNi have not been addressed due to the limitations of traditional methods. In the current study, HeLa CENP B-GFP H2B-mCherry cells were constructed in which histone 2B (H2B) and centromere protein B (CENP B) were expressed as fusion proteins to monomeric Cherry (mCherry) and EGFP, respectively. MNi were identified using H2B-mCherry; K+MN contained CENP B-GFP, while K−MN did not. Long-term live cell imaging was conducted to examine MN formation in the dual-color fluorescent HeLa cells. The results suggested that K−MNi were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes (K−DCs), kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes (K−LCs) and fragments of broken chromosome bridges (CBs) during late mitotic stages. The results also indicated that K+MNi are derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes (K

  5. Differences in the origins of kinetochore-positive and kinetochore-negative micronuclei: A live cell imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Erkang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Most Kinetochore-negative micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Most Kinetochore-positive micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-positive micronuclei at the higher frequency than kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-negative micronuclei at the higher rate than kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes and broken chromosome bridges produced K−MNi and/or K+MNi. - Abstract: Micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxicity and chromosomal instability. Classification of kinetochore-negative (K−MNi) and kinetochore-positive micronuclei (K+MNi) improves the specificity and sensitivity of the micronucleus (MN) test; however, the fundamental differences in the origins of K−MNi and K+MNi have not been addressed due to the limitations of traditional methods. In the current study, HeLa CENP B-GFP H2B-mCherry cells were constructed in which histone 2B (H2B) and centromere protein B (CENP B) were expressed as fusion proteins to monomeric Cherry (mCherry) and EGFP, respectively. MNi were identified using H2B-mCherry; K+MN contained CENP B-GFP, while K−MN did not. Long-term live cell imaging was conducted to examine MN formation in the dual-color fluorescent HeLa cells. The results suggested that K−MNi were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes (K−DCs), kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes (K−LCs) and fragments of broken chromosome bridges (CBs) during late mitotic stages. The results also indicated that K+MNi are derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes (K

  6. The difference that difference makes: bioethics and the challenge of "disability".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tom

    2004-12-01

    Two rival paradigms permeate bioethics. One generally favors eugenics, euthanasia, assisted suicide and other methods for those with severely restricting physical and cognitive attributes. The other typically opposes these and favors instead ample support for "persons of difference" and their caring families or loved ones. In an attempt to understand the relation between these two paradigms, this article analyzes a publicly reported debate between proponents of both paradigms, bioethicist Peter Singer and lawyer Harriet McBryde Johnson. At issue, the article concludes, are two distinct axiomatic sets of values resulting in not simply different styles of rhetoric but different vocabularies, in effect two different languages of ethics.

  7. Gender differences in positive life orientation among the nursing home elders in China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Zheng, Zhibo; Xian, Wei; Bai, Ming; Jin, Liying; Li, Yuting; Yang, Xiufei; Sheng, Yang; Ai, Wensi; Liu, Hongbo

    2017-09-01

    Life orientation among the nursing home elders would differ from those of community-dwelling elders due to the different living environment, but may have greater differences in gender. This study was designed to investigate the positive life orientation and explore the potential risk factors including gender disparities among nursing home elders in China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Northeast China. Two steps cluster sampling procedure were chosen. Basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) systems were used to estimate the functional status. Positive life orientation was measured using the six-question life orientation scale (LOS). 2512 nursing home elders were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the participants was 73.14±6.746years. Of the 1308 men and 1204 women, 14.9% had a positive life orientation in women and 16.1% in men. Higher level of education, independent in BADL and IADL were related to positive life orientation both in men and women. Age and BMI were also found to be significantly associated with positive life orientation in men (OR=0.587, 1.132, respectively). For women, the influence of income and vision on positive life orientation was also significant (OR=1.967, 1.926, respectively). The positive life orientation was higher in men than women. The gender-specific differences contribute to take more effective measures to improve the positive life orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N; Elsakka, Ahmed M; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. A Medline search was conducted for articles published during the last 10 yr related to PNL in the prone and supine positions. This search revealed 9 published studies for supine and 25 for prone PNL. None of the supine PNL studies reported visceral injuries, while transfusion rates were 0.0-9.4% and stone-free rates were 69.6-95.0%. One study of supine PNL evaluated a significant proportion of obese patients. Prone PNL studies in obese patients report transfusion rates of 3.2-8.8% and stone-free rates of 79.0-89.2%. In the only randomized study, excluding obese patients and staghorn calculi, operative time favors the supine position. A nonrandomized comparative study demonstrated similar complication rates with insignificant improvement in treatment success for supine PNL; however, when comparing series with similar proportions of staghorn calculi cases, there are slightly improved outcomes for prone PNL. Moreover, comparison of weighted means favors prone PNL. For obese patients and staghorn calculi, prone PNL appears to be associated with decreased operative times with similar bleeding rates and slightly better stone-free rates than supine PNL.

  9. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity.

  10. Understanding the positive effect of financial compensation on trust after norm violations: Evidence from fMRI in favor of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesevoets, Tessa; De Cremer, David; Van Hiel, Alain; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Norm violations are ubiquitous in organizations and often result in tangible harm and a loss of trust. One possible response to enhance trust involves the provision of financial compensation. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes that underlie the effect of such a tangible response to increase trust. We employed techniques in cognitive neuroscience (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to examine these processes. Participants placed in the scanner played the role of recipient in a series of dictator games with different allocators who (unknown to them) were preprogrammed. An unequal division of resources was used as a norm violation that resulted in a financial loss. Afterward the inflicted harm was restored through equal financial compensation. Our neuroimaging data indicate that financial compensation activates forgiveness-related brain areas and that this activation mediates the positive effect of financial compensation on trust. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of using tangible responses to increase trust in organizational settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Al-, Y-, and La-doping effects favoring intrinsic and field induced ferroelectricity in HfO2: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materlik, Robin; Künneth, Christopher; Falkowski, Max; Mikolajick, Thomas; Kersch, Alfred

    2018-04-01

    III-valent dopants have shown to be most effective in stabilizing the ferroelectric, crystalline phase in atomic layer deposited, polycrystalline HfO2 thin films. On the other hand, such dopants are commonly used for tetragonal and cubic phase stabilization in ceramic HfO2. This difference in the impact has not been elucidated so far. The prospect is a suitable doping to produce ferroelectric HfO2 ceramics with a technological impact. In this paper, we investigate the impact of Al, Y, and La doping, which have experimentally proven to stabilize the ferroelectric Pca21 phase in HfO2, in a comprehensive first-principles study. Density functional theory calculations reveal the structure, formation energy, and total energy of various defects in HfO2. Most relevant are substitutional electronically compensated defects without oxygen vacancy, substitutional mixed compensated defects paired with a vacancy, and ionically compensated defect complexes containing two substitutional dopants paired with a vacancy. The ferroelectric phase is strongly favored with La and Y in the substitutional defect. The mixed compensated defect favors the ferroelectric phase as well, but the strongly favored cubic phase limits the concentration range for ferroelectricity. We conclude that a reduction of oxygen vacancies should significantly enhance this range in Y doped HfO2 thin films. With Al, the substitutional defect hardly favors the ferroelectric phase before the tetragonal phase becomes strongly favored with the increasing concentration. This could explain the observed field induced ferroelectricity in Al-doped HfO2. Further Al defects are investigated, but do not favor the f-phase such that the current explanation remains incomplete for Al doping. According to the simulation, doping alone shows clear trends, but is insufficient to replace the monoclinic phase as the ground state. To explain this fact, some other mechanism is needed.

  12. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kenji

    2012-08-28

    An 87-year-old, Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep, central ulceration covered with thick, whitish exudate in the stomach. Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer. Though cured of the lesion, she developed another ulcer in a different position, in which Candida was demonstrated but H. pylori was undetectable. This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world. Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H. pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs, Candida is considered, contrary to the prevailing opinion, to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  13. The divide within: Older active ICT users position themselves against different 'Others'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Lundholm, Magdalena; Torres, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Although research into older people's internet usage patterns is rapidly growing, their understandings of digital technologies, particularly in relation to how these are informed by their understandings of aging and old age, remain unexplored. This is the case because research on older active ICT users tends to regard old age as an empirically interesting part of the life-course as opposed to a theoretically profuse source of information about why and how older people engage with digital technologies. This article explores - through focus group interviews with 30 older adults (aged 66-89) - the ways in which the social position of old age is used by older active ICT users in order to make sense of how and why they engage with these technologies. In this article, positioning theory is used to shed light on how the older people interviewed positioned themselves as 'active older users' in the interviews. The analysis brings to the fore the divide that older people themselves create as they discursively position themselves against different types of ICT users and non-users (young and old) when describing how and why they engage with digital technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Promoting success or preventing failure: cultural differences in motivation by positive and negative role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope; Marshall, Tara C; Sadler, Pamela

    2005-03-01

    In two studies, cross-cultural differences in reactions to positive and negative role models were examined. The authors predicted that individuals from collectivistic cultures, who have a stronger prevention orientation, would be most motivated by negative role models, who highlight a strategy of avoiding failure; individuals from individualistic cultures, who have a stronger promotion focus, would be most motivated by positive role models, who highlight a strategy of pursuing success. In Study 1, the authors examined participants' reported preferences for positive and negative role models. Asian Canadian participants reported finding negative models more motivating than did European Canadians; self-construals and regulatory focus mediated cultural differences in reactions to role models. In Study 2, the authors examined the impact of role models on the academic motivation of Asian Canadian and European Canadian participants. Asian Canadians were motivated only by a negative model, and European Canadians were motivated only by a positive model.

  15. The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Heqing; Chen Guang; Zhang Qianfeng

    2010-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavier or lighter pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a wide river is investigated with a well-tested three-dimensional numerical model of gravity flows based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence k-ε model. By focusing on investigating the influences of flow and buoyancy on pollutants, it is found that while carrying by the river flow downstream: i) a heavier pollutant released from the cross-sectional side position, forms transverse oscillation between two banks with decreased amplitude, i.e. forms kind of helical flow pattern along the straight part of channel bed; ii) a heavier pollutant released from the cross-sectional middle position, forms collapse oscillation in the middle of the straight channel part with reduced amplitude; iii) in the downstream sinuous channel, heavier pollutant is of higher concentration on the outer side of channel bends; iv) a light pollutant released from the cross-sectional side position, slips partly to the other side of the river, resulting in higher concentrations on two sides of the channel top; v) a light pollutant released from the cross-sectional middle position, splits into two parts symmetrically along two sides of the channel top; vi) in the downstream sinuous channel, light pollutant presents higher concentration on the inner side of channel bends. These findings may assist in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken for accidental or planned pollutant releases into a river. - The distribution characteristics of heavier or lighter pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a river.

  16. Adaptive Changes in the Perception of Fast and Slow Movement at Different Head Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Occhigrossi, Chiara; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Lucertini, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration). The rotations induced a bias in the perception of velocity (more pronounced with fast than with slow motion). At the end of rotation, a marked target position error (TPE) was present. For the on-vertical axis rotations, the TPE was no different if the rotations were performed with a 30° nose-down, a 60° nose-up, or a 90° side-down head tilt. With off-vertical axis rotations, the simultaneous activation of the semicircular canals and otolithic receptors produced a significant increase of TPE for all head positions. This difference between on-vertical and off-vertical axis rotation was probably partly due to the vestibular transfer function and partly due to different adaptation to the speed of rotation. Such a phenomenon might be generated in different components of the vestibular system. The adaptive process enhancing the perception of dynamic movement around the vertical axis is not related to the specific semicircular canals that are activated; the addition of an otolithic component results in a significant increase of the TPE.Panichi R, Occhigrossi C, Ferraresi A, Faralli M, Lucertini M, Pettorossi VE. Adaptive changes in the perception of fast and slow movement at different head positions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):463-468.

  17. Comparison of different patient positioning strategies to minimize shoulder girdle artifacts in head and neck CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stefan; Meindl, Thomas; Treitl, Marcus; Pfeifer, Klaus-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze different patient positioning strategies for minimizing artifacts of the shoulder girdle in head and neck CT. Standardized CT examinations of three positioning groups were compared (P: patients pushed their shoulders downwards; D: similar optimization by a pulling device; N: no particular positioning optimization). Parameters analyzed were the length of the cervical spine not being superimposed by the shoulder girdle as well as noise in the supraclavicular space. In groups P and D, the portion of the cervical spine not superimposed was significantly larger than in group N (P: 10.4 cm; D: 10.6 cm; N: 8.5 cm). At the supraclavicular space, noise decreased significantly (P: 12.5 HU; D: 12.1 HU; N: 17.7 HU). No significant differences between the two position-optimized groups (P and D) were detected. Optimized shoulder positioning by the patient increases image quality in CT head and neck imaging. The use of a pulling device offers no additional advantages.

  18. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies.

  19. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit. PMID:27602764

  20. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Yang, Lijuan; Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-10-11

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit.

  1. Influence of the positive prewhirl on the performance of centrifugal pumps with different airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C M; Wang, H M; Huang, X; Lin, H

    2012-01-01

    According to the basic theory of turbomachinery design and inlet guide vanes prewhirl regulation, two different airfoils inlet guide vanes of prewhirl regulation device were designed, the influence of the positive prewhirl to the performance of centrifugal pump were studied based on different airfoils. The results show that, for a single-suction centrifugal pump: Gottingen bowed blade-type inlet guide vane adjustment effect is better than straight blade-type inlet guide; appropriate design of positive prewhirl can elevate the efficiency of centrifugal pumps. Compared with no vane conditions, the efficiency of centrifugal pump with prewhirl vanes has been greatly improved and the power consumption has been reduced significantly, while has little influence on the head.

  2. Inter and Intra Positional Differences in Ball Kicking Between U-16 Croatian Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rađa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine inter and intra positional differences in ball kicking speed between U-16 Croatian soccer players. 44 young soccer players (15.7 ± 1.5 years were tested with 8 specific soccer field tests that evaluate kicking velocity by using Pocket radar that was reading the ball velocity in km/h. The tests took place two days in a row; beginning at 8 A.M. Prior to the tests, players warmed up and stretched for 20 minutes (13 minutes of running with and without the ball, 7 minutes of dynamic stretching. Inter positional differences were significant (p ≤ 0.05 between midfielders and defenders in all tests and in one test midfielders scored better than strikers. The fastest kicks were instep kicks when stationary and non-stationary ball was kicked. Shots were taken by midfielders with 106.94±7.07 and 101.61±7.88 km/h respectively. Similar to dominant leg, midfielders also achieved the fastest instep kicks with non-dominant leg (91.44±9.56 km/h. Intra positional differences revealed that soccer kick velocity is one of possible selection tools, because more efficient players in all playing lines shoot faster kicks than less efficient players.

  3. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  4. 2005 DAtF winter meeting - pleading in favor of a sensible energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The year's Winter Meeting of Deutsches Atomforum, which was held under the general heading of 'Pleading in Favor of a Sensible Energy Mix', dealt with the large variety of aspects and perspectives of this important key topic, also with respect to the sustainability factors, environment, economy, and social aspects. Twelve contributions, or statements, by representatives from politics, industry, society, and research covered different aspects of a 'sensible energy mix'. A round of politicians debated the subject controversially. The meeting, which was attended by more than 250 participants, thus opened 2005 with an interesting presentation of present and future topics of the power supply debate. (orig.)

  5. Developmental Differences across Middle Childhood in Memory and Suggestibility for Negative and Positive Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Goodman, Gail S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated age differences in children's eyewitness memory and suggestibility for negative and positive events that children often experience during middle childhood. We first examined 216 ratings by children aged 8-12 years of the frequency and intensity of personal negative and positive experiences (Study 1). Based on those ratings, videotapes depicting the most frequent and intense negative (an accident) and positive (a family excursion) events were developed. A new sample of 227 children aged 8-12 years was tested for recognition memory of the videotapes using the three-stage post-event misinformation procedure (Study 2). Compared with 8- to 9-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds exhibited less memory malleability and less compliance with false information. Age improvements in recognition accuracy were also evident for children who watched the negative event, but not for those who watched the positive event. Compliance predicted misinformation effects, particularly in regard to peripheral details. Thus, using ecologically representative emotional events, age differences in suggestibility and memory accuracy emerged, especially for negative events.Theoretical and forensic implications concerning children's eyewitness memory and suggestibility are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, Michael C; Petridou, Barbara; Peyrat, Jean Phillipe; Révillion, Françoise; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Daxenbichler, Günter; Marth, Christian; Doppler, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015) and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026). In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002). This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF-I is a feature of differentiated and less malignant tumors

  7. Effects of Fatty Acids at Different Positions in the Triglycerides on Cholesterol Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, S.S.; Voon, P.T.; Ng, Y.T.; Ong, S.H.; Augustine, S.H.O.; Choo, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies established a series of regression equations for predicting the risk factor effects from serum cholesterol concentrations. However, the degree of saturation was solely based on total fatty acid composition in triglycerides. Our article is focused on the relationships between the published human nutrition studies and predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acid compositions and at sn-2 position in triglycerides. Twenty-two published human nutrition studies were chosen to assess the effects of palm olein, olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower seed oil, corn oil, soyabean oil, grape seed oil, groundnut oil and rice bran oil diets on serum cholesterol levels. There were no statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on fatty acids at sn-2 position and the published human nutrition studies as proven by the statistical analyses with p values more than 0.05. In contrast, there were statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acids and the published human nutritional studies with p values less than 0.05. Fatty acids at sn-2 position appear to influence the cholesterol levels rather than total fatty acids of the triglyceride. (author)

  8. Factors favorable to frequent extreme precipitation in the upper Yangtze River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke

    2013-08-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the upper Yangtze River Valley (YRV) have recently become an increasingly important focus in China because they often cause droughts and floods. Unfortunately, little is known about the climate processes responsible for these events. This paper investigates factors favorable to frequent extreme precipitation events in the upper YRV. Our results reveal that a weakened South China Sea summer monsoon trough, intensified Eurasian-Pacific blocking highs, an intensified South Asian High, a southward subtropical westerly jet and an intensified Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) increase atmospheric instability and enhance the convergence of moisture over the upper YRV, which result in more extreme precipitation events. The snow depth over the eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) in winter and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over three key regions in summer are important external forcing factors in the atmospheric circulation anomalies. Deep snow on the Tibetan Plateau in winter can weaken the subsequent East Asian summer monsoon circulation above by increasing the soil moisture content in summer and weakening the land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia. The positive SSTA in the western North Pacific may affect southwestward extension of the WNPSH and the blocking high over northeastern Asia by arousing the East Asian-Pacific pattern. The positive SSTA in the North Atlantic can affect extreme precipitation event frequency in the upper YRV via a wave train pattern along the westerly jet between the North Atlantic and East Asia. A tripolar pattern from west to east over the Indian Ocean can strengthen moisture transport by enhancing Somali cross-equatorial flow.

  9. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  10. Daily positive events and diurnal cortisol rhythms: Examination of between-person differences and within-person variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Ong, Anthony D; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

    2017-09-01

    Growing evidence from field studies has linked daily stressors to dysregulated patterns of diurnal cortisol. Less is known about whether naturally-occurring positive events in everyday life are associated with diurnal cortisol. The objectives of this study were to evaluate daily positive events as predictors of between-person differences and within-person (day-to-day) variations in diurnal cortisol parameters, in addition to daily positive events as buffers against the associations between daily stressors and cortisol. In the National Study of Daily Experiences, 1657 adults ages 33-84 (57% female) reported daily experiences during telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings. Saliva samples were collected 4 times per day on 4 interview days and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models were used to estimate associations of daily positive events with cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal cortisol slope, and area under the curve (AUC). At the between-person level, people who experienced more frequent positive events exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope, controlling for daily stressors, daily affect, and other covariates. At the within-person level, positive events in the morning (but not prior-night or afternoon/evening events) predicted steeper decline in cortisol across that day; positive events were also marginally associated with lower same-day AUC. Associations were not mediated by daily positive affect, and positive events did not buffer against stressor-related cortisol alterations. These findings indicate that individual differences and day-to-day variations in daily positive events are associated with diurnal cortisol patterns, independent of stressors and affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nudge to nobesity II: Menu positions influence food orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Dayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ``Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to have significant effects, even erasing obesity over a period of years'' (Rozin et al., 2011. In two studies, one a lab study and the other a real-world study, we examine the effect of manipulating the position of different foods on a restaurant menu. Items placed at the beginning or the end of the list of their category options were up to twice as popular as when they were placed in the center of the list. Given this effect, placing healthier menu items at the top or bottom of item lists and less healthy ones in their center (e.g., sugared drinks vs. calorie-free drinks should result in some increase in favor of healthier food choices.

  12. Is the obesity epidemic reversing favorable trends in blood pressure? Evidence from cohorts born between 1890 and 1990 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David C; Gillespie, Cathleen; Howard, George; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2012-08-01

    Previous reports have described favorable changes in the relationship between systolic blood pressure and age in recent birth cohorts. The obesity epidemic might threaten that pattern. To update analyses of differences between birth cohorts in the relationship between systolic blood pressure and age and to determine whether increases in obesity have had adverse effects. We examined the systolic blood pressure distributions across birth cohorts born between 1890 and 1990 in 68,070 participants, aged 18-74 years, in the National Health (and Nutrition) Examination Surveys between 1960 and 2008. We postulated that age-adjusted 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of systolic blood pressure had decreased in more recent versus earlier cohorts, and that this pattern had slowed or reversed recently due, at least in part, to obesity. After adjusting for gender, race, age and age(2), the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of systolic blood pressure were 1.1, 1.4, 1.9, 2.5, and 3.4 mmHg lower for each decade more recently born (all P birth cohort were positive and significant (P distributions are shifted lower relative to earlier cohorts. Decreases of 1.9 mmHg in the median systolic blood pressure per decade translates into 11.4-13.3 mmHg over 6-7 decades, a shift that would contribute importantly to lower rates of cardiovascular diseases. These favorable changes are slowing, perhaps owing, at least in part, to the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in biological maturation, anthropometry and physical performance between playing positions in youth team handball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, S.P.; Fransen, J.; Vaeyens, R.; Lenoir, M.; Philippaerts, R.

    2013-01-01

    It was the goal of this cross-sectional study to examine differences in maturity, anthropometry and physical performance between youth handball players across different playing positions (i.e. goalkeeper, back, pivot and wing). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), accounting for biological

  14. Social position and health in old age. The relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2002-01-01

    Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility......Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility...

  15. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined Modality Treatment for PET-Positive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Favorable Outcomes of Combined Modality Treatment for Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Positive Interim or Postchemotherapy FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, Lia M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jacene, Heather A. [Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Catalano, Paul J. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Van den Abbeele, Annick D. [Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); LaCasce, Ann [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ng, Andrea K., E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of patients treated for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with combined modality therapy based on [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response. Methods and Materials: We studied 59 patients with aggressive NHL, who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) from 2001 to 2008. Among them, 83% of patients had stage I/II disease. Patients with B-cell lymphoma received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic T-cell lymphoma received CHOP therapy. Interim and postchemotherapy FDG-PET or FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) scans were performed for restaging. All patients received consolidated involved-field RT. Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 28.8-50 Gy). Progression-free survival (PFS) and local control (LC) rates were calculated with and without a negative interim or postchemotherapy FDG-PET scan. Results: Median follow-up was 46.5 months. Thirty-nine patients had negative FDG-PET results by the end of chemotherapy, including 12 patients who had a negative interim FDG-PET scan and no postchemotherapy PET. Twenty patients were FDG-PET-positive, including 7 patients with positive interim FDG-PET and no postchemotherapy FDG-PET scans. The 3-year actuarial PFS rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 97% and 90%, respectively. The 3-year actuarial LC rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients who had a positive interim or postchemotherapy FDG-PET had a PFS rate of 90% at 3 years after combined modality treatment, suggesting that a large proportion of these patients can be cured with consolidated RT.

  17. Differences in Shiga toxin and phage production among stx2g-positive STEC strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viviana Granobles Velandia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC are characterized by the production of Shiga toxins (Stx encoded by temperate bacteriophages. Stx production is linked to the induction of the phage lytic cycle. Several stx variants have been described and differentially associated with the risk of developing severe illness.The variant named stx2g was first identified in a STEC strain isolated from the faeces of healthy cattle. Analysis of stx2g-positive strains isolated from humans, animals and environmental sources have shown that they have a close relationship. In this study, stx2g-positive STEC isolated from cattle were analyzed for phage and Stx production, with the aim to relate the results to differences observed in cytotoxicity.The presence of inducible phages was assessed by analyzing the bacterial growth/lysis curves and also by plaque assay. Bacterial growth curves in the absence of induction were similar for all isolates, however, notably differed among induced cultures. The two strains that clearly evidenced bacteriolysis under this condition also showed higher phage titers in plaque assays. However, only the phage plaques produced by one of these strains (FB 62 hybridized with a stx2-probe. Furthermore, the production of Stx was evaluated by EIA and Western immunoblotting in overnight supernatants. By EIA, we detected Stx only in supernatants of FB 62, with a higher signal with induced than in uninduced cultures. By immunoblotting, Stx2 could be detected after induction in all stx2g-positive isolates, but with lower amounts of Stx2B subunit in those supernatants where phages could not be detected.Taking into account all the results, several differences could be found among stx2g-positive strains. The strain with the highest cytotoxic titer showed higher levels of stx2-phages and toxin production by EIA, and the opposite was observed for strains that previously showed low cytotoxic titers, confirming that in stx2g-positive strains Stx production is

  18. Comparison of WDM/Pulse-Position-Modulation (WDM/PPM) with Code/Pulse-Position-Swapping (C/PPS) Based on Wavelength/Time Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    Pulse position modulation (PPM) signaling is favored in intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) systems that have average power limitations. Combining PPM with WDM over a fiber link (WDM/PPM) enables multiple accessing and increases the link's throughput. Electronic bandwidth and synchronization advantages are further gained by mapping the time slots of PPM onto a code space, or code/pulse-position-swapping (C/PPS). The property of multiple bits per symbol typical of PPM can be combined with multiple accessing by using wavelength/time [W/T] codes in C/PPS. This paper compares the performance of WDM/PPM and C/PPS for equal wavelengths and bandwidth.

  19. Social-and-economic mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshkina, Tatiana; Mottaeva, Angela; Andreeva, Larisa; Larinina, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the matters of investment attractiveness of regions. The factors making the regional investments possible. The authors argue, that social-and-economic development of regions is connected with the formation of the financial mechanism, representing the set of forms and methods of the organization, planning and stimulation of financial-and-economic activity in the certain social-and-economic space. The proper mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered. Besides, the ways of elimination of limiting factors in formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered.

  20. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  1. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size and composition. We find that Pt electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level combined with a modified electron distribution in the nanoparticle due to Pt-to-Au charge transfer are the origin of the outstanding catalytic properties. From our model we deduce the catalytically favorable surface patterns that induce ensemble and ligand effects. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  2. An automated online positioning system and simulation environment for multi-electrodes in extracellular recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Felix; Natora, Michal; Meier, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    to tissue drifts and other sources of variability in the recording setup, the position of the electrodes with respect to the recorded neurons can change causing low recording quality. The contributions of this work are threefold. We introduce a quality measure for the recording position of the electrode...... which should be maximized during recordings and is especially suitable for the use of multi-electrodes. An automated positioning system based on this quality measure is proposed. The system is able to find favorable recording positions and adapts the electrode position smoothly to changes of the neuron...

  3. Psychological foundations of xenophilia: the role of major personality traits in predicting favorable attitudes toward cross-cultural contact and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Stefan; Benbow, Alison E F; Siem, Birte; Barth, Markus; Bodansky, Alexander N; Lotz-Schmitt, Katharina

    2013-11-01

    Building on an integration of research findings on intergroup behavior from multiple fields of scientific inquiry (biological and cultural paleoanthropology, social psychology), as well as research on the HEXACO personality framework (e.g., Ashton & Lee, 2007), 3 independent studies (total N = 1,007) were conducted to introduce and test a fresh personality perspective on human xenophilia. Even though the studies focused on different criteria (Study 1: favorable attitudes toward contact with immigrants, Study 2: habitual cross-cultural exploration, Study 3: favorable attitudes toward contact with indigenous people) and employed different operationalizations of major personality traits (the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised [HEXACO-PI-R], the 10-item Big Five Inventory [BFI-10]) results were remarkably similar. First, path analyses confirmed that major personality traits were significant and direct predictors of xenophilia that were independent of the contributions of individual differences commonly predicting xenophobic reactions across studies. Second, and in line with the authors' more specific hypotheses, hierarchical regression analyses also corroborated that individual differences in the levels of endeavor-related personality traits (i.e., eXtraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness) had a substantially greater power in predicting individual differences in xenophilia than individual differences in levels of altruism/cooperation-related traits (i.e., Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness). The implications of these findings for more general psychological theorizing on human sociality are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Global health actors no longer in favor of user fees: a documentary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Ridde, Valéry

    2013-07-26

    Since the advent of health user fees in low- and middle-income countries in the 1980s, the discourse of global health actors (GHAs) has changed to the disadvantage of this type of healthcare financing mechanism. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the stance of GHAs in the debate on user fees. We conducted documentary research using public documents published by and officially attributed to GHAs from 2005 to 2011. We categorized GHAs into four groups: intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and working groups and networks. We then classified the GHAs according to their stance relative to the abolition of user fees, and conducted a thematic analysis of their discourse to understand the arguments used by each GHA to justify its stance. We identified 56 GHAs, for which we analyzed 140 documents. Among them, 55% were in favor of the abolition of user fees or in favor of free care at the point of delivery. None of the GHAs stated that they were in favor of user fees; however, 30% did not take a stand. Only the World Bank declares that it is both in favor of user fees and in favor of free care at point of service. GHAs generally circumscribe their stance to specific populations (pregnant women, children under 5 years, etc.) or to specific health services (primary, basic, essential). Three types of arguments are used by GHAs to justify their stance: economic, moral and ethical, and pragmatic. The principle of "user pays" seems to have fizzled. Production and dissemination of evidence, as well as certain advocacy networks, may have contributed to this change in discourse. However, GHAs should go a step further and translate their words into action, so that free healthcare at the point of delivery becomes a reality in low- and middle-income countries. They should provide technical and financial support to those countries that have chosen to implement user fee exemption policies, sometimes influenced

  5. Patterns of lymph node sampling and the impact of lymph node density in favorable histology Wilms tumor: An analysis of the national cancer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, A F; Carrasco, A; Amini, A; Aldrink, J H; Dasgupta, R; Gow, K W; Glick, R D; Ehrlich, P F; Cost, N G

    2018-04-01

    There is controversy about the role of lymph node (LN) sampling or dissection in the management of favorable histology (FH) Wilms tumor (WT), specifically how it performed and how it may impact survival. The objective of this study was to analyze factors affecting LN sampling patterns and the impact of LN yield and density (number of positive LNs/LNs examined) on overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced-stage favorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for patients with FHWT during 2004-2013. Demographic, clinical and OS data were abstracted for those who underwent surgical resection. Poisson regression was performed to analyze how factors influenced LN yield. Patients with positive LNs had LN density calculated and were further analyzed. A total of 2340 patients met criteria, with a median age at diagnosis of 3 years (range 0-78 years). The median number of LNs examined was three (range 0-87). Lymph node yield was affected by age, race, insurance, tumor size, laterality, advanced stage, LN positivity, and institutional volume. A total of 390 (16.6%) patients had LN-positive disease. Median LN density for these LN-positive patients was 0.38 (range 0.02-1) (Summary Figure). Estimated 5-year OS was significantly improved for those with LN density ≤0.38 vs. >0.38 (94% vs. 84.6%, P = 0.012). In this population, on multivariate analysis, age and LN density were significant predictors of OS. It is difficult to compile large numbers of cases in rare diseases like WT, and fortunately a large administrative database such as the NCDB can serve as a great resource. However, administrative data come with inherent limitations such as missing data and inability to account for a variety of factors that may influence LN yield and/or OS (specimen designation, pathologist experience, surgeon experience/volume, institutional Children's Oncology Group (COG) association, etc.). In this specific disease, the American Joint Committee

  6. Positive Perception of Aging and Performance in a Memory Task: Compensating for Stereotype Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Huici, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The aim of this research is to explore whether segments of seniors might be immune to aging stereotypes of the older adult group. Stereotype threat research indicates that older adults show low memory recall under conditions of stereotype threat. Stereotype internalization theory (Levy, 2009) predicts that a positive perception of aging has favorable effects on the behavior and health of older people. A total of 112 older adult participants (62% women, aged 55 to 78) attending the University Programme for Older Adults were assigned to one of two conditions: stereotype threat condition and positive information condition. A control group was included from participants in the same program (n = 34; 61% women, aged 55 to 78). Individual differences in self-perception of aging were considered as continuous variable. Participants with better self-perception of aging showed better memory performance than those with poorer self-perception of aging in the stereotype threat condition and control condition. However, no differences were found in the positive information condition between participants with high and low self-perception of aging. These results indicate that positive self-perception of aging moderates the effects of stereotype threat, and that positive information promotes better memory performance for those older adults with a poorer self-perception of aging. As expected, individuals with a positive perception of their own aging were less vulnerable to the activation of a negative older adult stereotype in the stereotype threat condition.

  7. Atomistic modeling to investigate the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the Ca-Mg-Ni ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Li, J H; An, S M; Li, S N; Liu, B X

    2017-05-17

    A realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Ca-Mg-Ni system and then applied to Monte Carlo simulations to predict the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the ternary system. The simulations not only predict a hexagonal composition region, within which the Ca-Mg-Ni metallic glass formation is energetically favored, but also pinpoint an optimized sub-region within which the amorphization driving force, i.e. the energy difference between the solid solution and disordered phase, is larger than that outside. The simulations further reveal that the physical origin of glass formation is the solid solution collapsing when the solute atom exceeds the critical solid solubility. Further structural analysis indicates that the pentagonal bi-pyramids dominate in the optimized sub-region. The large atomic size difference between Ca, Mg and Ni extends the short-range landscape and facilitates the development of a hybridized packing model in the medium-range, and eventually enhancing the glass formation in the system. The predictions are well supported by the experimental observations reported so far, and could be of help for designing the ternary glass formation.

  8. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Do different vertical positions of maxillary central incisors influence smile esthetics perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Erica Bretas Cabral; Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira; Machado, Andre Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and layperson, with respect to different maxillary central incisors vertical positions in full-face and close-up smile analyses. Frontal photographs of the smiles of two adult women were used. Images were altered to create a symmetrical image with the gingival margin levels of the maxillary canines matching the central incisors and a 1.0-mm central-to-lateral incisal step. Later, the images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. The images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 114 judges, 57 orthodontists and 57 laypersons, who were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were statistically analyzed by means of 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post-hoc test and the Student t test. The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins matched or were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins and; b) the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The worst smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins and; b) no step between the centrals and laterals or a 2.5-mm step. The vertical position of the maxillary central incisors significantly affected the perception of the smile esthetics, whereas slightly extruded central incisors were more esthetically preferred than intruded.

  10. Do different vertical positions of maxillary central incisors influence smile esthetics perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bretas Cabral Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and layperson, with respect to different maxillary central incisors vertical positions in full-face and close-up smile analyses. METHODS: Frontal photographs of the smiles of two adult women were used. Images were altered to create a symmetrical image with the gingival margin levels of the maxillary canines matching the central incisors and a 1.0-mm central-to-lateral incisal step. Later, the images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. The images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 114 judges, 57 orthodontists and 57 laypersons, who were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were statistically analyzed by means of 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post-hoc test and the Student t test. RESULTS: The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: a the central incisor gingival margins matched or were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins and; b the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The worst smiles showed two notable characteristics: a the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins and; b no step between the centrals and laterals or a 2.5-mm step. CONCLUSION: The vertical position of the maxillary central incisors significantly affected the perception of the smile esthetics, whereas slightly extruded central incisors were more esthetically preferred than intruded.

  11. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  12. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth of...

  13. Detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran.Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008. Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR.Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province.Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.

  14. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta

  15. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Matthew J., E-mail: mjferri@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Danish, Hasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deng, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); George, Bradley A.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Wasilewski, Karen J.; Cash, W. Thomas [Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K.; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse–free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse–free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Conclusions: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances.

  16. Some effects of favorable and adverse electric fields on pool boiling in dielectric fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the application of an electric field on pool boiling in dielectric fluids were studied in this work.Two different geometries were used: one which is favorable to the bubble detachment (favorable electric field) and other which attract the bubbles toward the heater (adverse electric field).In the favorable electric field experiments, the void fraction and impact rate were calculated from the measured indicator function.Those parameters were obtained varying the probe-heater distance and the power to the heater.The results show a reduction of the void fraction with increasing applied voltage, probably caused by the combination of the dielectrophoretic force and a smaller bubble size due to the electric field application. Also, the impact rate decreases when a voltage is applied and the heat fluxes are close to the critical heat flux (CHF).On the other hand, the impact rate increases with voltage for moderate heat fluxes.Another interesting result is the approximately exponential decay of the void fraction and impact rate with the distance to the heater. Both the void fraction and the impact rate grow with heat flux if the heat fluxes are moderate, with or without applied voltage.For highest heat fluxes the void fraction still grows with heat flux if there are no applied electric fields while decreases with heat flux when there is an applied voltage. Similar behavior is observed in the impact rate.The boiling regimes was measured with adverse electric fields using two techniques.The heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime was measured on an electrically powered heater.The results in these experiments show a reduction in the CHF of 10 % for saturation conditions and 10 kV of applied voltage, and a reduction of up to 40 % for 20 oC of liquid subcooling.The boiling curve corresponding to the transition and film boiling was performed with quenching experiments.An increase in the heat flux was achieved when an electric field was applied in spite of the

  17. A map of recent positive selection in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F Voight

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of signals of very recent positive selection provides information about the adaptation of modern humans to local conditions. We report here on a genome-wide scan for signals of very recent positive selection in favor of variants that have not yet reached fixation. We describe a new analytical method for scanning single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data for signals of recent selection, and apply this to data from the International HapMap Project. In all three continental groups we find widespread signals of recent positive selection. Most signals are region-specific, though a significant excess are shared across groups. Contrary to some earlier low resolution studies that suggested a paucity of recent selection in sub-Saharan Africans, we find that by some measures our strongest signals of selection are from the Yoruba population. Finally, since these signals indicate the existence of genetic variants that have substantially different fitnesses, they must indicate loci that are the source of significant phenotypic variation. Though the relevant phenotypes are generally not known, such loci should be of particular interest in mapping studies of complex traits. For this purpose we have developed a set of SNPs that can be used to tag the strongest approximately 250 signals of recent selection in each population.

  18. Preliminary study of favorability for uranium resources in Juab County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.

    1978-02-01

    The best potential for large, low-grade uranium deposits in Juab County is in the hydrothermally altered vitric tuffs of Pliocene age. The lateral extent of the altered tuffs may be determined by subsurface studies around the perimeter of the volcanic centers in the Thomas Range and the Honeycomb Hills. Because the ring-fracture zone associated with collapse of the Thomas caldera was a major control for hydrothermal uranium deposits, delineation of the northern and eastern positions of the ring-fracture zone is critical in defining favorable areas for uranium deposits. A small, medium-grade ore deposit in tuffaceous sand of Pliocene age at the Yellow Chief mine in Dugway Dell is unique in origin, and the probability of discovering another deposit of this type is low. A deposit of this type may be present under alluvial cover in the northwestern Drum Mountains along the southern extension of the ring-fracture zone of the Thomas caldera. Festoonlike iron oxide structures and uranium deposition within permeable sandstone horizons indicate that the Yellow Chief deposit was formed by recent ground-water circulation. Granitic intrusive rocks in the Deep Creek Range and in Desert Mountain contain isolated epigenetic vein-type deposits. These rocks could be a source of arkosic sediments buried in adjacent valleys. The Pleistocene lacustrine sediments and playa lake brines may contain concentrations of uranium leached from uranium-rich rocks

  19. Comparison of job stress and obesity in nurses with favorable and unfavorable work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Johnson, Karen L; Park, Sungae

    2012-08-01

    To compare obesity-related factors between female nurses with favorable work schedules (WSs) and unfavorable WSs. In a cross-sectional study, 1724 female nurses were stratified by WS (favorable vs unfavorable). For each schedule type, the odds of obesity were related to health behaviors, home demands, and job stress using logistic regression models. Among nurses with unfavorable WSs, healthy behaviors (exercise, sleep) were inversely associated with obesity, whereas for those with favorable WSs, obese nurses reported significantly more unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use; odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38), more physical lifting of children/dependents (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93), having more nurse input into their jobs (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44), yet less boss support at work (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99). Considering impacts of WSs on obesity and potential obesity-related health outcomes, healthful scheduling should be provided to nurses.

  20. Study of different roles phosphorescent material played in different positions of organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keke, Gu; Jian, Zhong; Jiule, Chen; Yucheng, Chen; Ming, Deng

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorescent materials are crucial to improve the luminescence and efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLED), because its internal quantum efficiency can reach 100%. So the studying of optical and electrical properties of phosphorescent materials is propitious for the further development of phosphorescent OLED. Phosphorescent materials were generally doped into different host materials as emitting components, not only played an important role in emitting light but also had a profound influence on carrier transport properties. We studied the optical and electrical properties of the blue 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi)-based devices, adding a common yellow phosphorescent material bis[2-(4- tert-butylphenyl)benzothiazolato- N,C2'] iridium(acetylacetonate) [( t-bt)2Ir(acac)] in different positions. The results showed ( t-bt)2Ir(acac) has remarkable hole-trapping ability. Especially the ultrathin structure device, compared to the device without ( t-bt)2Ir(acac), had increased the luminance by about 60%, and the efficiency by about 97%. Then introduced thin 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host layer between DPVBi and ( t-bt)2Ir(acac), and got devices with stable white color.

  1. Cultural bases for self-evaluation: seeing oneself positively in different cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Bond, Michael Harris; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Aldhafri, Said; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Paz Cadena, Maria; Lay, Siugmin; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Özgen, Emre; Güner, Ülkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Silveira Lemos, Flávia Cristina; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Cristina Ferreira, M; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Harb, Charles; Chybicka, Aneta; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Martin, Mariana; Nizharadze, George; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Valk, Aune; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-05-01

    Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values.

  2. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxenbichler Günter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. Methods We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. Results SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015 and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026. In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002. Conclusion This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF

  3. Sex differences in brain activation patterns during processing of positively and negatively valenced emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Alex; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Rettenbacher, Maria A; Verius, Michael; Felber, Stephan; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women process emotional stimuli differently. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate gender differences in regional cerebral activity during the perception of positive or negative emotions. The experiment comprised two emotional conditions (positively/negatively valenced words) during which fMRI data were acquired. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers (19 males, 19 females) were investigated. A direct comparison of brain activation between men and women revealed differential activation in the right putamen, the right superior temporal gyrus, and the left supramarginal gyrus during processing of positively valenced words versus non-words for women versus men. By contrast, during processing of negatively valenced words versus non-words, relatively greater activation was seen in the left perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for women versus men, and in the right supramarginal gyrus for men versus women. Our findings suggest gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli and could contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying the gender disparity of neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders.

  4. Primary stability of different plate positions and the role of bone substitute in open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryohei; Woon-Hwa, Jung; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Osawa, Katsunari; Akamatsu, Yasushi; Kuroda, Koichi

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical fixation strengths of anteromedial and medial plate positions in osteotomy, and clarify the effects of bone substitute placement into the osteotomy site. Twenty-eight sawbone tibia models were used. Four different models were prepared: Group A, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was anteromedial; Group B, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was anteromedial; Group C, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was medial; and Group D, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was medial. The loading condition ranged from 0 to 800N and one hertz cycles were applied. Changes of the tibial posterior slope angle (TPS), stress on the plate and lateral hinge were measured. The changes in the TPS and the stress on the plate were significantly larger in Group A than in Group C. These were significantly larger in Group A than in Group B, and in Group C than in Group D. There was no significant difference between Group B and Group D, and no significant difference between knee flexion angles of 0° and 10°. Stress on the lateral hinge was significantly smaller when bone substitute was used. A medial plate position was biomechanically superior to an anteromedial position if bone substitute was not used. Bone substitute distributed the stress concentration around the osteotomy gap and prevented an increase in TPS angle regardless of the plate position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.M.; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo; Kvinnsland, S.; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  6. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: An evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Joel C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade‐offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade‐offs of age‐specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  7. Six-Position, Frontal View Photography in Blepharoplasty: A Simple Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Guo, Xiaoshuang; Han, Xuefeng; Tian, Yi; Jin, Xiaolei

    2018-02-26

    Photography plays a pivotal role in patient education, photo-documentation, preoperative planning and postsurgical evaluation in plastic surgeries. It has long been serving as a bridge that facilitated communication not only between patients and doctors, but also among plastic surgeons from different countries. Although several basic principles and photographic methods have been proposed, there is no internationally accepted photography that could provide both static and dynamic information in blepharoplasty. In this article, we introduced a novel six-position, frontal view photography for thorough assessment in blepharoplasty. From October 2013 to January 2017, 1068 patients who underwent blepharoplasty were enrolled in our clinical research. All patients received six-position, frontal view photography. Pictures were taken of the patients looking up, looking down, squeezing, smiling, looking ahead and with closed eyes. Conventionally, frontal view photography only contained the last two positions. Then, both novel six-position photographs and conventional two-position photographs were used to appraise postsurgical outcomes. Compared to conventional two-position, frontal view photography, six-position, frontal view photography can provide more detailed, thorough information about the eyes. It is of clinical significance in indicating underlying adhesion of skin/muscle/fat according to individual's features and assessing preoperative and postoperative dynamic changes and aesthetic outcomes. Six-position, frontal view photography is technically uncomplicated while exhibiting static, dynamic and detailed information of the eyes. This innovative method is favorable in eye assessment, especially for revision blepharoplasty. We suggest using six-position, frontal view photography to obtain comprehensive photographs. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer

  8. Comparative proteomics of leaves found at different stem positions of maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Bo; Wang, Dan; Ge, Xuan-Liang; Zhao, Biligen-Gaowa; Wang, Xu-Chu; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-07-01

    To better understand the roles of leaves at different stem positions during plant development, we measured the physiological properties of leaves 1-4 on maize seedling stems, and performed a proteomics study to investigate the differences in protein expression in the four leaves using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry in conjunction with database searching. A total of 167 significantly differentially expressed protein spots were found and identified. Of these, 35% are involved in photosynthesis. By further analysis of the data, we speculated that in leaf 1 the seedling has started to transition from a heterotroph to an autotroph, development of leaf 2 is the time at which the seedling fully transitions from a heterotroph to an autotroph, and leaf maturity was reached only with fully expanded leaves 3 and 4, although there were still some protein expression differences in the two leaves. These results suggest that the different leaves make different contributions to maize seedling growth via modulation of the expression of the photosynthetic proteins. Together, these results provide insight into the roles of the different maize leaves as the plant develops from a heterotroph to an autotroph. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. An in vitro-identified high-affinity nucleosome-positioning signal is capable of transiently positioning a nucleosome in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracey Lia E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological function of eukaryotic DNA occurs in the context of nucleosomal arrays that can expose or obscure defined segments of the genome. Certain DNA sequences are capable of strongly positioning a nucleosome in vitro, suggesting the possibility that favorable intrinsic signals might reproducibly structure chromatin segments. As high-throughput sequencing analyses of nucleosome coverage in vitro and in vivo have become possible, a vigorous debate has arisen over the degree to which intrinsic DNA:nucleosome affinities orchestrate the in vivo positions of nucleosomes, thereby controlling physical accessibility of specific sequences in DNA. Results We describe here the in vivo consequences of placing a synthetic high-affinity nucleosome-positioning signal, the 601 sequence, into a DNA plasmid vector in mice. Strikingly, the 601 sequence was sufficient to position nucleosomes during an early phase after introduction of the DNA into the mice (when the plasmid vector transgene was active. This positioning capability was transient, with a loss of strong positioning at a later time point when the transgenes had become silent. Conclusions These results demonstrate an ability of DNA sequences selected solely for nucleosome affinity to organize chromatin in vivo, and the ability of other mechanisms to overcome these interactions in a dynamic nuclear environment.

  10. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POSITIVE PREOPERATIVE AXILLARY ULTRASOUND SCANNING IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lona Jalini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Axillary lymph node status is the most important breast cancer prognostic factor. Preoperative axillary ultrasound examination (PAUS is used to triage patients for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND. We assessed the detection rate of lymph node metastases by PAUS in a screening unit and evaluated associations between clinicopathological factors and PAUS positivity. Patients and Methods: This was a single-centre retrospective analysis of data extracted from a hospital breast cancer database and clinical records. Clinical, radiological, and pathological and prognostic indices were compared between PAUS-positive and PAUS-negative patients subsequently found to have lymph node metastases on histopathological analysis. Results: Two hundred and two patients were eligible for analysis. 50.5% of lymph node-positive patients were correctly identified as PAUS positive. Patients with PAUS-positive lymph nodes had less favorable disease characteristics, namely clinically palpable lymph nodes, higher Nottingham prognostic (NPI index, high lymph node burden according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO group classification, and larger, grade 3 tumors with lymphovascular invasion and extranodal spread. Moreover, PAUS-positive patients had more macrometastases and lymph node involvement than PAUS-negative patients. Conclusion: PAUS-positive patients and PAUS-negative (SLNB-positive patients have different clinicopathological characteristics. The presence of LVI, extranodal spread, grade 3 histology, or large tumors with poor prognostic indices in PAUS-negative patients should be regarded with caution and perhaps prompt second-look ultrasound examination.

  11. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  12. On- and off-grid operation of hybrid renewable power plants: When are the economics favorable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Santana, D.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid renewable energy conversion systems offer a good alternative to conventional systems in locations where the extension of the electrical grid is difficult or not economical or where the cost of electricity is high. However, stand-alone operation implies net energy output restrictions (limited to exclusively serve the energy demand of a region), capacity oversizing and large storage facilities. In interconnected areas, on the other hand, the operational restrictions of the power stations change significantly and the efficiencies and costs of renewable technologies become more favorable. In this paper, the operation of three main renewable technologies (CSP, PV and wind) is studied assuming both hybrid and individual operation for both autonomous and inter-connected operation. The case study used is a Mediterranean island of ca. 3,000 inhabitants. Each system is optimized to fully cover the energy demand of the community. In addition, in the on-grid operation cases, it is required that the annual energy generated from the renewable sources is net positive (i.e., the island generates at least as much energy as it uses). It is found that when connected to the grid, hybridization of more than one technology is not required to satisfy the energy demand, as expected. Each of the renewable technologies investigated can satisfy the annual energy demand individually, without significant complications. In addition, the cost of electricity generated with the three studied technologies drops significantly for on-grid applications, when compared to off-grid operation. However, when compared to business-as-usual scenarios in both the on- and off-grid cases, both investigated hybrid and single-technology renewable scenarios are found to be economically viable. A sensitivity analysis reveals the limits of the acceptable costs that make the technologies favorable when compared to conventional alternatives.

  13. The effect of different position of grape clusters on the bearing shoot on production results of Cabernet Sauvignon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čoloveić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the differences were examined between clones of Cabernet sauvignon (clones ISV-F-V5, ISV-F-V6 and R5, i.e. the difference between uvological properties of grape clusters and grape berries, based on the different positions on the bearing shoot. Tests were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture 'Radmilovac'. Standard ampelographic methods were used in numerous analyses of grape yield, as well as uvological properties of clones. All data were statistically analyzed and processed by the method of two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measuring of one factor (height and Tukey HSD test. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences between clones. The best results were achieved with grape clusters positioned in the base of bearing shoot. The first positioned grape clusters on the bearing shoot had the highest share in the total grape yield, the highest amount of sugar, and the highest positioned grape clusters had higher content of total acids. The differences determined between examined clones were in regard to productivity and quality of grapes which reflected also on production value.

  14. Autoras africanas: A favor de las mujeres=African authors: In favor of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro Suárez Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La cultura occidental produce binomios de poder fuertemente inscritos en el lenguaje y el imaginario colectivo. Las subversiones aparecen primero en la zona dominante, como el feminismo, que se extiende, posteriormente, a otros feminismos, igualmente lógicos y reivindicativos, pero con menos capacidad de visibilización en un mundo globalizado. Las mujeres de grupos minorizados que han conseguido acceder a la educación han levantado sus voces y utilizado su potencial creativo a favor de las silenciadas de su cultura, a las que no alcanzaban el feminismo blanco occidental. Amma Darko, Bessie Head y Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie son algunos de los nombres que encabezan un movimiento africano feminista, que prioriza la libertad individual de las mujeres y les hace sentirse orgullosas de ser africanas.   Abstract Western culture produces binaries of power that are deeply inscribed both in language and in the collective imaginarium. Subversions tend to appear in the more affluent class, as is the case with feminism, which later extend to other feminisms, equally important and vindicatory, but with fewer opportunities to become visible within a globalized world. Many women from minoritized groups have had access to education, have been able to use their creative force and have become the voice of many silent women who were not included in the successive waves of Western feminisms. Amma Darko, Bessie Head and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie are but a few names at the forefront of African feminism, a movement that fights for the individual rights of women and makes them feel proud of their Africanism.

  15. The effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Ulrika; Engström, Maria; Bergstrand, Sara; Ek, Anna-Christina; Fredrikson, Mats; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Lindgren, Margareta

    2015-03-01

    Although repositioning is considered an important intervention to prevent pressure ulcers, tissue response during loading in different lying positions has not been adequately explored. To compare the effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents. From May 2011 to August 2012, interface pressure, skin temperature, and blood flow at three tissue depths were measured for 1 hr over the sacrum in 30° supine tilt and 0° supine positions and over the trochanter major in 30° lateral and 90° lateral positions in 25 residents aged 65 years or older. Measurement of interface pressure was accomplished using a pneumatic pressure transmitter connected to a digital manometer, skin temperature using a temperature sensor, and blood flow using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flowmetry. Interface pressure was significantly higher in the 0° supine and 90° lateral positions than in 30° supine tilt and 30° lateral positions. The mean skin temperature increased from baseline in all positions. Blood flow was significantly higher in the 30° supine tilt position compared to the other positions. A hyperemic response in the post pressure period was seen at almost all tissue depths and positions. The 30° supine tilt position generated less interface pressure and allowed greater tissue perfusion, suggesting that this position is the most beneficial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.404 - Claims in favor of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.404 Claims in favor of... Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle is at fault and that party can be reasonably identified... pertaining to the accident and its investigation to the servicing GSA IFMS fleet management center. The GSA...

  17. Reading a Story: Different Degrees of Learning in Different Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Giannini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The learning environment in which material is acquired may produce differences in delayed recall and in the elements that individuals focus on. These differences may appear even during development. In the present study, we compared three different learning environments in 450 normally developing 7-year-old children subdivided into three groups according to the type of learning environment. Specifically, children were asked to learn the same material shown in three different learning environments: reading illustrated books (TB; interacting with the same text displayed on a PC monitor and enriched with interactive activities (PC-IA; reading the same text on a PC monitor but not enriched with interactive narratives (PC-NoIA. Our results demonstrated that TB and PC-NoIA elicited better verbal memory recall. In contrast, PC-IA and PC-NoIA produced higher scores for visuo-spatial memory, enhancing memory for spatial relations, positions and colors with respect to TB. Interestingly, only TB seemed to produce a deeper comprehension of the story’s moral. Our results indicated that PC-IA offered a different type of learning that favored visual details. In this sense, interactive activities demonstrate certain limitations, probably due to information overabundance, emotional mobilization, emphasis on images and effort exerted in interactive activities. Thus, interactive activities, although entertaining, act as disruptive elements which interfere with verbal memory and deep moral comprehension.

  18. Reading a Story: Different Degrees of Learning in Different Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Anna Maria; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The learning environment in which material is acquired may produce differences in delayed recall and in the elements that individuals focus on. These differences may appear even during development. In the present study, we compared three different learning environments in 450 normally developing 7-year-old children subdivided into three groups according to the type of learning environment. Specifically, children were asked to learn the same material shown in three different learning environments: reading illustrated books (TB); interacting with the same text displayed on a PC monitor and enriched with interactive activities (PC-IA); reading the same text on a PC monitor but not enriched with interactive narratives (PC-NoIA). Our results demonstrated that TB and PC-NoIA elicited better verbal memory recall. In contrast, PC-IA and PC-NoIA produced higher scores for visuo-spatial memory, enhancing memory for spatial relations, positions and colors with respect to TB. Interestingly, only TB seemed to produce a deeper comprehension of the story's moral. Our results indicated that PC-IA offered a different type of learning that favored visual details. In this sense, interactive activities demonstrate certain limitations, probably due to information overabundance, emotional mobilization, emphasis on images and effort exerted in interactive activities. Thus, interactive activities, although entertaining, act as disruptive elements which interfere with verbal memory and deep moral comprehension.

  19. Right versus left parasternal electrode position in the entirely subcutaneous ICD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Markus; Dechering, Dirk; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Larbig, Robert; Löher, Andreas; Reinke, Florian; Köbe, Julia; Eckardt, Lars

    2018-05-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD ® ) has been established as an alternative to conventional transvenous ICD for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Initial studies have shown safety and efficacy of the system with a left parasternal (LP) electrode. However, several case studies reported a right parasternal (RP) position. The purpose of this study was to analyze shock efficacy and safety of an RP electrode position. Between June 2010 and May 2016, 120 S-ICD ® were implanted at our institution. On the basis of the heart location on preoperative chest radiography (CXR), the investigators decided on an RP (n = 52) or LP electrode position (n = 68). All perioperative induced VF episodes, and spontaneous appropriate and inappropriate episodes during follow-up were analyzed. Patients with an RP electrode did not differ in terms of age, sex, or ejection fraction. A statistically significant difference in underlying cardiac disease was observed between the RP and LP electrode group, with more patients with channelopathies in the RP electrode group and more patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in the LP electrode group. During a mean follow-up of 24.3 ± 19.5 months, 27 appropriate (19 in the LP group and 8 in the RP group) and 28 inappropriate (18 LP and 10 RP) ICD shocks occurred (p value = NS). In the present study, an RP electrode position was chosen on the basis of chest radiographic characteristics and was efficient in terms of sensing and shock efficacy. Thus, a right-sided electrode implant might be an alternative if a left-sided electrode implant is inadequate. It might also be favorable for young patients with narrow heart silhouettes in the midsagittal position.

  20. Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and social anxiety: Along a psychotic continuum or different constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-01-30

    Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Spinal Curvature of Three Different Sitting Positions Analysed in an Open MRI Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baumgartner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitting is the most frequently performed posture of everyday life. Biomechanical interactions with office chairs have therefore a long-term effect on our musculoskeletal system and ultimately on our health and wellbeing. This paper highlights the kinematic effect of office chairs on the spinal column and its single segments. Novel chair concepts with multiple degrees of freedom provide enhanced spinal mobility. The angular changes of the spinal column in the sagittal plane in three different sitting positions (forward inclined, reclined, and upright for six healthy subjects (aged 23 to 45 years were determined using an open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner. An MRI-compatible and commercially available office chair was adapted for use in the scanner. The midpoint coordinates of the vertebral bodies, the wedge angles of the intervertebral discs, and the lumbar lordotic angle were analysed. The mean lordotic angles were 16.0±8.5∘ (mean ± standard deviation in a forward inclined position, 24.7±8.3∘ in an upright position, and 28.7±8.1∘ in a reclined position. All segments from T10-T11 to L5-S1 were involved in movement during positional changes, whereas the range of motion in the lower lumbar segments was increased in comparison to the upper segments.

  2. More evidence in favor of light dark matter particles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Ascasibar, Yago

    2004-01-01

    In a previous work, it was found that the light dark matter scenario could be a possible explanation to the 511 keV emission line detected at the center of our galaxy. Here, we show that hints of this scenario may also have been discovered in particle physics experiments. This could explain the discrepancy between the measurement of the fine structure constant and the value referenced in the CODATA. Finally, our results indicate that some of the light dark matter features could be tested in accelerators. Their discovery might favor N=2 supersymmetry

  3. Is there a relationship between patient satisfaction and favorable outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gregory D; Tevis, Sarah E; Kent, K Craig

    2014-10-01

    Patient satisfaction with the health care experience has become a top priority for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. With resources and efforts directed at patient satisfaction, we evaluated whether high patient satisfaction measured by HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) surveys correlates with favorable outcomes. Medical centers were identified from the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2011 to 2012. Variables included hospital characteristics, process measure compliance, and surgical outcomes. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate for variables associated with high patient satisfaction (defined as hospitals that scored above the 50th percentile of top box scores). We identified 171 hospitals with complete data. The following variables were significantly associated with high overall patient satisfaction: large hospitals, high surgical volume, and low mortality (P patient satisfaction. Low mortality index was consistently found to be associated with high satisfaction across 9 of 10 HCAHPS domains. We found that hospital size, surgical volume, and low mortality were associated with high overall patient satisfaction. However, with the exception of low mortality, favorable surgical outcomes were not consistently associated with high HCAHPS scores. With existing satisfaction surveys, we conclude that factors outside of surgical outcomes appear to influence patients' perceptions of their care.

  4. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Aylana de Souza; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Mainbourg, Evelyne Marie Therese

    2016-01-01

    To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive) in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive) of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams. Identificar fatores socioeconômicos e clínico-epidemiológicos associados à tuberculose em casos novos e em casos em retratamento. Estudo comparativo de 126 pacientes, sendo 42 casos em retratamento por abandono atendidos num Centro de Referência e 84 casos novos concluindo o primeiro tratamento, atendidos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde. Levantamento de dados primários por entrevista e dados secundários pela Ficha de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Análise comparativa entre os dois grupos. Os casos novos diferem dos em retratamento quanto à escolaridade. O perfil clínico-epidemiológico mostra que há diferença significativa quanto à realização do teste tuberculínico e o resultado do teste HIV (positivo) a favor dos casos novos. Quanto à realização da cultura de escarro e o resultado (positivo) da baciloscopia de escarro da primeira e da segunda amostras, a favor dos casos em retratamento. Os dois grupos

  5. Experiment of Laser Pointing Stability on Different Surfaces to validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)721924; Mainaud Durand, Helene; Piedigrossi, Didier; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Geiger, Alain; Guillaume, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    CLIC requires 10 μm precision and accuracy over 200m for the pre-alignment of beam related components. A solution based on laser beam as straight line reference is being studied at CERN. It involves camera/shutter assemblies as micrometric positioning sensors. To validate the sensors, it is necessary to determine an appropriate material for the shutter in terms of laser pointing stability. Experiments are carried out with paper, metal and ceramic surfaces. This paper presents the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates obtained on the different surfaces, as well as the measurement error. Our experiments validate the choice of paper and ceramic for the shutter of the micrometric positioning sensor. It also provides an estimate of the achievable precision and accuracy of the determination of the laser spot centre with respect to the shutter coordinate system defined by reference targets.

  6. Right ventricular pacemaker lead position is associated with differences in long-term outcomes and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Chance M; Lenz, Charles J; Shih, Henry H; Ebrille, Elisa; Rosenbaum, Andrew N; van Zyl, Martin; Aung, Htin; Manocha, Kevin K; Deshmukh, Abhishek J; Hodge, David O; Mulpuru, Siva K; Cha, Yong-Mei; Espinosa, Raul E; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Mcleod, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac pacing from the right ventricular apex is associated with detrimental long-term effects and nonapical pacing locations may be associated with improved outcomes. There is little data regarding complications with nonapical lead positions. The aim of this study was to assess long-term outcomes and lead-related complications associated with differing ventricular lead tip position. All adult patients who underwent dual-chamber pacemaker implantation from 2004 to 2014 were included if they had postprocedure chest radiographs amenable to lead position determination. Long-term outcomes and lead-related complication rates were recorded. These were compared at 5 years between: (1) apical and septal leads, (2) apical and nonseptal nonapical (NSNA), and (3) apical and septal with >40% ventricular pacing. We retrospectively evaluated 3,450 patients, which included 238 with a septal position and 733 with NSNA lead positions. Septal lead position was associated with a lower mortality compared to apical leads (24% vs. 31%, P = 0.02). In patients with greater than 40% pacing, septal leads were associated with significantly higher rates of incident atrial fibrillation compared to apical leads (49% vs. 34%, P = 0.04). NSNA positions were associated with a significantly higher rate of lead dislodgement (4% vs. 2%, P = 0.005) and need for revision (8% vs. 5%, P = 0.005). Septal pacemaker lead position is associated with a lower mortality compared to apically placed leads, but a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation with higher percentage ventricular pacing. NSNA lead locations are associated with more complications and should be avoided. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Do professional norms in the banking industry favor risk-taking?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Alain; Fehr, Ernst; Maréchal, Michel André

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the banking industry has witnessed several cases of excessive risk-taking that frequently have been attributed to problematic professional norms. We conduct experiments with employees from several banks in which we manipulate the saliency of their professional identity and subsequently measure their risk aversion in a real stakes investment task. If bank employees are exposed to professional norms that favor risk-taking, they should become more willing to take risks when thei...

  8. Favorable Risk Selection in Medicare Advantage: Trends in Mortality and Plan Exits Among Nursing Home Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Jung, Hye-Young; Rahman, Momotazur

    2016-01-01

    The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) increased payments to Medicare Advantage plans and instituted a new risk-adjustment payment model to reduce plans' incentives to enroll healthier Medicare beneficiaries and avoid those with higher costs. Whether the MMA reduced risk selection remains debatable. This study uses mortality differences, nursing home utilization, and switch rates to assess whether the MMA successfully decreased risk selection from 2000 to 2012. We found no decrease in the mortality difference or adjusted difference in nursing home use between plan beneficiaries pre- and post the MMA. Among beneficiaries with nursing home use, disenrollment from Medicare Advantage plans declined from 20% to 12%, but it remained 6 times higher than the switch rate from traditional Medicare to Medicare Advantage. These findings suggest that the MMA was not associated with reductions in favorable risk selection, as measured by mortality, nursing home use, and switch rates. PMID:27516452

  9. Hemodynamic differences between continual positive and two types of negative pressure ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhat, D; Langleben, D; Zidulka, A

    1992-09-01

    In seven anesthetized dogs, ventilated with matching lung volumes, tidal volumes, and respiratory rates, we compared the effects on cardiac output (CO), arterial venous oxygen saturation difference (SaO2 - SVO2), and femoral and inferior vena cava pressure (1) intermittent positive pressure ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (CPPV); (2) iron-lung ventilation with negative end-expiratory pressure (ILV-NEEP); (3) grid and wrap ventilation with NEEP applied to the thorax and upper abdomen (G&W-NEEP). The values of CO and SaO2 - SVO2 with ILV-NEEP were similar to those with CPPV. However, with G&W-NEEP as compared with ILV-NEEP, mean CO was greater (2.9 versus 2.6 L/min, p = 0.02) and mean (SaO2 - SVO2) was lower (26.6% versus 28.3%, p = NS). Mean PFEM-IVC was higher with G&W-NEEP than with the other types of ventilation. We conclude that (1) ILV-NEEP is hemodynamically equivalent to CPPV and (2) G&W-NEEP has less adverse hemodynamic consequences. has less adverse hemodynamic consequences.

  10. Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2017-09-01

    Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking Counteracts the Favorable Effect of Exercise Training on Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise training can improve endothelial function in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that the favorable effect of exercise training on endothelial function in patients with diabetes is counteracted by cigarette smoking. Purpose To assess whether there is a difference in the effect of exercise on endothelial function in smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a 3-month controlled trial in 27 never-smoking and 17 smoking individuals with type 2 diabetes who participated in a home-based walking program. The percentage decrease in post-exercise ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI, which is an index of endothelial function, was assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results Compared to the smoking group, the never-smoking group showed a more significant improvement in post exercise ABI during the 3 months of home-based training (interaction, P < 0.01. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking may counteract the favorable effects of exercise training on endothelial function. Endothelial function plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes. Therefore, a Certified Diabetes Educator should strongly advise diabetic patients not to smoke.

  12. A Pilot Study of Cultural/Racial Differences in Patient Perspectives on Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potkin, Steven G; Bera, Rimal; Eramo, Anna; Lau, Gina

    Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics improve treatment outcomes in patients with schizophrenia but are often reserved for only the most severely affected or nonadherent. Studies show cultural/racial differences in prescribing. This pilot study examined prescriber-patient interactions and cultural/racial differences in perceptions of LAIs among patients. A linguist analyzed 120 prescriber-patient conversations representing selected patient cultural/racial subgroups (European American, African American, Latino American; n=40 each) to identify similarities and differences in conceptualization and attitudes toward LAIs. Of 35 LAI-naive patients offered LAIs, 9% (3/35) responded favorably, 46% (16/35) were neutral/passive, and 46% (16/35) had concerns or viewed LAIs as unfavorable. Among LAI-naive patients, favorable or neutral/passive responses were reported for 50% (7/14) of European Americans, 63% (10/16) of African Americans, and 40% (2/5) of Latino Americans. The majority of LAI-naive patients (57% [20/35]) accepted LAI prescriptions, including 53% (17/32) of those who initially were neutral/passive or refused treatment (European American, 42% [5/12]; African American, 53% [8/15]; Latino American, 80% [4/5]). Fifty-seven percent (68/120) of patients expressed treatment goals. Goals of positive/negative symptom control were associated with positive attitudes toward LAIs while patients with goals focused on control of anxiety and insomnia tended to have negative attitudes toward LAIs. Latino-American patients who expressed treatment goals seemed more focused on discomfort control (67% [12/18]); goals of European Americans and African Americans were more equally distributed. Equal numbers of LAI-naive patients had unfavorable/concerned or neutral/passive attitudes toward treatment; relatively few patients responded favorably. The limited sample size precludes cultural/racial-specific conclusions.

  13. Impact of implant–abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. Results A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P abutment configurations. Due to a high heterogeneity, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Conclusions While the positioning of the machined neck and microgap may limit crestal bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant–abutment connection lacks documentation. PMID:23782338

  14. Metrical analysis of disc-condyle relation with different splint treatment positions in patients with TMJ disc displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of bite positions characterizing different splint treatments (anterior repositioning and stabilization splints on the disc-condyle relation in patients with TMJ disc displacement with reduction (DDwR, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Material and Methods: 37 patients, with a mean age of 18.8±4.3 years (7 male and 30 females and diagnosed with DDwR based on the RDC/TMD, were recruited. MRI metrical analysis of the spatial changes of the disc/condyle, as well as their relationships, was done in three positions: maximum intercuspation (Position 1, anterior repositioning splint position (Position 2, and stabilization splint position (Position 3. Disc/condyle coordinate measurements and disc condyle angles were determined and compared. Results: In Position 1, the average disc-condyle angle was 53.4° in the 60 joints with DDwR, while it was −13.3° with Position 2 and 30.1° with Position 3. The frequency of successful "disc recapture" with Position 2 was significantly higher (58/60, 96.7% than Position 3 (20/60, 33.3%. In Positions 2 and 3, the condyle moved forward and downward while the disc moved backward. The movements were, however, more remarkable with Position 2. Conclusions: Anterior repositioning of the mandible improves the spatial relationship between the disc and condyle in patients with DDwR. In addition to anterior and inferior movement of the condyle, transitory posterior movement of the disc also occurred.

  15. Strategies for Proximal Femoral Nailing of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures: Lateral Decubitus Position or Traction Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Mesut Mehmet; Camur, Savas; Erturer, Erden; Ugurlar, Meric; Kara, Adnan; Ozturk, Irfan

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the traction table and lateral decubitus position techniques in the management of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Eighty-two patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures between 2011 and 2013 were included in this study. All patients were treated surgically with the Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation implant (DePuy Synthes). Patients were randomized to undergo the procedure in the lateral decubitus position (42 patients) or with the use of a traction table (40 patients). Patients whose procedure was not performed entirely with a semi-invasive method or who required the use of additional fixation materials, such as cables, were excluded from the study. The groups were compared on the basis of the setup time, surgical time, fluoroscopic exposure time, tip-to-apex distance, collodiaphyseal angle, and modified Baumgaertner criteria for radiologic reduction. The setup time, surgical time, and fluoroscopic exposure time were lower and the differences were statistically significant in the lateral decubitus group compared with the traction table group. The collodiaphyseal angles were significantly different between the groups in favor of the lateral decubitus method. The tip-to-apex distance and the classification of reduction according to the modified Baumgaertner criteria did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the groups. The lateral decubitus position is used for most open procedures of the hip. We found that this position facilitates exposure for the surgical treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures and has advantages over the traction table in terms of set up time, surgical time and fluoroscopic exposure time.

  16. Daily events are important for age differences in mean and duration for negative affect but not positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan T; Mogle, Jacqueline; Urban, Emily J; Almeida, David M

    2016-11-01

    Across midlife and into old age, older adults often report lower levels of negative affect and similar if not higher levels of positive affect than relatively younger adults. Researchers have offered a simple explanation for this result: Age is related to reductions in stressors and increases in pleasurable activities that result in higher levels of well-being. The current study examines subjective reports of emotional experience assessed across 8 days in a large sample of adults (N = 2,022) ranging from 35 to 84 years old. By modeling age differences before and after adjusting for daily positive uplifts and negative stressors, this article assesses the extent to which daily events account for age differences in positive and negative affect reports. Consistent with previous research, the authors found that older age is related to lower mean levels and shorter duration of a negative emotional experience in a model only adjusting for gender, education, and ethnicity. After adjusting for daily events, however, the linear age-related effects were no longer significant. For positive affect, adjusting for daily events did not alter age-related patterns of experiencing higher mean levels and longer positive experience duration, suggesting that other factors underlie age-related increases in positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Health care provider experience with canagliflozin in real-world clinical practice: favorability, treatment patterns, and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolge SC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan C Bolge,1 Natalia M Flores,2 Shu Huang,3 Jennifer Cai1 1Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, 2Kantar Health, Foster City, CA, 3Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Purpose: This study describes how health care providers approach canagliflozin for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the real world.Patients and methods: An Internet-based questionnaire was completed by 101 endocrinologists, 101 primary care physicians, and 100 nurse practitioners/physician assistants (NP/PAs. Health care providers were required to have experience prescribing or managing patients using canagliflozin to be included in the study. Health care providers compared canagliflozin with other T2DM medication classes on clinical characteristics, costs, and patient satisfaction. Confidence in canagliflozin was also measured. Health care providers reported their canagliflozin prescribing experience and good candidate characteristics for treatment. Finally, providers reported on patient outcomes among those receiving canagliflozin. All variables were compared across provider type.Results: Health care providers reported higher favorability for canagliflozin for blood pressure and body weight compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors and higher favorability for effect on blood pressure, body weight, treatment satisfaction, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c compared with sulfonylureas (SUs, with differences observed for effect on blood pressure. Health care providers reported being very/extremely confident (55%–74% with canagliflozin as a second- to fourth-line treatment. The top 3 characteristics reported by the providers, in terms of describing a good candidate for canagliflozin, include those concerned about their weight, insurance coverage/affordability, and avoiding injectable treatments. Finally, providers reported often/always observing patients’ lowering or controlling HbA1c (82%–88% and improvement in overall

  18. Parental Positive Reinforcement with Deviant Children: Does It Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex

    1986-01-01

    Considers effectiveness of parental positive reinforcement with deviant children by reviewing the following: (1) non-intervention studies, (2) intervention studies, and (3) consumer (parental) satisfaction studies. Results indicate that parents view positive reinforcement as effective and useful although positive reinforcement is not sufficient to…

  19. X-cephalometric study of different parts of the upper airway space and changes in hyoid position following mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-J; Zhao, M-C; Pan, X-F; Wei, Y-Q; Wang, D-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study analyses the different parts of the upper airway space and the changes in hyoid position. The results provide a clinical reference for developing timely and effective treatment programmes for patients with mandibular fractures caused by maxillofacial trauma. Standard X-cephalometric measurements of the lateral skull of 210 subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into four fracture groups: condylar, mandibular angle, mandibular body, and parasymphyseal. The radiographs of the mandibular fracture groups were compared with the normal occlusion group to analyse the upper airway space and the changes in hyoid position. Different types of fractures have different effects on the upper airway space. Bilateral mandibular body fracture and the parasymphyseal fracture have a significant influence on the lower oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal airway spaces, with serious obstructions severely restricting the ventilatory function of patients. Fractures at different parts of the mandibular structure are closely related to the upper airway and hyoid position.

  20. Beat-by-beat analysis of cardiac output and blood pressure responses to short-term barostimulation in different body positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schütze, Harald; Stegemann, J.

    Rapid quantification of the human baro-reflex control of heart rate has been achieved on a beat-by-beat basis using a neck-chamber with quick ECG-triggered pressure changes. Referring to recent findings on heart rate and stroke volume, the present study uses this technique to compare cardiac output as well as blood pressure changes in supine and upright position to investigate feedback effects and to confirm postural reflex modifications not revealed by RR-interval changes. A suction profile starting at +40 mmHg and running 7 steps of pressure decrease down to -65 mmHg was examined in 0° and 90° tilting position while beat-by-beat recordings were done of heart rate, stroke volume (impedance-cardiography) and blood pressure (Finapres tm) (n=16). The percentual heart rate decrease failed to be significantly different between positions. A suction-induced stroke volume increase led to a cardiac output almost maintained when supine and significantly increased when upright. A decrease in all blood pressure values was found during suction, except for systolic values in upright position which increased. Conclusively, (a) it is confirmed that different inotropy accounts for the seen gravitational effect on the cardiac output not represented by heart rate; (b) identical suction levels in different positions lead to different stimuli at the carotid receptor. This interference has to be considered in microgravity studies by beat-by-beat measurement of cardiac output and blood pressure.

  1. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 [Docket No. PRM-50-105; NRC-2012-0056] In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... of operating licenses for nuclear power plants (``NPP'') to operate NPPs with in-core thermocouples...

  2. Potential Reporting Bias in Neuroimaging Studies of Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sean P; Naudet, Florian; Laude, Jennifer; Radua, Joaquim; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Chu, Isabella; Stefanick, Marcia L; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-04-17

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported sex differences. To empirically evaluate for evidence of excessive significance bias in this literature, we searched for published fMRI studies of human brain to evaluate sex differences, regardless of the topic investigated, in Medline and Scopus over 10 years. We analyzed the prevalence of conclusions in favor of sex differences and the correlation between study sample sizes and number of significant foci identified. In the absence of bias, larger studies (better powered) should identify a larger number of significant foci. Across 179 papers, median sample size was n = 32 (interquartile range 23-47.5). A median of 5 foci related to sex differences were reported (interquartile range, 2-9.5). Few articles (n = 2) had titles focused on no differences or on similarities (n = 3) between sexes. Overall, 158 papers (88%) reached "positive" conclusions in their abstract and presented some foci related to sex differences. There was no statistically significant relationship between sample size and the number of foci (-0.048% increase for every 10 participants, p = 0.63). The extremely high prevalence of "positive" results and the lack of the expected relationship between sample size and the number of discovered foci reflect probable reporting bias and excess significance bias in this literature.

  3. Subsurface stratigraphy and uranium--vanadium favorability of the Morrison Formation, Sage Plain Area, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdley, W.A.; Flook, J.E.; Harris, R.E.

    1975-08-01

    The four members of the Morrison Formation that are recognizable in the area studied are, in ascending order, the Salt Wash, Recapture, Westwater Canyon, and Brushy Basin. The Salt Wash member has the highest uranium favorability of all the Morrison strata in the area studied. An especially favorable area, in which the Salt Wash interval is thick and contains several thick sandstones, is situated on either side of the Utah-Colorado state line between Monticello, Utah, and Dove Creek, Colorado. The upper Morrison strata (Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin members) have low uranium favorability. The Westwater Canyon member contains adequate sandstones but lacks known uranium deposits in the project area. The Brushy Basin member, although rated as having low potential, nevertheless does possess some attributes that make it worthy of further attention. The Recapture member does not contain sufficient well-developed sandstones or uranium deposits to merit its being classed as favorable for potential uranium-vanadium resources. (LK)

  4. Systemic therapy for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Aju; Romond, Edward H

    The advent of the targeted monoclonal antbody trastuzumab for treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer marked a revolution in the understanding and management of mammary carcinoma and, in practice, separated this subtype from other kinds of primary breast malignancy. Long term follow-up from the initial large adjuvant trials continue to show remarkably positive results. Currently, at least four additional agents targeting this receptor, using different and complementary mechanisms of action compared with trastuzumab, have been incorporated into clinical trials. The small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors lapatinib and neratinib, in addition to the antibody pertuzumab and the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab-ematansine, have shown efficacy in metastatic breast cancer and are being evaluated both in neoadjuvant and adjuvant trials for early stage disease. The cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens used in combination with these agents also are evolving and different therapeutic approaches are emerging for patients depending on their relative level of risk from their cancers, thus moving clinical management toward individualized therapy. Much has been learned about managing the toxicities of treatment and pre-operative approaches have provided a means of assessing the sensitivity of individual patients' cancers to specific treatment regimens. This review traces the development of these studies and focuses on improvements in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for patients with HER2-positive disease whose prognosis has changed in the last decade from dire to favorable. A path forward has been set by which the goal of cure is attainable for almost all patients faced with this aggressive form of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toward a Positive Explanation of Student Differences in Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Palmer, Anna H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Education has much in common with professions that are using positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship to transform practice, yet the science behind peak human and group functioning has been slow to displace deficit-based framing of reform policies and improvement strategies in education. Purpose of the Study: This…

  6. Knot positioning during McDonald cervical cerclage, does it make a difference? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Hytham; Ellaithy, Mohamed; Altraigey, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Heba

    2018-05-15

    To study the effect of McDonald cerclage knot position on the different maternal and neonatal outcomes. This historical cohort study included women with singleton pregnancy who had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage between 1 May 2010 and 31 September 2017. Maternal and neonatal outcome parameters were compared between the anterior and posterior knot cerclage procedures. The primary outcome measure was the rate of term birth. 550 Women had a prophylactic McDonald cervical cerclage, 306 with anterior knot (Group A) and 244 with posterior knot (Group B). There were no statistically significant differences regarding gestational age (GA) at delivery (36.3 ± 4.2 versus 35.8 ± 5.3 for groups A and B respectively), term birth rate, post-cerclage cervical length, symptomatic vaginitis, urinary tract infection, difficult cerclage removal and cervical lacerations. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences as regards the studied neonatal outcomes including take home babies, neonatal intensive care admission, respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal sepsis. Survival analysis on GA at delivery demonstrated no statistically significant difference as regards the proportion of term deliveries in the anterior and posterior knot cerclage groups (log-rank test p-value = .478). Knot positioning during McDonald cervical cerclage, anteriorly or posteriorly, didn't significantly impact the studied maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  7. Non-take-up of Tax-favored Savings Plans : Are Household Portfolios Optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    Since the early nineties, the Dutch tax system allows for a tax-favored form of risk free savings through employer-sponsored savings plans (ESSPs).Under some conditions and up to a certain amount, the contributions to this plan are tax-deductible, and the returns as well as the withdrawals are

  8. Regional differences in AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality in HIV-positive individuals across Europe and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Kowalska, Justyna Dominika; Karpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Differences in access to care and treatment have been reported in Eastern Europe, a region with one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics, compared to the rest of Europe. This analysis aimed to establish whether there are regional differences in the mortality rate of HIV-positive individuals acros...

  9. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte very favorable and favorable, lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Richard B; Schlembach, Pamela J; Jones, Dan; Chronowski, Gregory M; Ha, Chul S; Younes, Anas; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Barista, Ibrahim; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D

    2002-03-15

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease (LPHD) is rare and has a natural history different from that of classic Hodgkin disease. There is little information in the literature regarding the role of chemotherapy in patients with early-stage LPHD. The objective of this study was to examine recurrence free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and patterns of first recurrence in patients with LPHD who were treated with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. From 1963 to 1996, 48 consecutive patients ages 16-49 years (median, 28 years) with Ann Arbor Stage I (n = 30 patients) or Stage II (n = 18 patients), very favorable (VF; n = 5 patients) or favorable (F; n = 43 patients) LPHD, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (EORTC-GELA) criteria, received radiotherapy alone (n = 37 patients) or received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (n = 11 patients). The percentages of patients with VF disease (11% vs. 9% in the radiotherapy group vs. the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group, respectively) or F disease (89% vs. 91%, respectively) within the two treatment groups were similar (P = 1.00). A median of three cycles of chemotherapy with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) or with mitoxantrone, vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone (NOVP) was given initially to six patients and five patients, respectively. A median total radiotherapy dose of 40 grays (Gy) given in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy was delivered to both treatment groups. The median follow-up was 9.3 years, and 98% of patients were observed for > or = 3.0 years. RFS was similar for patients who were treated with radiotherapy alone and patients who were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (10-year survival rates: 77% and 68%, respectively; P = 0.89). The OS rate also was similar for the two groups (10-year survival rates: 90% and 100%, respectively; P = 0

  10. Does the Position or Contact Pressure of the Stethoscope Make Any Difference to Clinical Blood Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP. PMID:25546675

  11. Implant-supported mandibular removable partial dentures; patient-based outcome measures in relation to implant position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Kerdijk, Wouter; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Cune, Marco S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the benefits of implant support to Removable Partial Dentures (RPD) in patients with a bilateral free-ending situation in the mandible and to determine the most favorable implant position: the premolar (PM) or the molar (M) region. Methods: Thirty subjects with a bilateral

  12. Does the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall reflect differences in appraisal or memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall is the result of age differences in appraisal and memory. In Study 1, older and younger participants reported 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant event for 5 days. Participants attempted to recall those events a week later. In Study 2, older and younger participants imagined that positive, negative, and neutral hypothetical events had occurred either to themselves or to an acquaintance and were later asked to recall those events. In Study 1, younger adults reported a complete set of positive and negative events. Older adults reported a pleasant event each day, but 38% did not report an unpleasant event on at least 1 day. A week later, older and younger adults were equally likely to recall the events they had reported. In Study 2, older adults who imagined events happened to themselves rated events as more positive in valence than younger adults did. Older and younger adults were equally likely to remember pleasant and unpleasant events at the end of the study. The data suggest that the age-related positivity effect resides in the appraisal rather than the recall of autobiographical events. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Does campaign finance imply political favors? The case of the 1998 Brazilian elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that campaign contributions are strongly associated with expectations of future firm-specific political favors. Using a novel dataset, we find that during the 1998 elections in Brazil higher campaign contributions to federal deputies were robustly associated

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the Kaiparowits Plateau Region, Garfield and Kane Counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubyk, W.S.; Young, P.

    1978-05-01

    The basal sandstone of the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southcentral Utah, were evaluated in terms of uranium potential. Both surface and subsurface data were utilized. Favorability of the basal Chinle sandstone was based on (1) presence of intermediate-size sandstone-filled channels cut into the Moenkopi; (2) presence of carbonaceous material; (3) an adequate source of uranium; and (4) gamma-ray anomalies from test-hole logs. Favorability of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation was based on (1) sandstone-mudstone ratios that approach equality, and (2) presence of thick sandstone lenses, carbonaceous material, and halos of light-tan to brown limonite staining. Although the basal Chinle sandstone and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison contain sizable uranium deposits throughout much of the Colorado Plateau, both units lack characteristics that are favorable for significant uranium deposits in the Kaiparowits Plateau

  15. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V., E-mail: rodionova@magn.ru [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kudinov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180 Degree-Sign . When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  16. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Kudinov, N.; Zhukov, A.; Perov, N.

    2012-01-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180°. When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  17. Favorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile Is Associated With Lower Healthcare Costs and Resource Utilization: The 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Blaha, Michael J; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Goals emphasize the value of optimizing risk factor status to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to quantify the overall and marginal impact of favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditure and resource utilization in the United States among those with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The study population was derived from the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Direct and indirect costs were calculated for all-cause healthcare resource utilization. Variables of interest included CVD diagnoses (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, dysrhythmias, or heart failure), ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes, and CRF profile (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and obesity). Two-part econometric models were used to study expenditure data. The final study sample consisted of 15 651 MEPS participants (58.5±12 years, 54% female). Overall, 5921 (37.8%) had optimal, 7002 (44.7%) had average, and 2728 (17.4%) had poor CRF profile, translating to 54.2, 64.1, and 24.9 million adults in United States, respectively. Significantly lower health expenditures were noted with favorable CRF profile across CVD status. Among study participants with established CVD, overall healthcare expenditures with optimal and average CRF profile were $5946 and $3731 less compared with those with poor CRF profile. The respective differences were $4031 and $2560 in those without CVD. Favorable CRF profile is associated with significantly lower medical expenditure and healthcare utilization among individuals with and without established CVD. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  19. Analytical and experimental position stability of the abutment in different dental implant systems with a conical implant?abutment connection

    OpenAIRE

    Semper-Hogg, Wiebke; Kraft, Silvan; Stiller, Sebastian; Mehrhof, Juergen; Nelson, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Position stability of the abutment should be investigated in four implant systems with a conical implant?abutment connection. Materials and methods Previously developed formulas and an established experimental setup were used to determine the position stability of the abutment in the four implant systems with a conical implant?abutment connection and different positional index designs: The theoretical rotational freedom was calculated by using the dimensions of one randomly selecte...

  20. Differences in abdominal organ movement between supine and prone positions measured using four-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Park, Sung Ho; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Jeong Eun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the differences in intrafractional organ movement throughout the breathing cycles between the supine and prone positions using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). Materials and methods: We performed 4D CT on nine volunteers in the supine and prone positions, with each examinee asked to breathe normally during scanning. The movement of abdominal organs in the cranio-caudal (CC), anterior-posterior (AP) and right-left (RL) directions was quantified by contouring on each phase between inspiration and expiration. Results: The mean intrafractional motions of the hepatic dome, lower tip, pancreatic head and tail, both kidneys, spleen, and celiac axis in the supine/prone position were 17.3/13.0, 14.4/11.0, 12.8/8.9, 13.0/10.0, 14.3/12.1, 12.3/12.6, 11.7/12.6 and 2.2/1.8 mm, respectively. Intrafractional movements of the liver dome and pancreatic head were reduced significantly in the prone position. The CC directional excursions were major determinants of the 3D displacements of the abdominal organs. Alteration from the supine to the prone position did not change the amount of intrafractional movements of kidneys, spleen, and celiac axis. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the movements of the liver and pancreas during the prone position, especially in the CC direction, suggesting possible advantage of radiotherapy to these organs in this position

  1. Implant-supported mandibular removable partial dentures : Functional, clinical and radiographical parameters in relation to implant position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Speksnijder, Caroline M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Kerdijk, Wouter; Meijer, Henny J A; Cune, Marco S.

    Background: Patients with a Kennedy class I situation often encounter problems with their removable partial denture (RPD). Purpose: To assess the functional benefits of implant support to RPDs, the clinical performance of the implants and teeth and to determine the most favorable implant position:

  2. Changes in seed oil and protein contents of maize cultivars at different positions on the ear in response to water limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out as split-split plot in 2014 to assess the effects of four irrigation treatments (irrigations after 60, 80, 100 and 120 mm evaporation, respectively on oil and protein changes of maize cultivars (SC704, NS640 and DC303: Late, mid and early maturing cultivars, respectively at different seed positions on the ear (upper, middle and lower positions on the ear. Overall, the highest seed yield was obtained from SC704, followed by NS640 and DC303 cultivars. Seed yield of all cultivars was higher at lower seed position on ear than at middle and upper parts of the ear under different irrigation treatments. The highest oil and protein yields were also recorded for seeds at lower position on the ear. Seed yield of all maize cultivars at various seed positions decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Oil percentage decreased, but protein percentage increased with decreasing water availability. Water limitation decreased oil and protein yields of maize cultivars. Changes in protein and oil yields of maize cultivars at different seed positions and irrigation treatments were attributed to changes in seed yield.

  3. Changes in the Position of Mandibular Third Molars Following Extraction and Non-Extraction Orthodontic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poosti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction of third molars can be associated with a number of sequelae, each requiring a different type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the position of lower third molars following extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatments. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs of 26 class I malocclusion patients (4 male and 22 female who were treated on a non-extraction basis were compared with those of 30 class I malocclusion patients (5 male and 25 female who received orthodontic treatment following the extraction of all first premolars. In each group, the lower third molar angulations and their distance from the lower border of the mandible were assessed. Results: Paired t-tests and independent t-tests detected significant changes in the position of the lower third molars in the extraction group. Both the left and right molars became more upright and their distance from the lower border of the mandible increased. Similar changes were only seen in the position of the right mandibular third molars in the non-extraction group. Conclusion: Tooth extractions can bring about favorable changes in the position of mandibular third molars and possibly reduce their incidence of impaction.

  4. Changes in the Position of Mandibular Third Molars Following Extraction and Non-Extraction Orthodontic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poosti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction of third molars can be associated with a number of sequelae, each requiring a different type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the position of lower third molars following extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatments. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs of 26 class I malocclusion patients (4 male and 22 female who were treated on a non-extraction basis were compared with those of 30 class I malocclusion patients (5 male and 25 female who received orthodontic treatment following the extraction of all first premolars. In each group, the lower third molar angulations and their distance from the lower border of the mandible were assessed. Results: Paired t-tests and independent t-tests detected significant changes in the position of the lower third molars in the extraction group. Both the left and right molars became more upright and their distance from the lower border of the mandible increased. Similar changes were only seen in the position of the right mandibular third molars in the non-extraction group. Conclusion: Tooth extractions can bring about favorable changes in the position of mandibular third molars and possibly reduce their incidence of impaction

  5. Favorable Attitudes Towards Serosorting are Associated With Overall Less Frequent Condom Use Among Young Black Men Having Sex Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2018-01-01

    This study determined whether YBMSM endorsing serosorting are less likely to use condoms. A questionnaire assessed men’s attitudes towards serosorting with a three-item scale; various sexual risk behaviors were measured using a 90-day recall period. Favorable attitudes toward serosorting were associated with a greater likelihood of condomless sex as a top (P<.001) and as a bottom (P<.001), as well as a lower likelihood of using condoms with main partners (P=.003). Findings suggest that YBMSM having favorable attitudes toward serosorting may be more likely to report condomless sex than their counterparts without favorable attitudes. PMID:26433647

  6. Introduction Strategy for New Products with Positive and Negative Word-of-Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Mahajan; Eitan Muller; Roger A. Kerin

    1984-01-01

    Existing innovation diffusion models assume that individual experience with the product is always communicated positively through word-of-mouth. For certain innovations, however, this assumption is tenuous since communicators of the product experience may transfer favorable, unfavorable, or indifferent messages through word-of-mouth. This paper examines a diffusion model for products in which negative information plays a dominant role, discusses its implications for optimal advertising timing...

  7. Cohorts based on decade of death: no evidence for secular trends favoring later cohorts in cognitive aging and terminal decline in the AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Studies of birth-year cohorts examined over the same age range often report secular trends favoring later-born cohorts, who are cognitively fitter and show less steep cognitive declines than earlier-born cohorts. However, there is initial evidence that those advantages of later-born cohorts do not carry into the last years of life, suggesting that pervasive mortality-related processes minimize differences that were apparent earlier in life. Elaborating this work from an alternative perspective on cohort differences, we compared rates of cognitive aging and terminal decline in episodic memory between cohorts based on the year participants had died, earlier (between 1993 and 1999) or later in historical time (between 2000 and 2010). Specifically, we compared trajectories of cognitive decline in 2 death-year cohorts of participants in the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study that were matched on age at death and education and controlled for a variety of additional covariates. Results revealed little evidence of secular trends favoring later cohorts. To the contrary, the cohort that died in the 2000s showed a less favorable trajectory of age-related memory decline than the cohort that died in the 1990s. In examinations of change in relation to time to death, the cohort dying in the 2000s experienced even steeper terminal declines than the cohort dying in the 1990s. We suggest that secular increases in "manufacturing" survival may exacerbate age- and mortality-related cognitive declines among the oldest old.

  8. Association of different types of milk feeding with blood culture positive neonatal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.; Waheed, K.A.I.; Rehman, A.

    2014-01-01

    To ascertain and compare microbial growth pattern in blood culture of septic neonates who were either totally breast or formula fed. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from Feb 2012 to Dec 2012. Methodology: All clinically septic neonates, who were either exclusively breast fed or formula fed, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups and studied for the type of organisms grown on blood culture. Group-A were breast fed and group-B were formula fed. Neonates who were blood culture negative or had growth of multiple organisms or had incomplete data or who died / left against medical advice before completing the required data or babies receiving milk feeding from multiple sources or no feeding at all were excluded. BACTEC technique was used for obtaining bacterial growth. SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 380 clinically septic neonates were enrolled. Each group consisted of 190 subjects. Incidence of culture positive sepsis in breast fed and in formula fed was 6.7% and 15.7% respectively (p-value = 0.0001). Overall, gram-negative organisms constituted the majority (16.1%). Thirty seven percent cultures grew coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) followed by Klebsiella spp (23.4%). In group A, gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were equally distributed whilst in group-B, gram-negative organisms were three times more frequent than gram-positive organisms. Predominant pattern of organisms was also different in the two groups. In group-A, CoNS was predominant while in group-B, Klebsiella spp. was most frequent. Conclusion: Culture positive sepsis is more than two times greater in formula fed babies and is caused predominantly by gram-negative organisms whilst in breast fed babies, CoNS is the commonest organism. (author)

  9. Appeals court reverses verdict favoring drug companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    An appeals court reversed a verdict favoring drug companies after the widow of a hemophiliac, whose death was linked to HIV-tainted blood products, sued four pharmaceutical companies to pay damages. The four companies, Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Miles Laboratories Inc., Armour Pharmaceutical Co., and Baxter Travenol Laboratories Inc., provided Factor VIII, a clotting concentrate, to [name removed] [name removed], the plaintiff's husband, from 1972 until his death in 1987. [Name removed]'s wife sued the companies, alleging that the defendants negligently solicited blood plasma from paid donors who had a high risk of having HIV, failed to determine whether any lots of Factor VIII contained plasma from an at-risk donor, failed to warn consumers of possible risks, and failed to heat-treat HIV and other viruses in Factor VIII, despite industry-wide knowledge of the risk of infection. The three-judge panel said the trial judge's decision to avoid ruling on the antigenic stimulation theory, based on insufficient evidence, was improper. In addition, the appeals court said a retrial is necessary because of improper remarks made by Alpha's attorney.

  10. Integrating different tracking systems in football: multiple camera semi-automatic system, local position measurement and GPS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Allen, Adam; Poon, Tsz Kit; Modonutti, Mattia; Gregson, Warren; Di Salvo, Valter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with a semi-automatic multiple-camera (Prozone), local position measurement (LPM) technology (Inmotio) and two global positioning systems (GPSports and VX). Data were analysed with respect to three different field dimensions (small, systems were compared, and calibration equations (linear regression models) between each system were calculated for each field dimension. Most metrics differed between the 4 systems with the magnitude of the differences dependant on both pitch size and the variable of interest. Trivial-to-small between-system differences in total distance were noted. However, high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km · h -1 ) was slightly-to-moderately greater when tracked with Prozone, and accelerations, small-to-very largely greater with LPM. For most of the equations, the typical error of the estimate was of a moderate magnitude. Interchangeability of the different tracking systems is possible with the provided equations, but care is required given their moderate typical error of the estimate.

  11. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H. [Universitaetsklinik Bonn, Radiologische Klinik, FE Strahlentherapie, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal {sup registered} or Open Face {sup registered} mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast {sup registered} -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  12. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal registered or Open Face registered mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast registered -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  13. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  14. Major Deficiencies Preventing Favorable Audit Opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1998-01-01

    The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented favorable audit opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements, and to identify the actions taken or under way...

  15. Positive outcomes influence the rate and time to publication, but not the impact factor of publications of clinical trial results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Suñé

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Publication bias may affect the validity of evidence based medical decisions. The aim of this study is to assess whether research outcomes affect the dissemination of clinical trial findings, in terms of rate, time to publication, and impact factor of journal publications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All drug-evaluating clinical trials submitted to and approved by a general hospital ethics committee between 1997 and 2004 were prospectively followed to analyze their fate and publication. Published articles were identified by searching Pubmed and other electronic databases. Clinical study final reports submitted to the ethics committee, final reports synopses available online and meeting abstracts were also considered as sources of study results. Study outcomes were classified as positive (when statistical significance favoring experimental drug was achieved, negative (when no statistical significance was achieved or it favored control drug and descriptive (for non-controlled studies. Time to publication was defined as time from study closure to publication. A survival analysis was performed using a Cox regression model to analyze time to publication. Journal impact factors of identified publications were recorded. Publication rate was 48·4% (380/785. Study results were identified for 68·9% of all completed clinical trials (541/785. Publication rate was 84·9% (180/212 for studies with results classified as positive and 68·9% (128/186 for studies with results classified as negative (p<0·001. Median time to publication was 2·09 years (IC95 1·61-2·56 for studies with results classified as positive and 3·21 years (IC95 2·69-3·70 for studies with results classified as negative (hazard ratio 1·99 (IC95 1·55-2·55. No differences were found in publication impact factor between positive (median 6·308, interquartile range: 3·141-28·409 and negative result studies (median 8·266, interquartile range: 4·135-17·157. CONCLUSIONS

  16. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, M.; Ulu, M.; Gennarakis, G. G.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R 0 suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R 0 = 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R 0 ) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R 0 = 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R 0 = 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R 0 ). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%–30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and/or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  17. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M.; Ulu, M.; Gennarakis, G. G.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2013-04-01

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R0 suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R0 = 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R0) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R0 = 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R0 = 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R0). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%-30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and/or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  18. Are there any differences in power performance and morphological characteristics of Croatian adolescent soccer players according to the team position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporis, Goran; Vucetić, Vlatko; Jovanović, Mario; Milanović, Zoran; Rucević, Marijan; Vuleta, Dinko

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze differences in power performance and morphological characteristics of young Croatian soccer players with respect to their team positions and to establish correlations between the power performance variables. Anthropometric characteristics and jumping and sprint performances were analyzed for 45 soccer players (age 14-15; mean body height 175.4 +/- 6.61 cm; body weight 63.6 +/- 8.06 kg) according to their team positions (defender, midfielder, forward). Pearsons coefficient of correlation was used to determine the relationship between the power performance variables. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the power performance of players according to their team position. The only significant differences between players were in some of the anthropometric characteristics, such as height and weight linear relationship was determined between almost all the power performance variables. Since the players in this study were very young and their sports careers have not reached their peak performance, it is possible that their nominal team positions may change during their soccer careers.

  19. Immigration concern and the white/non-white difference in smoking: Group position theory and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2017-12-01

    National data indicate that U.S. whites have a higher prevalence of smoking compared to non-whites. Group position theory and public opinion data suggest racial differences in immigration concern. This study examines whether immigration concern mediates the racial difference in smoking. Drawing on the 2012 General Social Survey, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study, immigration concern was associated with smoking, controlling for covariates across all three nationally representative surveys. Mediation analysis indicated that immigration concern partially mediated the higher odds of smoking among whites across all surveys. Immigration concern also presents a possible explanation for the healthy immigrant advantage and Hispanic paradox as they pertain to smoking differences.

  20. The influence of different maternal pushing positions on birth outcomes at the second stage of labor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraloglu, Ozlem; Kansu-Celik, Hatice; Tasci, Yasemin; Karakaya, Burcu Kısa; Yilmaz, Yasar; Cakir, Ebru; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects on neonatal and maternal outcomes of different pushing positions during the second stage of labor in nulliparous women. This prospective study included 102 healthy, pregnant, nulliparous women who were randomly allocated to either of two positions: a squatting using bars (n = 51), or a supine position modified to 45 degree of semi-fowler (n = 51) during the second stage of labor. Duration of the second stage of labor, maternal pain, postpartum blood loss, abnormal fetal heart rate patterns that required intervention, and newborn outcomes were compared between the two groups. The trial showed that women who adopted the squatting position using bars experienced a significant reduction in the duration of the second stage of labor; they were less likely to be induced, and their Visual Analog Scale score was lower than those who were allocated the supine position modified to 45 degree of semi-fowler during second stage of labor (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences with regard to postpartum blood loss, neonatal birth weight, Apgar score at one and five minutes, or admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. In healthy nulliparous women, adopting a squatting position using bars was associated with a shorter second stage of labor, lower Visual Analog Scale score, more satisfaction, and a reduction in oxytocin requirements compared with adopting the supine position. For Turkish women, the squatting position is easy to adopt as it is more appropriate in terms of Turkish social habits and traditions.

  1. Evaluation of Pressure Generated by Resistors From Different Positive Expiratory Pressure Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Carlsson, Maria; Olsén, Erik; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to improve pulmonary function and airway clearance. Different PEP devices are available, but there have been no studies that describe the pressure generated by different resistors. The purpose of this study was to compare pressures generated from the proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial flow-dependent PEP valves with all other parameters kept constant. Resistors from 4 flow-regulated PEP devices (Pep/Rmt system, Wellspect HealthCare; Pipe P breathing exerciser, Koo Medical Equipment; Mini-PEP, Philips Respironics [including resistors by Rüsch]; and 15-mm endo-adapter, VBM Medizintechnik) were tested randomly by a blinded tester at constant flows of 10 and 18 L/min from an external gas system. All resistors were tested 3 times. Resistors with a similar diameter produced statistically significant different pressures at the same flow. The differences were smaller when the flow was 10 L/min compared with 18 L/min. The differences were also smaller when the diameter of the resistor was increased. The pressures produced by the 4 resistors of the same size were all significantly different when measuring 1.5- and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 10 L/min and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 18 L/min (P < .001). There were no significant differences between any of the resistors when testing sizes of 4.5 and 5.0 mm at either flow. The Mini-PEP and adapter resistors gave the highest pressures. Pressures generated by the different proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial PEP devices were not comparable, even though the diameter of the resistors is reported to be the same. The pressures generated were significantly different, particularly when using small-diameter resistors at a high flow. Therefore, the resistors may not be interchangeable. This is important information for clinicians, particularly when considering PEP for patients who do not tolerate higher pressures. Copyright © 2015 by

  2. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Cohen-Solal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  3. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM) are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton) facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  4. Examining the Effects of Different Ring Configurations and Equatorial Fluorine Atom Positions on CO 2 Sorption in [Cu(bpy) 2 SiF 6

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.

    2013-10-02

    Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed in a metal-organic material (MOM) that is part of a "SIFSIX" family of compounds that has remarkable carbon dioxide capture and separation properties. The MOM considered here has the formula [Cu(bpy)2SiF6] (bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine). This hydrophobic MOM is both water-stable and CO 2-specific with significant sorption capacity under ambient conditions. The crystal structure reveals bpy rings and equatorial fluorine atoms in multiple possible orientations; the static disorder has been modeled based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealing several possible relatives of atoms in the crystal structure. With regards to the bpy rings, the structure can be interpreted as two pyridyl rings with coplanar configurations within a unit cell (configuration 1), a twisted bpy ring conformation in which orthogonal pyridyl rings have C4 symmetry about the Cu2+ ion (configuration 2), and a twisted bpy ring conformation in which the two orthogonal pyridyl rings are facing one another within a unit cell (configuration 3). Further, the equatorial fluorine atoms can be positioned such that all atoms are eclipsed with the square grid (position A), oriented at a 21.3 angle with respect to the square grid (position B), and oriented at a 45 angle with respect to the square grid (position C). It was observed that experimental data for CO2 sorption were only consistent with sorption into configurations 1 and 3 with any of the possible equatorial fluorine atom positions at ambient temperatures, although simulations using position A produced slightly higher uptakes in these bpy ring configurations. It is demonstrated that the orientation of the bpy rings in configurations 1 and 3 allows more space for the sorbate molecules and thus promotes favorable MOM-sorbate interactions, resulting in isotherms in line with the experimental results. The results from this study suggests that [Cu(bpy)2SiF 6] in either configuration 1 or 3 with CO2 present in

  5. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX Homeodomain Mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Walz (Amy L.); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); S. Gadd (Samantha); D.S. Gerhard (Daniela S.); M.A. Smith (Malcolm A.); J.M. GuidryAuvil (Jamie M.); D. Meerzaman (Daoud); Q.-R. Chen (Qing-Rong); C. Hsu (ChihHao); C. Yan (Chunhua); C. Nguyen (Cu); Y. Hu (Ying); R. Bowlby (Reanne); D. Brooks (Denise); Y. Ma (Yussanne); A.A. Mungall (Andrew J.); R.A. Moore (Richard A.); J. Schein (Jacqueline); M.A. Marra (Marco A.); V. Huff (Vicki); J.S. Dome (Jeffrey); Y.-Y. Chi (Yueh-Yun); C.G. Mullighan (Charles); J. Ma (Jing); D.A. Wheeler (David A.); O.A. Hampton (Oliver A.); N. Jafari (Nadereh); N. Ross (Nicole); J.M. Gastier-Foster (Julie); E.J. Perlman (Elizabeth J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/. 2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates

  6. Comparison of daily megavoltage electronic portal imaging or kilovoltage imaging with marker seeds to ultrasound imaging or skin marks for prostate localization and treatment positioning in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serago, Christopher F.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Igel, Todd C.; Gale, Ashley A.; Serago, Nicole E.; Earle, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of imaging modalities, immobilization, localization, and positioning techniques in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer had gold marker seeds implanted transrectally and were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. Twenty of the 35 patients had limited immobilization; the remaining had a vacuum-based immobilization. Patient positioning consisted of alignment with lasers to skin marks, ultrasound or kilovoltage X-ray imaging, optical guidance using infrared reflectors, and megavoltage electronic portal imaging (EPI). The variance of each positioning technique was compared to the patient position determined from the pretreatment EPI. Results: With limited immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 9.1 ± 5.3 mm, the average difference between the skin marks' infrared position and EPI pretreatment position is 11.8 ± 7.2 mm, the average difference between the ultrasound position and EPI pretreatment position is 7.0 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 3.5 ± 3.1 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 3.4 ± 2.7 mm. For the patients with the vacuum-style immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 10.7 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 1.9 ± 1.5 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 2.1 ± 1.5 mm. Conclusions: Compared with use of skin marks, ultrasound imaging for positioning provides an increased degree of agreement to EPI-based positioning, though not as favorable as kV imaging fiducial seeds. Intrafraction movement during treatment decreases with improved immobilization

  7. Scientific citations favor positive results : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyx, Bram; Urlings, Miriam J.E.; Swaen, Gerard M.H.; Bouter, Lex M.; Zeegers, Maurice P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Citation bias concerns the selective citation of scientific articles based on their results. We brought together all available evidence on citation bias across scientific disciplines and quantified its impact. Study Design and Setting An extensive search strategy was applied to the Web of

  8. Genetic analysis in maize foundation parents with mapping population and testcross population: Ye478 carried more favorable alleles and using QTL information could improve foundation parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of maize foundation parents is an important part of genetics and breeding research, and applying new genetic information to produce foundation parents has been challenging. In this study, we focused on quantitative trait loci (QTLs and general combining ability (GCA of Ye478, a widely used foundation parent in China. We developed three sets of populations for QTL mapping and to analyze the GCA for some agronomic traits. The assessment of 15 traits resulted in the detection of 251 QTLs in six tested environments, with 119 QTLs identified through a joint analysis across all environments. Further analyses revealed that most favorable alleles for plant type-related traits were from Ye478, and more than half of the favorable alleles for yield-related traits were from R08, another foundation parent used in southwestern China, suggesting that different types of foundation parents carried different favorable alleles. We observed that the GCA for most traits (e.g., plant height and 100-kernel weight was maintained in the inbred lines descended from the foundation parents. Additionally, the continuous improvement in the GCA of the descendants of the foundation parents was consistent with the main trend in maize breeding programs. We identified three significant genomic regions that were highly conserved in three Ye478 descendants, including the stable QTL for plant height. The GCA for the traits in the F7 generation revealed that the QTLs for the given traits per se were affected by additive effects in the same way in different populations.

  9. Nurse-Administered, Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy in IBS: Efficacy and Factors Predicting a Positive Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdahl, Jenny; Ringström, Gisela; Agerforz, Pia; Törnblom, Hans; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is often delivered by a psychotherapist and is costly and time consuming. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy could increase availability and reduce costs. In this study the authors evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-administered, gut-directed hypnotherapy and identify factors predicting treatment outcome. Eighty-five patients were included in the study. Participants received hypnotherapy by a nurse once/week for 12 weeks. Patients reported marked improvement in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-colonic symptoms after treatment, as well as a reduction in GI-specific anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Fifty-eight percent were responders after the 12 weeks treatment period, and of these 82% had a favorable clinical response already at week 6. Women were more likely than men to respond favorably to the treatment. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy is an effective treatment for IBS. Being female and reporting a favorable response to treatment by week 6 predicted a positive treatment response at the end of the 12 weeks treatment period.

  10. The role of p53 in radiation therapy outcomes for favorable-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Mark A.; Gilchrist, Kennedy W.; Voytovich, Marta; Chappell, Richard J.; Verhoven, Bret M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Some prostate cancers may have molecular alterations that render them less responsive to radiation therapy; identification of these alterations before treatment might allow improved treatment optimization. This study investigated whether p53, a potential molecular determinant, could predict long-term radiation therapy outcome in a restricted group of relatively favorable-risk prostate cancer patients treated uniformly with irradiation alone. Methods and Materials: This study included 53 patients previously treated with radiotherapy for favorable-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer. These patients were selected for relatively low pretreatment PSAs (≤21 ng/mL) and Gleason scores (≤7) to decrease the likelihood of nonlocalized disease, because disease localization was necessary to examine the efficacy of localized radiation therapy. The status of p53 was immunohistochemically assessed in paraffin-embedded pretreatment biopsy specimens, along with appropriate controls. This marker was selected based upon a usable mutation prevalence in early-stage prostate cancer and its potential linkage with radiation response via cell cycle, DNA repair, and cell death pathways. Correlation between p53 mutation and clinical outcome was analyzed in univariate and multivariate fashion and included conventional prognosticators, such as stage, grade, and PSA. Freedom from biochemical failure was determined using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology criteria. Limitations of prior studies were potentially avoided by requiring adequate posttreatment follow-up (median follow-up in nonfailing patients of 5.1 years), as well as pretreatment PSA and Gleason scores that suggested localized disease, and uniformity of treatment. Results: The total group of 53 favorable-to-intermediate-risk patients demonstrated an actuarial biochemical failure rate of 35% at 5 years. Forty percent of all specimens had a greater than 10% labeling index for p53 mutation, and

  11. Pathological Outcome following Radical Prostatectomy in Men with Prostate Specific Antigen Greater than 10 ng/ml and Histologically Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiwoong; Kwon, Young Suk; Kim, Sinae; Han, Christopher Sejong; Farber, Nicholas; Kim, Jongmyung; Byun, Seok Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Jeon, Seong Soo; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-05-01

    Active surveillance is now the treatment of choice in men with low risk prostate cancer. Although there is no consensus on which patients are eligible for active surveillance, prostate specific antigen above 10 ng/ml is generally excluded. In an attempt to determine the validity of using a prostate specific antigen cutoff of 10 ng/ml to counsel men considering active surveillance we analyzed a multi-institution database to determine the pathological outcome in men with prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml but histologically favorable risk prostate cancer. We queried a prospectively maintained database of men with histologically favorable risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2003 and 2015. The cohort was categorized into 3 groups based on prostate specific antigen level, including low-less than 10 ng/ml, intermediate-10 or greater to less than 20 and high-20 or greater. Associations of prostate specific antigen group with adverse pathological and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Of 2,125 patients 1,327 were categorized with histologically favorable risk disease. However on multivariate analyses the rates of up staging and upgrading were similar between the intermediate and low prostate specific antigen groups. In contrast compared to the intermediate prostate specific antigen group the high group had higher incidences of up staging (p = 0.02) and upgrading to 4 + 3 or greater disease (p = 0.046). Biochemical recurrence-free survival rates revealed no pairwise intergroup differences except between the low and high groups. Patients with preoperatively elevated prostate specific antigen between 10 and less than 20 ng/ml who otherwise had histologically favorable risk prostate cancer were not at higher risk for adverse pathological outcomes than men with prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 45 CFR 73.735-503 - Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance, profit-sharing, stock bonus or other employee welfare or benefit plan maintained by a former... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors. 73.735-503 Section 73.735-503 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. Anticipated detection of favorable periods for wind energy production by means of information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Eugenio; Saravia, Gonzalo; Kobe, Sigismund; Schumann, Rolf; Schuster, Rolf

    Managing the electric power produced by different sources requires mixing the different response times they present. Thus, for instance, coal burning presents large time lags until operational conditions are reached while hydroelectric generation can react in a matter of some seconds or few minutes to reach the desired productivity. Wind energy production (WEP) can be instantaneously fed to the network to save fuels with low thermal inertia (gas burning for instance), but this source presents sudden variations within few hours. We report here for the first time a method based on information theory to handle WEP. This method has been successful in detecting dynamical changes in magnetic transitions and variations of stock markets. An algorithm called wlzip based on information recognition is used to recognize the information content of a time series. We make use of publically available energy data in Germany to simulate real applications. After a calibration process the system can recognize directly on the WEP data the onset of favorable periods of a desired strength. Optimization can lead to a few hours of anticipation which is enough to control the mixture of WEP with other energy sources, thus saving fuels.

  14. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, M.; Ulu, M. [eCOL Laboratory, Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Gennarakis, G. G.; Zouros, T. J. M. [Atomic Collisions and Electron Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R{sub 0} suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R{sub 0}= 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R{sub 0}) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R{sub 0}= 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R{sub 0}= 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R{sub 0}). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%-30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and/or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  15. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Providing Databases for Different Indoor Positioning Technologies: Pros and Cons of Magnetic Field and Wi-Fi Based Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Torres-Sospedra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the main pillars for indoor services. However, it is still very difficult for the mobile sensing community to compare state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems due to the scarcity of publicly available databases. To make fair and meaningful comparisons between indoor positioning systems, they must be evaluated in the same situation, or in the same sets of situations. In this paper, two databases are introduced for studying the performance of magnetic field and Wi-Fi fingerprinting based positioning systems in the same environment (i.e., indoor area. The “magnetic” database contains more than 40,000 discrete captures (270 continuous samples, whereas the “Wi-Fi” one contains 1,140 ones. The environment and both databases are fully detailed in this paper. A set of experiments is also presented where two simple but effective baselines have been developed to test the suitability of the databases. Finally, the pros and cons of both types of positioning techniques are discussed in detail.

  17. Preliminary study of favorability for uranium of the Sangre de Cristo Formation in the Las Vegas basin, northeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.T.; Strand, J.R.; Reid, B.E.; Phillips, W.R.

    1977-12-01

    Uranium favorability of the Sangre de Cristo Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Las Vegas basin has been evaluated. The Las Vegas basin project area, located in Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico, comprises about 3,489 sq mi. The formation contains sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics that are considered favorable for uranium deposition. Field investigations consisted of section measuring, rock sampling, and ground radiometric reconnaissance. North-south and east-west cross sections of the basin were prepared from well logs and measured sections. Petrographic, chemical, and spectrographic analyses were conducted on selected samples. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic information were used to determine depositional environments. The most favorable potential host rocks include red to pink, coarse-grained, poorly sorted, feldspathic to arkosic lenticular sandstones with stacked sandstone thicknesses of more than 20 ft and sandstone-to-shale ratios between 1:1 and 2:1. The sandstone is interbedded with mudstone and contains carbonaceous debris and anomalous concentrations of uranium locally. Areas of maximum favorability are found in a braided-stream, alluvial-plain depositional environment in the north-central part of the Las Vegas basin. There, carbonaceous material is well preserved, probably due to rapid subsidence and burial. Furthermore, uranium favorability is highest in the lower half of the formation because carbonaceous wood and plant fragments, as well as known uranium deposits, are concentrated in this zone. Piedmont deposits in the north and east, and meander-belt, alluvial-plain deposits in the south, are not considered favorable because of the paucity of uranium deposits and a minimum of carbonaceous material

  18. Gender differences in the use of cardiovascular interventions in HIV-positive persons; the D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla I; Ryom, Lene; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of data related to potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the observational D:A:D cohort study. METHODS: Participants...... of follow-up for which individuals were at high CVD risk. In fully adjusted models, women were less likely to receive CVD interventions than men (LLDs: relative rate 0.83 [0.78, 0.88]; ACEIs: 0.93 [0.86, 1.01]; ICPs: 0.54 [0.43, 0.68]), except for the receipt of anti-hypertensives (1.17 [1.10, 1.......25]). CONCLUSION: The use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men. Interventions are needed to ensure that all HIV-positive persons, particularly women, are appropriately monitored for CVD and, if required, receive appropriate CVD interventions....

  19. The dimensions of the tarsal sinus and canal in different foot positions and its clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleipool, R. P.; Blankevoort, L.; Ruijter, J. M.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Oostra, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a reference for the dimensions of the tarsal sinus and canal in healthy adults in different foot positions to facilitate understanding of the kinematics of the subtalar joint, the effect of an implant, and other clinical issues. In a 3D CT stress test on 20 subjects, the right

  20. Positive body image: inter-ethnic and rural-urban differences among an indigenous sample from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies examining body image from a cross-cultural perspective have tended to neglect samples from different ethnic groups or along a rural-urban continuum. To overcome this limitation, the present study examined positive body image among rural and urban women from three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 202 women completed the Body Appreciation Scale, as well as measures of media exposure and financial security, and provided their demographic details. s showed that there were significant rural-urban differences in body appreciation, with rural participants having significantly higher body appreciation than urban participants. A comparison with a previous data set of West Malaysian women (Swami & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2008) showed that the current urban sample had significantly lower body appreciation and that the rural group had significantly higher body appreciation. Further results showed that research site (urban vs rural) explained 11.0% of the variance in body appreciation. Participant body mass index and exposure to western forms of media explained an additional 2.0% of the variance. These results suggest that there are differences in body image between rural and urban women. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of positive body image, particularly in developing societies where health care resources may be limited.

  1. Radiation therapy for chest wall recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy in a favorable subgroup of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R. Alex; Antell, Andrew; Schultz, Delray J.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Long-term outcome after radiation therapy for local-regional recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy is generally poor. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term outcome for a potentially favorable subgroup of patients with chest wall recurrence. Methods and Materials: Of 71 patients with an isolated local-regional recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy, 18 were identified who met the following favorable selection criteria: 1) a disease-free interval after mastectomy of 2 years or more, 2) an isolated chest wall recurrence, and 3) tumor size < 3 cm or complete excision of the recurrent disease. All 18 patients were treated with local-regional irradiation between 1967 and 1988. Radiotherapy (RT) was delivered to the chest wall to a median total dose of 60 Gy (range 30-66 Gy). Four patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and six patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 8.4 years, nine of 18 patients were alive and free of disease. The 10-year actuarial overall and cause-specific survivals were 72% and 77%, respectively. The 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival and local control were 42% and 86%, respectively. Conclusion: Treatment for a local-regional recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy in a favorable subgroup of patients results in a high rate of long-term survival as well as excellent local control. Aggressive treatment is warranted in this favorable subgroup of patients. 1998 Elsevier Science Inc

  2. Prostate Cancer Diagnosed After Repeat Biopsies Have a Favorable Pathological Outcome but Similar Recurrence Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Corona, Ernesto; Ohori, Makoto; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Reuter, Victor E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Kattan, Michael W.; Eastham, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether repeat prostate biopsies are associated with more favorable prognoses, less extensive disease or higher rates of IC in patients who are ultimately diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with RRP. Materials and Methods We examined standard clinical and pathological data on 1,357 patients treated with RRP from 1983 to 2001. In addition, we noted the rate of IC in a subgroup of 847 patients in whom tumor volume was measured. Results Cancer was found in 1,042 patients (77%) at the first biopsy, in 227 (17%) at the second biopsy, in 59 (4%) at the third biopsy and in 29 (2%) at the fourth or later biopsy. Patients with 2 or greater biopsies had a higher rate of clinical T1c stage cancer and larger prostates than patients with only 1 biopsy (each p <0.0001). After RRP patients with 1 biopsy had a lower rate of organ confined tumors (61% vs 75%, p <0.0001), and a higher rate of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastases and Gleason sum 7 or greater than other patients. IC was found in 10% of patients with 1 biopsy and 18% of those with 2 or greater biopsies (p = 0.018). Despite these more favorable pathological outcomes there was no difference in biochemical recurrence rate. Conclusions Although we found that a greater number of biopsies was related to a better pathological outcome after RRP, the number of biopsies did not predict disease recurrence. The increasing number of biopsies currently being performed, especially in patients with larger prostates, likely results in higher rates of IC. PMID:16469581

  3. The position of the arm during blood pressure measurement in sitting position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyaman, Ahmet; Verhoeff, Rutger; Lenders, Jacques W M; Deinum, Jaap; Thien, Theo

    2006-12-01

    Determining the influence of the position of the arm on blood pressure measurement in the sitting position. Blood pressure of 128 individuals (the majority being treated hypertensive patients) visiting the outpatient clinic was measured simultaneously on both arms with arms in two different positions. First, both arms were placed at the chair support level and blood pressure was measured three times on both arms after 10 min of rest. Subsequently, while still remaining in the same sitting position, five blood pressure measurements were made simultaneously at both arms with one arm placed on the desk and one arm placed and supported at heart level (mid-sternal). The arm placed at heart level served as the reference arm. The choice of which arm was placed at desk level and which arm was placed at heart level was randomized. Both at desk level and at chair support level, mean (+/-SD) systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher than blood pressure at heart level by 6.1/5.7+/-4.6/3.1 and 9.3/9.4+/-5.4/3.4 mmHg, respectively. The effect of the height differences between the arm positions on the blood pressure readings was smaller than predicted (0.49 mmHg/cm systolic and 0.47 mmHg/cm diastolic). No significant correlation was found between blood pressure difference in the different arm positions (desk and heart level) and age, sex, weight or baseline blood pressure. Different arm positions below heart level have significant effects on blood pressure readings. The leading guidelines about arm position during blood pressure measurement are not in accordance with the arm position used in the Framingham study, the most frequently used study for risk estimations.

  4. Patterns of Socioeconomic Inequality in Adolescent Health Differ According to the Measure of Socioeconomic Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgar, Frank J.; McKinnon, Britt; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in health are ubiquitous across age groups, cultures, and health domains. However, variation in the size and pattern of health inequalities appears to relate to the measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applied. Little attention has been paid to these differences...... in adolescents and their implications for health surveillance and policy. We examined health inequalities in 1371 adolescents in seven European countries using four measures of SEP: youth-reported material assets and subjective social status and parent-reported material assets and household income. For each SEP...... variable, we estimated risk ratios, risk differences, concentration curves, and concentration indices of inequality for fair/poor self-rated health and low life satisfaction. Results showed that inequalities in health and life satisfaction were largest when subjective social status was used as the SEP...

  5. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV− female couples, 98 HIV− ma...

  6. Favorable neonatal outcomes among immigrants in Taiwan: evidence of healthy immigrant mother effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Liao, Hua-Fang; Su, Yi-Ning; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chang, Pei-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-07-01

    Although racial/ethnic disparities in neonatal and infant health are well known, positive associations between migration and perinatal health exist among immigrant mothers in western countries. There are unique marriage migration, East Asia culture, universal national health insurance system, and adequate social support in Taiwan that may differ from the situation in western countries. We aimed to assess the neonatal outcomes among live births to married immigrant mothers in recent years in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based analysis among all the live births in Taiwan during the period 1998-2003 to assess neonatal outcomes, including incidence of low birth weight and preterm birth and of early and late neonatal mortality, according to maternal nationality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) associated with low birth weight and preterm birth, and Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with mortality in the neonatal period. There were a total of 1,405,931 single live births, including 6.6% born to immigrant mothers and 93.4% born to Taiwanese mothers. Disparities existed among the intercultural couples, including paternal age, parental educational level, and residential distribution. Fewer low birth weight and fewer preterm babies were born to immigrant mothers than to Taiwanese mothers. In addition, babies born to immigrant mothers had lower early neonatal and neonatal mortalities than those born to Taiwanese mothers. There were lower risks of having a low birth weight (adjusted OR [AOR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.75) or preterm (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.69-0.74) baby and lower hazard ratios (HRs) of having an early neonatal death (adjusted HR [AHR] 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.82) or neonatal death (AHR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.87) in babies born to immigrant mothers. There is a gradual increase in the risks of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with increases in length of residence

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON DIFFERENT POSITIONS, USING THE CONCONI TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Requirements and needs of properly programmed training process, especially in the pre-season, look for a precise definition of the functional parameters of all the players. The level of anaerobic threshold, as well as research on the same, may be a good indicator of proper dosage of loading. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in running speed and heart rate at the level of anaerobic threshold in relation to the position of the player. Methods: Age of the respondents in this study included boys from 14 to 16 years of age (60 football players. The sample of respondents was divided according to playing position, as follows: center-backs (12 players, wing-backs (15 players, midfielders (14 players, forwarders (13 players and goalkeepers (6 goalkeepers. An estimation of maximum heart rate and anaerobic threshold was performed using the Conconi test – (Conconi et al. 1996. Prior to testing players had ten minutes to warm up and after a few minutes of rest the testing began. Players started with jogging test (10 km/h and after every 200 m running speed was increased by 0.5 km/h. Within certain sections the load is constant which is achieved by increasing speed after each 200 m, and then maintaining that speed until the end of the section. After processing the results within the particular software (“Polar Precision Performance SW” the values needed for this research were collected. Multivariate methods MANOVA and discriminant analysis will be applied in the paper. Regarding the univariate procedures, ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. The descriptive parameters, mean value, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as the measures of asymmetry, kurtosis as the measure of flatness and the value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, shall be presented. Results: By using the multivariate analysis of variance and based on the

  8. HIV status of partners of HIV positive pregnant women in different regions of Nigeria: matters arising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagay, A S; Onakewhor, J; Galadanci, H; Emuveyan, E E

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the pattern of HIV sero-status of Partners of HIV Positive Pregnant Women in three different regions of Nigeria and to explore the implications for HIV prevention interventions. The Site Coordinators of PMTCT programs in three Nigerian cities obtained data of the HIV status of the partners of HIV positive pregnant women. The selection of Benin City, Jos and Kano was made after consideration of their ethnic, religious and cultural representation of Nigeria. Benin City represents a traditional southern Nigeria city, Kano a traditional northern city and Jos, a middle-belt, ethnically diverse cosmopolitan setting. The data were analyzed using frequencies. A total of 500 partners of HIV infected pregnant women were tested for HIV using Determine Abbott test kits. Positive results were confirmed using Western blot or a second rapid test kit. The city-by-city results showed that in Benin City (Southern Nigeria), 78.8% (104/132) of the partners were HIV negative (sero-discordant), Jos (Middle-Belt) had 48.4% (103/213) sero-discordance while Kano (Northern Nigeria) recorded a sero-discordance rate of only 7.7% (12/155). These results indicate that the dynamics of HIV transmission in marital settings in Nigeria are different in the various regions of the country. Socio-cultural and religious settings play a significant role in HIV transmission among couples. These findings should guide prevention interventions in order to achieve maximal impact.

  9. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  10. Are positive emotions just as "positive" across cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Janxin; Wang, Jennifer; Koo, Kelly

    2011-08-01

    Whereas positive emotions and feeling unequivocally good may be at the heart of well-being among Westerners, positive emotions often carry negative associations within many Asian cultures. Based on a review of East-West cultural differences in dialectical emotions, or co-occurring positive and negative feelings, we predicted culture to influence the association between positive emotions and depression, but not the association between negative emotions and depression. As predicted, in a survey of over 600 European-, immigrant Asian-, and Asian American college students, positive emotions were associated with depression symptoms among European Americans and Asian Americans, but not immigrant Asians. Negative emotions were associated with depression symptoms among all three groups. We also found initial evidence that acculturation (i.e., nativity) may influence the role of positive emotions in depression: Asian Americans fell "in between" the two other groups. These findings suggest the importance of studying the role of culture in positive emotions and in positive psychology. The use of interventions based on promoting positive emotions in clinical psychology among Asian clients is briefly discussed. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Positive solutions of boundary value problem for singular positone and semi-positone third-order difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai Gongqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article studies the boundary value problems for the third-order nonlinear singular difference equations Δ 3 u ( i - 2 + λ a ( i f ( i , u ( i = 0 , i ∈ [ 2 , T + 2 ] , satisfying five kinds of different boundary value conditions. This article shows the existence of positive solutions for positone and semi-positone type. The nonlinear term may be singular. Two examples are also given to illustrate the main results. The arguments are based upon fixed point theorems in a cone. MSC [2008]: 34B15; 39A10.

  12. Divergent Effects of Different Positive Emotions on Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohminger, Nina; Lewis, Richard L.; Meyer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Positive emotions are often treated as relatively similar in their cognitive-behavioral effects, and as having unambiguously beneficial consequences. For example, Valdesolo and DeSteno (2006) reported that a humorous video made people more prone to choose a utilitarian solution to a moral dilemma. They attributed this finding to increased positive…

  13. The British Position towards European Integration: A Different Economic and Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has had an important position in Europe for centuries. Often it is seen as an anti-European country, or as being anti-integration in Europe but it is just defending its own interests, which in many cases hare differed from other members of the European Communities. The UK policy towards European cooperation has been influenced by the particular interest of the country, but there has always been a strong relation between the British and Europe. Great Britain had the biggest empire in human history spread all over the globe, and hence its interest was global rather than limited to local European states. The UK was a victorious country in the Second World War, the only Western European state that participated actively in Nazi defeat. As an important consequence, British nationalism was seen as a positive force to unite all the British against an external threat. During centuries, the British economy has been based on trade, and internationally the government supported and expanded the free trade idea in the world economy to European trade relations. This paper analyzes the main issues that explain the special relations between the EU and the UK. The paper is developed from a historical point of view with a methodology’ based on the critical review of historical facts from a global perspective of the whole traditional approach of the UK towards European integration.

  14. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Oligometastatic state predicts a favorable outcome for renal cell carcinoma patients with bone metastasis under the treatment of sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolin; Gu, Weijie; Zhang, Hailiang; Zhu, Yao; Shi, Guohai; Ye, Dingwei

    2016-05-03

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether RCC patients with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis treated with sunitinib had a favorable clinical outcome. 22 patients were classified into oligometastatic state of bone metastasis with a median OS of 30.1 months (95%CI: 26.3 to 33.8 months). The 45 patients with non-oligometastatic state had a median OS of 12.7 months (95%CI: 9.43 to 16.0 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant difference between them (Log Rank test p<0.001). When we set patients with only multiple bone (at least 5 sites) metastases as a single group, there was still significant difference between oligometastatic state group and non-oligometastatic state groups. In multivariate Cox proportion hazard ratio analysis, metastatic states (p=0.012), MSKCC score (p=0.002), ECOG (p=0.001) and lymph nodes metastasis (p=0.000) were significantly associated with prognosis. The integration of metastatic state into the MSKCC risk model improved the c-index from 0.651 to 0.752. 67 patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center with bone metastatic RCC were divided into 2 metastatic states. One included those with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis with less than 5 sites of bone metastasis. The other involved those patients with multiple bone metastases (at least 5 sites) or together with other sites of metastasis. Then patients with only multiple bone (at least 5 sites) metastases were set into a single group. RCC patients with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis treated with sunitinib had a favorable clinical outcome.

  16. Lithofacies paleogeography and favorable gas exploration zones of Qixia and Maokou Fms in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingao Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, the Middle Permian marine carbonate rocks are important natural gas pay zones with immense exploration potential, but the facies belts and distribution situations of layered dolomite reservoirs are not clear, which hinders the progress in natural gas exploration. In view of the sedimentary background of the Sichuan Basin, field outcrop section, drilling data and seismic data were comprehensively analyzed with the favorable reservoir intervals in the framework of sequence stratigraphy as the key research units. Research results about its lithofacies paleogeography were obtained as follows. First, a gentle slope SW high and NE low was presented during the sedimentation of the Qixia Fm in the Middle Permian. In the Maokou Fm of the Middle Permian, however, a series of the N–W trending intra-platform rifts were developed in this setting, and eventually a paleogeographic pattern of NE-dipping alternative uplift and depression was evolved. Second, in the Qixia Fm, the transgressive tract was in an open platform environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin beach in the area of Jiange–Ya'an is the favorable reservoir facies belt. And third, in the Maokou Fm, the transgressive tract was in the carbonate shelf environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin reef flat in the area of Jiange–Ya'an and the syneclise margin beach in the area of Yanting–Guang'an are favorable reservoir facies belts. It is concluded that the two grain beach facies belts in the areas of Jiange–Ya'an and Yanting–Guang'an were the favorable zones for the large-scale development of Middle Permian layered dolomite reservoirs and they are the main target of subsequent natural gas exploration.

  17. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria induce different patterns of cytokine production in human mononuclear cells irrespective of taxonomic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbjerg, Susann; Martner, Anna; Hynsjö, Lars; Hessle, Christina; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Tham, Wilhelm; Wold, Agnes E

    2010-01-01

    Upon bacterial stimulation, tissue macrophages produce a variety of cytokines that orchestrate the immune response that clears the infection. We have shown that Gram-positives induce higher levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than do Gram-negatives, which instead induce more of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Here, we study whether these patterns follows or crosses taxonomic borders. PBMCs from blood donors were incubated with UV-inactivated bacteria representing 37 species from five phyla. IL-12, TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were measured in the supernatants after 24 h and IFN-gamma after 5 days. Irrespective of phylogenetic position, Gram-positive bacteria induced much more IL-12 (nine times more on average) and IFN-gamma (seven times), more TNF (three times), and slightly more IL-1beta (1.5 times) than did Gram-negatives, which instead induced more IL-6 (1.5 times), IL-8 (1.9 times), and IL-10 (3.3 times) than did Gram-positives. A notable exception was the Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, which induced very little IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF. The results confirm the fundamental difference in innate immune responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which crosses taxonomic borders and probably reflects differences in cell wall structure.

  18. Radiosensitivity and effect of hypoxia in HPV positive head and neck cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Busk, Morten; Olthof, Nadine; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Horsman, Michael R.; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: HPV associated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a distinct subgroup of HNSCC characterized by a favorable prognosis and a distinct molecular biology. Previous data from the randomized DAHANCA 5 trial indicated that HPV positive tumors did not benefit from hypoxic modifications by Nimorazole during radiotherapy, whereas a significant benefit was observed in the HPV negative tumors. However, more studies have demonstrated equal frequencies of hypoxic tumors among HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors. The aim of the present study was to determine radiosensitivity, the impact of hypoxia and the effect of Nimorazole in HPV positive and HPV negative cell lines. Materials and method: The used cell lines were: UDSCC2, UMSCC47 and UPCISCC90 (HPV positive) and FaDu DD , UTSCC33 and UTSCC5 (HPV negative). Cells were cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and gene expression levels of previously established hypoxia induced genes were assessed by qPCR. Cells were irradiated with various doses under normoxia, hypoxia or hypoxia +1 mM Nimorazole, and the clonogenic survival was determined. Results: The HPV positive and HPV negative cell lines exhibited similar patterns of upregulation of hypoxia induced genes in response to hypoxia. The HPV positive cell lines were up to 2.4 times more radiation sensitive than HPV negative cell lines. However, all HPV positive cells displayed the same response to hypoxia in radiosensitivity, with an OER in the range 2.3–2.9, and a sensitizer effect of Nimorazole of 1.13–1.29, similar to HPV negative cells. Conclusions: Although HPV positive cells had a markedly higher radiosensitivity compared to HPV negative cells, they displayed the same relative radioresistance under hypoxia and the same relative sensitizer effect of Nimorazole. The clinical observation that HPV positive patients do not seem to benefit from Nimorazole treatment is not due to inherent differences in hypoxia sensitivity

  19. On the link between different combinations of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA) and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the assumed orthogonality of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), the effects of the different combinations of NA and PA on work-related outcomes such as job performance have been neglected. The present study among 42 employees of a local social services department in the

  20. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.H.

    1977-11-01

    A reconnaissance study of middle and upper Tertiary volcaniclastic sedimentary and silicic volcanic rocks in Malheur County, Oregon, indicates that, based upon the data available: (1) it is unlikely that sandstone-type uranium deposits exist in sedimentary rocks of north-central Malheur County; and (2) favorable uranium environments are more likely to exist in and adjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers and plugs. Some rhyolites in the northern part of the county contain marginally anomalous uranium abundances (6 to 8 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 ), compared with similar rocks in southeastern Oregon. Available uranium from these rocks, as determined by nitric-acid leaching, approaches 50 to 75 percent of the total chemical U 3 O 8 present. One Pliocene rhyolite vitrophyre sample from Duck Butte in western Malheur County contains 9 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 . The uranium contents of these rhyolites approach those found in silicic plugs spatially related to uranium deposits in the Lakeview district, Oregon (Erikson and Curry, 1977). It is possible that undiscovered epithermal and (or) supergene uranium deposits may exist in favorable wall rocks subjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers (Duck Butte), calderas (McDermitt caldera to the south and others identified in western Owyhee County, Idaho), and silicic plugs (as in the Lakeview district). With the exception of one small uranium anomaly found in unconsolidated sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation, the sedimentary rocks observed in the study area did not possess abnormal radioactivity or exhibit evidence of uranium mobility and enrichment. Carbonaceous trash is uncommon in these rocks. Gently dipping sandstone members of the Deer Butte Formation (upper Miocene) and local channel sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation (Pliocene) may have once been the most permeable rocks in the Tertiary section; but, there is no evidence to suggest that they were conduits for uranium-bearing solutions

  1. What constitutes a good life? Cultural differences in the role of positive and negative affect in subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-08-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life.

  2. Strategy for personalized treatment of human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Takatsugu; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Kano, Satoshi; Sakashita, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Seigo; Homma, Akihiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of the association between tumor HPV status and the demographic and clinicopathological parameters of 83 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma at Hokkaido University Hospital, Japan, between 1998 and 2010. The parameters included age, gender, tumor subsite, Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) stage, and overall survival. HPV status was established by multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis. Of the 83 oropharyngeal cancers, 22 were positive for HPV-16, two for HPV-18, and one for HPV-35 and HPV-58. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed improved overall survival rates in patients with HPV-positive tumors (p=0.0024) compared with HPV-negative tumors. Of the 51 patients who received chemoradiotherapy, HPV-positive patients experienced better overall survival than HPV-negative patients (p=0.0024). HPV status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in oropharyngeal cancer in Japan. (author)

  3. Innovative Behavior and Psychological Capital: Does Positivity Make any Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomna M. Sameer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Despite increasing importance of fostering innovation among employees, and the growing interest in Positive Organizational Behaviour (POB constructs, little empirical research has been conducted on the topic of innovation with POB. Moreover, though research proved significant relationship between positive psychological capital (PsyCap and creative performance, no studies examined PsyCap with innovative behavior. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the link between positive psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as the link between innovative behavior and job satisfaction as well as engagement. Design/methodology/approach - Using regression analyses, data were obtained from Egyptian professionals (N = 250. The survey included measures of psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as job satisfaction and engagement. Findings - Regression analyses reveal that PsyCap, with its four components of hope, optimism, resilience and efficacy, predict innovative behavior, which in turn affects satisfaction and engagement. Research implications/limitations - Limitations, contributions and recommendations for future research are noted. Results contribute to a better understanding of how psychological capital enhances Innovative behavior in the workplace, which in turns, enhances job satisfaction and engagement. Originality/value/contribution - The study is the first to examine the relationship between psychological capital and innovative behavior.(original abstract

  4. Attitude toward living kidney donation: differences between students from two Spanish universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Gómez-Laguna, J; Quereda, J J; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Mrowiec, A; Mendonça, L; López-Navas, A; Ríos, A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was to analyze the attitude of Spanish veterinary students toward LKRD because they may influence public opinion in the future, and to determine the factors that condition it. The study was carried out among fifth-year veterinary science students from 2 southern and southeastern Spanish universities. The students' attitude toward LKRD was assessed using a psychosocial, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Statistics used were χ(2) test and Student t test. Data from the southern Spain university included a response rate of 87%. The survey showed that 94% of respondents would donate a kidney to a relative who needed it. This attitude toward LKRD was more favorable in women (P attitude was not associated with any psychosocial variables. However, only 58% would accept a kidney from a relative. There are no differences between the 2 universities (P = .879). Although the attitude of veterinary students from southern and southeastern Spain toward LKRD was very favorable and there are no differences between them, only 58% of the students would accept an organ from a relative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vantage Sensitivity: Environmental Sensitivity to Positive Experiences as a Function of Genetic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael

    2017-02-01

    A large number of gene-environment interaction studies provide evidence that some people are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse experiences as a function of specific genetic variants. However, such "risk" variants are surprisingly frequent in the population. Evolutionary analysis suggests that genetic variants associated with increased risk for maladaptive development under adverse environmental conditions are maintained in the population because they are also associated with advantages in response to different contextual conditions. These advantages may include (a) coexisting genetic resilience pertaining to other adverse influences, (b) a general genetic susceptibility to both low and high environmental quality, and (c) a coexisting propensity to benefit disproportionately from positive and supportive exposures, as reflected in the recent framework of vantage sensitivity. After introducing the basic properties of vantage sensitivity and highlighting conceptual similarities and differences with diathesis-stress and differential susceptibility patterns of gene-environment interaction, selected and recent empirical evidence for the notion of vantage sensitivity as a function of genetic differences is reviewed. The unique contribution that the new perspective of vantage sensitivity may make to our understanding of social inequality will be discussed after suggesting neurocognitive and molecular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the propensity to benefit disproportionately from benevolent experiences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Do nonexercisers also share the positive exerciser stereotype?: An elicitation and comparison of beliefs about exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Wendy M; Hall, Craig R; Wilson, Philip M; Berry, Tanya R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether exercisers and nonexercisers are rated similarly on a variety of characteristics by a sample of randomly selected regular exercisers, nonexercisers who intend to exercise, and nonexercisers with no intention to exercise. Previous research by Martin Ginis et al. (2003) has demonstrated an exerciser stereotype that advantages exercisers. It is unknown, however, the extent to which an exerciser stereotype is shared by nonexercisers, particularly nonintenders. Following an item-generation procedure, a sample of 470 (n=218 men; n=252 women) people selected using random digit dialing responded to a questionnaire assessing the extent to which they agreed that exercisers and nonexercisers possessed 24 characteristics, such as "happy," "fit," "fat," and "lazy." The results strongly support a positive exerciser bias, with exercisers rated more favorably on 22 of the 24 items. The degree of bias was equivalent in all groups of respondents. Examination of the demographic characteristics revealed no differences among the three groups on age, work status, or child-care responsibilities, suggesting that there is a pervasive positive exerciser bias.

  7. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  8. Comparison of QOL between patients with different degenerative dementias, focusing especially on positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Kairi; Terada, Seishi; Oshima, Etsuko; Horiuchi, Makiko; Imai, Nao; Yabe, Mayumi; Yokota, Osamu; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yamada, Norihito

    2016-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important outcome measure in the care of dementia patients. However, there have been few studies focusing on the difference in QOL between different dementias. Two-hundred seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were recruited. The QOL was evaluated objectively using the QOL Questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D).The QOL-D comprises six domains: positive affect, negative affect and actions, communication, restlessness, attachment to others, and spontaneity. General cognition, daily activities, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were also evaluated. The scores of positive affect of QOL-D of AD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with DLB or FTD (AD 3.1 ± 0.8, DLB 2.6 ± 0.9, FTD 2.6 ± 0.7). The scores of negative affect and action of QOL-D of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB (FTD 2.0 ± 0.8, AD 1.4 ± 0.5, DLB 1.5 ± 0.6). The apathy scores of FTD and DLB patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD. The disinhibition scores of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB. The apathy of FTD and DLB patients and depression of DLB patients might affect the lower positive affect of FTD and DLB patients compared to AD patients. The disinhibition of FTD patients might affect the abundance of negative affect & actions in FTD patients compared to AD and DLB patients.

  9. The analysis of spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space in different arm positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yuefen; Wang Dehang; Wang Xiaoning; Li Shener

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the distance between the acromion and the humerus head at different arm abduction to observe whether it changes or not, to determine at which position the distance is smallest, and to evaluate the relationship between the subacromial space and the rotator cuff. Methods: Fifteen normal volunteers were examined with MRI in six arm positions, and the coronal thin images were obtained with a spin echo sequence. Using a special positioning device, the arm was placed at 0 degree, 30 degree, 60 degree, 90 degree, 120 degree and 150 degree arm abduction, respectively. Of them, 0 degree-90 degree positions were not rotated, while 120 degree and 150 degree positions were slight internal rotated. The minimal distance of acromion-humerus (A-H) and clavicle-humerus (C-H), and the spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space were measured and observed. Results: The values of A-H and C-H at 60 degree - 150 degree arm abduction were obviously smaller than those at 0 degree-30 degree arm abduction (P 0.05). The rotator cuff (mainly supraspinatus tendon) just went through between the acromion and the humerus at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions but not at 0 degree, 30 degree and 150 degree arm positions. So at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions, rotator cuff between the humerus and the acromion was often impinged. Conclusion: The closest contact between the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial space occurs at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction. The findings testify that the patients with impingement syndrome have shoulder pain at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction in clinic from etiology and pathology. In the future, MRI-based analyses should allow investigating the morphological basis of the impingement syndrome, choosing the appropriate therapy, and minimizing failure rates of surgery

  10. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Zhao Qiulan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  11. Effect of edaravone on favorable outcome in patients with acute cerebral large vessel occlusion: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Egashira, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hirohito; Tomogane, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The data of the nationwide prospective registry of acute cerebral large vessel occlusion (LVO; RESCUE-Japan Registry) were analyzed to know the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on clinical outcome at 90 days after onset. In this registry, patients with acute cerebral LVO admitted within 24 h after onset were prospectively registered. The effect of various factors including endovascular treatment (EVT), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA), and other medication including edaravone on favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1) was analyzed. Of the 1,454 registered patients, 1,442 patients (99.2%) had the information of edaravone were analyzed. In total, edaravone group had more patients with favorable outcome compared to non-edaravone group (22.9% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.0006). Edaravone increased favorable outcome in patients treated with IV rt-PA (29.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.0107), but not with EVT (21.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.309). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.875, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.858-0.894] and advanced age (OR 0.963, 95%CI 0.952-0.975) were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. In contrast, IV rt-PA (OR 2.489, 95%CI 1.867-3.319), EVT (OR 1.375, 95%CI 1.013-1.865), and edaravone (OR 1.483, 95%CI 1.027-2.143) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. This analysis indicated that IV rt-PA, EVT, and edaravone were effective to obtain favorable outcome in patients with acute LVO. Combination IV rt-PA with edaravone was more effective.

  12. Editorial: Human well-being from different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito-Santo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2018, the editors of the Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research (PJBSR continue to favor the publication of original articles of investigation and revision in the areas of social and behavioral sciences. The PJBSR continues to promote thinking, questioning the changes in society, their realities, and rethinking their problems, encouraging a reflection among their readers. The number 1 of the fourth volume of the PJBSR adds four original articles and one review article. Although this issue of the PJBSR addresses different contents, there is evidence of a focus on the study of positive psychological variables and their relation to human well-being, whether it is operationalized as physical or mental health, studied in the context of institutionalization or in the context of the work, evaluated at the level of the subjective perception of well-being or the level of the conception of death with dignity.

  13. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and social support in a sample of HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the authors of the present study was to investigate gender differences in the levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and social support in a Polish sample of HIV+ men (n = 613) and women (n = 230). This was an anonymous cross-sectional study, and participation was voluntary. The research questionnaires were distributed in paper form among patients of Warsaw's Hospital for Infectious Diseases from January to October 2015. The level of PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Factorial Version Inventory. Social support was assessed using the Berlin Social Support Scales. HIV+ women scored higher on all PTSS dimensions compared to HIV+ men. HIV+ women were characterized by a higher need for support and more support actually received compared to HIV+ men. We observed a positive association between HIV infection duration and AIDS phase and the global trauma score only among HIV+ men. The moderation analysis also revealed a positive relationship between actual received support and the global trauma score among HIV+ women only. Increased clinician awareness is needed about the role of PTSS and social support among people living with HIV, especially taking gender differences into account.

  14. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  15. Intrinsic spatial resolution limitations due to differences between positron emission position and annihilation detection localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Pedro; Malano, Francisco; Valente, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Since its successful implementation for clinical diagnostic, positron emission tomography (PET) represents the most promising medical imaging technique. The recent major growth of PET imaging is mainly due to its ability to trace the biologic pathways of different compounds in the patient's body, assuming the patient can be labeled with some PET isotope. Regardless of the type of isotope, the PET imaging method is based on the detection of two 511-keV gamma photons being emitted in opposite directions, with almost 180 deg between them, as a consequence of electron-positron annihilation. Therefore, this imaging method is intrinsically limited by random uncertainties in spatial resolutions, related with differences between the actual position of positron emission and the location of the detected annihilation. This study presents an approach with the Monte Carlo method to analyze the influence of this effect on different isotopes of potential implementation in PET. (author)

  16. Low arousing positive affect broadens visual attention and alters the thought-action repertoire while broadened visual attention does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas Jäger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Broaden-and-Build Theory states that positive emotions broaden cognition and therefore build personal resources. However, missing theoretical precision regarding the interaction of the cognitive processes involved offers a variety of possible explanations for the mechanisms of broadening and building. In Experiment 1 we tested the causality assumption which states that positive emotions first broaden visual attention which in turn leads to broadened cognition. We examined the effects of a broadened, narrowed or neutral attentional scope of 72 subjects (30 men on their momentary thought-action repertoire. Results showed that there were no significant differences between groups regarding the breadth or the content of the thought-action repertoire. In Experiment 2 we studied the non-causality hypothesis which assumes a non-causal relationship between cognitive processes. We did so by investigating the effects of negative, neutral, and positive affect on the visual attentional scope of 85 subjects (41 men in Experiment 2a, as well as on the thought-action repertoire of 85 participants (42 men in Experiment 2b. Results revealed an attentional broadening effect in Experiment 2a but no differences between groups concerning the breadth of the thought-action repertoire in Experiment 2b. However, a theory driven content analysis showed that positive affect promoted social actions whereas negative affect endorsed resource protecting actions. Thus, our results favor the non-causality assumption. Moreover, results indicate that positive emotions do not target personal resources in general but rather resources associated with social behavior. In conclusion, we argue that the Broaden-and-Build Theory should be refined.

  17. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  18. High procedural fairness heightens the effect of outcome favorability on self-evaluations : An attributional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockner, J.; Heuer, L.; Magner, N.; Folger, R.; Umphress, E.; Bos, K. van den; Vermunt, Riël; Magner, M.; Siegel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness:

  19. Social media for message testing: a multilevel approach to linking favorable viewer responses with message, producer, and viewer influence on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Jeon, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of social media for message testing, this study connects favorable viewer responses to antismoking videos on YouTube with the videos' message characteristics (message sensation value [MSV] and appeals), producer types, and viewer influences (viewer rating and number of viewers). Through multilevel modeling, a content analysis of 7,561 viewer comments on antismoking videos is linked with a content analysis of 87 antismoking videos. Based on a cognitive response approach, viewer comments are classified and coded as message-oriented thought, video feature-relevant thought, and audience-generated thought. The three mixed logit models indicate that videos with a greater number of viewers consistently increased the odds of favorable viewer responses, while those presenting humor appeals decreased the odds of favorable message-oriented and audience-generated thoughts. Some significant interaction effects show that videos produced by laypeople may hinder favorable viewer responses, while a greater number of viewer comments can work jointly with videos presenting threat appeals to predict favorable viewer responses. Also, for a more accurate understanding of audience responses to the messages, nuance cues should be considered together with message features and viewer influences.

  20. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  1. FLARE STARS—A FAVORABLE OBJECT FOR STUDYING MECHANISMS OF NONTHERMAL ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oks, E. [Physics Department, 206 Allison Lab., Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gershberg, R. E. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Bakhchisaray region, Crimea, 298409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.

  2. The physical profile of adult male basketball players: Differences between competitive levels and playing positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferioli, Davide; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bosio, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Azzolini, Matteo; Coutts, Aaron J

    2018-04-26

    This study examined the physical differences in adult male basketball players of different competitive level and playing position using a large cohort. In the middle of the regular season, 129 players from four different Divisions completed a Yo-YoIR1 and, after 3-to-8 days, they performed a 6-min continuous running test (Mognoni's test), a counter-movement jump (CMJ) test and a 5-min High-intensity Intermittent running test (HIT). Magnitude-based inferences revealed that differences in HIT were very likely moderate between Division I and II and likely small between Division II and III. The differences in absolute peak power and force produced during CMJs between Division I and II and between Division II and III were possibly small. Differences in Yo-YoIR1 and Mognoni's test were very likely-to-almost certain moderate/large between Division III and VI. We observed possibly-to-likely small differences in HIT and Mognoni's test between guards and forwards and almost certainly moderate differences in absolute peak power and force during CMJs between guards and centres. The ability to sustain high-intensity intermittent efforts (i.e. HIT) and strength/power characteristics can differentiate between competitive level, while strength/power characteristics discriminate guards from forwards/centres. These findings inform practitioners on the development of identification programs and training activities in basketball.

  3. PSP: rapid identification of orthologous coding genes under positive selection across multiple closely related prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Ou, Hong-Yu; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-27

    With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures. However, selection pressure analyses are computationally intensive and awkward to configure. Here we describe an open access web server, which is designated as PSP (Positive Selection analysis for Prokaryotic genomes) for performing evolutionary analysis on orthologous coding genes, specially designed for rapid comparison of dozens of closely related prokaryotic genomes. Remarkably, PSP facilitates functional exploration at the multiple levels by assignments and enrichments of KO, GO or COG terms. To illustrate this user-friendly tool, we analyzed Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus genomes and found that several genes, which play key roles in human infection and antibiotic resistance, show significant evidence of positive selection. PSP is freely available to all users without any login requirement at: http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/PSP/. PSP ultimately allows researchers to do genome-scale analysis for evolutionary selection across multiple prokaryotic genomes rapidly and easily, and identify the genes undergoing positive selection, which may play key roles in the interactions of host-pathogen and/or environmental adaptation.

  4. Prenatal education through art therapy. A possible way for positive parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía HERVÁS HERMIDA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the field of positive parenting advocates the importance of promoting family support, through parental education programs. On the other hand, the importance of the prenatal period for human development is well known, but attention to this stage has traditionally been done from the biomedical point of view, without paying attention to the other educational, emotional, social and gender aspects.In this sense, the aim of this article is to propose a possible way to support positive parenting, which will provide an useful contribution to prenatal pedagogy as an emerging science, through art therapy. By the qualitative analysis of two case studies of two women participants from two different workshops, the possibilities offered by group art therapy as a way of prenatal education, for the exploration of the creative dimension of motherhood are shown, and the deepening of the attachment with both the baby, the couple and the environment. Likewise, the development of parental competences is favored, focusing on awareness and personal development, and on the creation of a group support, in which shared learning takes place. Finally, the conclusions deal with aspects of the methodology that foster an improvement in the well-being and the development of an empowered and resilient attitude, benefiting both mother and child, as well as the whole family and social environment.

  5. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research

  6. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Paul, Sheila; Lambert, Helen; Ahmad, Waqar; Smith, George Davey

    2009-02-27

    In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups:1) Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators2) Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities3) Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata The sample consisted of White (n = 227), African-Caribbean (n = 213) and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research is required to establish the degree to which results of

  7. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreases bacterial diversity and favors the growth of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in agro-ecosystems across the globe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhongmin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Su, Weiqin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Chen, Huaihai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Barberan, Albert [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science; Zhao, Haochun [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Mengjie [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Lu [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Brookes, Philip C. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Schadt, Christopher W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Chang, Scott X. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Xu, Jianming [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment

    2018-04-25

    Long-term Elevated nitrogen (N) input from anthropogenic sources may cause soil acidification and decrease crop yield, yet the response of the belowground microbial community to long-term N input and the input of N combined with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is still poorly understood. Here, we explored the effect of long-term N and NPK fertilization on soil bacterial diversity and community composition using meta-analysis of a global dataset. Nitrogen fertilization decreased soil pH, and increased soil organic carbon (C) and available N contents. Bacterial taxonomic diversity was decreased by N fertilization alone, but was increased by NPK fertilization. The effect of N fertilization on bacterial diversity depends on soil texture and water management, but independent of crop type or N application rate. Both soil pH and organic C content were positively related to changes in bacterial diversity under N fertilization, while soil organic C was the dominant factor determining changes in bacterial diversity under NPK fertilization. Microbial biomass C decreased with decreasing bacterial diversity under long-term N fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic bacteria (i.e. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria), but reduced the abundance of oligotrophic taxa (i.e. Acidobacteria), consistent with the general life history strategy theory for bacteria. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was also increased by NPK fertilization. The positive correlation between N application rate and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria indicates that increased N availability favored the growth of Actinobacteria. This first global analysis of long-term N and NPK fertilization effect on bacterial diversity and community composition suggests that N input decreases bacterial diversity but favors the growth of copiotrophic bacteria, providing a reference for nutrient management strategies for maintaining belowground microbial diversity in agro

  8. Comparison of Conductor-Temperature Calculations Based on Different Radial-Position-Temperature Detections for High-Voltage Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calculation of the conductor temperature is related to the temperature sensor position in high-voltage power cables and four thermal circuits—based on the temperatures of insulation shield, the center of waterproof compound, the aluminum sheath, and the jacket surface are established to calculate the conductor temperature. To examine the effectiveness of conductor temperature calculations, simulation models based on flow characteristics of the air gap between the waterproof compound and the aluminum are built up, and thermocouples are placed at the four radial positions in a 110 kV cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE insulated power cable to measure the temperatures of four positions. In measurements, six cases of current heating test under three laying environments, such as duct, water, and backfilled soil were carried out. Both errors of the conductor temperature calculation and the simulation based on the temperature of insulation shield were significantly smaller than others under all laying environments. It is the uncertainty of the thermal resistivity, together with the difference of the initial temperature of each radial position by the solar radiation, which led to the above results. The thermal capacitance of the air has little impact on errors. The thermal resistance of the air gap is the largest error source. Compromising the temperature-estimation accuracy and the insulation-damage risk, the waterproof compound is the recommended sensor position to improve the accuracy of conductor-temperature calculation. When the thermal resistances were calculated correctly, the aluminum sheath is also the recommended sensor position besides the waterproof compound.

  9. Measurement and inference of profile soil-water dynamics at different hillslope positions in a semiarid agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy R.; Erskine, Robert H.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamics of profile soil water vary with terrain, soil, and plant characteristics. The objectives addressed here are to quantify dynamic soil water content over a range of slope positions, infer soil profile water fluxes, and identify locations most likely influenced by multidimensional flow. The instrumented 56 ha watershed lies mostly within a dryland (rainfed) wheat field in semiarid eastern Colorado. Dielectric capacitance sensors were used to infer hourly soil water content for approximately 8 years (minus missing data) at 18 hillslope positions and four or more depths. Based on previous research and a new algorithm, sensor measurements (resonant frequency) were rescaled to estimate soil permittivity, then corrected for temperature effects on bulk electrical conductivity before inferring soil water content. Using a mass-conservation method, we analyzed multitemporal changes in soil water content at each sensor to infer the dynamics of water flux at different depths and landscape positions. At summit positions vertical processes appear to control profile soil water dynamics. At downslope positions infrequent overland flow and unsaturated subsurface lateral flow appear to influence soil water dynamics. Crop water use accounts for much of the variability in soil water between transects that are either cropped or fallow in alternating years, while soil hydraulic properties and near-surface hydrology affect soil water variability across landscape positions within each management zone. The observed spatiotemporal patterns exhibit the joint effects of short-term hydrology and long-term soil development. Quantitative methods of analyzing soil water patterns in space and time improve our understanding of dominant soil hydrological processes and provide alternative measures of model performance.

  10. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of upper cretaceous, paleocene, and lower eocene rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.L.; Dunagan, J.F. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the uranium favorability of continental sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Lance, Paleocene Polecat Bench, and lower Eocene Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, an intermontane structural basin of Laramide age. Previous work dealing with the Bighorn Basin was reviewed, and field investigations were carried out in the spring and summer of 1976. Subsurface data were collected and results of surface and subsurface investigations were evaluated with respect to uranium favorability. Precambrian plutonic and metamorphic rocks and Tertiary tuffaceous rocks in the Bighorn Basin and bordering uplifts are considered insignificant as source rocks, although the Wiggins Formation (White River equivalent) cannot be evaluated as a possible source because of a lack of data. Potential host rocks locally show only limited favorability. Lithology of strata exposed along the western and southern basin margins is more favorable than that of rocks in the central and eastern parts of the basin, but there is little organic material, pyrite, or other reducing agents in these rocks. Strata of the Lance, Polecat Bench, and Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin are considered generally unfavorable for sandstone uranium deposits

  11. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  12. Does the position or contact pressure of the stethoscope make any difference to clinical blood pressure measurements: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP.

  13. CXCR4 expression varies significantly among different subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its low expression or hypermethylation might predict favorable overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinlong; Shang, Feng; Zhu, Weidong; Lin, Qingtang

    2017-09-01

    CXCR4 is an oncogene in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) but the mechanism of its dysregulation and its prognostic value in GBM have not been fully understood. Bioinformatic analysis was performed by using R2 and the UCSC Xena browser based on data from GSE16011 in GEO datasets and in GBM cohort in TCGA database (TCGA-GBM). Kaplan Meier curves of overall survival (OS) were generated to assess the association between CXCR4 expression/methylation and OS in patients with GBM. GBM patients with high CXCR4 expression had significantly worse 5 and 10 yrs OS (p GBM subtypes, there was an inverse relationship between overall DNA methylation and CXCR4 expression. CXCR4 expression was significantly lower in CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP) group than in non CIMP group. Log rank test results showed that patients with high CXCR4 methylation (first tertile) had significantly better 5 yrs OS (p = 0.038). CXCR4 expression is regulated by DNA methylation in GBM and its low expression or hypermethylation might indicate favorable OS in GBM patients.

  14. Tannin profile of different Monastrell wines and its relation to projected market prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Olmos, Oscar; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the differences or similarities in tannin composition and concentration in Monastrell wines from different wineries from the same geographic area and, within each winery, from wines elaborated based on different projected market prices, to determine whether there is any relationship between the wine tannin composition and the projected price. The tannin composition of the different wines, all of them analyzed at the same point during winemaking, indicated that those elaborated as premium wines presented higher phenol and tannin contents. The mean degree of polymerization of these wines was also positively related with the projected price, which agreed with the results obtained by size exclusion chromatography, that showed that wines with high projected prices had a higher proportion of polymeric tannins, suggesting that techniques favoring the extraction of skin tannins were mostly used in those wines projected as premium wines, probably looking for greater mouthfeel complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with the effectiveness of plasma exchange for the treatment of NMO-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Min; Pyun, So Young; Kang, Bong-Hui; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Kwang-Kuk

    2013-08-01

    To identify factors associated with plasma exchange response in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 31 NMO-IgG-positive patients receiving plasma exchange for steroid-resistant exacerbations were analyzed. Functional improvement was observed in 65% of the patients. A lower baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale score was associated with favorable response (p = 0.040). Patients without cord atrophy had a higher success rate than patients with atrophy (p = 0.016). Levels of NMO-IgG did not differ between responders and non-responders before and after plasma exchange. In conclusion, a minimal pre-existing disability is the primary determinant of the effectiveness of plasma exchange.

  16. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Orsi Gameiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  17. Mortality risk and social network position in resident killer whales: sex differences and the importance of resource abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S; Franks, D W; Nattrass, S; Cant, M A; Weiss, M N; Giles, D; Balcomb, K C; Croft, D P

    2017-10-25

    An individual's ecological environment affects their mortality risk, which in turn has fundamental consequences for life-history evolution. In many species, social relationships are likely to be an important component of an individual's environment, and therefore their mortality risk. Here, we examine the relationship between social position and mortality risk in resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca ) using over three decades of social and demographic data. We find that the social position of male, but not female, killer whales in their social unit predicts their mortality risk. More socially integrated males have a significantly lower risk of mortality than socially peripheral males, particularly in years of low prey abundance, suggesting that social position mediates access to resources. Male killer whales are larger and require more resources than females, increasing their vulnerability to starvation in years of low salmon abundance. More socially integrated males are likely to have better access to social information and food-sharing opportunities which may enhance their survival in years of low salmon abundance. Our results show that observable variation in the social environment is linked to variation in mortality risk, and highlight how sex differences in social effects on survival may be linked to sex differences in life-history evolution. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Implant-supported mandibular removable partial dentures; patient-based outcome measures in relation to implant position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Kerdijk, Wouter; Meijer, Henny J A; Cune, Marco S

    2016-12-01

    To assess the benefits of implant support to Removable Partial Dentures (RPD) in patients with a bilateral free-ending situation in the mandible and to determine the most favorable implant position: the premolar (PM) or the molar (M) region. Thirty subjects with a bilateral unbounded posterior saddle received 2 PM and 2M implants. A new RPD was placed. Implant support was provided 3 months later. Two PM implants supported the RPD. After 3 months the 2M implants were used or vice versa. Outcome measures included oral health related quality of life (OHIP-NL49), general health status (SF-36), contentment assessed on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the number of hours that the RPD was worn. Data were collected prior to treatment, 3 months after having functioned with a new RPD and after 3 and 6 months with implant support. Finally, patients expressed their preferred implant position. The general health status (SF-36) was not influenced. OHIP-NL49 values and mean wearing-time were statistical significantly more favorable for ISRPD's, regardless of the implant position. Per day, the ISRPD's were worn 2-3h more than the unsupported new RPD. Patients' expectations were met as the VAS-scores of anticipated and realized contentment did not reach a statistical significant level (p>0.05). VAS scores for ISRPD's with M implant support were higher than for PM implant support. Finally, 56.7% of subjects preferred the M implant support, 13.3% expressed no preference and 30% opted for PM implant support. Mandibular implant support favorably influences oral health related patient-based outcome measures in patients with a bilateral free-ending situation. The majority of patients prefer the implant support to be in the molar region. Patients with a bilateral free-ending situation in the mandible opposed by a maxillary denture benefit from implant support to their mandibular removable partial denture. Most patients prefer this support to be in the molar region. Copyright © 2016

  19. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  20. Implementation of immobilization accessories for positioning of small animals for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettorato, M.C.; Girotto, C.H.; Fogaça, J.L.; Vulcano, L.C.; Fernandes, M.A.R., E-mail: m_vettorato@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Radiation therapy is a modality that is presenting great advances in veterinary medicine worldwide. In Brazil, this therapeutic option is underachieved. The success of this method depends on several factors, including the use of appropriate accessories for protection and immobilization of patients. For the immobilization of small animals during treatment, in addition to sedation and anesthesia, immobilizing accessories, similar to those used in human radiotherapy, are used. This study aimed to present proposals for immobilizing accessories adapted to the positioning of small animals in order to be used in radiotherapy planning. In order to achieve results, accessories were made and tested in a living animal simulating a radiotherapy planning, which proved to be favorable to use in positioning small animals undergoing radiotherapy and for implementation processes. (author)

  1. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  2. THE SOCIAL POSITION AS AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION OF ENGINEERS' QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE SOCIETY OF POST-SOCIALIST TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Mirkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life may be analyzed from different perspectives. In compliance with that, it may be assumed that the social position of the profession has significant impact on quality of life. The paper presents the analysis of the research which aim was to examine the three dimensions of the social position of the engineering profession in the society of post-socialist transformation: material status, social power, and social reputation. We compared the results of the current study with the results of the research that we had conducted in the period when socialist relations still exist in organizations. Moreover, we studied how the engineers perceive these three aspects of the social position of their profession. The first research was conducted in 1998 and the second in 2015. 200 engineers were questioned in 146 companies. The results indicate that the dimensions of social position, such as the material standard and the social influence of engineers in Serbia today are a little more favorable than they used to be at the end of the 90s. Finally, a majority of the engineers from our research believe that their expectations regarding the engineering profession have not been fulfilled and in future, their quality of life may be enhanced in terms of social importance and recognition.

  3. Favorable effect of moderate dose caffeine on the skeletal system in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Pytlik, Maria; Zych, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Nowińska, Barbara; Sliwiński, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine present in coffee, has been postulated to be responsible for an increased risk of osteoporosis in coffee drinkers; however, the data are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on the skeletal system of rats with normal and decreased estrogen level (developing osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency). The experiments were carried out on mature nonovariectomized and ovariectomized Wistar rats, divided into control rats and rats receiving caffeine once daily, 20 mg/kg p.o., for 4 wk. Serum bone turnover markers, bone mass, mass of bone mineral, calcium and phosphorus content, histomorphometric parameters, and bone mechanical properties were examined. Caffeine favorably affected the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, slightly inhibiting the development of bone changes induced by estrogen deficiency (increasing bone mineralization, and improving the strength and structure of cancellous bone). Moreover, it favorably affected mechanical properties of compact bone. There were no significant effects of caffeine in rats with normal estrogen levels. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that low-to-moderate caffeine intake may exert some beneficial effects on the skeletal system of mature organisms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Improved DNA electrophoresis in conditions favoring polyborates and lewis acid complexation.

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    Hari Singhal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial compression among the longer DNA fragments occurs during DNA electrophoresis in agarose and non-agarose gels when using certain ions in the conductive buffer, impairing the range of fragment sizes resolved well in a single gel. Substitutions using various polyhydroxyl anions supported the underlying phenomenon as the complexation of Lewis acids to DNA. We saw significant improvements using conditions (lithium borate 10 mM cations, pH 6.5 favoring the formation of borate polyanions and having lower conductance and Joule heating, delayed electrolyte exhaustion, faster electrophoretic run-speed, and sharper separation of DNA bands from 100 bp to 12 kb in a single run.

  5. Effect of different levels of continuous positive airway pressure on the 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance

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    Dulciane Nunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Positive airway pressure continues (CPAP produces significant hemodynamic changes that may influence the variability of breathing pattern and heart rate, acting as an additional therapy to prevent atelectasis and to combat hypoxia. The rate of inhaled 99 m Technetiumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA, along with changes in the lung epithelium cause an increase in the rate of clearance of this compound. The aim of this study was evaluate the pulmonary clearance rate of 99mTechnetium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA through the use of different levels of CPAP. Methods: It was a quasi-experimental study involving 17 healthy individuals with normal lung functional. 99mTc-DTPA, as aerosol, was nebulized for 3 minutes with the individual in a sitting position. The pulmonary clearance rate was assessed through pulmonary scintigraphy under spontaneous breathing and under 20 and 10 cmH2 O CPAP in the sitting position. The clearance rate was expressed as the half-time (T½ that is the time for the activity to decrease to 50% of the peak value. Results: 20 cmH2 O CPAP produced significant reduction of the T½ of 99mTc-DTPA in the sitting position (p=0.005. However, 10 cmH2 O CPAP did not alter the T½ of DTPA in the same positions. Conclusion: High levels of continuos positive pressure in normal lungs resulted in faster 99mTc-DTPA clearance moreover, 10 cmH2 O did not alter its clearance rate. KEYWORDS: Noninvasive ventilation. Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate. Radionuclide Imaging.

  6. Lack of Correlation Between External Fiducial Positions and Internal Tumor Positions During Breath-Hold CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunjan, Sandeep; Starkschall, George; Prado, Karl; Dong Lei; Balter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: For thoracic tumors, if four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is unavailable, the internal margin can be estimated by use of breath-hold (BH) CT scans acquired at end inspiration (EI) and end expiration (EE). By use of external surrogates for tumor position, BH accuracy is estimated by minimizing the difference between respiratory extrema BH and mean equivalent-phase free breathing (FB) positions. We tested the assumption that an external surrogate for BH accuracy correlates with internal tumor positional accuracy during BH CT. Methods and Materials: In 16 lung cancer patients, 4DCT images, as well as BH CT images at EI and EE, were acquired. Absolute differences between BH and mean equivalent-phase (FB) positions were calculated for both external fiducials and gross tumor volume (GTV) centroids as metrics of external and internal BH accuracy, respectively, and the results were correlated. Results: At EI, the absolute difference between mean FB and BH fiducial displacement correlated poorly with the absolute difference between FB and BH GTV centroid positions on CT images (R 2 = 0.11). Similarly, at EE, the absolute difference between mean FB and BH fiducial displacements correlated poorly with the absolute difference between FB and BH GTV centroid positions on CT images (R 2 = 0.18). Conclusions: External surrogates for tumor position are not an accurate metric of BH accuracy for lung cancer patients. This implies that care should be taken when using such an approach because an incorrect internal margin could be generated.

  7. Differences on Primary Care Labor Perceptions in Medical Students from 11 Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R.; Abudinén A., Gabriel; Azucas-Peralta, Rita; Barrezueta-Fernandez, Jorge; Cerna-Urrutia, Luis; DaSilva-DeAbreu, Adrián; Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Moya, Geovanna; Valverde-Solano, Christian D.; Theodorus-Villar, Rhanniel; Vizárraga-León, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Background The shortage in Latin-American Primary Care (PC) workforce may be due to negative perceptions about it. These perceptions might be probably influenced by particular features of health systems and academic environments, thus varying between countries. Methods Observational, analytic and cross-sectional multicountry study that evaluated 9,561 first and fifth-year medical students from 63 medical schools of 11 Latin American countries through a survey. Perceptions on PC work was evaluated through a previously validated scale. Tertiles of the scores were created in order to compare the different countries. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using simple and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance. Results Approximately 53% of subjects were female; mean age was 20.4±2.9 years; 35.5% were fifth-year students. Statistically significant differences were found between the study subjects’ country, using Peru as reference. Students from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Paraguay perceived PC work more positively, while those from Ecuador showed a less favorable position. No differences were found among perceptions of Bolivian, Salvadoran, Honduran and Venezuelan students when compared to their Peruvian peers. Conclusions Perceptions of PC among medical students from Latin America vary according to country. Considering such differences can be of major importance for potential local specific interventions. PMID:27414643

  8. Pig as a Favorable Animal for Taenia Saginata Asiatica Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM, 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM, and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL. We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis. We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%, L-SEM (83%, 1.1%, and DYL (100%, 0.3% pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%, L-SEM (100%, 5.6%, and DYL (100%, 0.06% pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22% and L-SEM (100%, 1.6% pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06% pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11% pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005% pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2% pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%, Korea (100%, 0.03%, Thailand (100%, 0.2%, and the Philippines (100%, 6%; however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01% and Korea (50%, 0.02%, while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%. However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  9. Does food insecurity compromise maternal dietary Zinc or energy intake in favor of her child, in rural poor Mexican households? ¿En hogares rurales pobres de México, la inseguridad alimentaria compromete el consumo de zinc y energía de las madres en favor de sus hijos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Moreno-Tamayo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze quantitative indicators of food insecurity (FI, and estimate if FI modifies the association between maternal and child Zinc and energy intake as evidence for maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study (n=2 563, data derived from baseline impact evaluation of the Mexican Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Quantitative indicators of FI were:Household food storage, maize and/or bean production, food expenditure, and spatial access to food markets. We evaluated percentage adequacy of energy (PAE and Zinc (PAZn intake. Multiple linear regression model was fitted to estimate the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. RESULTS: Child PAE and PAZn were positively associated with those of their mothers. None of the FI indicators modified the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child was observed using four quantitative indicators of FI in central-southern rural Mexican househods.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores cuantitativos de inseguridad alimentaria (IA y estimar si IA modifica la asociación del consumo de energía y zinc en madres e hijos como evidencia del compromiso de la dieta materna a favor de su hijo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal,información basal de la evaluación de impacto del Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Indicadores de IA: reserva de alimentos en hogar, autoproducción maíz y/o frijol, porcentaje del gasto en alimentos y acceso físico a mercados de alimentos.Se calculó el porcentaje de adecuación del consumo energético (PAE y Zinc (PAZn (n=2 563 pares. Se estimó un modelo de regresión lineal ajustado por covariables. RESULTADOS: El PAE y PAZn de madres e hijos se asoció positivamente. Ningún indicador de IA modificó la asociación entre PAE y PAZn materno con respecto a sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES: Los indicadores de IA estudiados no modifican la relaci

  10. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  11. Favorable Vascular Actions of Angiotensin-(1-7) in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine

    2018-01-01

    Obese patients have vascular dysfunction related to impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction. In contrast to the harmful vascular actions of angiotensin (Ang) II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 product Ang-(1-7) has shown to exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits in experimental models through stimulation of the Mas receptor. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous Ang-(1-7) on vasodilator tone and endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstriction in obese patients. Intra-arterial infusion of Ang-(1-7) (10 nmol/min) resulted in significant increase in unstimulated forearm flow ( P =0.03), an effect that was not affected by the Mas receptor antagonist A779 (10 nmol/min; P >0.05). In the absence of hyperinsulinemia, however, forearm flow responses to graded doses of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not different during Ang-(1-7) administration compared with saline (both P >0.05). During infusion of regular insulin (0.15 mU/kg per minute), by contrast, endothelium-dependent vasodilator response to acetylcholine was significantly enhanced by Ang-(1-7) ( P =0.04 versus saline), whereas endothelium-independent response to sodium nitroprusside was not modified ( P =0.91). Finally, Ang-(1-7) decreased the vasodilator response to endothelin A receptor blockade (BQ-123; 10 nmol/min) compared with saline (6±1% versus 93±17%; P obese patients Ang-(1-7) has favorable effects not only to improve insulin-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilation but also to blunt endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone. These findings provide support for targeting Ang-(1-7) to counteract the hemodynamic abnormalities of human obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U 3 O 8 , and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material

  13. Quantum wave packet revival in two-dimensional circular quantum wells with position-dependent mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G.M.; Azeredo, Abel D.; Gusso, A.

    2008-01-01

    We study quantum wave packet revivals on two-dimensional infinite circular quantum wells (CQWs) and circular quantum dots with position-dependent mass (PDM) envisaging a possible experimental realization. We consider CQWs with radially varying mass, addressing particularly the cases where M(r)∝r w with w=1,2, or -2. The two PDM Hamiltonians currently allowed by theory were analyzed and we were able to construct a strong theoretical argument favoring one of them

  14. Styles of thinking and creating in organizational context: Differences according to professional position?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the style of thinking and creating in professionals a pharmaceutical distribution company, in order to verify the existence of different styles according to gender, educational level and position held. Forty professionals, including 30 women and 10 men, aged 17 years and 35 years (M=24.5, SD=5.4, with high school education (n=14 and college (n=26 were divided into two groups, the first being formed by professionals working in the tax and accounting (n=20, and another group of professionals who hold positions in the sales (n=20. They answered the scale Styles of Thinking and Creating individually during office hours. The results showed that only the logical-objective style proved to be influenced by the area of performance (F=4.745; p<=0.037, with all others variables showed no significant influences. In the present study, gender and educational level did not influence the styles of thinking and creating of the participants as well as all other interactions. It was also found that most of the sample appears as the predominant style logical-objective, regardless of sex (62.0% of women and 72.7% of men were classified in this style, level of education (with 57 1% of professionals with high school and 69.2% with college and in relation to the field (60.0% of the participants in the accounting/tax filing this predominant style and 70.0% of professionals in sales.

  15. Effects of pre-learning stress on memory for neutral, positive and negative words: Different roles of cortisol and autonomic arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohringer, Andreas; Chatterjee, Monischa; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2008-07-01

    Stress can have enhancing or impairing effects on memory. Here, we addressed the effect of pre-learning stress on subsequent memory and asked whether neutral and emotionally valent information are differentially affected by specific stress components, autonomic arousal and stress-induced cortisol. Ninety-six healthy men and women underwent either a stressor (modified cold pressor test) or a control warm water exposure. During stress, participants showed comparable autonomic arousal (heart rate, blood pressure), while 60 percent showed an increase of cortisol (responders vs. 40 percent non-responders). Ten minutes after the cold pressor test neutral, positive and negative words were presented. Free recall was tested 1 and 24h later. Overall, positive and negative words were better recalled than neutral words. Stress enhanced the recall of neutral words independently of cortisol response. In contrast, the free recall of negative words was enhanced in cortisol responders in the 1-h but not 24-h test which might suggest different effects of cortisol on consolidation and reconsolidation processes. Recall for positive words was unaffected by stress-induced cortisol. To summarize, (i) pre-learning stress can enhance memory for neutral words independently of cortisol and (ii) stress effects on memory for negative words appear to rely on stress-induced cortisol elevations, the absence of this effect for positive words might be at least partly due to differences in arousal evoked by positive vs. negative words.

  16. Detection of Placental Proteomes at Different Uterine Positions in Large White and Meishan Gilts on Gestational Day 90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Che

    Full Text Available Within-litter uniformity in pigs is a major factor affecting piglet survival and growth performance. We know that Meishan (MS gilts have higher piglet survival rate than Large White (LW gilts because their foetal weight is less varied. To understand the molecular basis for placental nutritional transport during the late stages of gestation in LW and MS, we employed the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ method to investigate alterations in the placental proteomes of LW and MS gilts on gestational day 90. Investigation of foetal weight at different uterine positions revealed that the foetal and placental weights as well as the foetal concentration of glucose were significantly higher in LW gilts positioned towards the utero-tubal junction than in those positioned toward the cervix; however, no such differences were observed in MS gilts, and MS gilts had a greater uniformity in foetal weight on day 90 of gestation. Comparisons of the proteomes between placentas positioned toward the cervix and those positioned toward the utero-tubal junction identified 38 differentially expressed proteins in the two breeds. These proteins play a central role in nutrient transport and metabolism, as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation. Of particular interest is the finding that the placentas of LW gilts showed 14 differential expression of proteins mainly related to lipid transport and energy metabolism (including solute carrier family 27, mitochondrial trifunctional protein, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, but only 2 proteins in MS gilts. In contrast, the differentially expressed proteins in MS gilts were primarily involved in transcriptional and translational regulation (such as ribosome-sec61 and 40S ribosomal protein S23, with a few related to glucose and coenzyme transport and metabolism (including glucose transport protein and ferrochelatase. Our results revealed that placental lipid and

  17. Prone positioning in hypoxemic respiratory failure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopterides, Petros; Siempos, Ilias I; Armaganidis, Apostolos

    2009-03-01

    Prone positioning is used to improve oxygenation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). However, its role in clinical practice is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of prone positioning on relevant clinical outcomes, such as intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality, days of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and pneumothorax, and associated complications. We used literature search of MEDLINE, Current Contents, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We focused only on randomized controlled trials reporting clinical outcomes in adult patients with HRF. Four trials met our inclusion criteria, including 662 patients randomized to prone ventilation and 609 patients to supine ventilation. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the ICU mortality in the intention-to-treat analysis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.22), for the comparison between prone and supine ventilated patients. Interestingly, the pooled OR for the ICU mortality in the selected group of the more severely ill patients favored prone positioning (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66). The duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of pneumothorax were not different between the 2 groups. The incidence of VAP was lower but not statistically significant in patients treated with prone positioning (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.10). However, prone positioning was associated with a higher risk of pressure sores (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.89) and a trend for more complications related to the endotracheal tube (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.94-1.80). Despite the inherent limitations of the meta-analytic approach, it seems that prone positioning has no discernible effect on mortality in patients with HRF. It may decrease the incidence of VAP at the expense of more pressure sores and complications related to the endotracheal tube. However, a subgroup of the most severely ill patients may

  18. Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Henry, Andrea; Nickels, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

  19. Fatores favoráveis à recuperação do quadro clínico de crianças anêmicas: um estudo exploratório Favorable factors for recovering clinical features of anemic children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nunes Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a existência de aspectos do ambiente familiar de crianças anêmicas que possam ser considerados favoráveis à recuperação do quadro de anemia e ao desenvolvimento da linguagem. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo de caso de crianças com anemia. As crianças (n = 11 foram submetidas anteriormente ao tratamento clínico e avaliação da linguagem. Após 12 meses, foram reavaliadas nos aspectos clínicos e da linguagem, acrescentando-se a investigação dos recursos do ambiente familiar. Deste grupo, foram selecionados três casos que refletem diferentes evoluções do quadro clínico da anemia e do desenvolvimento da linguagem, a fim de explorar as contribuições do ambiente familiar na melhora desses aspectos. RESULTADOS: a comparação das variáveis entre as crianças que obtiveram melhora ou não no tratamento medicamentoso mostra diferença estatisticamente nos valores de hemoglobina e tempo de aleitamento materno (pPURPOSE: to investigate the existence of familial environmental aspects of anemic children that may be regarded as favorable for the recovery of anemia and the language development. METHODS: this is a case study of anemic children. The children (n = 11 were previously submitted to clinical treatment and language assessment. After 12 months, children were reassessed in clinical and language aspects, adding investigation of Home Environment Resources Scale. From this group, three cases were selected, reflecting different evolutions in clinical features' anemia and language development in order to explore the contributions of the familial environment in the improvement of those aspects. RESULTS: the comparison of the variables between the children who had gotten improvement or not in the clinical treatment showed to be differing statistically as for the values of hemoglobin and maternal breastfeeding's period (p<0.05. The analysis of the three cases shows that the environmental situation can aggravated the

  20. Comparison of Anthropometry and Lower Limb Power Qualities According to Different Levels and Ranking Position of Competitive Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gamboa, Iosu; Yanci, Javier; Granados, Cristina; Camara, Jesus

    2017-08-01

    Fernandez-Gamboa, I, Yanci, J, Granados, C, and Camara, J. Comparison of anthropometry and lower limb power qualities according to different levels and ranking position of competitive surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2231-2237, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare competitive surfers' lower limb power output depending on their competitive level, and to evaluate the association between competition rankings. Twenty competitive surfers were divided according to the competitive level as follows: international (INT) or national (NAT), and competitive ranking (RANK1-50 or RANK51-100). Vertical jump and maximal peak power of the lower limbs were measured. No differences were found between INT and NAT surfers in the anthropometric variables, in the vertical jump, or in lower extremity power; although the NAT group had higher levels on the elasticity index, squat jumps (SJs), and counter movement jumps (CMJs) compared with the INT group. The RANK1-50 group had a lower biceps skinfold (p RANK1-50 group. Moderate to large significant correlations were obtained between the surfers' ranking position and some skinfolds, the sum of skinfolds, and vertical jump. Results demonstrate that surfers' physical performance seems to be an accurate indicator of ranking positioning, also revealing that vertical jump capacity and anthropometric variables play an important role in their competitive performance, which may be important when considering their power training.

  1. Search for positive parity bands in 117Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Sun, X.; Zhou, X.; Lei, X.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, H.; Pan, Q.; Guo, Y.; Chen, X.; Luo, Y.; Wen, S.; Yuan, G.; Yang, C.; Luo, W.; Chen, Y.S.; Xing, Z.; Chen, X.Q.

    1995-01-01

    Excited states of 117 Xe were populated via the reaction 28 Si+ 92 Mo at 100-120MeV. More than 40 new γ-transitions and three new positive parity bands have been observed by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. The previously known νh 11/2 bands were confirmed, and the νg 7/2 favored band was extended up to 47/2 + in which two bandcrossings have been observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44MeV, respectively. The band structures have been discussed by means of TRS and CSM calculations. A newly observed rotational band consisting of five γ-transitions has been considered as the πh 11/2 band of 117 Cs. ((orig.))

  2. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LOCALIZED MUSCLE FATIGUE ON KNEE POSITION SENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Gear

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001. Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02 and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02. Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue.

  3. Positive Health and Financial Practices: Does Budgeting Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Xiao, Jing Jian; Ensle, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This study explored relationships between the practice of following a hand-written or computer-generated budget and the frequency of performance of positive personal health and financial practices. Data were collected from an online quiz completed by 942 adults, providing a simultaneous assessment of individuals' health and financial practices.…

  4. The Art of Coping with a Craniofacial Difference: Helping Others through “Positive Exposure”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Johanna; Sutton, Erica; Guidotti, Rick; Shapiro, Kristin; Ball, Karen; McLean, Diane; Biesecker, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Finding ways to cope with social stigmatization is an important aspect of achieving adaptation for people living with visible genetic differences. This study describes the way individuals with craniofacial differences use an innovative photography and video experience with Positive Exposure (PE), a non-profit organization based in New York City, as a way to cope with their conditions. Thirty-five individuals between 12 and 61 years of age participated in this study. We administered surveys comprised of open-ended qualitative questions and quantitative measures designed to assess self-esteem, perceived stigma, and hopefulness. Data for this analysis was generated from the written questionnaires and interview transcripts. Most participants reported high levels of self-esteem and hopefulness, suggesting that they were relatively well adapted to their condition. Almost all participants described experiences of stigmatization throughout their lives. However, participants demonstrated their ability to implement a variety of coping strategies to manage stigma. ‘Helping others’ emerged as a prominent strategy among participants, aiding in the often lifelong process of adapting to their genetic difference. PE was described as an avenue through which participants could reach out to individuals and society at large, helping them adapt further to their condition. ‘Helping others’ may also benefit individuals with craniofacial differences who do not consider themselves to be well adapted to their condition. Health care providers can collaborate with PE, advocacy groups and other community or support groups to identify additional ways individuals with craniofacial differences can help themselves by reaching out to others. PMID:18478594

  5. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  6. Spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in different topographic positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane de Figueiredo Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of soil CO2 emission is controlled by several properties related to the production and transport of CO2 inside the soil. Considering that soil properties are also influenced by topography, the objective of this work was to investigate the spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in three different topographic positions in an area cultivated with sugarcane, just after mechanical harvest. One location was selected on a concave-shaped form and two others on linear-shaped form (in back-slope and foot-slope. Three grids were installed, one in each location, containing 69 points and measuring 90 x 90 m each. The spatial variability of soil CO2 emission was characterized by means of semivariance. Spatial variability models derived from soil CO2 emission were exponential in the concave location while spherical models fitted better in the linear shaped areas. The degree of spatial dependence was moderate in all cases and the range of spatial dependence for the CO2 emission in the concave area was 44.5 m, higher than the mean value obtained for the linear shaped areas (20.65 m. The spatial distribution maps of soil CO2 emission indicate a higher discontinuity of emission in the linear form when compared to the concave form.

  7. Effects on Subtalar Joint Stress Distribution After Cannulated Screw Insertion at Different Positions and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cheng-song; Chen, Wan; Chen, Chen; Yang, Guang-hua; Hu, Chao; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects on subtalar joint stress distribution after cannulated screw insertion at different positions and directions. After establishing a 3-dimensional geometric model of a normal subtalar joint, we analyzed the most ideal cannulated screw insertion position and approach for subtalar joint stress distribution and compared the differences in loading stress, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength among lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion, traditional screw insertion, and ideal cannulated screw insertion. The screw insertion approach allowing the most uniform subtalar joint loading stress distribution was lateral screw insertion near the border of the talar neck plus medial screw insertion close to the ankle joint. For stress distribution uniformity, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength, lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was superior to traditional double-screw insertion. Compared with ideal cannulated screw insertion, slightly poorer stress distribution uniformity and better antirotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength were observed for lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion. Traditional single-screw insertion was better than double-screw insertion for stress distribution uniformity but worse for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was slightly worse for stress distribution uniformity than was ideal cannulated screw insertion but superior to traditional screw insertion. It was better than both ideal cannulated screw insertion and traditional screw insertion for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion is an approach with simple localization, convenient operation, and good safety. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. IMPACT OF ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS SYMBOL IN PRODUCING FAVORABLE ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas NASERI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on religion and advertisement led to the identification of three lines of studies examining the influence of religion on advertising. These three lines of studies focused on attitude toward advertising of controversial products, presence of religious values in advertisements executions, and the consumers’ reactions to advertisement containing religious cues or symbols. The latter line has been followed modestly in Christian context but not in Islamic context of advertising. Hijab as a significant religious cue might peripherally generates a favorable attitude toward advertisement among Muslims. It is suggested that information processing theories like Elaboration Likelihood Model provides a pertinent theoretical framework to examine this effect empirically.

  9. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-06-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  10. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  11. The prognostic value of Her4 receptor isoform expression in triple-negative and Her2 positive breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machleidt, Anna; Buchholz, Stefan; Diermeier-Daucher, Simone; Zeman, Florian; Ortmann, Olaf; Brockhoff, Gero

    2013-01-01

    Not only four but rather seven different human epidermal growth factor receptor related (Her) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been described to be expressed in a variety of normal and neoplastic tissues: Her1, Her2, Her3, and additionally four Her4 isoforms have been identified. A differential expression of Her4 isoforms does not, however, play any role in either the molecular diagnostics or treatment decision for breast cancer patients. The prognostic and predictive impact of Her4 expression in breast cancer is basically unclear. We quantified the Her4 variants JM-a/CYT1, JM-a/CYT2, JM-b/CYT1, and JM-b/CYT2 by isoform-specific polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in (i) triple-negative, (ii) Her2 positive breast cancer tissues and (iii) in benign breast tissues. In all three tissue collectives we never found the JM-b/CYT1 or the JM-b/CYT2 isoform expressed. In contrast, the two JM-a/CYT1 and JM-a/CYT2 isoforms were always simultaneously expressed but at different ratios. We identified a positive prognostic impact on overall survival (OS) in triple-negative and event-free survival (EFS) in Her2 positive patients. This finding is independent of the absolute JM-a/CYT1 to JM-a/CYT2 expression ratio. In Her2 positive patients, Her4 expression only has a favorable effect in estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive but not in ER-negative individuals. In summary, JM-a/CYT1 and JM-a/CYT2 but not JM-b isoforms of the Her4 receptor are simultaneously expressed in both triple-negative and Her2 positive breast cancer tissues. Although different expression ratios of the two JM-a isoforms did not reveal any additional information, Her4 expression basically indicates a prolonged EFS and OFS. An extended expression analysis that takes all Her receptor homologs, including the Her4 isoforms, into account might render more precisely the molecular diagnostics required for the development of optimized targeted therapies

  12. Cardiac effects of electrical stun guns: does position of barbs contact make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Wallick, Donald; Verma, Atul; Ryschon, Kay; Kowalewski, William; Wazni, Oussama; Butany, Jagdish; Martin, David; Tchou, Patrick J

    2008-04-01

    The use of electrical stun guns has been rising among law enforcement authorities for subduing violent subjects. Multiple reports have raised concerns over their safety. The cardiovascular safety profile of these devices in relationship to the position of delivery on the torso has not been well studied. We tested 13 adult pigs using a custom device built to deliver neuromuscular incapacitating (NMI) discharge of increasing intensity that matched the waveform of a commercially available stun gun (TASER(R) X-26, TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ, USA). Discharges with increasing multiples of output capacitances were applied in a step-up and step-down fashion, using two-tethered barbs at five locations: (1) Sternal notch to cardiac apex (position-1), (2) sternal notch to supraumbilical area (position-2), (3) sternal notch to infraumbilical area (position-3), (4) side to side on the chest (position-4), and (5) upper to lower mid-posterior torso (position-5). Endpoints included determination of maximum safe multiple (MaxSM), ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and minimum ventricular fibrillation induction multiple (MinVFIM). Standard TASER discharges repeated three times did not cause ventricular fibrillation (VF) at any of the five locations. When the barbs were applied in the axis of the heart (position-1), MaxSM and MinVFIM were significantly lower than when applied away from the heart, on the dorsum (position-5) (4.31 +/- 1.11 vs 40.77 +/- 9.54, P< 0.001 and 8.31 +/- 2.69 vs 50.77 +/- 9.54, P< 0.001, respectively). The values of these endpoints at position-2, position-3, and position-4 were progressively higher and ranged in between those of position-1 and position-5. Presence of ventricular capture at a 2:1 ratio to the delivered TASER impulses correlated with induction of VF. No significant metabolic changes were seen after standard NMI TASER discharge. There was no evidence of myocardial damage based on serum cardiac markers, electrocardiography

  13. Quantum wave packet revival in two-dimensional circular quantum wells with position-dependent mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G.M. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, Volta Redonda RJ, CEP 27255-125 (Brazil)], E-mail: agmschmidt@gmail.com; Azeredo, Abel D. [Departamento de Fisica-Universidade Federal de Roraima, Av. Cap. Ene Garcez 2413, Boa Vista RR, CEP 69304-000 (Brazil)], E-mail: aazeredo@gmail.com; Gusso, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas-Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, Ilheus BA, CEP 45662-000 (Brazil)], E-mail: agusso@uesc.br

    2008-04-14

    We study quantum wave packet revivals on two-dimensional infinite circular quantum wells (CQWs) and circular quantum dots with position-dependent mass (PDM) envisaging a possible experimental realization. We consider CQWs with radially varying mass, addressing particularly the cases where M(r){proportional_to}r{sup w} with w=1,2, or -2. The two PDM Hamiltonians currently allowed by theory were analyzed and we were able to construct a strong theoretical argument favoring one of them.

  14. [Who is against prevention? A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  15. CD73 Predicts Favorable Prognosis in Patients with Nonmuscle-Invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian S. Wettstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. CD73 is a membrane associated 5′-ectonucleotidase that has been proposed as prognostic biomarker in various solid tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate CD73 expression in a cohort of patients with primary bladder cancer in regard to its association with clinicopathological features and disease course. Methods. Tissue samples from 174 patients with a primary urothelial carcinoma were immunohistochemically assessed on a tissue microarray. Associations between CD73 expression and retrospectively obtained clinicopathological data were evaluated by contingency analysis. Survival analysis was performed to investigate the predictive value of CD73 within the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors in regard to progression-free survival (PFS. Results. High CD73 expression was found in 46 (26.4% patients and was significantly associated with lower stage, lower grade, less adjacent carcinoma in situ and with lower Ki-67 proliferation index. High CD73 immunoreactivity in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors (n=158 was significantly associated with longer PFS (HR: 0.228; p=0.047 in univariable Cox regression analysis. Conclusion. High CD73 immunoreactivity was associated with favorable clinicopathological features. Furthermore, it predicts better outcome in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors and may thus serve as additional tool for the selection of patients with favorable prognosis.

  16. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare

  17. Sex differences in the branching position of the nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle: an anatomical study of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Daisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Hayashi, Shogo; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Ohmichi, Mika; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADMM nerve) is the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve or originates directly from the posterior tibial nerve. Damage to the ADMM nerve is a cause of heel pain and eventually results in ADMM atrophy. It is known that ADMM atrophy occurs more often in females than in males, and the reason remains unclear. This study aimed to explore sex differences in the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. Forty-two cadavers (20 males, 22 females) were dissected at Aichi Medical University between 2011 and 2015. Cases of foot deformity or atrophy were excluded and 67 ft (30 male, 37 female) were examined to assess the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. The branching positions of the ADMM nerve were superior to the malleolar-calcaneal axis (MCA) in 37 ft (55 %), on the MCA in 10 ft (15 %), and inferior to the MCA in 20 ft (30 %). There was no case among male feet in which the ADMM nerve branched inferior to the MCA, whereas this pattern was observed in 19 of 37 female feet (51 %). The branching position of the ADMM nerve was significantly closer to the MCA in female feet than in male feet. There were no significant sex differences in the branching pattern and angle of the ADMM nerve. The ADMM nerve sometimes branches off inferior to the MCA in females, but not in males. This difference may be the reason for the more frequent occurrence of ADMM atrophy in females than in males.

  18. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants' ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as 'encouragement' for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, 'playfulness' for amusement, joy, interest, and 'harmony' for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions.

  19. The difference in centre position in the ACL femoral footprint inclusive and exclusive of the fan-like extension fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the centre position of each anterior cruciate ligament bundle in its femoral footprint in measurements including and excluding the fan-like extension fibres. Fourteen non-paired human cadaver knees were used. All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ligaments. The ACL was divided into antero-medial (AM) and postero-lateral (PL) bundles according to the difference in tension patterns. The ACL was carefully dissected, and two outlines were made of the periphery of each bundle insertion site: those which included and those which excluded the fan-like extension fibres. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle was photographed with a digital camera, and the images were downloaded to a personal computer. The centre position of each bundle, including and excluding the fan-like extension fibres, was measured with ImageJ software (National Institution of Health). Evaluation of the centre position was performed using the modified quadrant method. The centre of the femoral AM bundle including the fan-like extension was located at 28.8% in a shallow-deep direction and 37.2% in a high-low direction. When the AM bundle was evaluated without the fan-like extension, the centre was significantly different at 34.6% in a shallow-deep direction (p = 0.000) and 36% in a high-low direction. The centre of the PL bundle including the fan-like extension was found at 37.1% in a shallow-deep direction and 73.4% in a high-low direction. When the PL bundle was evaluated without the fan-like extension, the centre was significantly different at 42.7% in a shallow-deep direction (p = 0.000) and 69.3% in a high-low direction (p = 0.000). The centre position of the AM and PL bundles in the femoral ACL footprint was significantly different depending on the inclusion or exclusion of the fan-like extension fibres. For the clinical relevance, to reproduce the direct femoral insertion in the anatomical ACL reconstruction, tunnels should be

  20. "Grupo" de artesanato: espaço favorável à promoção da saúde mental "Grupo" de artesanía: espacio favorable a la promoción de la salud mental Artisan group: a favorable space promoting mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Glaciela da Cruz Scardoelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizado em um grupo de artesanato de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do município de Maringá - PR, no período de março a agosto de 2009. Objetivou-se compreender os motivos de inserção de mulheres no grupo de artesanato. Para coleta de dados utilizaram-se a observação participante e entrevista aberta. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 11 mulheres. Os dados foram analisados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo, de onde emergiram três categorias: Propiciando a promoção da saúde mental; Encontrando um espaço que promove a fala, a escuta e a partilha e; Buscando um espaço de ensino/aprendizado. Observamos que participar do grupo vem contribuindo para melhoria da qualidade de vida destas mulheres que se encontravam em situação de sofrimento emocional, oferecendo condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento do ponto de vista psicossocial.Estudio descriptivo de abordaje cualitativo, realizado en un grupo de artesanía de una Unidad Básica de Salud del municipio de Maringá - PR, durante el periodo de marzo a agosto de 2009. El objetivo fue comprender los motivos de inserción de mujeres en el grupo de artesanía. Para la colecta de datos, se utilizó la observación participativa y una entrevista abierta realizada a domicilio. Los sujetos del estudio fueron 11 mujeres. Los datos fueron analizados según la técnica de análisis de contenido, de donde emergieron tres categorías: Proporcionar la promoción de la salud mental; Búsqueda de un espacio para hablar, escuchar y compartir y; Búsqueda de un espacio de educación/aprendizado. Observamos que la participación del grupo viene contribuyendo para la mejoría de la calidad de vida de estas mujeres que se encontraban en situación de sufrimiento emocional, ofreciendo condiciones favorables para su desarrollo psicosocial.Current paper deals with a descriptive study based on a qualitative approach with regard to an artisan group of a Health

  1. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  2. Modern trends in position-sensitive neutron detectors development for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belushkin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Detecting neutrons is a more complicated task compared to the detection of ionizing particles or ionizing radiation. This is why the variety of neutron detectors is much more limited. Meanwhile, different types of neutron experiments pose specific and often contradictory requirements for detector characteristics. For experiments on the high-intensity neutron sources, the high counting rate is one of the key issues. This is very important, for example, for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry. For other experiments, characteristics like detection efficiency, high position resolution, high time resolution, neutron/gamma discrimination, large-area imaging, or compactness, are very important. Today, the cost of the detector also became one of the most important factors. There is no single type of detector which satisfies all the above criteria. Therefore, compromise is inevitable and some of the characteristics are trade off in favor of others. The present report gives an overview of detector systems presently operating at the leading neutron scattering facilities as well as some development work around the globe

  3. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varó, I.; Redón, S.; Garcia-Roger, E.M.; Amat, F.; Guinot, D.; Serrano, R.; Navarro, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  5. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  6. Objective classification of different head and neck positions and their influence on the radiographic pharyngeal diameter in sport horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Various head and neck positions in sport horses are significant as they can interfere with upper airway flow mechanics during exercise. Until now, research has focused on subjectively described head and neck positions. The objective of this study was to develop an objective, reproducible method for quantifying head and neck positions accurately. Results Determining the angle between the ridge of the nose and the horizontal plane (ground angle) together with the angle between the ridge of nose and the line connecting the neck and the withers (withers angle) has provided values that allow precise identification of three preselected head and neck positions for performing sport horses. The pharyngeal diameter, determined on lateral radiographs of 35 horses, differed significantly between the established flexed position and the remaining two head and neck positions (extended and neutral). There was a significant correlation between the pharyngeal diameter and the ground angle (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient −0.769, p horses. The ground angle and the withers angle show significant correlation with the measured pharyngeal diameter in resting horses. Hence, these angles provide an appropriate method for assessing the degree of head and neck flexion. Further research is required to examine the influence of increasing head and neck flexion and the related pharyngeal diameter on upper airway function in exercising horses. PMID:24886564

  7. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  8. The effects of intraoperative positioning on patients undergoing early definitive care for femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostle, K L; Lefaivre, K A; Guy, P; Broekhuyse, H M; Blachut, P A; O'Brien, P J; Meek, R N

    2009-10-01

    To determine if there is a difference in morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients with femoral shaft fractures undergoing early definitive care with intramedullary (IM) nails in the supine versus the lateral position. Retrospective cohort study, single centered. One level 1 trauma center. Nine hundred eighty-eight patients representing 1027 femoral shaft fractures treated with IM nails were identified through a prospectively gathered database between 1987 and 2006. Antegrade IM nail insertion with reaming of the femoral canal in either the supine or lateral position. Mortality was the primary outcome. Admission to intensive care unit (ICU) was the secondary outcome measure and a surrogate measure of morbidity. Literature review was performed to identify factors shown to contribute to morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients. Intraoperative position in either the supine or lateral position was added to this list. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the magnitude and effect of the independent variables on each of the study end points. To determine if a more significant trend toward less favorable outcomes was observed with increasing severity of injury, particularly injuries of the chest and thorax, subgroup analysis was performed for all those with a femur fracture and an Injury Severity Score > or =18 and all those with a femur fracture and an Abbreviated Injury Score chest > or =3. Intraoperative position in either the supine or lateral position was not a significant predictor of mortality or ICU admission for the original cohort or the subgroup of Injury Severity Score > or =18. However, for the subgroup of Abbreviated Injury Score chest > or =3, intraoperative positioning in the lateral position had a statistically significant protective effect against ICU admission (P = 0.044). For polytrauma patients with femoral shaft fractures, surgical stabilization using IM nails inserted with reaming of the femoral canal in

  9. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  10. Negative Symptom Dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Across Geographical Regions: Implications for Social, Linguistic, and Cultural Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions are understood across localities might result in better understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15 geographical regions to determine whether the items defining them manifest similar reliability across these regions. Design: Data were obtained for the baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale visits of 6,889 subjects across 15 geographical regions. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether a two-factor negative symptom structure that is found in schizophrenia (experiential deficits and expressive deficits) would be replicated in our sample, and using differential item functioning, we tested the degree to which specific items from each negative symptom subfactor performed across geographical regions in comparison with the United States. Results: The two-factor negative symptom solution was replicated in this sample. Most geographical regions showed moderate-to-large differential item functioning for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive deficit items, especially N3 Poor Rapport, as compared with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale experiential deficit items, showing that these items might be interpreted or scored differently in different regions. Across countries, except for India, the differential item functioning values did not favor raters in the United States. Conclusion: These results suggest that the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor can be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor model. Additionally, the results show significant differences in responses to items representing the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive

  11. Positive Feedback From Male Authority Figures Boosts Women's Math Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Ward, Deborah E; Streamer, Lindsey

    2018-03-01

    People often search for cues in the environment to determine whether or not they will be judged or treated negatively based on their social identities. Accordingly, feedback from gatekeepers-members of majority groups who hold authority and power in a field-may be an especially important cue for those at risk of experiencing social identity threat, such as women in math settings. Across a series of studies, women who received positive ("Good job!") versus objective (score only) feedback from a male (vs. female) authority figure in math reported greater confidence; belonging; self-efficacy; more favorable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) attitudes/identification/interest; and greater implicit identification with math. Men were affected only by the type of math feedback they received, not by the source of feedback. A meta-analysis across studies confirmed results. Together, these findings suggest that positive feedback from gatekeepers is an important situational cue that can improve the outcomes of negatively stereotyped groups.

  12. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J.; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  13. Comparative study of potential whiplash injuries for different occupant seated positions during rear end accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerović, Senad; Tomasch, Ernst; Gutsche, Andreas J; Prebil, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Whiplash injuries to the cervical spine represent a considerable economic burden on society with medical conditions, in some cases persisting for more than a year. Numerous studies of whiplash injuries have been made for occupant normal seated position, leaving the analysis of neck injuries for out-of-normal positions not well documented. For that purpose, a detailed human cervical spine finite element model was developed. The analysis was made for four most common occupant seated positions, such as: Normal Position with the torso against the seat back and the head looking straight ahead, Torso Lean forward position with the torso away from the seat back for approximately 10°, Head Flexed position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° from the normal position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° and torso 10° from the normal position. The comparative study included the analysis of capsular ligament deformation and the level of S-curvature of the cervical spine. The model developed predicted that Head Flexed seated position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position are most threatening for upper and lower cervical spine capsular ligament, respectively. As for the level of S-curvature, the model predicted that Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position would be most prone to neck injuries associated with it. This study demonstrated that the occupant seated position has a significant influence on potential whiplash injuries.

  14. Oral terbinafine and itraconazole treatments against dermatophytes appear not to favor the establishment of Fusarium spp. in nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Julie; Bontems, Olympia; Baudraz-Rosselet, Florence; Monod, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium onychomycoses are weakly responsive or unresponsive to standard onychomycosis treatments with oral terbinafine and itraconazole. To examine whether the use of terbinafine and itraconazole, which are highly effective in fighting Trichophyton onychomycoses, could be a cause of the high incidence of Fusarium nail infections. Polymerase chain reaction methods were used to detect both Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton spp. in nails of patients who had either received treatment previously or not. No significant microbiological differences were found between treated and untreated patients. In 24 of 79 cases (30%), Fusarium spp. was detected in samples of patients having had no previous antifungal therapy and when Trichophyton spp. grew in culture. Oral terbinafine and itraconazole treatments do not appear to favor the establishment of Fusarium spp. in onychomycosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Comparison of the effect of labiolingual inclination and anteroposterior position of maxillary incisors on esthetic profile in three different facial patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirivella, Praveen; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Mandava, Prasad; Reddy, V Karunakar; Neravati, Jeevan Kumar; George, Suja Ani

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that there is no effect of esthetic perception of smiling profile in three different facial types by a change in the maxillary incisor inclination and position. Materials and Methods: A smiling profile photograph with Class I skeletal and dental pattern, normal profile were taken in each of the three facial types dolichofacial, mesofacial, and brachyfacial. Based on the original digital image, 15 smiling profiles in each of the facial types were created using the FACAD software by altering the labiolingual inclination and anteroposterior position of the maxillary incisors. These photographs were rated on a visual analog scale by three panels of examiners consisting of orthodontists, dentists, and nonprofessionals with twenty members in each group. The responses were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by post hoc Scheffe. Results: Significant differences (P esthetics. The result of the ANOVA showed differences among the three groups for certain facial profiles. Conclusion: The hypothesis was rejected. The esthetic perception of labiolingual inclination and anteroposterior of maxillary incisors differ in different facial types, and this may effect in formulating treatment plans for different facial types. PMID:28197396

  16. Age group differences in positive and negative affect among oldest-old adults: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W; MacDonald, M; Jazwinski, S M; Green, R C; Gearing, M; Johnson, M A; Markesbery, W R; Woodard, J L; Tenover, J S; Siegler, L C; Rott, C; Rodgers, W L; Hausman, D; Arnold, J; Davey, A

    2013-01-01

    The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002) provides insights into how current experiences and resources (proximal variables) and past experiences (distal variables) are correlated with outcomes (e.g., well-being) in later life. Applying this model, the current study examined proximal and distal variables associated with positive and negative affect in oldest-old adults, investigating age differences. Data from 306 octogenarians and centenarians who participated in Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study were used. Proximal variables included physical functioning, cognitive functioning, self-rated health, number of chronic conditions, social resources, and perceived economic status; distal variables included education, social productive activities, management of personal assets, and other learning experiences. Analysis of variance and block-wise regression analyses were conducted. Octogenarians showed significantly higher levels of positive emotion than centenarians. Cognitive functioning was significantly associated with positive affect, and number of health problems was significantly associated with negative affect after controlling for gender, ethnicity, residence, and marital status. Furthermore, four significant interaction effects suggested that positive affect significantly depended on the levels of cognitive and physical functioning among centenarians, whereas positive affect was dependent on the levels of physical health problems and learning experiences among octogenarians. Findings of this study addressed the importance of current and past experiences and resources in subjective well-being among oldest-old adults as a life-long process. Mechanisms connecting aging processes at the end of a long life to subjective well-being should be explored in future studies.

  17. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E. [Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen, NV (Denmark); Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  18. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D.; Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E.; Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B.; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  19. Subcellular location of astrocytic calcium stores favors extrasynaptic neuron-astrocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrushev, Ilya; Gavrilov, Nikolay; Turlapov, Vadim; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Neuron-astrocyte interactions are important for brain computations and synaptic plasticity. Perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs) contain a high density of transporters that are responsible for neurotransmitter clearance. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are thought to trigger Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores in PAPs in response to synaptic activity. Our ultrastructural study revealed that PAPs are actually devoid of Ca(2+) stores and have a high surface-to-volume ratio favorable for uptake. Astrocytic processes containing Ca(2+) stores were located further away from the synapses and could therefore respond to changes in ambient glutamate. Thus, the anatomic data do not support communication involving Ca(2+) stores in tripartite synapses, but rather point to extrasynaptic communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Preat, Thomas

    2013-01-25

    The brain regulates energy homeostasis in the organism. Under resource shortage, the brain takes priority over peripheral organs for energy supply. But can the brain also down-regulate its own consumption to favor survival? We show that the brain of Drosophila specifically disables the costly formation of aversive long-term memory (LTM) upon starvation, a physiological state required for appetitive LTM formation. At the neural circuit level, the slow oscillations normally triggered in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons to enable aversive LTM formation were abolished in starved flies. Transient artificial activation of these neurons during training restored LTM formation in starved flies but at the price of a reduced survival. LTM formation is thus subject to adaptive plasticity that helps survival under food shortage.

  1. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  2. Collective Nostalgia Is Associated With Stronger Outgroup-Directed Anger and Participation in Ingroup-Favoring Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Cheung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.

  3. [Mes differ by positioning: empirical testing of decentralized dynamics of the self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shinichi

    2013-10-01

    The present study empirically tested the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self proposed by Hermans & Kempen (1993), which they developed theoretically and from clinical cases, not from large samples of empirical data. They posited that worldviews and images of the self could vary by positioning even in the same individual, and denied that the ego was an omniscient entity that knew and controlled all aspects of the self (centralized ego). Study 1 tested their conceptualization empirically with 47 university students in an experimental group and 17 as a control group. The results showed that the scores on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and images of the Mes in the experimental group significantly varied by positioning, but those in the control group did not. Similar results were found in Study 2 with a sample of 120 university students. These results empirically supported the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self.

  4. Transcriptome changes favoring intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J; Bong, J; Kim, G D; Joo, S T; Lee, H-J; Baik, M

    2013-10-01

    Castration increases intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. The present study was performed to determine the global transcriptome changes following castration of bulls and to identify genes associated with IMF deposition in the longissimus dorsi (LM) of Korean cattle. A customized bovine CombiMatrix oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, and transcriptome changes following castration were determined by microarray hybridization. Transcriptome comparison between bulls and steers indicated that 428 of 8,407 genes were differentially expressed in the LM by greater than two fold (P castration. Castration upregulated transcription of adipogenic perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and visfatin, lipogenic fatty acid synthase, fatty acid esterification 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5, and many fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Many TCA cycle and OP genes were also transcriptionally upregulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the IMF content in the LM was highly correlated with mRNA levels of PLIN2 (r = 0.70, P castration shifts transcription of lipid metabolism genes, favoring IMF deposition by increasing adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis. This study also indicated that castration increases transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and subsequent energy production (TCA and OP genes). Our microarray analysis provided novel information that castration alters the transcriptome associated with lipid/energy metabolism, favoring IMF deposition in the LM.

  5. Social position and health in old age: the relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Osler, Merete

    2003-01-01

    for men and women. In men the odds ratios of housing tenure on four health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation while in women the odds ratios of income on three health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates strong......AIMS: An analysis was undertaken to investigate social inequalities in health among old men and women in relation to five indicators of social position. METHODS: The study is based on a population-based cross-sectional survey among 748 75-year-old men and women, which was performed as clinical......, consistent associations between variables of material wealth indicators and various measures of health among 75-year-old men and women....

  6. International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care Position Statement: Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, Liliana; Woodruff, Roger; Pettus, Katherine; Downing, Julia; Buitrago, Rosa; Munyoro, Esther; Venkateswaran, Chitra; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Radbruch, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Reports about regulations and laws on Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) are becoming increasingly common in the media. Many groups have expressed opposition to euthanasia and PAS while those in favor argue that severely chronically ill and debilitated patients have a right to control the timing and manner of their death. Others argue that both PAS and euthanasia are ethically legitimate in rare and exceptional cases. Given that these discussions as well as the new and proposed laws and regulations may have a powerful impact on patients, caregivers, and health care providers, the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) has prepared this statement. To describe the position of the IAHPC regarding Euthanasia and PAS. The IAHPC formed a working group (WG) of seven board members and two staff officers who volunteered to participate in this process. An online search was performed using the terms "position statement", "euthanasia" "assisted suicide" "PAS" to identify existing position statements from health professional organizations. Only statements from national or pan-national associations were included. Statements from seven general medical and nursing associations and statements from seven palliative care organizations were identified. A working document including a summary of the different position statements was prepared and based on these, an initial draft was prepared. Online discussions among the members of the WG took place for a period of three months. The differences were reconciled by email discussions. The resulting draft was shared with the full board. Additional comments and suggestions were incorporated. This document represents the final version approved by the IAHPC Board of Directors. IAHPC believes that no country or state should consider the legalization of euthanasia or PAS until it ensures universal access to palliative care services and to appropriate medications, including opioids for pain and dyspnea. In

  7. Vicious circles of gender bias, lower positions, and lower performance: Gender differences in scholarly productivity and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, Peter; Sandström, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that female researchers publish on average less than male researchers do, but male and female authored papers have an equal impact. In this paper we try to better understand this phenomenon by (i) comparing the share of male and female researchers within different productivity classes, and (ii) by comparing productivity whereas controlling for a series of relevant covariates. The study is based on a disambiguated Swedish author dataset, consisting of 47,000 researchers and their WoS-publications during the period of 2008-2011 with citations until 2015. As the analysis shows, in order to have impact quantity does make a difference for male and female researchers alike-but women are vastly underrepresented in the group of most productive researchers. We discuss and test several possible explanations of this finding, using a data on personal characteristics from several Swedish universities. Gender differences in age, authorship position, and academic rank do explain quite a part of the productivity differences.

  8. Kangaroo supported diagonal flexion positioning: New insights into skin-to-skin contact for communication between mothers and very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, A; Carchon, I; Apter, G; Laborne, F X; Granier, M; Devouche, E

    2016-09-01

    Skin-to-skin contact shows benefits in the relationship developed between a mother and her premature infant. In the skin-to-skin session, face-to-face exchanges are impossible in vertical infant positioning. We therefore undertook an observational, prospective, single-center study using kangaroo "supported diagonal flexion" (SDF) positioning. The first aim was to evaluate the safety of kangaroo SDF positioning compared to the usual vertical positioning. The second aim was to evaluate SDF positioning on early communication between the mother and her infant and to improve their well-being. Fifteen mothers and their very premature infants (birth 26communication with their infant were assessed through questionnaires. In terms of the infant's physiology, no negative effects were associated with SDF positioning in comparison with the usual vertical positioning. SDF positioning led to fewer disorganized gestures, negative vocalizations, and drowsiness, in favor of more deep sleep. SDF led to more mother-infant eye-to-eye contact as well as maternal vocalizations, smiles, and caressing, although these differences did not reach significance. The score for the risk of postnatal depression decreased significantly between the first and the last session in the SDF group, whereas it did not change in the vertical positioning group. These results support the idea that the kangaroo SDF positioning technique is physiologically safe, has obvious immediate benefits on mothers' infant-directed communicative behaviors, and respects the baby's naturally flexed and asymmetrical tonic neck posture. It is an innovative, inexpensive, easy-to-use technique in daily practice, by all healthcare professionals working in a neonatal intensive care unit. These data suggest that the current kangaroo positioning technique could be improved. More studies are needed to confirm the benefits and safety of the kangaroo SDF positioning in larger groups of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  9. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchnowska, Renata; Loibl, Sibylle; Jassem, Jacek

    2018-06-01

    Approximately 30-50% of advanced HER2-positive breast cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases, with an annual risk of around 10%, and a half of them will die from brain progression. An increased risk of brain metastases is also seen in patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer administered curative therapy. Brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients usually constitute the first site of recurrence. The administration of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, trastuzumab and pertuzumab, considerably delays the onset of symptomatic brain disease: however, the limited penetration of these compounds into the CNS hinders their efficacy. The small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptors family have established activity in HER2-positive breast cancer in both advanced disease and neoadjuvant setting. Favorable physico-chemical properties of these compounds allow them for a more efficient penetration through the blood-brain barrier, and hold the promise for more effective prevention and treatment of brain metastases. In this article we review the role of currently available or investigational HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors: lapatinib, neratinib, afatinib and tucatinib in the treatment of brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  11. Women's access to managerial positions: an experimental study of leadership styles and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Isabel; Morales, J Francisco; Recio, Patricia

    2008-05-01

    This study attempts to test one of the explanations of the scarce representation of women in managerial positions, specifically the one advanced by "role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders" (Eagly & Karau, 2002), which appeals to the fact that women get unfavorable evaluations if they adopt male-stereotypical leadership styles. One-hundred and thirty-six undergraduate students participated in an experiment with a 2 (Male-stereotypical vs. Female-stereotypical leadership style) x 2 (Male vs. Female leader) design. Dependent variables were leader's competence, efficacy, and evaluation in a series of traits. It was found that, regardless of sex, the leaders were considered more competent and efficient, and were evaluated more favorably, when they adopted stereotypically feminine leadership styles. Implications of these findings for women's underrepresentation as leaders in management top positions worldwide are discussed.

  12. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  13. Criteria for uranium occurrences in Saskatchewan and Australia as guides to favorability for similar deposits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, J.; Langford, F.F.; Ojakangas, R.W.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explain the occurrence of the large uranium deposits that have been found in northern Saskatchewan and the Northern Territory of Australia, to provide criteria to evaluate the favorability of Proterozoic rocks in the United States for similar deposits. All of these deposits belong to the class known as the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits. Chapters are devoted to: uranium deposits in Saskatchewan; uranium deposits of the Darwin and Arnhem Land area, Northern Territory of Australia; model for the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits; and evaluation of the geology of selected states for its favorability for Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits

  14. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, BoKyung; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people’s immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets’ ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. PMID:26342220

  15. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Some Common Issues and the Application of more Favorable Criminal Law for Crimes against the Person according to the New Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the main common issues of crimes against the person, and some other situations of more favorable criminal law enforcement. The innovations consist in the conducted examination and the views expressed on some situations in which the more favorable criminal law should be applied. The main change with a strong preventive feature is to introduce the two institutions, namely, the renunciation of applying the punishment and postponing the punishment, which generally is given a favoring regime to physical or legal entities being at their first conflict with the law or in the case of committing crimes whose seriousness is reduced. The paper continues other papers published in the field, and it can be useful both to academics and practitioners in the domain of preventing and combating crime of this kind.

  17. Taking a radical position: Evidence for position specific radical representations in Chinese character recognition using masked priming ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fan eSu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of orthographic representation of Chinese characters, one question that has stimulated much research is whether radicals (character components are specified for spatial position in a character (e.g. Ding, Peng, & Taft, 2004; Tsang & Chen, 2009. Differing from previous work, component or radical position information in this study is conceived in terms of relative frequency across different positions of characters containing it. A lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm focusing on radicals with preferred position of occurrence was conducted. A radical position that encompasses more characters than other positions was identified to be the preferred position of a particular radical. The prime that was exposed for 96ms might share a radical with the target in the same or different positions. Moreover, the shared radical appeared either in its preferred or non-preferred position in the target. While response latencies only revealed the effect of graphical similarity, both effects of graphical similarity and radical position preference were found in the ERP results. The former effect was reflected in greater positivity in occipital P1 and greater negativity in N400 for radicals in different positions in prime and target characters. The latter effect manifested as greater negativity in occipital N170 and greater positivity in frontal P200 in the same time window elicited by radicals in their non-preferred position. Equally interesting was the reversal of the effect of radical position preference in N400 with greater negativity associated with radicals in preferred position. These findings identify the early ERP components associated with activation of position-specific radical representations in the orthographic lexicon, and reveal the change in the nature of competition from processing at the radical level to the lexical level.

  18. [Favorable Outcome of Hepatosplenic Candidiasis in a Patient with Acute Leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čolović, Nataša; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Suvajdžić, Nada; Djunić, Irena; Tomin, Dragica

    2015-01-01

    Acute leukemias treatment requires strong chemotherapy. Patients that develop bone marrow aplasia become immunocompromised, thus becoming liable to bacterial and fungal infections. Fungal infections caused by Candida are frequent. Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) is a frequent consequence of invasive candidiasis which is clinically presented with prolonged febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. A 53-year-old patient with acute myeloid leukemia was submitted to standard chemotherapy "3+7" regimen (daunoblastine 80 mg i.v. on days 1 to 3, cytarabine 2 x 170 mg i.v. during 7 days) and achieved complete remission. However, during remission he developed febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed multiple hypodense lesions within the liver and spleen. Haemocultures on fungi were negative. However, seroconversion of biomarkers for invasive fungal infection (FI) (Candida and Aspergillus antigen/Ag and antibody/Ab) indicated possible HSC. Only high positivity of anti-Candida IgG antibodies, positivity of mannan and CT finding we regarded sufficient for the diagnosis and antimycotic therapy.Three months of treatment with different antimycotics were necessary for complete disappearance of both clinical symptoms and CT findings. In patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia IFI has to be strongly suspected. If imaging techniques show multiple hypodense lesions within liver and spleen, HSC has to be taken seriously into consideration. We believe that, along with CT finding, positive laboratory Candida biomarkers (mannan and IgG antibodies) should be considered sufficient for"probable HSC" and commencement of antifungal therapy, which must be long enough, i.e. until complete disappearance of clinical symptoms and CT findings are achieved.

  19. Relationship between goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in football players of different playing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan ÇEKİÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate change according to the playing positions of amateur footballers. Material and Methods: Four hundred and sixty amateur male football players participated in the study (age, 21.72±4.63 years; football experience, 9.24±4.18 years. Footballers were named as the defence (n=199, midfield (n=187 and forward (n=74 according to their playing position. The scores of perceived motivational climate and goal orientation were determined by the Turkish versions of ‘The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire’ and ‘The Perceived Motivation Climate Questionnaire’, which were adopted by Toros (2002. Results: Pearson correlation analyses showed that football experience had no effect on task orientation, ego orientation, mastery climate, and performance climate. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests showed that task orientation and mastery climate scores were higher in defence players than midfield players (p=0.003 vs. p<0.001. Ego orientation and performance climate scores of the midfield and defence players differed in favour of the midfield players (p<0.001 vs. p<0.001. Although there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the scores of task orientation and ego orientation among forward, defence, and midfield players, performance climate scores were higher in forward players than midfield players (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, players who have higher task orientation and mastery climate scores can play as defence players, and other players who have higher ego orientation and performance climate scores can play as midfield players. With the need for more extensive studies to determine the goal orientation and motivational climate scores of forward players, scores that are obtained from questionnaires should be evaluated with physical and physiological tests.

  20. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  1. Favorable glucose tolerance and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in offspring without diabetes mellitus of nonagenarian siblings: the Leiden longevity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozing, Maarten P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Frölich, Marijke; de Goeij, Moniek C M; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Beekman, Marian; Wijsman, Carolien A; Mooijaart, Simon P; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana

    2010-03-01

    To explore measures of metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism in families with exceptional longevity. Case-control study. A university hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. One hundred twenty-one offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who were enriched for familial factors promoting longevity, and 113 of their partners. No subject had diabetes mellitus. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Glucose tolerance was assessed according to a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. The offspring of nonagenarians siblings had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P=.03), similar body composition, lower mean fasting blood glucose levels (4.99 vs 5.16 mmol/L; P=.01), lower mean fasting insulin levels (5.81 vs 6.75 mU/L; P=.04), a higher mean homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (0.78 vs 0.65; P=.02), and a more-favorable glucose tolerance (mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for glucose (13.2 vs 14.3; P=.007) than their partners. No significant differences were observed between the offspring and their partners in beta-cell function (insulogenic index 13.6 vs 12.5; P=.38). Despite similar body composition, the offspring of nonagenarian siblings showed a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and better glucose tolerance than their partners, centralizing the role of favorable glucose metabolism in familial longevity.

  2. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Michaelides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET. The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients ( years, 103 males with MVP (according to echocardiographic study, and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD. Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET while the rest 128 (group B presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60% while only in 14 patients of group B (11%, . Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP.

  3. Comparing Positively and Negatively Charged Distonic Radical Ions in Phenylperoxyl Forming Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peggy E; Marshall, David L; Poad, Berwyck L J; Narreddula, Venkateswara R; Kirk, Benjamin B; Trevitt, Adam J; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2018-06-04

    In the gas phase, arylperoxyl forming reactions play a significant role in low-temperature combustion and atmospheric processing of volatile organic compounds. We have previously demonstrated the application of charge-tagged phenyl radicals to explore the outcomes of these reactions using ion trap mass spectrometry. Here, we present a side-by-side comparison of rates and product distributions from the reaction of positively and negatively charge tagged phenyl radicals with dioxygen. The negatively charged distonic radical ions are found to react with significantly greater efficiency than their positively charged analogues. The product distributions of the anion reactions favor products of phenylperoxyl radical decomposition (e.g., phenoxyl radicals and cyclopentadienone), while the comparable fixed-charge cations yield the stabilized phenylperoxyl radical. Electronic structure calculations rationalize these differences as arising from the influence of the charged moiety on the energetics of rate-determining transition states and reaction intermediates within the phenylperoxyl reaction manifold and predict that this influence could extend to intra-molecular charge-radical separations of up to 14.5 Å. Experimental observations of reactions of the novel 4-(1-carboxylatoadamantyl)phenyl radical anion confirm that the influence of the charge on both rate and product distribution can be modulated by increasing the rigidly imposed separation between charge and radical sites. These findings provide a generalizable framework for predicting the influence of charged groups on polarizable radicals in gas phase distonic radical ions. Graphical Abstract.

  4. Low Ki67/high ATM protein expression in malignant tumors predicts favorable prognosis in a retrospective study of early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaolan; Li, Haocheng; Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Dean, Michelle; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Riabowol, Karl; Magliocco, Anthony M; Morris, Don; Watson, Peter H; Enwere, Emeka K; Bebb, Gwyn; Paterson, Alexander

    2016-12-27

    This study was designed to investigate the combined influence of ATM and Ki67 on clinical outcome in early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer (ES-HPBC), particularly in patients with smaller tumors (ATM and Ki67 proteins using fluorescence and brightfield immunohistochemistry respectively, and quantified their expression with digital image analysis. Data on expression levels were subsequently correlated with clinical outcome. Remarkably, ATM expression was useful to stratify the low Ki67 group into subgroups with better or poorer prognosis. Specifically, in the low Ki67 subgroup defined as having smaller tumors and no positive nodes, patients with high ATM expression showed better outcome than those with low ATM, with estimated survival rates of 96% and 89% respectively at 15 years follow up (p = 0.04). Similarly, low-Ki67 patients with smaller tumors, 1-3 positive nodes and high ATM also had significantly better outcomes than their low ATM counterparts, with estimated survival rates of 88% and 46% respectively (p = 0.03) at 15 years follow up. Multivariable analysis indicated that the combination of high ATM and low Ki67 is prognostic of improved survival, independent of tumor size, grade, and lymph node status (p = 0.02). These data suggest that the prognostic value of Ki67 can be improved by analyzing ATM expression in ES-HPBC.

  5. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  6. Resourcefulness, positive cognitions, relocation controllability and relocation adjustment among older people: a cross-sectional study of cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2013-09-01

    The population of older people in both the United States and Egypt is expected to double by the year 2030. With ageing, chronic illnesses increase and many older people need to relocate to retirement communities. Research has shown that positive cognitions and resourcefulness are positively correlated with adaptive functioning and better adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare relocation controllability, positive cognitions, resourcefulness and relocation adjustment between American and Egyptian older people living in retirement communities. The purpose of this cultural comparison is to gain insight into influencing factors in each culture that might lead to interventions to help relocated older adults in both cultures adjust to their new surroundings. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to compare relocation controllability, positive cognitions, resourcefulness and relocation adjustment of a convenience sample of American older people (n = 104) and a convenience sample of Egyptian older people (n = 94). The study was a secondary analysis of two studies of older people residing in six retirement communities in Northeast Ohio and in five retirement communities in Alexandria, Egypt. Examination of mean scores and standard deviations on the measure of positive cognitions using independent sample t-tests indicated that on average, the American older people reported more positive cognitions (t (131.16) = 11.29, P difference between Egyptians and Americans in resourcefulness (t (174.16) = -0.97, P > 0.05). The results provide direction for the development of positive cognition interventions and engaging older people in the decision-making process to help them to adjust to relocation. Implications for practice.  Positive thinking and resourcefulness training interventions can be used by nurses to help relocated older people to adjust to the stress of relocation to retirement communities. These interventions can be used on primary

  7. Phantom position dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Hanford dosimeter response to its position relative to the phantom and the neutron source has always been recognized. A thorough investigation was performed to quantify dosimeter response according to: (a) dosimeter position on phantom, (b) dosimeter distance from phantom, and (c) angular relationship of dosimeter relative to neutron source and phantom. Results were obtained for neutron irradiation at several different energies

  8. Relative Physical Position as an Impression-Management Strategy: Sex Differences in Its Use and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanova, Anastasia; McNulty, James K; Maner, Jon K

    2017-05-01

    People's physical position relative to others may shape how those others perceive them. The research described here suggests that people use relative physical position to manage impressions by strategically positioning themselves either higher or lower relative to ostensible observers. Five studies supported the prediction that women take and display photographs portraying themselves in a low relative physical position to highlight their youthful features and appear attractive, whereas men take and display photographs portraying themselves in a high relative physical position to highlight their size and appear dominant. The effectiveness of these strategies was confirmed in two studies that measured social perceptions of male and female targets who varied in their relative position. In sum, as do members of other social species, people use relative physical position to manage social impressions, and although these impression-management strategies may have deep ancestral roots, they appear to manifest themselves through a contemporary human modality-photographs.

  9. Vegetative Growth of Four Strains of Hericium erinaceus Collected from Different Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo; Shim, Mi Ja; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U-Youn

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative growth of four different strains of Hericium erinaceus was observed. The temperature suitable for optimal mycelial growth was determined to be 25℃, with growth observed in the extend temperature range of 20~30℃. The different strains of this mushroom showed distinct pH requirements for their optimum vegetative growth, with the most favorable growth observed at pH 6. Considering vegetative mycelial growth, PDA, YM, Hennerberg, Hamada, and Glucose peptone were the most favorable media, and Czapek Dox, Hoppkins, Glucose tryptone, and Lilly were the most unfavorable media for these mushroom strains. With the exception of lactose, most of the carbon sources assayed demonstrated favorable vegetative growth of H. erinaceus. For mycelial growth, the most suitable nitrogen source was alanine and the most unsuitable was histidine. Oak sawdust medium supplemented with 10~20% rice bran was the best for mycelial growth of the mushroom. PMID:23990739

  10. Effect of different substitution position on the switching behavior in single-molecule device with carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjuan; Han, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Peipei; Bian, Baoan; Wang, Yixiang

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of dihydroazulene (DHA) and vinylheptafulvene (VHF) molecule sandwiched between two carbon nanotubes using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function. The device displays significantly switching behavior between DHA and VHF isomerizations. It is found the different substitution position of F in the molecule influences the switching ratio of device, which is analyzed by transmission spectra and molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian. The observed negative differential resistance effect is explained by transmission spectra and transmission eigenstates of transmission peak in the bias window. The observed reverse of current in VHF form in which two H atoms on the right side of the benzene ring of the molecule are replaced by F is explained by transmission spectra and molecule-electrode coupling with the varied bias. The results suggest that the reasonable substitution position of molecule may improve the switching ratio, displaying a potential application in future molecular circuit.

  11. Selection of high risk groups among prognostically favorable patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A; Fischermann, K; Hou-Jensen, K; Henriksen, E; Andersen, K W; Johansen, H; Brincker, H; Mouridsen, H T; Castberg, T; Rossing, N; Rørth, M

    1981-01-01

    In a prospective, nationwide, decentralized breast cancer project conducted by The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) the recurrence rate within the first year after surgery was analysed in relation to tumor anaplasia. One thousand forty-eight patients met the requirements of eligibility, i.e. tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm with negative axillary nodes, and no skin or deep invasion. The recurrence rates in tumors with anaplasia Grades I, II, and III were 4, 9, and 14%, respectively (p = 0.001). Therefore, it seems possible, prospectively, among otherwise prognostically favorable patients, to select a group with high risk of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:7247527

  12. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-05-12

    Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music

  13. Arguments in Favor of Moving to a Sustainable Business Model in the Apiary Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panța Nancy Diana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s society faces major challenges in meeting future global food demands and solving biodiversity loss, and it quickly needs to find ways in addressing these issues. The places to look for solutions come from the economic sectors that employ the most powerful pressure on these issues such as agriculture. Apiculture, as a branch of agriculture is being more and more recognized as sustaining human life and contributing to sustainability. However, the sector records a progressive decline of honey bees. Therefore, a rapid restructuring needs to take place in agricultural markets, in general, as well as in apiary agribusinesses. Although important, technological progress is insufficient in providing the necessary changes to achieve long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability, which should be considered both within and between generations. Consequently, sustainable business models encourage sustainable development through a triple bottom line approach and provide an analytical tool for firms into assessing the different aspects that are combined in order to create value. Since literature has paid little attention to the sustainable development in the apiary agribusiness, the present paper aims to link the two using a business model perspective and bring arguments in favor of moving to a sustainable business model.

  14. Favorable outcome of hepatosplenic candidiasis in a patient with acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute leukemias treatment requires strong chemotherapy. Patients that develop bone marrow aplasia become immunocompromised, thus becoming liable to bacterial and fungal infections. Fungal infections caused by Candida are frequent. Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC is a frequent consequence of invasive candidiasis which is clinically presented with prolonged febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Case Outline. A 53-year-old patient with acute myeloid leukemia was submitted to standard chemotherapy “3+7” regimen (daunoblastine 80 mg i.v. on days 1 to 3, cytarabine 2Ч170 mg i.v. during 7 days and achieved complete remission. However, during remission he developed febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Computerised tomography (CT of the abdomen showed multiple hypodense lesions within the liver and spleen. Haemocultures on fungi were negative. However, seroconversion of biomarkers for invasive fungal infection (IFI (Candida and Aspergillus antigen/Ag and antibody/Ab indicated possible HSC. Only high positivity of anti-Candida IgG antibodies, positivity of mannan and CT finding we regarded sufficient for the diagnosis and antimycotic therapy. Three months of treatment with different antimycotics were necessary for complete disappearance of both clinical symptoms and CT findings. Conclusion. In patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia IFI has to be strongly suspected. If imaging techniques show multiple hypodense lesions within liver and spleen, HSC has to be taken seriously into consideration. We believe that, along with CT finding, positive laboratory Candida biomarkers (mannan and IgG antibodies should be considered sufficient for “probable HSC” and commencement of antifungal therapy, which must be long enough, i.e. until complete disappearance of clinical symptoms and CT findings are achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175034

  15. Principals Can and Should Make a Positive Difference for LGBTQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Lori G.; Swensson, Jeff; Ellis, John G.; Coleman, Lauren L.; Boyland, Margaret I.

    2016-01-01

    School principals should lead for social change, particularly in support of vulnerable or marginalized students. An important social justice issue in which principals must provide strong leadership, but may not be adequately prepared in university training, is creating