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Sample records for positive depression screening

  1. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  2. Depressive symptoms and depression in people screened positive for dementia in primary care - results of the DelpHi-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Eichler, Tilly; Reimann, Melanie; Wucherer, Diana; Dreier, Adina; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Dementia and depression are common syndromes in the elderly. There is lack of knowledge concerning the frequency of depressive symptoms in people with dementia (PWD) and factors associated with depression. The aim of this analysis is to (a) describe the frequency of depressive symptoms in people screened positive for dementia, (b) describe differences between PWD with and without depressive symptoms, and (c) analyze associations between depressive symptoms and other dementia-related variables. Analyses are based on data of the GP-based intervention trial DelpHi-MV. A sample of 430 (6.29%) people screened positive for dementia in primary care was analyzed regarding depression according to the German version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, 15-items), demographic variables, and dementia/depression-related variables. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. The mean GDS-score of depressive symptoms in n = 430 PWD was m = 3.21 (SD 2.45) with 67 PWD (15.55%) showing clinically relevant depression (GDS depression and n = 62 (14.42%) received antidepressive drug treatment. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with age (OR = 0.93), functional impairment (OR = 1.36), and quality of life (OR = 0.01, CI: 0.00-0.06). Our results support previous findings that clinically relevant depressive symptoms are more common in people screened positive for dementia than in the general population and are often missed or mismanaged. Our findings underline the importance of managing quality of life, functional status, or depressive symptoms. Also, the results highlight the benefit of including the partner (and probably other carers) for adequate treatment of PWD.

  3. Depression screening among older adults attending low-vision rehabilitation and eye-care services: Characteristics of those who screen positive and client acceptability of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Edith E; Sturrock, Bonnie A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E; Rees, Gwyneth

    2015-12-01

    To investigate characteristics associated with screening positive for depressive symptoms among older adults accessing low-vision rehabilitation and eye-care services and to determine client acceptability of depression screening using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) in these settings. One-hundred and twenty-four older adults (mean = 77.02 years, SD = 9.12) attending low-vision rehabilitation and eye-care services across Australia were screened for depression and invited to complete a telephone-administered questionnaire to determine characteristics associated with depressive symptoms and client acceptability of screening in these settings. Thirty-seven per cent (n = 46/124) of participants screened positive for depressive symptoms, and the majority considered the new depression screening method to be a 'good idea' in vision services (85%). Severe vision loss (<6/60 in the better eye) was associated with an increased odds of screening positive for depressive symptoms (odds ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.70) even after adjusting for potential confounders. Participants who screened positive had a preference for 'talking' therapy or a combination of medication and 'talking therapy' delivered within their own home (73%) or via telephone (67%). The PHQ-2 appears to be an acceptable method for depression screening in eye-care settings among older adults. Targeted interventions that incorporate home-based or telephone delivered therapy sessions may improve outcomes for depression in this group. © 2014 ACOTA.

  4. Changes in depression in a cohort of Danish HIV-positive individuals: time for routine screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Laursen, Tinne; Christensen, Nils B

    2011-01-01

    demonstrated a decline in depression scores over time and an association between the risk of depression and low medication adherence, stress and unsafe sex. We recommend routine screening for depression to be conducted regularly to provide full evaluations and relevant psychiatric treatment.......Background: The aim of this study was to follow a cohort of HIV-positive individuals for 3 years in order to assess changes in depression, adherence, unsafe sex and emotional strains from living with HIV. Methods: Participants were assessed for depression, adherence, emotional strain and unsafe sex......) in 24 (16%) individuals. Patients at risk of moderate to major depression were more likely to be non-adherent to medications, to practice unsafe sex and to suffer from emotional strains compared with patients not at risk of depression, both at baseline (2005) and follow-up (2008). Conclusion: This study...

  5. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; McShea, Mary C; Rizzo, David M; Zoretich, Rebecca A; Hughes, Carolyn L; Eng, Heather F; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Costantino, Michelle L; Confer, Andrea L; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Famy, Christopher S; Hanusa, Barbara H

    2013-05-01

    The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Urban academic women's hospital. During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post partum by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: "The thought of harming myself has occurred to me" (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had comorbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. The most common diagnosis in screen-positive women was major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Strategies to differentiate

  6. Onset Timing, Thoughts of Self-harm, and Diagnoses in Postpartum Women With Screen-Positive Depression Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L.; Sit, Dorothy K. Y.; McShea, Mary C.; Rizzo, David M.; Zoretich, Rebecca A.; Hughes, Carolyn L.; Eng, Heather F.; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Costantino, Michelle L.; Confer, Andrea L.; Moses-Kolko, Eyclie L.; Famy, Christopher S.; Hanusa, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. Objectives To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Design Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Setting Urban academic women’s hospital. Participants During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post parturn by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. Main Outcomes and Measures A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: “The thought of harming myself has occurred to me” (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Results Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had co-morbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. Conclusions and Relevance The most common diagnosis in screen-positive

  7. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale: A screening measure for early identification of depressive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2017-12-01

    Depression is currently considered the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Positive thinking is a cognitive process that helps individuals to deal with problems more effectively, and has been suggested as a useful strategy for coping with adversity, including depression. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS) is a reliable and valid measure that captures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills that can help in the early identification of the possibility of developing depressive thoughts. However, no meaningful cutoff score has been established for the PTSS. To establish a cutoff score for the PTSS for early identification of risk for depression. This study used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a PTSS cutoff score for risk for depression, using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as the gold standard measure. In a sample of 109 caregivers, the ROC showed that the cutoff score of PTSS that best classify the participants is 13.5. With this PTSS score, 77.8% of the subjects with low CES-D are classify correctly, and 69.6% of the subjects with high CES-D are classify correctly. Since the PTSS score should be integer numbers, functionally the cutoff would be 13. The study showed that a cut off score of 13 is a point at which referral, intervention, or treatment would be recommended. Consequently, this can help in the early identification of depressive symptoms that might develop because of the stress of caregiving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Response to an unsolicited intervention offer to persons aged ≥ 75 years after screening positive for depressive symptoms: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Gerda M; de Jong, Roos; de Waal, Margot W M; Spinhoven, Philip; Rooze, Herman A H; Reis, Ria; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; van der Mast, Roos C

    2012-02-01

    Screening can increase detection of clinically relevant depressive symptoms, but screen-positive persons are not necessarily willing to accept a subsequent unsolicited treatment offer. Our objective was to explore limiting and motivating factors in accepting an offer to join a "coping with depression" course, and perceived needs among persons aged ≥75 years who screened positive for depressive symptoms in general practice. In a randomized controlled trial, in which 101 persons who had screened positive for depressive symptoms were offered a "coping with depression" course, a sample of 23 persons were interviewed, of whom five (22%) accepted the treatment offer. Interview transcripts were coded independently by two researchers. All five individuals who accepted a place on the course felt depressed and/or lonely and had positive expectations about the course. The main reasons for declining to join the course were: not feeling depressed, or having negative thoughts about the course effect, concerns about group participation, or about being too old to change and learn new things. Although perceived needs to relieve depressive symptoms largely matched the elements of the course, most of those who had been screened were not (yet) prepared to accept an intervention offer. Many expressed the need to discuss this treatment decision with their general practitioner. Although the unsolicited treatment offer closely matched the perceived needs of people screening positive for depressive symptoms, only those who combined feelings of being depressed or lonely with positive expectations about the offered course accepted it. Treatment should perhaps be more individually tailored to the patient's motivational stage towards change, a process in which general practitioners can play an important role.

  9. Alcohol use and positive screening results for depression and anxiety are highly prevalent among Chinese children with strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shibin; Congdon, Nathan; Yam, Jason C S; Huang, Yuqiang; Qiu, Kunliang; Ma, Di; Chen, Bin; Li, Liping; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2014-04-01

    To study associations between strabismus and alcohol use, anxiety, and depression among 10- to 17-year-old children in Guangdong, southern China. Cross-sectional, population-based study. Among 7537 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary and middle schools, ocular alignment was assessed with the Hirschberg light reflex, cover-uncover testing, and alternate cover testing at distance (6 m) and near (40 cm). Additionally, 4000 children (53.1%) aged 10+ years received self-administered questionnaires containing screening questions on alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Examinations were completed on 7464 of 7537 subjects (99.0%), including 3928 boys (52.6%), with a mean age of 11.1 ± 1.8 years. The prevalence of any strabismus, including exotropia (2.7%), esotropia (0.2%), and intermittent exotropia (3.9%), was 6.8%. Strabismus was more prevalent in urban students (7.3%) and female subjects (7.4%) compared to rural students (6.0%) and male subjects (6.2%) (all P children (97.6%) answering questionnaires, history of alcohol use (62.3% vs 36.3%) and positive screening responses for depression (26.0% vs 11.6%) and anxiety (10.3% vs 4.9%) were significantly (P children with strabismus. These Chinese children with strabismus had a significantly higher prevalence of alcohol use and possible markers of emotional problems than children without strabismus. Further research should focus on the appropriateness of classifying surgical treatment for strabismus as "cosmetic" (ineligible for reimbursement) under China's rural health insurance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Positive postpartum depression screening practices and subsequent mental health treatment for low-income women in Western countries: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansotte, Elinor; Payne, Shirley I; Babich, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Left undiagnosed and/or untreated, the short-and long-term sequelae of postpartum depression may negatively impact both mother and child. In Western countries, access to mental health care is influenced by socioeconomic factors. The objective of this systematic literature review is to compile factors that hinder and improve access to postpartum depression treatment in low-income women after a positive screen for postpartum depression. The key question of focus is: what are the characteristics associated with access to mental health treatment for low-income women with a positive postpartum depression screen in Western countries? A PRISMA-based systematic literature review was conducted of studies published in English before February 2016 that looked at treatment for postpartum depression in low-income women who had been identified with the condition. PubMed and EBSCO databases were searched using MESH and key terms and found 100 articles that met the selection criteria. After review by two independent researchers, 18 studies with 17 unique populations were included in the literature review. Two independent abstractors searched the included articles for themes surrounding impediments and advantages for low-income women identified with postpartum depression in obtaining mental health treatment. Characteristics of successful mental health treatment included studies that employed the use of a home visitor and those that separated outcomes for women with previous mental health treatment. Themes that emerged as treatment obstacles included cultural barriers, physical barriers, systemic health care barriers, and social barriers. This review will help to better inform screening and treatment priorities for those in the medical field who may encounter women experiencing postpartum depression and are not aware of the various barriers to care specific to low-income women. This review will also help policymakers identify specific obstacles that are not addressed in postpartum

  11. Get Your Teen Screened for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Get Your Teen Screened for Depression Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is Depression? ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: What Is Depression? What is depression? Teen depression can be a ...

  12. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory: Validity and Comparison of Scoring Methods to Assess Individuals Screening Positive for Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Mosca, Oriana; Trentini, Cristina; Foschi, Renato; Tambelli, Renata; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Intolerance of Uncertainty is a fundamental transdiagnostic personality construct hierarchically organized with a core general factor underlying diverse clinical manifestations. The current study evaluated the construct validity of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory, a two-part scale separately assessing a unitary Intolerance of Uncertainty disposition to consider uncertainties to be unacceptable and threatening (Part A) and the consequences of such disposition, regarding experiential avoidance, chronic doubt, overestimation of threat, worrying, control of uncertain situations, and seeking reassurance (Part B). Community members ( N = 1046; Mean age = 36.69 ± 12.31 years; 61% females) completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Part A demonstrated a robust unidimensional structure and an excellent convergent validity with Part B. A bifactor model was the best fitting model for Part B. Based on these results, we compared the hierarchical factor scores with summated ratings clinical proxy groups reporting anxiety and depression symptoms. Summated rating scores were associated with both depression and anxiety and proportionally increased with the co-occurrence of depressive and anxious symptoms. By contrast, hierarchical scores were useful to detect which facets mostly separated between for depression and anxiety groups. In sum, Part A was a reliable and valid transdiagnostic measure of Intolerance of Uncertainty. The Part B was arguably more useful for assessing clinical manifestations of Intolerance of Uncertainty for specific disorders, provided that hierarchical scores are used. Overall, our study suggest that clinical assessments might need to shift toward hierarchical factor scores.

  13. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory: Validity and Comparison of Scoring Methods to Assess Individuals Screening Positive for Anxiety and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lauriola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance of Uncertainty is a fundamental transdiagnostic personality construct hierarchically organized with a core general factor underlying diverse clinical manifestations. The current study evaluated the construct validity of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory, a two-part scale separately assessing a unitary Intolerance of Uncertainty disposition to consider uncertainties to be unacceptable and threatening (Part A and the consequences of such disposition, regarding experiential avoidance, chronic doubt, overestimation of threat, worrying, control of uncertain situations, and seeking reassurance (Part B. Community members (N = 1046; Mean age = 36.69 ± 12.31 years; 61% females completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Part A demonstrated a robust unidimensional structure and an excellent convergent validity with Part B. A bifactor model was the best fitting model for Part B. Based on these results, we compared the hierarchical factor scores with summated ratings clinical proxy groups reporting anxiety and depression symptoms. Summated rating scores were associated with both depression and anxiety and proportionally increased with the co-occurrence of depressive and anxious symptoms. By contrast, hierarchical scores were useful to detect which facets mostly separated between for depression and anxiety groups. In sum, Part A was a reliable and valid transdiagnostic measure of Intolerance of Uncertainty. The Part B was arguably more useful for assessing clinical manifestations of Intolerance of Uncertainty for specific disorders, provided that hierarchical scores are used. Overall, our study suggest that clinical assessments might need to shift toward hierarchical factor scores.

  14. CollAborative care for Screen-Positive EldeRs with major depression (CASPER plus): a multicentred randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanquet, Katharine; Adamson, Joy; Atherton, Katie; Bailey, Della; Baxter, Catherine; Beresford-Dent, Jules; Birtwistle, Jacqueline; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Clare, Emily; Delgadillo, Jaime; Ekers, David; Foster, Deborah; Gabe, Rhian; Gascoyne, Samantha; Haley, Lesley; Hamilton, Jahnese; Hargate, Rebecca; Hewitt, Catherine; Holmes, John; Keding, Ada; Lewis, Helen; McMillan, Dean; Meer, Shaista; Mitchell, Natasha; Nutbrown, Sarah; Overend, Karen; Parrott, Steve; Pervin, Jodi; Richards, David A; Spilsbury, Karen; Torgerson, David; Traviss-Turner, Gemma; Trépel, Dominic; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Gilbody, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Depression in older adults is common and is associated with poor quality of life, increased morbidity and early mortality, and increased health and social care use. Collaborative care, a low-intensity intervention for depression that is shown to be effective in working-age adults, has not yet been evaluated in older people with depression who are managed in UK primary care. The CollAborative care for Screen-Positive EldeRs (CASPER) plus trial fills the evidence gap identified by the most recent guidelines on depression management. To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for older adults with major depressive disorder in primary care. A pragmatic, multicentred, two-arm, parallel, individually randomised controlled trial with embedded qualitative study. Participants were automatically randomised by computer, by the York Trials Unit Randomisation Service, on a 1 : 1 basis using simple unstratified randomisation after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. Blinding was not possible. Sixty-nine general practices in the north of England. A total of 485 participants aged ≥ 65 years with major depressive disorder. A low-intensity intervention of collaborative care, including behavioural activation, delivered by a case manager for an average of six sessions over 7-8 weeks, alongside usual general practitioner (GP) care. The control arm received only usual GP care. The primary outcome measure was Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items score at 4 months post randomisation. Secondary outcome measures included depression severity and caseness at 12 and 18 months, the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 items, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 items, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2 items, a medication questionnaire, objective data and adverse events. Participants were followed up at 12 and 18 months. In total, 485 participants were randomised (collaborative

  15. Depression Screening and Patient Outcomes in Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Coyne, James C.; Stefanek, Michael E.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Arthurs, Erin; Leavens, Allison; Palmer, Steven C.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Thombs, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several practice guidelines recommend screening for depression in cancer care, but no systematic reviews have examined whether there is evidence that depression screening benefits cancer patients. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits of depression screening in cancer

  16. Depression screening optimization in an academic rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Sohaib; Torrey, William C; Duncan, Mathew S; Hort, Shoshana J; Mecchella, John N

    2015-01-01

    Primary care plays a critical role in screening and management of depression. The purpose of this paper is to focus on leveraging the electronic health record (EHR) as well as work flow redesign to improve the efficiency and reliability of the process of depression screening in two adult primary care clinics of a rural academic institution in USA. The authors utilized various process improvement tools from lean six sigma methodology including project charter, swim lane process maps, critical to quality tree, process control charts, fishbone diagrams, frequency impact matrix, mistake proofing and monitoring plan in Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control format. Interventions included change in depression screening tool, optimization of data entry in EHR. EHR data entry optimization; follow up of positive screen, staff training and EHR redesign. Depression screening rate for office-based primary care visits improved from 17.0 percent at baseline to 75.9 percent in the post-intervention control phase (p<0.001). Follow up of positive depression screen with Patient History Questionnaire-9 data collection remained above 90 percent. Duplication of depression screening increased from 0.6 percent initially to 11.7 percent and then decreased to 4.7 percent after optimization of data entry by patients and flow staff. Impact of interventions on clinical outcomes could not be evaluated. Successful implementation, sustainability and revision of a process improvement initiative to facilitate screening, follow up and management of depression in primary care requires accounting for voice of the process (performance metrics), system limitations and voice of the customer (staff and patients) to overcome various system, customer and human resource constraints.

  17. A survey of the clinical acceptability of screening for postnatal depression in depressed and non-depressed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericksen Jennifer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on clinical acceptability is needed when making cost-utility decisions about health screening implementation. Despite being in use for two decades, most data on the clinical acceptability of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS come from qualitative reports, or include relatively small samples of depressed women. This study aimed to measure acceptability in a survey of a relatively large, community sample with a high representation of clinically depressed women. Methods Using mail, telephone and face-to-face interview, 920 postnatal women were approached to take part in a survey on the acceptability of the EPDS, including 601 women who had screened positive for depression and 245 who had received DSM-IV diagnoses of depression. Acceptability was measured on a 5-point Likert scale of comfort ranging from "Not Comfortable", through "Comfortable" to "Very Comfortable". Results The response rate was just over half for postal surveys (52% and was 100% for telephone and face-to-face surveys (432, 21 and 26 respondents for postal, telephone and face-to-face surveys respectively making 479 respondents in total. Of these, 81.2% indicated that screening with the EPDS had been in the range of "Comfortable" to "Very Comfortable". The other 18.8 % rated screening below the "Comfortable" point, including a small fraction (4.3% who rated answering questions on the EPDS as "Not Comfortable" at the extreme end of the scale. Comfort was inversely related to EPDS score, but the absolute size of this effect was small. Almost all respondents (97% felt that screening was desirable. Conclusion The EPDS had good acceptability in this study for depressed and non-depressed women. Women's views on the desirability of postnatal depression screening appear to be largely independent of personal level of comfort with screening. These results should be useful to policy-makers and are broadly supportive of the Edinburgh Postnatal

  18. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...... to screen for cognitive dysfunction in UD, and their associations with socio-occupational capacity. METHOD: Participants (n=53) with UD in partial or full remission and healthy control persons (n=103) were assessed with two new screening instruments, the Danish translations of the Screen for Cognitive...... Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-D) and Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and with established neuropsychological and self-assessment measures. Depression symptoms and socio-occupational function were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Functional Assessment...

  19. CASPER plus (CollAborative care in Screen-Positive EldeRs with major depressive disorder): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overend, Karen; Lewis, Helen; Bailey, Della; Bosanquet, Kate; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Ekers, David; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hems, Deborah; Holmes, John; Keding, Ada; McMillan, Dean; Meer, Shaista; Meredith, Jodi; Mitchell, Natasha; Nutbrown, Sarah; Parrott, Steve; Richards, David; Traviss, Gemma; Trépel, Dominic; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-11-19

    Depression accounts for the greatest disease burden of all mental health disorders, contributes heavily to healthcare costs, and by 2020 is set to become the second largest cause of global disability. Although 10% to 16% of people aged 65 years and over are likely to experience depressive symptoms, the condition is under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated in primary care. Later-life depression is associated with chronic illness and disability, cognitive impairment and social isolation. With a progressively ageing population it becomes increasingly important to refine strategies to identity and manage depression in older people. Currently, management may be limited to the prescription of antidepressants where there may be poor concordance; older people may lack awareness of psychosocial interventions and general practitioners may neglect to offer this treatment option. CASPER Plus is a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of a collaborative care intervention for individuals aged 65 years and over experiencing moderate to severe depression. Selected practices in the North of England identify potentially eligible patients and invite them to participate in the study. A diagnostic interview is carried out and participants with major depressive disorder are randomised to either collaborative care or usual care. The recruitment target is 450 participants. The intervention, behavioural activation and medication management in a collaborative care framework, has been adapted to meet the complex needs of older people. It is delivered over eight to 10 weekly sessions by a case manager liaising with general practitioners. The trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of collaborative care in addition to usual GP care versus usual GP care alone. The primary clinical outcome, depression severity, will be measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at baseline, 4, 12 and 18 months. Cost effectiveness analysis will assess health

  20. Improving access to interventions among mothers screened positive for post-partum depression (PPD) at National Programme on Immunization (NPI) clinics in south-western and south-eastern Nigeria - A service development report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A; Munir, Kerim M; Duduyemi, Olaniyi O; Orovwigho, Andrew O; Odetunde, Odutola I; Taiwo, Olufemi G; Olofinlade, Jushua A; Omotoso, Olakunle N; Famurewa, Olayinka H; Omolabi, Oladipupo O; Jejeloye, Adebayo O

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of improving access to interventions among mothers screened positive for post-partum depression (PPD) at National Programme on Immunization (NPI) clinics randomly selected from Lagos and Enugu States in south-western and south-eastern Nigeria respectively. The principle of human centred design was employed by engaging the mothers screened positive for PPD to be part of the decision making regarding their further assessment and intervention services. The study brought intervention services to primary healthcare centre at the NPI clinics. Improvement in willingness to seek interventions was observed among the mothers screened positive for PPD in this study when compared to our observation in a previous report, where mothers diagnosed with PPD were referred and requested to visit a mental health facility closer to their NPI clinics for further assessment and interventions (95.2% versus 33.7%). Interventional services for the mothers diagnosed with PPD also impact positively on the growth parameters of their infants on follow-up. Principle of human centred design improved access to intervention services among the mothers and infants studied. NPI clinics at primary healthcare level would provide appropriate forum for early screening of mothers for PPD and interventions in low-resource setting like Nigeria. There would be improvement in maternal and child health coverage if the Nigerian Government can adapt human centred design principles employed in this study nationwide.

  1. Screening for anxiety, depression, and anxious depression in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, David P.; Reed, Geoffrey M.; Robles, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    Background In this field study of WHO's revised classification of mental disorders for primary care settings, the ICD-11 PHC, we tested the usefulness of two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression to be administered in primary care settings. Methods The study was conducted in primary...... in primary care settings. Conclusions The two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression provide a practical way for PCPs to evaluate the likelihood of mood and anxiety disorders without paper and pencil measures that are not feasible in many settings. These scales may provide substantially...... care settings in four large middle-income countries. Primary care physicians (PCPs) referred individuals who they suspected might be psychologically distressed to the study. Screening scales as well as a structured diagnostic interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), adapted...

  2. Depression screening using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 administered on a touch screen computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Jesse R; Berry, Donna L; Wolpin, Seth; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Bush, Nigel; Halpenny, Barbara; Lober, William B; McCorkle, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    To (1) evaluate the feasibility of touch screen depression screening in cancer patients using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), (2) evaluate the construct validity of the PHQ-9 using the touch screen modality, and (3) examine the prevalence and severity of depression using this screening modality. The PHQ-9 was placed in a web-based survey within a study of the clinical impact of computerized symptom and quality of life screening. Patients in medical oncology, radiation oncology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) clinics used the program on a touch screen computer in waiting rooms prior to therapy (T1) and during therapy (T2). Responses of depressed mood or anhedonia (PHQ-2 cardinal depression symptoms) triggered additional items. PHQ-9 scores were provided to the oncology team in real time. Among 342 patients enrolled, 33 (9.6%) at T1 and 69 (20.2%) at T2 triggered the full PHQ-9 by endorsing at least one cardinal symptom. Feasibility was high, with at least 97% completing the PHQ-2 and at least 96% completing the PHQ-9 when triggered and a mean completion time of about 2 min. The PHQ-9 had good construct validity. Medical oncology patients had the highest percent of positive screens (12.9%) at T1, while HSCT patients had the highest percent (30.5%) at T2. Using this method, 21 (6.1%) at T1 and 54 (15.8%) at T2 of the total sample had moderate to severe depression. The PHQ-9 administered on a touch screen computer is feasible and provides valid depression data in a diverse cancer population. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  4. Depression and self-esteem: rapid screening for depression in black, low literacy, hospitalized tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Wolmarans, L

    1992-11-01

    One hundred black hospitalized tuberculosis (TB) patients (75 males and 25 females) were interviewed to ascertain levels of depression and self-esteem. The standard of literacy for 65% of the sample was such that they were unable to complete a self-report inventory. Reliability (internal consistency) was good for the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI: r = 0.79), the 13-item shortened BDI (ABDI: r = 0.76) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE: r = 0.78). There was a significant positive relationship between the BDI and the ABDI (r = 0.92, P = 0.0001). The recommended ABDI cut-off scores established no depression for 32 patients, mild depression for 22 patients, moderate depression for 38 patients and severe depression for 8 patients. There were significant negative relationships between the BDI and the RSE (r = -0.54, P = 0.0001), and between the ABDI and the RSE (r = -0.56, P = 0.0001). Self-esteem scores dropped in accordance with category of depression, revealing that low self-esteem is a characteristic feature of depression. It was concluded that the ABDI was a reliable, rapid, initial screening device for depression in black persons with low literacy levels.

  5. Pain as a confounding factor in postnatal depression screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardri, Renaud; Maron, Michel; Delion, Pierre; Thomas, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is one of the most serious complications following delivery in developed countries today. Thus, early screening strategies by first-line healthcare workers are of primary importance. Pain following childbirth has been proposed as a possible risk-marker for later depressive disorder. We tested this assumption and explored the possible link between pain and overestimation of PND risk in routine clinical screenings. We assessed 320 women between the third and fifth day after delivery as well as at 8 weeks post-partum (PP). Midwives were asked to evaluate the risk of later PND upon discharge from the maternity unit; additionally, pain measurements were obtained using the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) over the same time period. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk markers linked to a positive depressive disorder diagnosis (according to the MINI-DSM-IV) at 8 weeks PP. Multivariate risk analysis showed no statistical link between physical pain shortly after childbirth and subsequent PND diagnosis at 8 weeks PP. However, VAS measurements for pain were significantly higher for women that the midwives estimated to be at risk for PND (|Z| = 2.78, p = 0.005), suggesting the routine clinical screening for PND is susceptible for false-positives. Psychiatrists should encourage midwives to have an empathetic approach, to increase the detection as well as treatment of mental and physical suffering in early postpartum. At the same time, adequate education programmes for early PND screening should be proposed to non-psychiatric staffs to demonstrate that women at risk of PND often show minimal physical symptoms.

  6. Routine screening for depression and quality of life in outpatients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Nicole; Zugck, Christian; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Löwe, Bernd; Wild, Beate; Schellberg, Dieter; Nelles, Manfred; Remppis, Andrew; Katus, Hugo; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana

    2007-01-01

    The influence of depression and perceived quality of life (QoL) on symptom perception and prognosis in congestive heart failure is well known. The authors therefore introduced routine questionnaire screening for these parameters in patients attending their outpatient heart failure clinic (N=320). The authors found QoL to be significantly reduced, and almost every third patient screened positive for a depressive disorder. These patients got a clearly-defined treatment offer. The present study demonstrates that screening for depression and QoL is feasible without being too complex or time-consuming and easily implementable in an interdisciplinary outpatient setting.

  7. A discrete emotions approach to positive emotion disturbance in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, June; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    Converging findings suggest that depressed individuals exhibit disturbances in positive emotion. No study, however, has ascertained which specific positive emotions are implicated in depression. We report two studies that compare how depressive symptoms relate to distinct positive emotions at both trait and state levels of assessment. In Study 1 (N = 185), we examined associations between depressive symptoms and three trait positive emotions (pride, happy, amusement). Study 2 compared experie...

  8. A discrete emotions approach to positive emotion disturbance in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Johnson, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Converging findings suggest that depressed individuals exhibit disturbances in positive emotion. No study, however, has ascertained which specific positive emotions are implicated in depression. We report two studies that compare how depressive symptoms relate to distinct positive emotions at both trait and state levels of assessment. In Study 1 (N=185), we examined associations between depressive symptoms and three trait positive emotions (pride, happy, amusement). Study 2 compared experiential and autonomic reactivity to pride, happy, and amusement film stimuli between depressive (n=24; DS) and non-depressive (n=31; NDS) symptom groups. Results indicate that symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with decreased trait pride and decreased positive emotion experience to pride-eliciting films. Discussion focuses on the implications these findings have for understanding emotion deficits in depression as well as for the general study of positive emotion. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  9. Does postnatal depression screening work? Throwing out the bathwater, keeping the baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Jeannette; Mendelsohn, Joshua; Gemmill, Alan W

    2011-08-01

    Rates of help-seeking for Postnatal Depression (PND) are generally low and population screening has the potential to increase diagnosis rates. Of central importance is the screening instrument's Positive Predictive Value (PPV), which is itself influenced by the prevalence of the condition. When PPV exceeds prevalence, screening defines a screen-positive group with a higher prevalence to which diagnostic-stage procedures can be targeted, a necessary component of a screening program's potential for cost-effectiveness. Employing the best available estimates of the prevalence of PND we applied Bayes' Theorem to map the parameter space for the Positive Predictive Value of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) across a realistic range of values. Only seven methodologically comparable validation studies are available for major depression and/or minor depression. Screening with the EPDS always facilitated an increase in identification rates, over the key range of prevalence values. The EPDS defined a sub-group with prevalence between 5-fold and 17-fold greater than the general population. A central estimate of PPV (at a prevalence of 6.8%) was 62%. Few high-quality data are available for analysis and therefore better estimates, of both PND prevalence and of screening accuracy, in the populations where screening takes place are needed. Our estimates of PPV indicate that population screening with an instrument at least as accurate as the EPDS could successfully increase the number of cases identified and, therefore, treatment rates. Comparisons with the performance of physical health-screening programs appear favourable. Appropriate training for health professionals is essential to minimize potential harms, and following all positive screening results with a formal diagnostic procedure is likely to be useful both clinically and in terms of health system costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Depression Screening at a Community Health Fair: Descriptives and Treatment Linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Kiel J; Hanson, Devin M; Toro, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Health fairs are a cost-efficient platform for dissemination of preventive services to vulnerable populations. Effectiveness of depression screenings and associated treatment linkage via community health fairs warrants investigation. This study offers the first examination of a depression screening at a community health fair in 261 adult men (18-87years). The PHQ-9 was administered via interview by graduate students and on-site psychiatric nurses were available for a brief consultation for those interested. Over a quarter of participants screened positive for at least moderate depressive symptomatology. Of those who screened positive, 35.8% met with an on-site psychiatric nurse for a consultation. At six-month follow-up, none of the participants given a referral made an appointment at the community mental health agency. This suggests the importance of providing on-site clinician consultations at health fairs and the need for a more coordinated system to schedule future appointments while at the event. Community health fairs reach vulnerable populations, such as those who are uninsured and who have not spoken with a professional about mental health concerns. By conducting depression screening and providing onsite access to a mental health consultation at community health fairs, participants are better able to identify their depressive symptoms and are introduced to ways to treat depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Web-based depression screening and psychiatric consultation for college students: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Aya; Larocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio; Kvedar, Joseph; Yeung, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality.

  12. Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10 or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4% students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2% students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality.

  13. Does a Mobile Phone Depression-Screening App Motivate Mobile Phone Users With High Depressive Symptoms to Seek a Health Care Professional's Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BinDhim, Nasser F; Alanazi, Eman M; Aljadhey, Hisham; Basyouni, Mada H; Kowalski, Stefan R; Pont, Lisa G; Shaman, Ahmed M; Trevena, Lyndal; Alhawassi, Tariq M

    2016-06-27

    The objective of disease screening is to encourage high-risk subjects to seek health care diagnosis and treatment. Mobile phone apps can effectively screen mental health conditions, including depression. However, it is not known how effective such screening methods are in motivating users to discuss the obtained results of such apps with health care professionals. Does a mobile phone depression-screening app motivate users with high depressive symptoms to seek health care professional advice? This study aimed to address this question. This was a single-cohort, prospective, observational study of a free mobile phone depression app developed in English and released on Apple's App Store. Apple App Store users (aged 18 or above) in 5 countries, that is, Australia, Canada, New Zealand (NZ), the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US), were recruited directly via the app's download page. The participants then completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and their depression screening score was displayed to them. If their score was 11 or above and they had never been diagnosed with depression before, they were advised to take their results to their health care professional. They were to follow up after 1 month. A group of 2538 participants from the 5 countries completed PHQ-9 depression screening with the app. Of them, 322 participants were found to have high depressive symptoms and had never been diagnosed with depression, and received advice to discuss their results with health care professionals. About 74% of those completed the follow-up; approximately 38% of these self-reported consulting their health care professionals about their depression score. Only positive attitude toward depression as a real disease was associated with increased follow-up response rate (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, CI 1.38-8.29). A mobile phone depression-screening app motivated some users to seek a depression diagnosis. However, further study should investigate how other app users use

  14. A Case of Depression Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent clinical and subclinical depression has a significant negative impact on adolescents well being, school performance and consequently produces maladaptive outcomes in terms of subsequent education and occupational functioning. This research is a part of a larger research project with a focus on clinical and subclinical depression during…

  15. Depression screening and patient outcomes in pregnancy or postpartum : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Arthurs, Erin; Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Leavens, Allison; Levis, Brooke; Azoulay, Laurent; Smith, Cheri; Ciofani, Luisa; Coyne, James C.; Feeley, Nancy; Gilbody, Simon; Schinazi, Joy; Stewart, Donna E.; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    Objective: Clinical practice guidelines disagree on whether health care professionals should screen women for depression during pregnancy or postpartum. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether depression screening improves depression outcomes among women during pregnancy or

  16. The Relationship Between Depression And Positive Signs In Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaoddini S S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of studies about relationship between depression and positive signs in schizophrenia are controversial and clarifying the nature of this association may be difficult. The aim of present study is to investigate relationship between depressive symptoms and positive signs, in acute phase of patients with chronic schizophrenia, who have been admitted in Roozbeh Hospital. Materials and Methods: Assessments were performed using the Beck depression Inventory for depression (subjectively and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS for psychotic symptoms. Results: The results demonstrated a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and positive signs in these patients. Also, a significant correlation existed between depression and these items: delusions, hallucinatory behavior, excitement, hostility. Conclusion: depressive symptoms and positive signs in schizophrenia may have a common underlying pathophysiological origin.

  17. Teen options for change: an intervention for young emergency patients who screen positive for suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Opperman, Kiel J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has documented the feasibility of screening in emergency departments for adolescent suicide risk. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of Teen Options for Change (TOC), an intervention for adolescents seeking general medical emergency services who screen positive for suicide risk. Participants were 49 youths, ages 14 to 19, seeking services for nonpsychiatric emergencies. They screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or depression plus substance abuse. Youths were randomly assigned to the TOC intervention or to enhanced treatment as usual. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and two months later. Adolescents assigned to TOC showed greater reductions in depression than adolescents assigned to the comparison group (Cohen's d=1.07, a large effect size). Hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse outcomes trended positively (nonsignificantly), with small to moderate effect sizes. TOC may be a promising, brief intervention for adolescents seeking emergency services and at risk of suicide.

  18. Feasibility and utility of screening for depression and anxiety disorders in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Suarez, Laura; Mastromauro, Carol; Januzzi, James L; Huffman, Jeff C

    2013-07-01

    Depression and anxiety in patients with cardiac disease are common and independently associated with morbidity and mortality. We aimed to explore the use of a 3-step approach to identify inpatients with cardiac disease with depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or panic disorder; understand the predictive value of individual screening items in identifying these disorders; and assess the relative prevalence of these disorders in this cohort. To identify depression and anxiety disorders in inpatients with cardiac disease as part of a care management trial, an iterative 3-step screening procedure was used. This included an existing 4-item (Coping Screen) tool in nursing data sets, a 5-item screen for positive Coping Screen patients (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 [PHQ-2], GAD-2, and an item about panic attacks), and a diagnostic evaluation using PHQ-9 and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders anxiety disorder modules. Overall, 6210 inpatients received the Coping Screen, 581 completed portions of all 3 evaluation steps, and 210 received a diagnosis (143 depression, 129 GAD, 30 panic disorder). Controlling for age, sex, and the other screening items, PHQ-2 items independently predicted depression (little interest/pleasure: odds ratio [OR]=6.65, Pdepression: OR=5.24, P=0.001), GAD-2 items predicted GAD (anxious: OR=4.09, P=0.003; unable to control worrying: OR=10.46, Pdepression in this cohort, and GAD-2 was an effective screening tool; however, panic disorder was rare. These results support the use of 2-step screening for depression and GAD beginning with a 4-item scale (GAD-2 plus PHQ-2). Unique Identifier: NCT01201967. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01201967.

  19. DEPRESSION IN PRIMARY CARE. PART 1: SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XV Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonest psychological problems that a clinician would encounter in primary care is depression. Theprevalence of depression is high in women, the elderly and those with underlying physical problems or during the postpartumperiod. The spectrum of clinical presentations is wide and somatic complaints are more common in primary care clinics.Depression may present as a primary disorder and co-morbidity with other psychological problems or physical illnessesis high. A good clinical interview is an important form of assessment and a quick screening of depression can be donewith the administration of proper rating scales, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire, Hamilton Depression RatingScale or Geriatric Depression Scale. Repeated use of the same scale in a patient would help the clinician to monitor theprogress objectively.

  20. Comparing depression screening tools in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joshua; Santo, Jonathan B; Blair, Mervin; Smolewska, Kathy; Warriner, Erin; Morrow, Sarah A

    2017-02-01

    Depression is more common among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) than the general population. Depression in MS is associated with reduced quality of life, transition to unemployment, and cognitive impairment. Two proposed screening measures for depression in MS populations are the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). Our objective was to compared the associations of the BDI-FS and the HADS-D scores with history of depressive symptoms, fatigue, and functional outcomes to determine the differential clinical utility of these screening measures among persons with MS. We reviewed charts of 133 persons with MS for demographic information; scores on the HADS, BDI-FS, a fatigue measure, and a processing speed measure; and employment status. Structural equation modeling results indicated the HADS-D predicted employment status, disability status, and processing speed more effectively than did the BDI-FS, whereas both measures predicted fatigue. This study suggests the HADS-D is more effective than the BDI-FS in predicting functional outcomes known to be associated with depression among persons with MS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depression affects up to half of people living with HIV. However, among HIV-positive patients, depression goes unrecognized 60–70% of the time in non-psychiatric settings. We sought to evaluate three screening instruments and their short forms to facilitate the recognition...... acceptance. This could lead to clinical benefits in fast-paced speciality HIV care settings and better management of depression in HIV-positive patients....

  2. Association between screen time and depression among US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Madhav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the prevalence of depression is about 9% in the United States. World Health Organization has projected that depression will be leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. Growing evidence suggests that sedentary lifestyle is an important risk factor of depression among adults. The relationship between television watching/computer use and depression in US adults is still unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between television watching/computer use and depression. This is a cross-sectional study that used the secondary data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES (2011/2012. Participants were 3201 US adults who were 20years or more. Self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] was used to classify depression level; self-reported hours of watching TV and use of computer/day, and demographic information were obtained from NHANES data set. SAS®9.4was used to perform all statistical analyses and final model selection procedure. Depression was found to be significantly higher among female. Results showed that moderate or severe depression level was associated with higher time spent on TV watching and use of computer (>6h/day (adjusted odds ratio: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.602–3.442. Duration of screen time was significantly associated when all covariates were adjusted. TV watching and computer use can predict the depression level among adults. Prospective studies and measurement of factors such as: work place sitting, social relationship, and family history of depression are warranted. Keywords: National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, Depression, TV and computer screen time

  3. The prevalence and screening methods of postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Erdem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum Depression is the most common complicationof the delivery and affects approximately 10%-15% ofwomen who had just gave birth. During a period in whichwomen believe that they should be happy, the depressivemood experienced by most women leads to feelings ofguilt, hiding the symptoms, and postpartum depressionto be overlooked. Although the incidence of serious psychiatricdisorders during pregnancy is low, it is reportedthat the incidence shows a dramatic increase during thepostpartum period and this risky period may continue upto six months, one year or even two years.As the onset of postpartum depression is insidious it caneasily be overlooked if the patient’s seeking help is notsupported, especially when the severity of postpartum depressionis mild or moderate. In these cases, postpartumdepression may persist for a long time and at last it can beso severe that hospitalization would be needed. Therefore,early diagnose is very important and primary carephysicians and other health care workers should be alert.Postpartum Depression should be diagnosed using reliabledescriptive methods in puerperant women. Thescales such as Postnatal Depression Screening Scale,Beck Depression Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal DepressionScale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, all of whichwere tested for validity and reliability in our country can beused during follow-up of pregnant and puerperal women.Key words: Postpartum depression, screening methods,primary health care professionals

  4. Accuracy of Brief Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K.; Zlotnick, Caron; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Ware, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 3 subscales for identifying postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. METHODS: Mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the 10-item EPDS at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Three subscales of the EPDS were assessed as brief screening tools: 3-item anxiety subscale (EPDS-3), 7-item depressive symptoms subscale (EPDS-7), and 2-item subscale (EPDS-2) that resemble the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy. The sensitivities and specificities of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. Repeated-measures longitudinal analytical techniques were used. RESULTS: A total of 106 women contributed 289 postpartum visits; 18% of the women met criteria for incident postpartum depression by psychiatric diagnostic interview. When used as continuous measures, the full EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 performed equally well (area under the curve >0.9). Optimal cutoff scores for a positive depression screen for the EPDS and EPDS-7 were lower (≥9 and ≥7, respectively) than currently recommended cutoff scores (≥10). At optimal cutoff scores, the EPDS and EPDS-7 both had sensitivities of 90% and specificities of >85%. CONCLUSIONS: The EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 are highly accurate at identifying postpartum depression among adolescent mothers. In primary care pediatric settings, the EPDS and its shorter subscales have potential for use as effective depression screening tools. PMID:24344102

  5. Development of a potential screening measure for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taouk, Mona; Meiser, Bettina; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Dudley, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-06-01

    Few adolescent-specific depression screening instruments have been developed in recent years using multi-method approaches (qualitative and quantitative), and some of those available have limitations with an adolescent audience. We describe the development of a potential measure - the Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression. Draft items were informed by findings from focus groups and reviews by adolescents and healthcare professionals, resulting in a provisional 97-item scale. This was administered to a nation-wide sample of 3087 secondary students. Exploratory factor analysis was used in a development subset to examine dimensionality of items and reduce their number, with the final item set evaluated in a validation subset. Four reliable factors - negative outlook, emotional distress, behavioural changes and cognitive and somatic disturbances - were obtained from the exploratory factor analysis, resulting in a 28-item instrument, which was corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. The final scale includes a number of novel items not included in current measures, i.e., whether respondents wear more black clothing than usual, deliberately damage property, take more risks, 'space out' at school and are engaged in substance abuse and/or increased sexual activity. The Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression demonstrated sound psychometric properties and may have utility for future screening and future epidemiological purposes. It appears to be a valid and reliable screening instrument for adolescent depression that includes a number of novel items. Further research is necessary to confirm its criterion validity in clinically depressed samples.

  6. Lifetime socio-economic position and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    biomarkers explained any associations. Methods: A cohort of 2482 Danish men born in 1953 with information from birth, and conscript board examinations was followed-up with assessment of depressive mood and blood sampling in 2010. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to investigate associations....... These covariables were also associated with depressive mood and when they were included into the regression model together with life time SEP, the β-estimates for the latter attenuated, when smoking, alcohol and BMI were entered, while the inclusion of cognitive function and the inflammatory biomarkers had limited...

  7. Perinatal depression and screening among Aboriginal Australians in the Kimberley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Jayne; Munns, Ailsa; Marriott, Rhonda; Marley, Julia V

    2016-02-01

    Adhoc culturally questionable perinatal mental-health screening among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley. Mental-health issues, substance abuse and suicide attempts are high among young Aboriginal women in Australia. There is no evidence that the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is effective or culturally safe. Screening practices are complicated by limited understanding of the complex cultural interface between Western and Aboriginal beliefs and notions about health and mental-health. What is the current context of perinatal mental-health screening practices among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley and what might be considered a culturally safe approach? A review of the literature and exploration of current screening practices preceded community participatory action research (CPAR) of perinatal mental-health screening. More than 100 Kimberley women and 72 health practitioners contributed to this joint strategic body of work. Recommendations for practice include one single culturally appropriate Kimberley version of the EPDS.

  8. Chinese version of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale: translation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lezhi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression is an important public health problem in China. Although 10%-20% of Chinese women having recently given birth are affected by postpartum depression, only 10% receive treatment due to the lack of proper screening. The aims of this study were to translate the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale into Chinese (C-PDSS) and establish the psychometric properties of the C-PDSS. The study was undertaken in three phases, composed of forward and backward translation of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale into Chinese, examination of content validity, and field testing to establish the reliability, validity, and optimal cutoff score of the C-PDSS along with its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. A total sample of 387 mothers within 12 weeks postpartum participated in the study. Each mother was asked to complete the C-PDSS and the Chinese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and then was interviewed by an experienced researcher using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .96 for the total C-PDSS, and the overall intraclass correlation was .79. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that it was composed of 7 factors with eigenvalues >1, accounting for 74.25% of the total variance. There was a significantly positive correlation between the C-PDSS and the Chinese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (r = .66, p confirmatory factor analysis and generalization of the C-PDSS to a different sample in China.

  9. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  10. No praise, please: Depressive symptoms, reactivity to positive social interaction, and fear of positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Julia; Wiggert, Nicole; Agroskin, Dmitrij; Wilhelm, Frank H; Blechert, Jens

    2017-03-01

    Depression is characterized by depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure. Resulting alterations in emotional reactivity have been explained by three different accounts: 'positive attenuation', 'negative potentiation', and 'emotion context insensitivity'. Despite the importance of depression-related emotional alteration in social interactions, research with naturalistic interpersonal stimuli is scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Hence, the present study examined subjective emotional reactivity to brief negative, positive, and neutral social-evaluative videos as a function of depressive symptoms in an adult sample (N = 84). Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) and fear of negative evaluation (FNE), often conceptualized as cognitive components of social anxiety, were examined as possible mediators. Results revealed that more depression symptoms were related to diminished pleasantness responses to both positive and neutral videos. When considering all three video conditions simultaneously, only responses to positive videos remained significantly related to depression scores, supporting the 'positive attenuation' account. Moreover, FPE was found to uniquely mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and pleasantness responses to positive videos. Results indicate that emotional reactivity to positive interpersonal stimuli is relevant for theoretical and clinical considerations of depression. This research underlines the importance of FPE not only for understanding social anxiety but also depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening of depression in cardiology: A study on 617 cardiovascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Valentina; Marra, Sebastiano; Molinaro, Stefania; Torta, Riccardo; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Castelli, Lorys

    2017-10-15

    Depression screening in the cardiovascular disease (CVD) care setting is under-performed, also because the issue of the optimal screening tools cut-off is still open. We analysed which HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) total score cut-off value shows the best properties in two groups of 357 Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and 260 Chronic Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) hospitalized patients. A Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve was plotted for both groups using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as the criterion. Accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for different cut-off scores. The ROC curves confirmed the excellent/very good accuracy of the HADS in both groups, with an area under the curve of 0.911 for the ACS and 0.893 for the CAD patients. The cut-off of 14 showed the best compromise between high sensitivity and good specificity in both groups, with high negative predicted values (95.5% and 92.4%, respectively). Using a cut-off value of 14, the HADS could be considered a good screening tool to identify hospitalized CAD and ACS patients requiring a more accurate depression assessment, in order to promptly plan the most appropriate treatment strategies and prevent the negative effects of depression in CVD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening for depression in epilepsy clinics. A comparison of conventional and visual-analog methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampling, Jeremy; Mitchell, Alex J; Von Oertzen, Tim; Docker, James; Jackson, Jemima; Cock, Hannah; Agrawal, Niruj

    2012-10-01

    Depression is an important but underdiagnosed complication of epilepsy. This study compares potentially suitable screening tools head-to-head. We enrolled 266 attendees with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy at a specialized neurologic epilepsy service in London and compared verbal self-report and visual analog (VAS) screening methods for depression. These included two generic depression scales (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS], Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]), one epilepsy specific scale (Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy [NDDI-E]) and one new visual-analog scale (Emotional Thermometers [ET]). We used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for major depression and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) criteria for depressive episode as the reference standard. Against ICD-10-defined depression the most accurate scales by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area were HADS Total (HADS-T, 0.924), BDI-II (0.898) and NDDI-E (0.897). New visual-analog methods had similar accuracy measured either in combination or individually. Although no test performed well in a case-finding role, several performed well as a rule-out initial step, owing to high negative predictive value and specificity. In this role, the optimal performing conventional tools were the HADS depression subsscale (HADS-D) and the NDDI-E and the optimal single VAS were the depression thermometer (DepT) and the distress thermometer (DT). Against DSM-IV- defined major depression, results were similar with optimal performance by the HADS-T, BDI-II, and NDDI-E, but here the anxiety thermometer (AnxT) as well as DepT and DT also offered good performance. Given that no test performed well in a case-finding role, we suggest that these tests are used as an initial first step to rule out patients who are unlikely to have depression. We suggest that the six-item NDDI-E or seven-item HADS

  13. Implications of false-positive results for future cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Keating, Nancy L; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    False-positive cancer screening results may affect a patient's willingness to obtain future screening. The authors conducted logistic regression analysis of 450,484 person-years of electronic medical records (2006-2015) in 92,405 individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Exposures were false-positive breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer screening test results (repeat breast imaging or negative breast biopsy ≤3 months after screening mammography, repeat prostate-specific antigen [PSA] test ≤3 months after PSA test result ≥4.0 ng/mL or negative prostate biopsy ≤3 months after any PSA result, or negative colonoscopy [without biopsy/polypectomy] ≤6 months after a positive fecal occult blood test). Outcomes were up-to-date status with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Covariates included prior screening history, clinical information (eg, family history, obesity, and smoking status), comorbidity, and demographics. Women were more likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening if they previously had false-positive mammography findings (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.51] without breast biopsy and AOR, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.62] with breast biopsy; both Pfalse-positive PSA testing were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening (AOR, 1.22 [P = .039] without prostate imaging/biopsy and AOR, 1.60 [P = .028] with imaging/biopsy). Results were stronger for individuals with more false-positive results (all P≤.005). However, women with previous false-positive colorectal cancer fecal occult blood test screening results were found to be less likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening (AOR, 0.73; Pfalse-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test were more likely to engage in future screening. Cancer 2018;124:2390-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  14. Depression reduces perceptual sensitivity for positive words and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ilardi, Stephen S; Young, Keith M; Stroupe, Natalie N; O'Hare, Aminda J; Bistricky, Steven L; Collison, Elizabeth; Gibson, Linzi; Schuster, Jonathan; Lepping, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of maladaptive attentional biases for lexical information (e.g., Atchley, Ilardi, & Enloe, 2003; Atchley, Stringer, Mathias, Ilardi, & Minatrea, 2007) and for pictographic stimuli (e.g., Gotlib, Krasnoperova, Yue, & Joormann, 2004) among patients with depression. The current research looks for depressotypic processing biases among depressed out-patients and non-clinical controls, using both verbal and pictorial stimuli. A d' measure (sensitivity index) was used to examine each participant's perceptual sensitivity threshold. Never-depressed controls evidenced a detection bias for positive picture stimuli, while depressed participants had no such bias. With verbal stimuli, depressed individuals showed specific decrements in the detection of positive person-referent words (WINNER), but not with positive non-person-referent words (SUNSHINE) or with negative words. Never-depressed participants showed no such differences across word types. In the current study, depression is characterised both by an absence of the normal positivistic biases seen in individuals without mood disorders (consistent with McCabe & Gotlib, 1995), and by a specific reduction in sensitivity for person-referent positive information that might be inconsistent with depressotypic self-schemas.

  15. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The majority of older adults seek depression treatment in primary care. Despite impressive efforts to integrate depression treatment into primary care, depression often remains undetected. The overall goal of the present study was to compare a single item screening for depression...... to existing depression screening tools. METHODS: A cross sectional sample of 153 older primary care patients. Participants completed several depression-screening measures (e.g. a single depression screen, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Major Depression Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale). Measures were......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  16. Screening for depressive disorders using the MASQ anhedonic depression scale: A receiver-operator characteristic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operator characteristic analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8 and 14-item subscales, were examined in relation to both current and lifetime DSM-IV depressive disorder diagnoses in two nonpatient samples. As a means of comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of a measure of a relevant personality dimension, neuroticism, was also examined. Results from both samples support the clinical utility of the MASQ-AD scale as a means of screening for depressive disorders. Findings were strongest for the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale and when predicting current depression status. Furthermore, the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale outperformed the neuroticism measure under certain conditions. The overall usefulness of the MASQ-AD scale as a screening device is discussed, as well as possible cutoff scores for use in research. PMID:20822283

  17. Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) For Depression Screening in Adults with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Jaivir S.; Jehi, Lara E.; Fan, Youran; Patel, Sima I.; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Ramirez, Maya J.; Busch, Robyn M.; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Tesar, George E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess accuracy and operating characteristics of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression-screening in adults with epilepsy. Methods Tertiary epilepsy center patients served as the study population with 237 agreeing to structured interview using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a “gold standard” instrument developed for rapid diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD); 172 also completed the PHQ-9, and 127 completed both the PHQ-9 and the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) within two days of the MINI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive & negative predictive values & areas under the ROC curves for each instrument were determined. Cut-points of 10 for the PHQ-9 and 15 for the NDDI-E were used and ratings at or above the cut-points were considered screen-positive. The PHQ-9 was divided into cognitive/affective (PHQ-9/CA) and somatic (PHQ-9/S) subscales to determine comparative depression-screening accuracy. Results The calculated areas under the ROC curves for the PHQ-9 (n=172) and the PHQ-9/CA and PHQ-9/S sub-scales were 0.914, 0.924, and 0.846, respectively, with the PHQ-9 more accurate than the PHQ-9/S (p=0.002) but no different than the PHQ-9/CA (p=0.378). At cut-points of 10 and 15, respectively, the PHQ-9 had higher sensitivity (0.92 vs 0.87), but lower specificity (0.74 vs 0.89) than the NDDI-E. The areas under the ROC curves of the PHQ-9 and the NDDI-E showed similar accuracy (n=127; 0.930 vs 0.934; p=0.864). Significance The PHQ-9 is an efficient & non-proprietary depression screening instrument with excellent accuracy validated for use in adult epilepsy patients as well as multiple other medical populations. PMID:25064739

  18. The paradox of screening: Rural women's views on screening for postnatal depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Rhonda E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal screening for postnatal depression is currently being promoted in Australia to assist detection and treatment of affected women, yet debate continues internationally about the effectiveness of screening. One rural shire in Victoria has been screening all women for postnatal depression at maternal and child health checks for many years. This paper explores the views of women affected by this intervention. Methods A postal survey was sent to an entire one year cohort of women resident in the shire and eligible for this program [n = 230]. Women were asked whether they recalled having been screened for postnatal depression and what their experience had been, including any referrals made as a result of screening. Women interested in providing additional information were invited to give a phone number for further contact. Twenty women were interviewed in-depth about their experiences. The interview sample was selected to include both depressed and non-depressed women living in town and on rural properties, who represented the range of circumstances of women living in the shire. Results The return rate for the postal survey was 62% [n = 147/230]. Eighty-seven women indicated that they were interested in further contact, 80 of whom were able to be reached by telephone and 20 were interviewed in-depth. Women had diverse views and experiences of screening. The EPDS proved to be a barrier for some women, and a facilitator for others, in accessing support and referrals. The mediating factor appeared to be a trusting relationship with the nurse able to communicate her concern for the woman and offer support and referrals if required. Conclusions Detection of maternal depression requires more than administration of a screening tool at a single time point. While this approach did work for some women, for others it actually made appropriate care and support more difficult. Rather, trained and empathic healthcare providers working

  19. Brief screening questions for depression in chiropractic patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Aambakk, Benedicte; Bossen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Depression is an important prognostic factor in low back pain (LBP) that appears to be infrequent in chiropractic populations. Identification of depression in few patients would consequently implicate screening of many. It is therefore desirable to have brief screening tools for depression. The o...

  20. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  1. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M.; Skaane, P.; Hofvind, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  2. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  3. The neuroscience of positive memory deficits in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with unipolar depression typically show poor episodic memory for positive material, but the neuroscientific mechanisms responsible for this deficit have not been characterized. I suggest a simple hypothesis: weak memory for positive material in depression reflects disrupted communication between the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory systems during encoding. This proposal draws on basic research showing that dopamine release in the hippocampus is critical for the transition from early- to late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) that marks the conversion of labile, short-term memories into stable, long-term memories. Neuroimaging and pharmacological data from healthy humans paint a similar picture: activation of the mesolimbic reward circuit enhances encoding and boosts retention. Unipolar depression is characterized by anhedonia–loss of pleasure–and reward circuit dysfunction, which is believed to reflect negative effects of stress on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Thus, I propose that the MTL is deprived of strengthening reward signals in depressed adults and memory for positive events suffers accordingly. Although other mechanisms are important, this hypothesis holds promise as an explanation for positive memory deficits in depression. PMID:26441703

  4. The neuroscience of positive memory deficits in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gerard Dillon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults with unipolar depression typically show poor episodic memory for positive material, but the neuroscientific mechanisms responsible for this deficit have not been characterized. I suggest a simple hypothesis: weak memory for positive material in depression reflects disrupted communication between the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and medial temporal lobe (MTL memory systems during encoding. This proposal draws on basic research showing that dopamine release in the hippocampus is critical for the transition from early- to late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP that marks the conversion of labile, short-term memories into stable, long-term memories. Neuroimaging and pharmacological data from healthy humans paint a similar picture: activation of the mesolimbic reward circuit enhances encoding and boosts retention. Unipolar depression is characterized by anhedonia--loss of pleasure--and reward circuit dysfunction, which is believed to reflect negative effects of stress on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Thus, I propose that the MTL is deprived of strengthening reward signals in depressed adults and memory for positive events suffers accordingly. Although other mechanisms are important, this hypothesis holds promise as an explanation for positive memory deficits in depression.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of a two-question screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Payne, Ann

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective in this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a two-item screening interview for depression versus the formal psychiatric interview, in the setting of a specialist palliative in-patient unit so that we may identify those individuals suffering from depressive disorder and therefore optimise their management in this often-complex population. METHODS: A prospective sample of consecutive admissions (n = 167) consented to partake in the study, and the screening interview was asked separately to the formal psychiatric interview. RESULTS: The two-item questionnaire, achieved a sensitivity of 90.7% (95% CI 76.9-97.0) but a lower specificity of 67.7% (95% CI 58.7-75.7). The false positive rate was 32.3% (95% CI 24.3-41.3), but the false negative rate was found to be a low 9.3% (95% CI 3.0-23.1). A subgroup analysis of individuals with a past experience of depressive illness, (n = 95), revealed that a significant number screened positive for depression by the screening test, 55.2% (16\\/29) compared to those with no background history of depression, 33.3% (22\\/66) (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity and low false negative rate of the two-question screening tool will aid health professionals in identifying depression in the in-patient specialist palliative care unit. Individuals, who admit to a previous experience of depressive illness, are more likely to respond positively to the two-item questionnaire than those who report no prior history of depressive illness (P = 0.045).

  6. Testing positive for a genetic predisposition to depression magnifies retrospective memory for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2017-11-01

    Depression, like other mental disorders and health conditions generally, is increasingly construed as genetically based. This research sought to determine whether merely telling people that they have a genetic predisposition to depression can cause them to retroactively remember having experienced it. U.S. adults (men and women) were recruited online to participate (Experiment 1: N = 288; Experiment 2: N = 599). After conducting a test disguised as genetic screening, we randomly assigned some participants to be told that they carried elevated genetic susceptibility to depression, whereas others were told that they did not carry this genetic liability or were told that they carried elevated susceptibility to a different disorder. Participants then rated their experience of depressive symptoms over the prior 2 weeks on a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Participants who were told that their genes predisposed them to depression generally reported higher levels of depressive symptomatology over the previous 2 weeks, compared to those who did not receive this feedback. Given the central role of self-report in psychiatric diagnosis, these findings highlight potentially harmful consequences of personalized genetic testing in mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Screening for Depression, Sleep-Related Disturbances, and Anxiety in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Screening for depression, sleep-related disturbances, and anxiety in patients with diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Materials and Methods. Patients were evaluated at initial consultation and subsequent visits at the multidisciplinary pancreatic cancer clinic at our University Cancer Center. Cross-sectional and longitudinal psychosocial distress was assessed utilizing Personal Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ9 to screen for depression and monitor symptoms, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ for generalized anxiety, and the University of Michigan Sleep Questionnaire to monitor sleep symptoms. Results. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer participated during the 6-month pilot study with longitudinal followup for thirteen patients. In this study, mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms, anxiety, and potential sleep problems were common. The main finding of the study was 23% of the patients who were part of this pilot project screened positive for moderately severe major depressive symptoms, likely anxiety disorder or a potential sleep disorder during the study. One patient screened positive for moderately severe depressive symptoms in longitudinal followup. Conclusions. Depression, anxiety, and sleep problems are evident in patients with pancreatic cancer. Prospective, longitudinal studies, with larger groups of patients, are needed to determine if these comorbid symptoms impact outcome and clinical course.

  8. Is screening for depression in the perinatal period enough? The co-occurrence of depression, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence in culturally diverse pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Cynthia D; Hazen, Andrea L; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-10-01

    The perinatal period provides unique opportunities to identify and intervene with the co-occurrence of perinatal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and substance use problems. Psychosocial screening recommended for women seen in maternal child health settings tends to target single rather than multiple risk factors; there is limited research examining the co-occurrence of these issues especially in racially and ethnically diverse women across the perinatal period. These analyses explore the relationships of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics in a large, diverse sample of women. Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino (odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues.

  9. Depression screening and patient outcomes in cardiovascular care : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Whooley, Mary A.; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Mitchell, Alex J.; Zuidersma, Marij; Eze-Nliam, Chete; Lima, Bruno B.; Smith, Cheri G.; Soderlund, Karl; Ziegelstein, Roy C.

    2008-01-01

    Context Several practice guidelines recommend that depression be evaluated and treated in patients with cardiovascular disease, but the potential benefits of this are unclear. Objective To evaluate the potential benefits of depression screening in patients with cardiovascular disease by assessing (

  10. The Role of Positive Emotion and Contributions of Positive Psychology in Depression Treatment: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Paes, Flavia; Pereira, Valeska; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature by checking the impact of positive emotion in the treatment of depression and on the use of strategies of positive psychology which involves positive emotion to treat and reduce symptoms of depression. For this purpose, we conducted searches in databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed and found a total of 3400 studies. After inclusion application and exclusion criteria, 28 articles remained, presented and discussed in this study. The studies have important relations between humor and positive emotion as well as a significant improvement in signs and symptoms of depression using differents strategies of positive psychology. Another relevant aspect is the preventative character of the proposed interventions by positive psychology by the fact that increase well-being and produce elements such as resilience and coping resources that reduce the recurrent relapses in the treatment of depression. The strategies of positive psychology, such as increasing positive emotions, develop personal strengths: seeking direction, meaning and engagement for the day-to-day life of the patients, appear as potentially tools for the prophylaxis and treatment of depression, helping to reduce signs and symptoms as well as for prevention of relapses. PMID:24358052

  11. Comparative Performance of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for Screening Antepartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiuyue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Sánchez, Sixto E; García, Pedro J; Sánchez, Elena; Barrios, Yasmin V; Simon, Gregory E.; Henderson, David C.; Cripe, Swee May; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two widely used screening scales: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,517 women receiving prenatal care from February 2012 to March 2013. A structured interview was used to collect data using PHQ-9 and EPDS. We examined reliability, construct and concurrent validity between two scales using internal consistency indices, factor structures, correlations, and Cohen’s kappa. Results Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8). Correlation between PHQ-9 and EPDS scores was fair (rho=0.52). Based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), both scales yielded a two-factor structure. EFA including all items from PHQ-9 and EPDS yielded four factors, namely, “somatization”, “depression and suicidal ideation”, “anxiety and depression”, and “anhedonia”. The agreement between the two scales was generally fair at different cutoff scores with the highest Cohen’s kappa being 0.46. Conclusions Both the PHQ-9 and EPDS are reliable and valid scales for antepartum depression assessment. The PHQ-9 captures somatic symptoms, while EPDS detects depressive symptoms comorbid with anxiety during early pregnancy. Our findings suggest simultaneous administration of both scales may improve identification of antepartum depressive disorders in clinical settings. PMID:24766996

  12. Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Jones, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depressed symptoms and associated factors in prenatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in rural South Africa. In a cross-sectional study, 663 HIV-positive prenatal women in 12 community health centres in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient after HIV post-test counselling). Results indicate that overall, 48.7% [95% CI: 44.8, 52.6] of women during the prenatal period reported depressed mood (scores of ≥ 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 10). In multivariate analysis, not being employed, unplanned pregnancy, not having an HIV-positive child, poor antiretroviral therapy adherence, non-condom use at last sex, and intimate partner violence were associated with depressive symptoms. Potential risk factors among HIV-infected prenatal women were identified which could be utilized in interventions. Routine screening for depression may be integrated into prenatal care settings.

  13. Use of a smartphone application to screen for depression and suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Ho; Woo, Young Sup; Hong, Jeong-Wan; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2017-05-01

    This is a cross-sectional study using a free depression and suicide screening smartphone application, which contains the data from the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) and a Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). The free application was downloaded worldwide from Apple's App Store and Android Market, and the participants who downloaded the application were actively measured. The subjects totaled 208,683 men and women. 72.6% of the subjects were females, and 81.4% of the subjects were aged between 10 and 29years. In total, 25.7% of the participants were recorded CES-D positive, and there were differences among the groups based on sex (χ2=1065.82, psuicide were as follows: depression (OR 8.92, 95% CI: 8.71-9.13), female (OR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.36-1.43), 30-49 age group (OR 2.51, 95% CI: 2.29-2.72), 50 or older age group (OR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.35-1.61), and psychiatric history (OR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.89-2.06). The smartphone application may be a useful tool for screening depression and suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Criterion validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and one- and two-item depression screens in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCauley Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of the SMFQ were administered to evaluate the child's depressive symptoms. The presence of any depressive disorder during the previous month was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC as the criterion standard. First, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of child, parent, and combined scores of the full 13-item SMFQ by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity. The same approach was then used to evaluate the accuracy of a two-item scale consisting of only depressed mood and anhedonia items, and a single depressed mood item. Results The combined child + parent SMFQ score showed the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.86. Diagnostic accuracy was lower for child (AUC = 0.73 and parent (AUC = 0.74 SMFQ versions. Corresponding versions of one- and two-item screens had lower AUC estimates, but the combined versions of the brief screens each still showed moderate accuracy. Furthermore, child and combined versions of the two-item screen demonstrated higher sensitivity (although lower specificity than either the one-item screen or the full SMFQ. Conclusions Under conditions where parents accompany children to screening settings (e.g. primary care, use of a child + parent version of the SMFQ is recommended. However, when parents are not available, and the cost of a false positive result is minimal, then a one- or two-item screen may be useful for initial identification of at-risk youth.

  15. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... previous studies have limited value because they are based on recall or area-based measures of socioeconomic position, and might thus be subject to selective participation and misclassification. In this study we investigated differences in CRC screening participation using register-based individual...

  16. Diagnostic utility of a one-item question to screen for depressive disorders: results from the KORA F3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozik, Eva; Scherer, Martin; Lacruz, Maria E; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2013-12-23

    Screening for depressive disorders in the general adult population is recommended, however, it is unclear which instruments combine user friendliness and diagnostic utility. We evaluated the test performance of a yes/no single item screener for depressive disorders ("Have you felt depressed or sad much of the time in the past year?") in comparison to the depressive disorder module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Data from 3184 participants of the population-based KORA F3 survey in Augsburg/ Germany were used to analyse sensitivity, specificity, ROC area, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the single item screener in comparison with "depressive mood" and "major depressive disorder" defined according to PHQ-9 (both interviewer-administered versions). In comparison to PHQ-9 "depressive mood", sensitivity was low (46%) with an excellent specificity (94%), (PPV 76%; NPV 82%; LR + 8.04; LR- .572, ROC area .702). When using the more conservative definition for "major depressive disorder", sensitivity increased to 83% with a specificity of 88%. The PPV under the conservative definition was low (32%), but NPV was 99% (LR + 6.65; LR- .196; ROC area .852). Results varied across age groups and between males and females. The single item screener is able to moderately decrease post-test probability of major depressive disorders and to identify populations that should undergo additional, more detailed evaluation for depression. It may have limited utility in combination with additional screening tests or for selection of at-risk populations, but cannot be recommended for routine use as a screening tool in clinical practice.

  17. Depression screening with patient-targeted feedback in cardiology: DEPSCREEN-INFO randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Bernd; Blankenberg, Stefan; Wegscheider, Karl; König, Hans-Helmut; Walter, Dirk; Murray, Alexandra M; Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    International guidelines advocate depression screening in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and other chronic illnesses, but evidence is lacking. To test the differential efficacy of written patient-targeted feedback v. no written patient feedback after depression screening. Patients with CHD or hypertension from three cardiology settings were randomised and screened for depression (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01879111). Compared with the control group, where only cardiologists received written feedback, in the intervention group both cardiologists and patients received written feedback regarding depression status. Depression severity was measured 1 month (primary outcome) and 6 months after screening. The control group (n = 220) and the patient-feedback group (n = 155) did not differ in depression severity 1 month after screening. Six months after screening, the patient-feedback group showed significantly greater improvements in depression severity and was twice as likely to seek information about depression compared with the control group. Patient-targeted feedback in addition to screening has a significant but small effect on depression severity after 6 months and may encourage patients to take an active role in the self-management of depression. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  18. Depression screening and management among adolescents in primary care: factors associated with best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne R; Borowsky, Iris W

    2013-06-01

    To compare depression identification and management perceptions and practices between professions and disciplines in primary care and examine factors that increase the likelihood of administering a standardized depression screening instrument, asking about patients' depressive symptoms, and using best practice when managing depressed adolescents. Data came from an online survey of clinicians in Minnesota (20% response rate). Analyses involved bivariate tests and linear regressions. The analytic sample comprised 260 family medicine physicians, 127 pediatricians, 96 family nurse practitioners, and 54 pediatric nurse practitioners. Overall, few differences emerged between physicians and nurse practitioners or family and pediatric clinicians regarding addressing depression among adolescents. Two factors associated with administering a standardized instrument included having clear protocols for follow-up after depression screening and feeling better prepared to address depression among adolescents. Enhancing clinicians' competence to address depression and developing postscreening protocols could help providers implement universal screening in primary care.

  19. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  20. Screening and correlates of depression and HbA1 C in United Arab Emirates (UAE) women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Almakhzoomy, Ibtihal; Hayajneh, Yaseen

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to identify the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics of United Arab Emirates (UAE) women with diabetes and depression and to explore any differences between depressed and nondepressed patients in relation to glycemic control. One hundred eighty-two subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and a socio-demographic questionnaire (i.e., age, national status, economic status, level of education, and employment status). Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C ). Ninety-two subjects were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A statistically significant higher incidence of depression was found in the subject group with diagnosed diabetes mellitus than in the nondiabetic subject group. A statistically significant relationship was found between depression status and type of diabetes (Type 1). A positive relationship between poor glycemic control and higher levels of depression was identified. A positively significant relationship was found between national status and level of depression among the diabetic sample, among whom at least half showed poor glycemic control (HbA1C levels > 7.5). Early detection of depression among women with diabetes is crucial to enhance treatment regimen adherence and glycemic control. As the UAE diabetic women are at even greater risk than other diabetic women, they need to be very carefully screened and evaluated for depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Post-up study : Postpartum depression screening in well-child care and maternal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee-Van Den Berg, Angarath I.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G.M.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M.E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Postpartum depression often remains unaddressed. Screening in well-child care (WCC) may improve early detection, promote maternal recovery, and reduce effects on child development. We assessed the effectiveness of screening for postpartum depression in WCC compared with care as usual

  2. Post-Up Study : Postpartum Depression Screening in Well-Child Care and Maternal Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee-van den Berg, Angarath I; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; IJzerman, Maarten J; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Postpartum depression often remains unaddressed. Screening in well-child care (WCC) may improve early detection, promote maternal recovery, and reduce effects on child development. We assessed the effectiveness of screening for postpartum depression in WCC compared with care as usual

  3. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-positive patients with depression, following treatment with an antidepressant or psychotherapy. Methods. The study was prospective, randomised and controlled. Consenting volunteers aged ≥18 years and stable on ART for ≥6 months were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained, and a clinical diagnostic evaluation and the Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD were performed on all subjects at entry to and at the end of the study. Participants found to be depressed were randomly assigned antidepressant treatment (20 mg citalopram or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT (5 sessions. Medication was dispensed at each visit and patients were asked to return all unused medication to determine ART adherence. The study was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand. Results. Sixty-two HIV-positive persons receiving ART participated; 30 were not depressed (control group and 32 were depressed (patient group. No significant differences in demographic characteristics existed between the control and patient groups. Mean ART adherence at the start of the study was 99.5% (standard error (SE ±0.46 and 92.1% (SE ±1.69 in the control and patients groups, respectively. Mean ART adherence at the end of the study changed marginally in the control group (99.7%; SE ±0.46 and increased significantly in the patient group (99.5%; SE± 0.13 (p>0.05. The mean ART adherence rate of patients who received pharmacotherapy increased from 92.8% to 99.5%, and of those who received psychotherapy increased from 91.1% to 99.6% (p>0.05. There was no significant association between the increased adherence in the patient group and baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, irrespective of antidepressant therapy or IPT (p>0.05. Conclusion. Successful treatment of depression with an antidepressant or psychotherapy was associated with improved ART adherence, independent of the type

  4. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  5. Implementing Universal Maternal Depression Screening in Home Visiting Programs: A Pragmatic Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Lisa S.; Taylor, Darby

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression, although prevalent in low-income women, is not an inevitable consequence of poverty. Nevertheless, depression is a double burden for impoverished women: compromising infant development and diminishing mothers' ability to benefit from or effectively use home visiting services. Without universal screening, depression is often…

  6. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-04-03

    Apr 3, 2006 ... Department of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching. Hospital ... screening volunteer donors by initial criteria alone does not fully eliminate all HIV positive donors. The prevalence of HIV ... HIV test criteria alone to qualify for blood donation in the.

  7. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  8. Feasibility of screening and prevalence of prenatal depression in an obstetric setting in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Le, Huynh-Nhu; de la Cruz, Ivette Vargas; Crespo, María Eugenia Olivares; Méndez, Nuria Izquierdo

    2017-08-01

    Prenatal depression is a significant public health problem and one of the main risk factors for postpartum depression. Limited research in perinatal depression has been conducted in Spain. The objectives of this study was to: (1) examine the feasibility of integrating a screening program for prenatal depression in an obstetrics setting in a large urban hospital in Spain; and (2) provide an initial estimate of the prevalence rate of the severity of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Screening for prenatal depression was conducted during the first trimester in an obstetrics setting in an urban hospital in Madrid, Spain 2014-2015. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used as the main screener. Of the 730 women asked to complete the screening protocol, 445 (60.9%) completed the PHQ-9 during the first trimester. Those who did not complete the screening were more likely to be immigrants and did not read Spanish. The prevalence of moderate to high severity of prenatal depressive symptoms prenatal depressive is 14.8% (PHQ-9≥10). It is possible to integrate screening for prenatal depression in an urban obstetrics setting, but there are significant structural barriers to implementation. The prevalence of significant prenatal depressive symptoms is similar to previous research in Spain and adds to the limited research in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression and Anxiety Screens as Predictors of 8-Year Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke in Primary Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jesse C; Hawkins, Misty A W; Khambaty, Tasneem; Perkins, Anthony J; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    Because depression and anxiety are typically studied in isolation, our purpose was to examine the relative importance of these overlapping emotional factors in predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined depression and anxiety screens, and their individual items, as predictors of incident hard CVD events, myocardial infarction, and stroke for 8 years in a diverse sample of 2041 older primary care patients initially free of CVD. At baseline, participants completed self-report depression and anxiety screens. Data regarding CVD events were obtained from an electronic medical record system and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services analytic files. During follow-up, 683 (33%) experienced a CVD event. Cox proportional hazards models-adjusted for demographic and CVD risk factors-revealed that a positive anxiety screen, but not a positive depression screen, was associated with an increased risk of a hard CVD event in separate models (Years 0-3: anxiety hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.96, p anxiety HR = 0.99, CI = 0.81-1.21), p = .93; depression HR = 1.10, CI = 0.88-1.36, p = .41), as well as when entered into the same model (Years 0-3: anxiety HR = 1.53, CI = 1.20-1.95, p anxiety HR = 0.99, CI = 0.80-1.21, p = .99; depression HR = 1.03, CI = 0.82-1.29, p = .82). Analyses examining individual items and secondary outcomes showed that the anxiety-CVD association was largely driven by the feeling anxious item and the myocardial infarction outcome. Anxiety, especially feeling anxious, is a unique risk factor for CVD events in older adults, independent of conventional risk factors and depression. Anxiety deserves increased attention as a potential factor relevant to CVD risk stratification and a potential target of CVD primary prevention efforts.

  10. The advisory brought to practice; routine screening on depression (and anxiety) in coronary heart disease; Consequences and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik, M.L.; Jaarsma, T.; Sanderman, R.; Fleer, J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Following the evidence, the American Heart Association recently published a Science Advisory with the recommendation that patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) should be screened for depressive symptoms and depression. Also the Heart Failure Guidelines recommend routine screening

  11. The advisory brought to practice Routine screening on depression (and anxiety) in coronary heart disease; consequences and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik, M. L. A.; Jaarsma, T.; Sanderman, R.; Fleer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Following the evidence, the American Heart Association recently published a Science Advisory with the recommendation that patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) should be screened for depressive symptoms and depression. Also the Heart Failure Guidelines recommend routine screening

  12. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  13. Development of a Clinical Forecasting Model to Predict Comorbid Depression Among Diabetes Patients and an Application in Depression Screening Policy Making

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Haomiao; Wu, Shinyi; Di Capua, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depression is a common but often undiagnosed comorbid condition of people with diabetes. Mass screening can detect undiagnosed depression but may require significant resources and time. The objectives of this study were 1) to develop a clinical forecasting model that predicts comorbid depression among patients with diabetes and 2) to evaluate a model-based screening policy that saves resources and time by screening only patients considered as depressed by the clinical forecasting...

  14. Depressed adolescents' positive and negative use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Gmelin, Theresa; Stein, Bradley D; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    This qualitative study examined descriptions of social media use among 23 adolescents (18 female, 5 male) who were diagnosed with depression to explore how social media use may influence and be influenced by psychological distress. Adolescents described both positive and negative use of social media. Positive use included searching for positive content (i.e. for entertainment, humor, content creation) or for social connection. Negative use included sharing risky behaviors, cyberbullying, and for making self-denigrating comparisons with others. Adolescents described three types of use in further detail including "oversharing" (sharing updates at a high frequency or too much personal information), "stressed posting" (sharing negative updates with a social network), and encountering "triggering posts." In the context of treatment, these adolescents shifted their social media use patterns from what they perceived as negative to more positive use. Implications for clinicians counseling depressed adolescents on social media use are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening for anxiety and depression: reassessing the utility of the Zung scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Debra A; Scott, Ned; Todd, Anna K

    2017-09-08

    While the gold standard for the diagnosis of mental disorders remains the structured clinical interview, self-report measures continue to play an important role in screening and measuring progress, as well as being frequently employed in research studies. Two widely-used self-report measures in the area of depression and anxiety are Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). However, considerable confusion exists in their application, with clinical cut-offs often applied incorrectly. This study re-examines the credentials of the Zung scales by comparing them with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) in terms of their ability to predict clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression made using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). A total sample of 376 adults, of whom 87 reported being in receipt of psychological treatment, completed the two-page version of the PHQ relating to depression and anxiety, together with the SDS, the SAS and the DASS. Overall, although the respective DASS scales emerged as marginally stronger predictors of PHQ diagnoses of anxiety and depression, the Zung indices performed more than acceptably in comparison. The DASS also had an advantage in discriminative ability. Using the current recommended cut-offs for all scales, the DASS has the edge on specificity, while the Zung scales are superior in terms of sensitivity. There are grounds to consider making the Zung cut-offs more conservative, and doing this would produce comparable numbers of 'Misses' and 'False Positives' to those obtained with the DASS. Given these promising results, further research is justified to assess the Zung scales ability against full clinical diagnoses and to further explore optimum cut-off levels.

  16. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postnatal HIV-positive women in Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather; Malyuta, Ruslan; Semenenko, Igor; Townsend, Claire L; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2016-03-22

    Perinatal depression among HIV-positive women has negative implications for HIV-related and other maternal and infant outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and correlates of perinatal depression among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, a lower middle income country with one of the largest HIV-positive populations in Europe. Cross-sectional surveys nested within the Ukraine European Collaborative Study were conducted of HIV-positive women at delivery and between 1 and 12 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms in the previous month were assessed using a self-report screening tool. Other data collected included demographics, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related self-efficacy, and perceptions of risks/benefits of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Characteristics of women with and without a positive depression screening test result were compared using Fisher's exact test and χ2 test for categorical variables. A quarter (27% (49/180) antenatally and 25% (57/228) postnatally) of participants screened positive for depressive symptoms. Antenatal risk factors were living alone (58% (7/12) vs. 25% (42/167) p = 0.02), being somewhat/terribly bothered by ART side effects (40% (17/43) vs. 23% (30/129) not /only slightly bothered, p = 0.05) and having lower ART-related self-efficacy (43% (12/28) vs. 23% (25/110) with higher self-efficacy, p = 0.05). Postnatally, single mothers were more likely to screen positive (44% (20/45) vs. 21% (18/84) of cohabiting and 19% (19/99) of married women, p symptoms, 82% (37/45) postnatally but only 31% (12/39) antenatally were already accessing peer counselling, treatment adherence programmes, support groups or social services. A quarter of women screened positive for depression. Results highlight the need for proactive strategies to identify depressive symptoms, and an unmet need for provision of mental health support in the perinatal period for HIV-positive women in Ukraine.

  17. Prenatal ultrasound screening: false positive soft markers may alter maternal representations and mother-infant interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Viaux-Savelon

    Full Text Available In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a "soft marker" (SM that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction.Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction.False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.

  18. Screening for depression in patients with myocardial infarction by general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K. K.; Vestergaard, M.; Sondergaard, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) is highly prevalent and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Routine screening for post-MI depression is recommended. We studied general practitioners' practice of screening for post-MI depression and analysed whether...... the screening rate varied among subgroups of MI patients with a particular high risk of depression. Design: Population-based cohort study in the Central Denmark Region. Methods: All patients with a first-time MI in 2009 received a questionnaire 3 months after discharge from hospital. The questionnaire included...... information on anxiety and depression according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), severity of the disease, and smoking habits. The responders' general practitioners received a questionnaire 1 year after the patient had been discharged from hospital. This questionnaire provided information...

  19. Screening for depression in patients with myocardial infarction by general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    information on anxiety and depression according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), severity of the disease, and smoking habits. The responders’ general practitioners received a questionnaire 1 year after the patient had been discharged from hospital. This questionnaire provided information......Background: Depression in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) is highly prevalent and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Routine screening for post-MI depression is recommended. We studied general practitioners’ practice of screening for post-MI depression and analysed whether...... the screening rate varied among subgroups of MI patients with a particular high risk of depression. Design: Population-based cohort study in the Central Denmark Region. Methods: All patients with a first-time MI in 2009 received a questionnaire 3 months after discharge from hospital. The questionnaire included...

  20. Services Receipt Following Veteran Outpatients' Positive Screen for Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann E; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Roberts, Christopher B

    2016-03-01

    The Veterans Health Administration seeks to reduce homelessness among Veterans by identifying, and providing prevention and supportive services to, patients with housing concerns. The objectives of this study were to assess the proportion of Veterans Health Administration patients who received homeless or social work services within 6 months of a positive screen for homelessness or risk in the Veterans Health Administration and the demographic and clinical characteristics that predicted services utilization. Data were from a cohort of 27,403 Veteran outpatients who screened positive for homelessness or risk between November 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. During 2013, AORs were calculated using a mixed-effects logistic regression to estimate the likelihood of patients' receipt of VHA homeless or social work services based on demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of patients received services within 6 months post-screening; predictors of services utilization varied by gender. Among women, diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis predicted receipt of services, being unmarried increased the odds of using services among those screening positive for homelessness, and a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder increased the odds of receiving services for at-risk women. Among men, being younger, unmarried, not service-connected/Medicaid-eligible, and having a medical or behavioral health condition predicted receipt of services. Receipt of housing support services among Veterans post-homelessness screening differs by patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Future research should investigate the role that primary and secondary prevention interventions play in Veterans' resolution of risk for homelessness and experience of homelessness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The predictive power of depression screening procedures for veterans with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankman SA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stewart A Shankman1*, Jeffrey Nadelson2*, Sarah Kate McGowan1, Ali A Sovari2, Mladen I Vidovich21Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Illinois, 2Department of Cardiology, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Depression leads to a worse outcome for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Thus, accurately identifying depression in CAD patients is imperative. In many veterans affairs (VA hospitals, patients are screened for depression once a year using the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9. Although the PHQ-9 is generally considered a specific and sensitive measure of depression, there is reason to believe that these screening procedures may miss a large number of cases of depression within CAD patients and cardiology patients more generally. The goal of this study was to provide data as to the predictive power of this depression screening procedure by (a comparing the prevalence rate of depression identified by the PHQ-9 to known prevalence rates and (b examining whether patients identified as “depressed” also had conditions that consistently co-occur with depression (eg, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], other medical issues. Participants were 813 consecutive patients who received an angiogram in the cardiac catheterization laboratory at a large VA Medical Center. Prevalence of depression was 6.9% in the overall sample and less than 6% when the sample was restricted to CAD patients with significant stenosis. Depression was significantly associated with PTSD, smoking, and alcohol problems. However, depression was not associated with other medical problems such as diabetes, renal failure, peripheral vascular disease, or anemia. In conclusion, the low prevalence rate of depression and lack of associations with comorbid medical problems may suggest that the VA’s depression screening procedures have low sensitivity for identifying depression in CAD

  2. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  3. Mental health treatment associated with community-based depression screening: considerations for planning multidisciplinary collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Bruce R; Watkins, Sarah C; Brahm, Nancy C; Harrison, Donald L; Miller, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Depression places a large economic burden on the US health care system. Routine screening has been recognized as a fundamental step in the effective treatment of depression, but should be undertaken only when support systems are available to ensure proper diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. To estimate differences in prescribing new antidepressants and referral to stress management, psychotherapy, and other mental health (OMH) counseling at physician visits when documented depression screening was and was not performed. Cross-sectional physician visit data for adults from the 2005-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used. The final analytical sample included 55,143 visits, representing a national population estimate of 1,741,080,686 physician visits. Four dependent variables were considered: (1) order for new antidepressant(s), and referral to (2) stress management, (3) psycho therapy, or (4) OMH counseling. Bivariable and multivariable associations between depression screening and each measure of depression follow-up care were evaluated using the design-based F statistic and multivariable logistic regression models. New antidepressant prescribing increased significantly (2.12% of visits without depression screening vs 10.61% with depression screening resulted in a new prescription of an antidepressant). Referral to stress management was the behavioral treatment with the greatest absolute change (3.31% of visits without depression screening vs 33.10% of visits with depression screening resulted in a referral to stress management). After controlling for background sociodemographic characteristics, the adjusted odds ratio of a new antidepressant order remained significantly higher at visits involving depression screening (AOR 5.36; 99.9% CI 2.92-9.82), as did referrals for all behavioral health care services (ie, stress management, psychotherapy, and OMH counseling). At the national level, depression screening was associated with increased new

  4. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood...... for a period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...... as mild, moderate or severe depression. Mixed regression models were used to examine the associations, with adjustment for major confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted analyses, each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with 1.36 (95% CI 0...

  5. Personality disorders in heart failure patients requiring psychiatric management: comorbidity detections from a routine depression and anxiety screening protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Selkow, Terina

    2014-12-30

    Several international guidelines recommend routine depression screening in cardiac disease populations. No previous study has determined the prevalence and comorbidities of personality disorders in patients presenting for psychiatric treatment after these screening initiatives. In the first stage 404 heart failure (HF) patients were routinely screened and 73 underwent structured interview when either of the following criteria were met: (a) Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; (b) Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥7); (c) Response to one item panic-screener. Or (d) Suicidality. Patients with personality disorders were compared to the positive-screen patients on psychiatric comorbidities. The most common personality disorders were avoidant (8.2%), borderline (6.8%) and obsessive compulsive (4.1%), other personality disorders were prevalent in less than patients. Personality disorder patients had significantly greater risk of major depression (risk ratio (RR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-13.3), generalized anxiety disorder (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1.0-10.0), social phobia (RR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.5) and alcohol abuse/dependence (RR 3.2; 95% 1.0-9.5). The findings that HF patients with personality disorders presented with complex psychiatric comorbidity suggest that pathways facilitating the integration of psychiatric services into cardiology settings are warranted when routine depression screening is in place. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression and Its Associated Factors in Elderly Nursing Home Residents: A Screening Study in Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mirzaei

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Given the high prevalence of depression in the elderly population living in institutions, assessment and screening of elderly residents of nursing home especially younger elderly with lower educational levels, is essential.

  7. ESRD QIP - Clinical Depression Screening and Follow-up - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the clinical depression screening and follow up...

  8. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression related to mammography screening in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen

    2012-11-01

    To measure health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression ahead of mammography screening and to assess any differences in health-related quality of life compared to reference population. The study of health-related quality of life among attendees prior to mammography screening has received little attention, and increased knowledge is needed to better understand the overall health benefits of participation. A two-group cross-sectional comparative study was performed. The samples comprised 4,249 attendees to mammography screening and a comparison group of 943 women. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to assess health-related quality of life. Linear regression was used to study any differences between the groups with adjustment for age, level of education, occupation, having children and smoking status. Other normative data were also used. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Attendees scored statistically significant higher on the SF-36 than the comparison group but were in line with normative data. Attendees had anxiety mean 4·1 and depression mean 2·6. The majority of the attendees have a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression ahead of screening. Anxiety and depression were less than shown in normative data from Norway. Despite a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression among the majority, healthcare workers should pay special attention to the few women who are anxious and depressed, and have a lower health-related quality of life. Omitted from mammography screening may be women who are unemployed, have lower socioeconomic status, are anxious and are depressed. Further research should be performed with non-attendees and subgroups to improve the screening programme. It is important to identify which patients have the greatest need for support and caring in an organised mammography screening and who may be overlooked. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Pediatric-based intervention to motivate mothers to seek follow-up for depression screens: The Motivating Our Mothers (MOM) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez y Garcia, Erik; Joseph, Jill; Wilson, Machelle D; Hinton, Ladson; Simon, Gregory; Ludman, Evette; Scott, Fiona; Kravitz, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    To determine the initial effectiveness of a novel, pediatric office-based intervention in motivating mothers to seek further assessment of positive depression screens. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, English-speaking mothers (n = 104) with positive 2-question depression screens and presenting with children 0 to 12 years old for well-child care to a general pediatric training clinic received interventions from a trained research assistant. The Motivating Our Mothers (MOM) intervention included office-based written and verbal targeted depression education and motivational messages encouraging further depression assessment and a semistructured telephone booster delivered 2 days later. The control intervention included nontargeted written and verbal messages and 2 days later, an attention control telephone survey. Both groups received a list of depression care resources. The primary outcome was the proportion of mothers in each group who reported trying to contact any of 6 types of resources to discuss the positive screen at 2 weeks after intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01453790). Despite 6 contact attempts, 10 MOM and 9 control mothers were lost to follow-up. More mothers in the MOM intervention tried to contact a resource compared to control (73.8% vs 53.5%, difference 20.3%, 95% confidence interval for difference -0.1 to 38.5, P = .052). Mothers receiving the MOM intervention made more attempts to contact a resource for follow-up of positive depression screens. If found effective in larger studies, MOM may prove a promising approach for motivating depression screen-positive mothers identified in general pediatric settings within and beyond the postpartum period to seek further depression assessment and support. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simple and practical screening approach to identify HIV-infected individuals with depression or at risk of developing depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg; Gabel, Charlotte; Laursen, Tinne

    2016-01-01

    of depression. METHODS: The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among HIV-infected individuals attending two out-patient clinics in Denmark. HIV-infected individuals with a BDI-II score ≥ 20 were offered a clinical evaluation...... by a consultant psychiatrist. The BDI-II score was compared to the outcome of mental health history review, and to results obtained using the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) two-item depression screening tool. RESULTS: A total of 501 HIV-infected individuals were included in the study. Symptoms of moderate....../major depression (BDI-II score ≥ 20) were observed in 111 patients (22%); 65 of these patients consulted a psychiatrist, of whom 71% were diagnosed with a co-existing disorder. The BDI-II score was compared to the outcome of a mental health history review, and to results obtained using the European AIDS Clinical...

  11. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  12. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment

  13. Screening for postnatal depression in Chinese-speaking women using the Hong Kong translated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Helen; Bautista, Dianne; Ch'ng, Ying Chia; Li, Wenyun; Chan, Edwin; Rush, A John

    2013-06-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) may not be a uniformly valid postnatal depression (PND) screen across populations. We evaluated the performance of a Chinese translation of 10-item (HK-EPDS) and six-item (HK-EPDS-6) versions in post-partum women in Singapore. Chinese-speaking post-partum obstetric clinic patients were recruited for this study. They completed the HK-EPDS, from which we derived the six-item HK-EPDS-6. All women were clinically assessed for PND based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria. Receiver-operator curve (ROC) analyses and likelihood ratio computations informed scale cutoff choices. Clinical fitness was judged by thresholds for internal consistency [α ≥ 0.70] and for diagnostic performance by true-positive rate (>85%), false-positive rate (≤10%), positive likelihood ratio (>1), negative likelihood ratio (internal consistency was 0.84. At 13 or more cutoff, the true-positive rate was 86.7%, false-positive rate 3.3%, positive likelihood ratio 26.4, negative likelihood ratio 0.14, AUC 94.4% and effect size 0.81. For the HK-EPDS-6, internal consistency was 0.76. At 8 or more cutoff, we found a true-positive rate of 86.7%, false-positive rate 6.6%, positive likelihood ratio 13.2, negative likelihood ration 0.14, AUC 92.9% and effect size 0.98. The HK-EPDS (cutoff ≥13) and HK-EPDS6 (cutoff ≥8) are fit for PND screening for general population post-partum women. The brief six-item version appears to be clinically suitable for quick screening in Chinese speaking women. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Screening and Predicting Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in Children Following Single-Incident Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Ellis, Alicia A.; Nehmy, Thomas J.; Ball, Shelley-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Three screening methods to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in children following single-incident trauma were tested. Children and adolescents (N = 90; aged 7-17 years) were assessed within 4 weeks of an injury that led to hospital treatment and followed up 3 and 6 months later. Screening methods were adapted…

  15. Development and validation of a Haitian Creole screening instrument for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Eustache, Eddy; Raviola, Giuseppe; Kaiser, Bonnie; Grelotti, David; Belkin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Developing mental health care capacity in post-earthquake Haiti is hampered by the lack of assessments that include culturally bound idioms Haitians use when discussing emotional distress. The current study describes a novel emic-etic approach to developing a depression screening for Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante. In Study 1 Haitian key informants were asked to classify symptoms and describe categories within a pool of symptoms of common mental disorders. Study 2 tested the symptom set that best approximated depression in a sample of depressed and not depressed Haitians in order to select items for the screening tool. The resulting 13-item instrument produced scores with high internal reliability that were sensitive to culturally-informed diagnoses, and interpretations with construct and concurrent validity (vis-à-vis functional impairment). Discussion focuses on the appropriate use of this tool and integrating emic perspectives into developing psychological assessments globally. The screening tool is provided as an Appendix. PMID:25080426

  16. False-positive results in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Ponti, Antonio; Patnick, Julietta

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result in European mammographic screening programmes, and examine the rates and procedures of further assessment.......To estimate the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result in European mammographic screening programmes, and examine the rates and procedures of further assessment....

  17. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests...

  18. Development of a Clinical Forecasting Model to Predict Comorbid Depression Among Diabetes Patients and an Application in Depression Screening Policy Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haomiao; Wu, Shinyi; Di Capua, Paul

    2015-09-03

    Depression is a common but often undiagnosed comorbid condition of people with diabetes. Mass screening can detect undiagnosed depression but may require significant resources and time. The objectives of this study were 1) to develop a clinical forecasting model that predicts comorbid depression among patients with diabetes and 2) to evaluate a model-based screening policy that saves resources and time by screening only patients considered as depressed by the clinical forecasting model. We trained and validated 4 machine learning models by using data from 2 safety-net clinical trials; we chose the one with the best overall predictive ability as the ultimate model. We compared model-based policy with alternative policies, including mass screening and partial screening, on the basis of depression history or diabetes severity. Logistic regression had the best overall predictive ability of the 4 models evaluated and was chosen as the ultimate forecasting model. Compared with mass screening, the model-based policy can save approximately 50% to 60% of provider resources and time but will miss identifying about 30% of patients with depression. Partial-screening policy based on depression history alone found only a low rate of depression. Two other heuristic-based partial screening policies identified depression at rates similar to those of the model-based policy but cost more in resources and time. The depression prediction model developed in this study has compelling predictive ability. By adopting the model-based depression screening policy, health care providers can use their resources and time better and increase their efficiency in managing their patients with depression.

  19. The Psychometric Properties of PHQ-4 Depression and Anxiety Screening Scale Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Brey, Rebecca; Kotecki, Jerome; Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Anderson, Jason

    2016-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are some of the most common causes of morbidity, social dysfunction, and reduced academic performance in college students. The combination of improved surveillance and access to care would result in better outreach. Brief screening tools can help reach larger populations of college students efficiently. However, reliability and validity of brief screeners for anxiety and depression have not been assessed in college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of college students the psychometric properties of PHQ-4, a brief screening tool for depression and anxiety. Undergraduate students were recruited from general education classes at a Midwestern university. Students were given a questionnaire that asked them whether they had been diagnosed by a doctor or health professional with anxiety or depression. Next, they were asked to respond to the items on the PHQ-4 scale. A total of 934 students responded to the survey (response rate=72%). Majority of the participants were females (63%) and Whites (80%). The internal reliability of PHQ-4 was found to be high (α=0.81). Those who were diagnosed with depression or anxiety had statistically significantly higher scores on PHQ-4 (panxiety and depression. The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid tool that can serve as a mass screener for depression and anxiety in young adults. Widespread implementation of this screening tool should be explored across college campuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening for depression: integrating training into the professional development programme for low vision rehabilitation staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gwyneth; Holloway, Edith E; Craig, Graeme; Hepi, Niky; Coad, Samantha; Keeffe, Jill E; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2012-12-01

    To describe the integration of depression screening training into the professional development programme for low vision rehabilitation staff and report on staff evaluation of this training. Pre-post intervention study, in a single population of low vision rehabilitation staff. Three hundred and thirty-six staff from Australia's largest low vision rehabilitation organization, Vision Australia. Staff completed the depression screening and referral training as part of a wider professional development programme. A pre-post-training questionnaire was administered to all staff. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to determine differences in self-reported knowledge, confidence, barriers to recognition and management of depression between baseline and post training. One hundred and seventy-two participants completed both questionnaires. Following training, participants reported an increased knowledge of depression, were more likely to respond to depression in their clients and reported to be more confident in managing depression (P training incorporating more active and 'hands-on' sessions are likely to be required. This training is a promising first step in integrating a depression screening tool into low vision rehabilitation practice. Further work is needed to determine the barriers and facilitators to implementation in practice and to assess clients' acceptability and outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. The influence of stress, depression, and anxiety on PSA screening rates in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Phil; Mohile, Supriya G; Dale, William

    2012-12-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer is controversial, with concerning rates of both overscreening and underscreening. The reasons for the observed rates of screening are unknown, and few studies have examined the relationship of psychological health to PSA screening rates. Understanding this relationship can help guide interventions to improve informed decision-making for screening. A nationally representative sample of men 57-85 years old without prostate cancer (N = 1169) from the National Social life, Health and Aging Project was analyzed. The independent relationship of validated psychological health scales measuring stress, anxiety, and depression to PSA testing rates was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. PSA screening rates were significantly lower for men with higher perceived stress [odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, P = 0.006], but not for higher depressive symptoms (OR = 0.89, P = 0.22) when accounting for stress. Anxiety influences PSA screening through an interaction with number of doctor visits (P = 0.02). Among the men who visited the doctor once those with higher anxiety were less likely to be screened (OR = 0.65, P = 0.04). Conversely, those who visited the doctor 10+ times with higher anxiety were more likely to be screened (OR = 1.71, P = 0.04). Perceived stress significantly lowers PSA screening likelihood, and it seems to partly mediate the negative relationship of depression with screening likelihood. Anxiety affects PSA screening rates differently for men with different numbers of doctor visits. Interventions to influence PSA screening rates should recognize the role of the patients' psychological state to improve their likelihood of making informed decisions and improve screening appropriateness.

  2. Psychometric properties of the postpartum depression screening scale beyond the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeli, Jo M; Hooker, Stephanie A; Everhart, Kevin D; Kaplan, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Accurate postpartum depression screening measures are needed to identify mothers with depressive symptoms both in the postpartum period and beyond. Because it had not been tested beyond the immediate postpartum period, the reliability and validity of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed in a diverse community sample of 238 mothers of 4- to 15-month-old infants. Mothers (N = 238; M age = 30.2, SD = 5.3) attended a lab session and completed the PDSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a structured clinical interview (SCID) to diagnose MDD. The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value of the PDSS to identify maternal depression were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of five but not seven content subscales. The PDSS total and subscale scores demonstrated acceptable to high reliability (α = 0.68-0.95). Discriminant function analysis showed the scale correctly provided diagnostic classification at a rate higher than chance alone. Sensitivity and specificity for major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis were good and comparable to those of the BDI-II. Even in mothers who were somewhat more diverse and had older infants than those in the original normative study, the PDSS appears to be a psychometrically sound screener for identifying depressed mothers in the 15 months after childbirth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Androgen Excess- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society: position statement on depression, anxiety, quality of life, and eating disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokras, Anuja; Stener-Victorin, Elisabeth; Yildiz, Bulent O; Li, Rong; Ottey, Sasha; Shah, Duru; Epperson, Neill; Teede, Helena

    2018-05-01

    To formulate clinical consensus recommendations for screening depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and disordered eating symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and review prevalence based on phenotypes and ethnicity, changes over time, etiology, and impact of treatment. Systematic reviews and preparation of position statement. Not applicable. Women with PCOS and controls screened using validated tools. None. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, disordered eating, and HRQoL scores. Several studies demonstrate that women with PCOS have an increased prevalence of higher depression and anxiety scores and higher odds of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with controls. Obesity, hyperandrogenism, and fertility have a weak association with these symptoms. HRQoL scores are consistently reduced in PCOS, with infertility and weight concerns having the most significant impact. Some studies suggest an increased prevalence of disordered eating in women with PCOS compared with controls. The few studies that have evaluated the impact of PCOS-related treatments (lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy) show no detrimental effect or some improvement in depressive and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL scores. In women with PCOS, screening for depressive and anxiety symptoms should be offered at the time of diagnosis and screening for disordered eating should be considered. Further research is required across PCOS phenotypes, in longitudinal cohorts and on impact of therapy on depressive and anxiety syptoms, HRQOL, and disordered eating. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Depression, anxiety and stress scales: DASS--A screening procedure not only for pain patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilges, P; Essau, C

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of mental distress is a central aspect in pain research and treatment. Particularly for depression the comorbidity with pain poses methodological and conceptual challenges. This study examined the psychometric properties of the short version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS), used in both pain research and treatment and constructed to overcome the particular problems by omitting somatic items and concentrating on the psychological core aspects of depression, anxiety and stress. The psychometric properties of the DASS-21 were compared between patients with pain and various people without any pain problems (N = 950). The DASS has three subscales, depression, anxiety and stress, each with seven items. The construct validity of the DASS was examined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression and the general depression scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS) for depression. The sensitivity and specificity for depression were determined against a structured interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) and compared with the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CESD) and HADS in pain patients. Cronbach's alpha of the DASS for the depression subscale was at least 0.91, while the anxiety and stress subscales had Cronbach alphas of 0.78-0.82 and 0.81-0.89, respectively. Although the depression subscale has only 7 items, it is just as reliable as the ADS with 21 items. It also has a better sensitivity and specificity than the HADS in identifying clinical patients with depression. The DASS is a reliable questionnaire, free to use and brief to administer; therefore, it is an alternative to the previously used instruments for the screening of depression. Furthermore, the subscale stress measures irritability and tension, which are important aspects of pain experience but underused in assessment procedures for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients

  5. Screening for postpartum depression and associated factors among women in China: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAbstractObjectives: This study examined what percentage of Chinese mothers during a three-year postpartum period were screened for postpartum depression and explored the correlation between postpartum depression and various socio-demographic, psychological, and cultural factors. Study design: Cross-sectional survey.Methods: A total of 506 mothers 23 years of age and older who were within three years postpartum completed the online survey. The survey collected information such as family economic status, a history of depression, preparation for pregnancy, relationships with husbands and family members, adult attachment types (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS, and depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CESD.Results: Approximately 30% of mothers 1–3 years postpartum reported symptoms above the CESD cut-off score (≥16 scores associated with the risk for depression (28.0% in the first year, 30.8% in the second year, and 31.8% in the third year. Factors significantly associated with depression in participants in the correlation analysis were education level; family income; preparation for pregnancy; a history of depression; amount of time spent with their husbands; relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a close, dependent, and/or anxious attachment style. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a history of depression; less preparation for pregnancy; poorer relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a more anxious attachment style were strongly related to a higher risk of postpartum depression. Conclusions: The overall percentage of mothers after delivery who were vulnerable to depression in China remains high. Various factors were significant predictors of postpartum depression. The research findings have several valuable implications for intervention practices. For example, attachment styles and depression history in the assessments of perinatal depression could improve

  6. Screening for depression and help-seeking in postpartum women during well-baby pediatric visits: an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberto, Terri L

    2012-03-01

    The purposes of this integrated review are to examine the literature on screening for depression and help-seeking behaviors by postpartum women during pediatric well-baby visits; to identify gaps in the literature relating to depression and help-seeking behaviors; and to discuss implications for practice and future research. An extensive search of primary source documents was conducted in Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Mental Measurements Yearbook, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and Women's Studies International using the key words postpartum, postpartum depression (PPD), help seeking, and pediatric setting or pediatrician. Thirty-five articles relevant to help seeking, PPD, and screening in the pediatric setting were included in this review. Research studies included both quantitative and qualitative articles. PPD affects 10% to 15% of all women after birth. Postpartum women generally do not seek help for depression. Untreated PPD has significant adverse affects on parenting, maternal bonding, and the infant's emotional and behavioral development. Interaction with the woman's obstetric provider ends shortly after the baby's birth. However, interactions with the pediatric office are initiated and continue throughout the infant's first two years of life. Early recognition of PPD and appropriate treatment are imperative for positive maternal-infant outcomes. A majority of women do not seek help for depression from any source. Because mothers have routine interactions with pediatric office staff during the first few years after giving birth, pediatric nurse practitioners and pediatricians have the perfect opportunity to screen and educate women regarding symptoms, treatment, and available resources for PPD. Copyright © 2012 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis: Use of Emoticon for Screening of Depression in Elderly in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Laurence; Toh, Hui Jin; Sim, Lai Kiow; Low, James Alvin

    2018-03-01

    The current screening tools for depression can be tedious to administer, especially in the elderly population with hearing impairment and/or limited proficiency in English language. To look at the feasibility of using emoticon as a screening and assessment tool for depression in the elderly. Cross-sectional study. A total of 77 elderly patients completed the study from June 2014 to August 2015 in a general geriatric outpatient clinic of an acute care hospital in Singapore. Patients rated their mood using an emoticon scale, which ranges from 1 ( most happy face) to 7 ( most sad face). Depression was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for depression were calculated for the cutoff scores from 1 to 7 on the emoticon scale. The sensitivity percentages were low across all cutoff scores. The specificity was more than 90% for the cutoff score of 5 and above on the emoticon scale. However, all the patients who had depression diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria did not have emoticon scores of 5 and above. The emoticon scale was easy to use, but its effectiveness in the screening of depression in the elderly needs to be explored further. The inability to use the emoticon scale as a tool may be the lack of measurements in the other domains of the DSM-IV criteria (sleep, energy, appetite, etc.), rather than failure of the emoticon scale to assess mood.

  8. Screening for depressive disorders in outpatients with mild to moderate psoriasis: A study from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubh Mohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis and depressive disorders commonly occur together. Depressive disorders have an impact on the quality of life and the outcome of psoriasis. Aims: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of using a modification of the Hindi translation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 as a verbal, clinician administered, short screening questionnaire for detecting depressive disorders. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four out-patients with psoriasis were recruited in the study. In the first stage of the study, socio-demographic data, Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI score, and Dermatological Quality of Life (DLQI score were recorded. The modified questionnaire was administered by the dermatologist. In the second stage, psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: The prevalence of depressive disorders was 39.4%. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis showed that the questionnaire had a good discriminant ability in detecting depressive disorders (area under curve: 0.81, SE = 0.04, 95% confidence interval = 0.72-0.89. Limitations: The sample size is small and more studies are needed with the screening questions in different languages to validate the findings of the study. Conclusion: The questionnaire can be a useful screening instrument for detecting depressive disorders in patients with psoriasis.

  9. A nurse-facilitated depression screening program in an Army primary care clinic: an evidence-based project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackel, Edward E; McKennan, Madelyn S; Fox-Deise, Adrianna

    2010-01-01

    Depression, sometimes with suicidal manifestations, is a medical condition commonly seen in primary care clinics. Routine screening for depression and suicidal ideation is recommended of all adult patients in the primary care setting because it offers depressed patients a greater chance of recovery and response to treatment, yet such screening often is overlooked or omitted. The purpose of this study was to develop, to implement, and to test the efficacy of a systematic depression screening process to increase the identification of depression in family members of active duty soldiers older than 18 years at a military family practice clinic located on an Army infantry post in the Pacific. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care was used to develop a practice guideline incorporating a decision algorithm for nurses to screen for depression. A pilot project to institute this change in practice was conducted, and outcomes were measured. Before implementation, approximately 100 patients were diagnosed with depression in each of the 3 months preceding the practice change. Approximately 130 patients a month were assigned a 311.0 Code 3 months after the practice change, and 140 patients per month received screenings and were assigned the correct International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision Code 311.0 at 1 year. The improved screening and coding for depression and suicidality added approximately 3 minutes to the patient screening process. The education of staff in the process of screening for depression and correct coding coupled with monitoring and staff feedback improved compliance with the identification and the documentation of patients with depression. Nurses were more likely than primary care providers to agree strongly that screening for depression enhances quality of care. Data gathered during this project support the integration of military and civilian nurse-facilitated screening for depression in the military primary care

  10. Turning the pink cloud grey: Dampening of positive affect predicts postpartum depressive symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, Filip; Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Van Den Eede, Filip; Nelis, Sabine; Franck, Erik; Jacquemyn, Yves; Hanssens, Myriam

    OBJECTIVE: Maladaptive response styles to negative affect have been shown to be associated with prospective (postpartum) depression. Whether maladaptive styles to positive affect are also critically involved is understudied, even though anhedonia (a correlate of low positive affectivity) is a

  11. Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: the role of depression history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H; Tennen, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. In addition, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1,549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Association of depression with social support and self-esteem among HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vinita; Unnikrishnan, B; Hegde, Supriya; Ramapuram, John T; Rao, S; Achappa, B; Madi, D; Kotian, M S

    2011-12-01

    Depression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positives has implications such as poor drug compliance, lower quality of life, faster progression to full blown Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and higher mortality. To assess depression, social support and self-esteem in HIV positives and to find out the association of depression with social support and self-esteem among HIV positive patients. Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, Mangalore, India and cross-sectional design. Study constituted of 105 HIV positive subjects; depression was assessed using BDI (Beck depression inventory), social support was assessed using Lubben social network scale and self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Kappa statistics was used to measure the agreement of depression assessed by BDI with clinical diagnosis of depression. Logistic regression analyses were done to find out predictors of depression among HIV positives. All analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Depression was found to be present in 43.8% of HIV positives. Among the study subjects, 10.5% had high risk for isolation and low self-esteem was found only among 5.7%. In univariate analysis both gender and self-esteem were significantly associated with depression whereas in multivariate analysis only self-esteem was found to be significantly associated with depression. The present study shows a high prevalence of depression in HIV positive patients along with the importance of self-esteem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression Screening Using Daily Mental-Health Ratings from a Smartphone Application for Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junetae; Lim, Sanghee; Min, Yul Ha; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Byungtae; Sohn, Guiyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Lee, Jae-Ho; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-08-04

    Mobile mental-health trackers are mobile phone apps that gather self-reported mental-health ratings from users. They have received great attention from clinicians as tools to screen for depression in individual patients. While several apps that ask simple questions using face emoticons have been developed, there has been no study examining the validity of their screening performance. In this study, we (1) evaluate the potential of a mobile mental-health tracker that uses three daily mental-health ratings (sleep satisfaction, mood, and anxiety) as indicators for depression, (2) discuss three approaches to data processing (ratio, average, and frequency) for generating indicator variables, and (3) examine the impact of adherence on reporting using a mobile mental-health tracker and accuracy in depression screening. We analyzed 5792 sets of daily mental-health ratings collected from 78 breast cancer patients over a 48-week period. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as the measure of true depression status, we conducted a random-effect logistic panel regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the screening performance of the mobile mental-health tracker. In addition, we classified patients into two subgroups based on their adherence level (higher adherence and lower adherence) using a k-means clustering algorithm and compared the screening accuracy between the two groups. With the ratio approach, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.8012, indicating that the performance of depression screening using daily mental-health ratings gathered via mobile mental-health trackers is comparable to the results of PHQ-9 tests. Also, the AUC is significantly higher (P=.002) for the higher adherence group (AUC=0.8524) than for the lower adherence group (AUC=0.7234). This result shows that adherence to self-reporting is associated with a higher accuracy of depression screening. Our results support the potential of a mobile mental

  14. A population study comparing screening performance of prototypes for depression and anxiety with standard scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening instruments for mental disorders need to be short, engaging, and valid. Current screening instruments are usually questionnaire-based and may be opaque to the user. A prototype approach where individuals identify with a description of an individual with typical symptoms of depression, anxiety, social phobia or panic may be a shorter, faster and more acceptable method for screening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four new prototype screeners for predicting depression and anxiety disorders and to compare their performance with existing scales. Methods Short and ultra-short prototypes were developed for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD, Panic Disorder (PD and Social Phobia (SP. Prototypes were compared to typical short and ultra-short self-report screening scales, such as the Centre for Epidemiology Scale, CES-D and the GAD-7, and their short forms. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI version 6 1 was used as the gold standard for obtaining clinical criteria through a telephone interview. From a population sample, 225 individuals who endorsed a prototype and 101 who did not were administered the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted for the short and ultra short prototypes and for the short and ultra short screening scales. Results The study found that the rates of endorsement of the prototypes were commensurate with prevalence estimates. The short-form and ultra short scales outperformed the short and ultra short prototypes for every disorder except GAD, where the GAD prototype outperformed the GAD 7. Conclusions The findings suggest that people may be able to self-identify generalised anxiety more accurately than depression based on a description of a prototypical case. However, levels of identification were lower than expected. Considerable benefits from this method of screening may ensue if our prototypes can be

  15. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two thousand five hundred and thirty two (2,532) males, aged 25 – 50 years potential blood donors were randomly selected from the total number of volunteer blood donors who satisfied the initial screening criteria for donating blood, and were screened for HIV using Immunocomb II (HIV 1 and 2 Bispot) and Recombigen ...

  16. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    evaluated against a depression diagnosis made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTS: Overall, 3.9% of the sample was diagnosed with depression. The most notable finding was that the single-item question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?' had as good or better sensitivity (83......%) than all other screens. Nonetheless, its specificity of 83% suggested that it has to be followed up by a through diagnostic interview. Additional sensitivity analyses concerning the use of a single depression item taken directly from the depression screening measures supported this finding. CONCLUSIONS......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  17. Prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms among HIV-positive men who inject drugs in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levintow, Sara N; Pence, Brian W; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Sripaipan, Teerada; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Pham The; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Go, Vivian F

    2018-01-01

    HIV infection is common among people who inject drugs (PWID), and HIV-positive PWID may be particularly vulnerable to depression. This study measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the factors associated with severe symptoms among 455 HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. We used cross-sectional data from PWID in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce high-risk injecting and sexual behaviors in Thai Nguyen from 2009-2013. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We used logistic regression to assess demographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) with prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) was 44%. 25% of participants had mild to moderate depressive symptoms (16≤CES-D<23), and 31% experienced no depressive symptoms (CES-D<16). Not being married, self-rated poor health, greater frequency of injection drug use, history of overdose, no alcohol use, and daily cigarette smoking were positively associated with severe depressive symptoms in unadjusted models and remained predictive in a multivariable model. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were self-reported poor health (POR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.82, 4.76), no current alcohol use (POR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.77), and not currently married or cohabitating (POR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.47). Severe depressive symptoms were common among HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen and were strongly associated with demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Interventions that promote social support from family and reduce drug dependence may particularly benefit PWID experiencing severe depressive symptoms. Greater recognition and treatment of depressive symptoms has the potential to enhance quality of life and improve HIV clinical outcomes for PWID.

  18. Screening for Postpartum Depression in Well-Baby Care Settings: : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Angarath; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M.E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health problem frequently experienced by mothers in the first year postpartum. Early detection and treatment can help to reduce its negative effect on the development of the newborn child. Well-baby care (WBC) is a promising screening setting for

  19. Screening for Postpartum Depression in Well-Baby Care Settings : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee-van den Berg, Angarath I.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; IJzerman, Maarten J; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M. E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health problem frequently experienced by mothers in the first year postpartum. Early detection and treatment can help to reduce its negative effect on the development of the newborn child. Well-baby care (WBC) is a promising screening setting for

  20. Prevalence of postnatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Nkangala district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Peltzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of postpartum depression in South Africa is high, but there is lack of prevalence data on postnatal depression among HIV-infected women. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressed mood and associated factors in postnatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in Nkangala district, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 607 HIV-positive postnatal women in 48 primary health care clinics and community health centres in Nkangala district. Postnatal women were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient over a period of 2 months. Demographic and other data were obtained from all the women who responded to a questionnaire in the local language on male involvement, HIV test disclosure, delivery and infant profile, infant HIV diagnosis, stigma, discrimination, postnatal depression, attendance of support groups and social support. Results. Overall, 45.1% of women reported a depressed mood in the postnatal period. Depressed mood in a multivariable analysis was significantly associated with internalised stigma (odds ratio (OR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05 - 1.19; p=0.000, discrimination experiences (OR 1.22, CI 1.03 - 1.46; p=0.023, lack of social support (OR 0.86, CI 0.74 - 0.99; p=0.037 and having had an STI in the past 12 months (OR 2.22, CI 1.21 - 4.04; p=0.010. There were no statistically significant correlations between the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS scores of the women and age, marital status, level of education, employment status and number of own children. Conclusion. Depressed mood is common among HIV-positive postpartum women. This is significantly associated with lack of social support, stigma and discrimination. Routine screening to identify those currently depressed or at risk of depression should be integrated into postnatal care settings to target those most needing intervention.

  1. Development of a brief validated geriatric depression screening tool: the SLU "AM SAD".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkamparambil, Binu; Chibnall, John T; Graypel, Ernest A; Manepalli, Jothika N; Bhutto, Asif; Grossberg, George T

    2015-08-01

    Combining five commonly observed symptoms of late-life depression to develop a short depression screening tool with similar sensitivity and specificity as the conventional, more time-consuming tools. We developed the St. Louis University AM SAD (Appetite, Mood, Sleep, Activity, and thoughts of Death) questionnaire. The frequency of each symptom in the prior 2 weeks is quantified as 0, 1, or 2. Patients 65 years or older from our clinics were administered the AM SAD, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the St. Louis University Mental Status Exam (SLUMS). 100 patients were selected. AM SAD correlation with GDS was 0.72 and MADRS 0.80. AM SAD yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 62% against diagnosis of depression; of 88% and 62% with GDS-15; and 92% and 71% with MADRS. The AM SAD can be reliably used as a short depression screening tool in patients with a SLUMS score of 20 or higher. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. HIV/AIDS and suicidal behaviour are major public health concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-infected persons. Methods. The sample consisted of all adult volunteers attending a voluntary counselling ...

  3. Depressive realism and the effect of intertrial interval on judgements of zero, positive, and negative contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Murphy, Robin A; Simpson, Jane

    2007-03-01

    In three experiments we tested how the spacing of trials during acquisition of zero, positive, and negative response-outcome contingencies differentially affected depressed and nondepressed students' judgements. Experiment 1 found that nondepressed participants' judgements of zero contingencies increased with longer intertrial intervals (ITIs) but not simply longer procedure durations. Depressed groups' judgements were not sensitive to either manipulation, producing an effect known as depressive realism only with long ITIs. Experiments 2 and 3 tested predictions of Cheng's (1997) Power PC theory and the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) model, that the increase in context exposure experienced during the ITI might influence judgements most with negative contingencies and least with positive contingencies. Results suggested that depressed people were less sensitive to differences in contingency and contextual exposure. We propose that a context-processing difference between depressed and nondepressed people removes any objective notion of "realism" that was originally employed to explain the depressive realism effect (Alloy & Abramson, 1979).

  4. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): development and validation of a depression screening instrument for children in pediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (N(I) = 200; N(II) = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised pool was evaluated in order to select the best items for the brief instrument ChilD-S. Areas under the curve (AUCs) of the revised item pool and the ChilD-S were compared. A diagnostic interview, the Kinder-DIPS, served as gold standard. For the purpose of screening for depressive disorders in children, the eight-item ChilD-S (AUC = 0.97) performed just as well as the revised 22-item pool (AUC = 0.94). For the ChilD-S the optimal cut-off point of ≥11 yielded a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.89. The ChilD-S shows high potential for depression screening of children in pediatric care.

  5. Barriers to antenatal psychosocial assessment and depression screening in private hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Tanya; Barnett, Bryanne; Waters, Donna

    2017-10-11

    The evidence of benefit for antenatal psychosocial assessment and depression screening has been sufficient to lead the implementation of screening in public hospitals in all states of Australia. Details of the implementation of perinatal screening in private obstetric settings is less well known. As any successful implementation relies on the identification of local barriers, we aimed to determine what perceived or actual barriers may exist for the implementation of evidence-based perinatal screening interventions in private obstetric care, and specifically within small private hospitals. The integrative literature review method offers a structured systematic approach to organise, synthesize and critique research from a range of sources. This method was used to determine what barriers have been identified in implementing psychosocial assessment and depression screening with women receiving obstetric care in private hospital settings. The integrative review findings suggest that barriers to implementing psychosocial screening in the private sector are similar to those experienced in the public sector but may also be influenced by the corporate focus of private services. Barriers were identified among health professionals, within the personal and psychosocial context of women and their families, and at provider or system level. Once identified, barriers can be systematically addressed to enhance the success of implementing psychosocial and depression screening in the private sector. Screening is likely to be influenced by the business models and operating systems of private service providers. Health professionals working within this environment need more support to conduct perinatal assessment within this context. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 for screening late-life depression in Chinese primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulin; Chiu, Helen; Xu, Baihua; Ma, Yan; Jin, Tao; Wu, Manhua; Conwell, Yeates

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validation of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for late-life depression in Chinese primary care. In the primary care clinics (PCCs) of Hangzhou city, we recruited 364 older patients (aged ≥ 60) for the PHQ-9 screening. Then 77 of them were further interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) for the diagnosis of major depression in late life. Statistic strategies for the feasibility, reliability, validity, and receiver operating characteristic curve were performed. The mean administration time was 7.5 min, and the Cronbach's α was 0.91. The optimal cut-off score of PHQ-9 ≥ 9 revealed a sensitivity of 0.86, specificity of 0.77, and positive likelihood ratio of 5.73. The area under the curve (AUC) in this study was 0.92 (SD = 0.02, 95% CI 0.88-0.96). The PHQ-2 also revealed good sensitivity (0.84) and specificity (0.90) at the cut-off point ≥ 3. The PHQ-9 performs well and has acceptable psychometric properties for screening of patients with late-life depression in Chinese primary care settings.

  7. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors on children’s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children’s depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and harsh–negative p...

  8. Comparison of cumulative false-positive risk of screening mammography in the United States and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the United States (US), about one-half of women screened with annual mammography have at least one false-positive test after ten screens. The estimate for European women screened ten times biennially is much lower. We evaluate to what extent screening interval, mammogram type......=400,204), between 1991-2012 and 1993-2013, respectively. Model-based cumulative false-positive risks were computed for the entire sample, using two statistical methods (Hubbard Njor) previously used to estimate false-positive risks in the US and Europe. RESULTS: Empirical cumulative risk of at least...... one false-positive test after eight (annual or biennial) screens was 41.9% in BCSC, 16.1% in Copenhagen, and 7.4% in Funen. Variation in screening interval and mammogram type did not explain the differences by country. Using the Hubbard method, the model-based cumulative risks after eight screens...

  9. Screening for depression in advanced disease: psychometric properties, sensitivity, and specificity of two items of the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bárbara; Murtagh, Fliss; Bausewein, Claudia; Harding, Richard; Higginson, Irene J

    2015-02-01

    Depression is common among patients with advanced disease but often difficult to detect. To assess the Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS) (10 items) against the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-10 total score and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-Depression subscale total score and determine if the POS has appropriate items to screen for depression among people with advanced disease. This was a secondary analysis performed on five studies. Four psychometric properties were assessed: data quality, scaling assumptions, acceptability, and internal consistency (reliability). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the area under the curve. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, false positive and negative rates, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were computed. The overall sample had 416 patients from Germany and England: 144 had cancer and 267 had nonmalignant conditions. Prevalence of depression across the sample was 17.5%. Floor and ceiling effects were rare. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for POS items 7 and 8 summed, GDS-10 and HADS-Depression items varied: 0.61 (heart failure) and 0.80 (cancer). Two items combined (Item 7-feeling depressed and Item 8-feeling good about yourself) consistently presented the highest area under the ROC curve, ranging from 0.76 (95% CI 0.60, 0.93) (Germany, lung cancer) to 0.97 (95% CI 0.91, 1.0) (heart failure), highest negative predictive value, and lowest false negative rate. For the overall sample, the cutoff 2/3 presented a negative predictive value of 89.4% (95% CI 84.7, 92.8) and false negative rate of 10.6 (95% CI 7.2, 15.3). POS items 7 and 8 summed are potentially useful to screen for depression in advanced disease populations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Limited effect of screening for depression with written feedback in outpatients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Tack, C J; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P H L M

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a screening procedure for depression (SCR) vs care as usual (CAU) in outpatients with diabetes. The primary outcome measured was depression score and the secondary outcomes were mental healthcare consumption, diabetes......-distress and HbA(1c). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicentre parallel randomised controlled trial, 223 outpatients with diabetes, who had an elevated depression score, were randomly assigned to SCR (n = 116) or CAU (n = 107), using computer generated numbers. SCR-patients were invited for a Composite...... International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to diagnose depression and/or anxiety (interviewers were not blinded for group assignment). As part of the intervention, patients and their physicians were informed of the outcome of the CIDI in a letter and provided with treatment advice. At baseline and 6 month follow...

  11. Predictors of Positive Outcomes in Offspring of Depressed Parents and Non-depressed Parents Across 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: absence of psychiatric diagnosis and consistently high functioning at 2, 10, and 20 years follow-up. In offspring of depressed parents, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Lower maternal overprotection, greater offspring self-esteem, and higher IQ were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis indicated that resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis was best predicted by offspring self-esteem; resilient outcome defined by functioning was best predicted by maternal overprotection and self-esteem. Among offspring of non-depressed parents, greater family cohesion, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of offspring competent outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Higher maternal affection and greater offspring self-esteem were associated with greater odds of competent outcome, defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis for each criterion indicated that competent outcome was best predicted by offspring self-esteem. As the most robust predictor of positive outcomes in offspring of depressed and non-depressed parents, self-esteem is an important target for youth preventive interventions. PMID:25374449

  12. Positive predictive values by mammographic density and screening mode in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the probability of breast cancer among women recalled due to abnormal findings on the screening mammograms (PPV-1) and among women who underwent an invasive procedure (PPV-2) by mammographic density (MD), screening mode and age. We used information about 28,826 recall examinations from 26,951 subsequently screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, 1996-2010. The radiologists who performed the recall examinations subjectively classified MD on the mammograms into three categories: fatty (70%). Screening mode was defined as screen-film mammography (SFM) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We examined trends of PPVs by MD, screening mode and age. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) of screen-detected breast cancer associated with MD among women recalled, adjusting for screening mode and age. PPV-1 and PPV-2 decreased by increasing MD, regardless of screening mode (p for trend breasts. Among women recalled, the adjusted OR of breast cancer decreased with increasing MD. Compared with women with fatty breasts, the OR was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.96) for those with medium dense breasts and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76-0.95) for those with dense breasts. PPVs decreased by increasing MD. Fewer women needed to be recalled or undergo an invasive procedure to detect one breast cancer among those with fatty versus dense breasts in the screening program in Norway, 1996-2010. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Positive Psychotherapy in Depression Symptoms and Character Strengths in Cancer Affected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khodabakhash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of positive psychotherapy on depression symptoms and character strengths in cancer affected patients. Based on a quasi-experimental design by available sampling, 58 cancer patients were investigated. 30 patients were assigned in two groups: 15 patients in positive psychotherapy group (treatment and 15 patients as control group. In the present research, Oxford Happiness-Depression Questionnaire (OHDQ and Values In Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS were used. The results showed that the positive psychotherapy was effective in reducing depression, increasing the character strengths and virtues, improving meaningful, pleasant and engaged life of cancer patients.

  14. Automated EEG-based screening of depression using deep convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Oh, Shu Lih; Hagiwara, Yuki; Tan, Jen Hong; Adeli, Hojjat; Subha, D P

    2018-07-01

    In recent years, advanced neurocomputing and machine learning techniques have been used for Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based diagnosis of various neurological disorders. In this paper, a novel computer model is presented for EEG-based screening of depression using a deep neural network machine learning approach, known as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The proposed technique does not require a semi-manually-selected set of features to be fed into a classifier for classification. It learns automatically and adaptively from the input EEG signals to differentiate EEGs obtained from depressive and normal subjects. The model was tested using EEGs obtained from 15 normal and 15 depressed patients. The algorithm attained accuracies of 93.5% and 96.0% using EEG signals from the left and right hemisphere, respectively. It was discovered in this research that the EEG signals from the right hemisphere are more distinctive in depression than those from the left hemisphere. This discovery is consistent with recent research and revelation that the depression is associated with a hyperactive right hemisphere. An exciting extension of this research would be diagnosis of different stages and severity of depression and development of a Depression Severity Index (DSI). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pain and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Care: Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Sirois, Fuschia M; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C

    2016-07-01

    Pain and its disruptive impact on daily life are common reasons that patients seek primary medical care. Pain contributes strongly to psychopathology, and pain and depressive symptoms are often comorbid in primary care patients. Not all those who experience pain develop depression, suggesting that the presence of individual-level characteristics, such as positive and negative affect, that may ameliorate or exacerbate this association. We assessed the potential moderating role of positive and negative affect on the pain-depression linkage. In a sample of 101 rural, primary care patients, we administered the Brief Pain Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised positive and negative affect subclusters, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression. In moderation models, covarying age, sex, and ethnicity, we found that positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant moderator of the relation between pain intensity and severity and depressive symptoms. The association between pain and depressive symptoms is attenuated when greater levels of positive affects are present. Therapeutic bolstering of positive affect in primary care patients experiencing pain may reduce the risk for depressive symptoms.

  16. Group Positive Psychotherapy and Depression of Females Affected by Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Khayatan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most important and prevalent central nervous system diseases, causing disorders such as depression among affected patients. Positive psychotherapy is also a new approach that can be effective in reducing the depression of these people. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of group positive psychotherapy for decreasing the depression among females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. Methods: A samples of 30 females affected by Multiple Sclerosis with mild to moderate depression were participated, and were divided into two groups, intervention and control. Both groups completed Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II at the beginning, he intervention group received six sessions of positive psychotherapy. After the intervention both group completed the questionnaire again. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The result demonstrated that, the decline of depression was more in the intervention group than the control group. Moreover in the intervention group than control group, there was obtained significant reduction in both sub-scales of Beck Depression Inventory II. Discussion: Results of this study indicated that group positive psychotherapy is effective in reducing the depression of females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. This treatment can be widely used in the caring centers for treatment of people affected by Multiple Sclerosis and this can be justified because of its low cost and good efficiency.

  17. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  18. Financial hardship, socio-economic position and depression: results from the PATH Through Life Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan; Windsor, Tim D

    2009-07-01

    There is a strong association between financial hardship and the experience of depression. Previous longitudinal research differs in whether this association is viewed as a contemporaneous relationship between depression and hardship or whether hardship has a role in the maintenance of existing depression. In this study we investigate the association between depression and hardship over time and seek to resolve these contradictory perspectives. We also investigate the consistency of the association across the lifecourse. This study reports analysis of two waves of data from a large community survey conducted in the city of Canberra and the surrounding region in south-east Australia. The PATH Through Life Study used a narrow-cohort design, with 6715 respondents representing three birth cohorts (1975-1979; 1956-1960; and 1937-1941) assessed on the two measurement occasions (4 years apart). Depression was measured using the Goldberg Depression Scale and hardship assessed by items measuring aspects of deprivation due to lack of resources. A range of measures of socio-economic circumstance and demographic characteristics were included in logistic regression models to predict wave 2 depression. The results showed that current financial hardship was strongly and independently associated with depression, above the effects of other measures of socio-economic position and demographic characteristics. In contrast, the effect of prior financial difficulty was explained by baseline depression symptoms. There were no reliable cohort differences in the association between hardship and depression having controlled for socio-demographic characteristics. There was some evidence that current hardship was more strongly associated with depression for those who were not classified as depressed at baseline than for those identified with depression at baseline. The evidence of the contemporaneous association between hardship and depression suggests that addressing deprivation may be an

  19. Depressed mood, positive affect, and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Whitehead, Daisy L; Rakhit, Roby; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To test associations between heart rate variability (HRV), depressed mood, and positive affect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Depression is associated with impaired HRV post acute cardiac events, but evidence in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconsistent. Seventy-six patients (52 men, 24 women; mean age = 61.1 years) being investigated for suspected CAD on the basis of symptomatology and positive noninvasive tests, completed 24-hour electrocardiograms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered, and positive and depressed affect was measured over the study period with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). A total of 46 (60.5%) patients were later found to have definite CAD. HRV was analyzed, using spectral analysis. Typical diurnal profiles of HRV were observed, with greater normalized high frequency (HF) and lower normalized low frequency (LF) power in the night compared with the day. BDI depression scores were not consistently associated with HRV. But positive affect was associated with greater normalized HF power (p = .039) and reduced normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of age, gender, medication with beta blockers, CAD status, body mass index, smoking, and habitual physical activity level. In patients with definite CAD, depressed affect assessed using the DRM was associated with reduced normalized HF power and heightened normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of covariates. Relationships between depression and HRV in patients with CAD may depend on affective experience over the monitoring period. Enhanced parasympathetic cardiac control may be a process through which positive affect protects against cardiovascular disease.

  20. Childhood and adulthood socio-economic position and midlife depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A; Clark, Charlotte; Rodgers, Bryan; Caldwell, Tanya; Power, Chris

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates how childhood socio-economic position influences the risk for midlife depressive and anxiety disorders at 45 years of age, assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule in 9377 participants of the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Socio-economic position was measured by Registrar General Social Class in childhood and adulthood. The association of paternal manual socio-economic position with any diagnosis at 45 years of age was accounted for after adjustment for adult socio-economic position. Manual socio-economic position in women at 42 years of age was associated with midlife depressive disorder and any diagnosis; these associations were diminished by adjustment for childhood psychological disorders. Effects of childhood socio-economic position on adult depressive disorders may be mediated through adult socio-economic position.

  1. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2017-03-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV- female couples, 98 HIV- male/HIV+ female couples, and 38 HIV-positive concordant couples, were included in the analyses. We collected data using the computer-assisted personal interview method. We used a linear mixed-effects regression model to assess whether gender differences in depressive symptoms varied across couple types. HIV-positive women reported a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms than their partners/spouses. HIV-positive women with HIV-positive partners had higher depressive symptoms than those with HIV-negative partners, whereas HIV-positive men reported similar levels of depressive symptoms regardless of their partners' serostatus. Among the concordant couples, those with the highest annual family income showed the greatest gender differences in depressive symptoms. We suggest that family interventions should be gender- and couple-type specific and that mental health counseling is warranted not only for HIV-positive women but also for HIV-negative women in an HIV-affected relationship.

  2. Electrophysiological Evidence for Elimination of the Positive Bias in Elderly Adults with Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs.MethodsParticipants were 14 community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. We collected event-related potentials of their brain compared to that of 14 healthy aged-matched adults. The late positive potential (LPP was used to examine cognitive-affective processes associated with judgment of emotional facial expressions between the two groups.ResultsOld adults with depressive symptoms have much smaller amplitude than healthy older adults irrespective of the prime types. When processing the targets, the two groups showed different patterns regarding the LPP. The healthy control group revealed no differences between ambiguous and happy primes, irrespective of whether the targets were sad or happy facial expressions. However, significant differences were found between happy and sad and between ambiguous and sad primes. Such a pattern indicates a positive bias in healthy elderly adults. Regarding the elderly with depressive symptoms, there were no significant differences between ambiguous versus happy, ambiguous versus sad primes, and happy versus sad primes. Concerning reaction times, there was no group difference. Thus, the findings provide some support for cognitive theories of depression.ConclusionThe current study shows that there is an association

  3. Follow up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 31 JULY2017 Your paper, entitled Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening...PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? 0...PREVIOUS EDITIONS ARE OBSOLETE 50. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

  4. Depression and work performance: an ecological study using web-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S B; Glozier, N; Henderson, M; Allaway, S; Litchfield, P; Holland-Elliott, K; Hotopf, M

    2011-05-01

    Depression is reported to be a major cause of illness-related sub-optimal work performance (presenteeism). However, the majority of studies examining presenteeism have relied on self-report measures of work performance. Furthermore, employers currently face a number of practical challenges in attempting to facilitate early identification of depression. To test whether a web-based screening tool for depression could be used successfully in the workplace and whether it was possible to detect an association between rates of depression and objective measures of impaired workgroup performance. All permanent employees of a telecommunications company with UK-based call centres were encouraged to complete a web-based psychological assessment using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9). In addition to confidential individual level results, the tool was able to provide anonymized summary statistics for each workgroup. Four objective measures of work performance were collected for each workgroup. During the study period, 1161 web-based PHQ-9 questionnaires were completed. There was a negative linear relationship between rates of depressive symptoms and the overall performance of a workgroup (P balance, percent of temporary staff, employees' perceived level of engagement and satisfaction with their line manager (P work setting.

  5. The effect of positive and negative memory bias on anxiety and depression symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Cheng, Joseph; Dai, Darren Wai Tong; Tam, Titian; Hui, Otilia

    2018-02-28

    To examine the interaction effect of anxiety and depression on the intentional forgetting of positive and negative valence words. One hundred fifty-five grade 7 to grade 10 students participated in the study. The item-method directed forgetting paradigm was used to examine the intentional forgetting of positive-valence, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Negative-valence words were recognized better than either positive-valence or neutral-valence words. The results revealed an anxiety main effect (p = .01, LLCI = -.09, and ULCI = -.01) and a depression main effect (p = .04, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .24). The anxiety score was negative, whereas the depression score was positively related to the directed forgetting of negative-valence words. Regression-based moderation analysis revealed a significant anxiety × depression interaction effect on the directed forgetting of positive-valence words (p = .02, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .01). Greater anxiety was associated with more directed forgetting of positive-valance words only among participants with high depression scores. With negative-valence words, the anxiety × depression interaction effect was not significant (p = .15, LLCI = - .00, and ULCI = .01). Therapeutic strategies to increase positive memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms only among those with high depression scores. Interventions to reduce negative memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms irrespective of levels of depression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50–69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1......Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level.......4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93–2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77–1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR...

  7. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening instruments for depression in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using......BACKGROUND: Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments......: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. METHODS: This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across...

  9. The role of hardship in the association between socio-economic position and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Olesen, Sarah C; Leach, Liana S

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that socio-economic position is associated with depression. The experience of financial hardship, having to go without the essentials of daily living due to limited financial resources, may explain the effect. However, there are few studies examining the link between financial hardship and diagnosable depression at a population level. The current paper addresses this gap and also evaluates the moderating effect of age. Data were from 8841 participants aged 16-85 years in Australia's 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Measures of socio-economic position included: financial hardship, education, labour-force status, occupational skill, household income, main source of income, and area-level disadvantage. Financial hardship was more strongly associated with depression than other socio-economic variables. Hardship was more strongly associated with current depression than with prior history of depression. The relative effect of hardship was strongest in late adulthood but the absolute effect of hardship was greatest in middle age. The results demonstrate the critical role of financial hardship in the association between socio-economic disadvantage and 12-month depressive episode, and suggest that social and economic policies that address inequalities in living standards may be an appropriate way to reduce the burden attributable to depression.

  10. Associations Between Negative and Positive Life Events and the Course of Depression: A Detailed Repeated-Assessments Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology in depressed primary care patients. A total of 267 depressed patients were followed for 3 years using a repeated-assessments design consisting of 36 monthly assessments of the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders depression symptoms and positive and negative life events. We examined whether the severity of depressive symptomatology changed directly after the occurrence of a life event. Negative events were not associated with short-term changes in depressive symptomatology. In contrast, positive events were followed by a significant decrease in depressive symptoms one and two months after their occurrence. These findings may translate into emphasis during treatment on engagement in activities that may increase the chance of positive life experiences.

  11. Positive emotion in distress as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy for depression: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Ito, Masaya; Takebayashi, Yoshitake

    2018-03-12

    Emotion regulation utilizing positive emotion during negative emotional states might be one of the effective ways to alleviate depression and anxiety problems among people with emotional disorders. This study examined the psychometric properties and incremental validity of the Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS), a newly developed self-report scale, in a sample of university students in Japan. To examine the psychometric properties of the PEIDS, the scale was completed by Japanese university students (396 men and 363 women; mean age of 19.92). Participants additionally answered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire - Shorter Version, Affective Style Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The survey was conducted at two time points separated by 1 month to assess test-retest reliability and validity of the PEIDS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a one-factor structure. Reliability was confirmed by high internal consistency and test-retest stability; the convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed by correlations with related and unrelated variables. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that positive emotion in distress might predict depression above and beyond the effect of baseline depression and other common emotion regulation strategies. The PEIDS showed acceptable reliability and validity within young adults and a non-clinical population in Japan. Further research will be needed to examine the effect of positive emotion among clinical populations. Previous research suggests that positive emotions play a key role in recovery from depression and anxiety problems through some forms of psychotherapy. The Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS) measures individual differences regarding the extent to which people can experience positive emotions in negative emotional states. Results suggested that the

  12. Employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Jung, Julia; Pfaff, Holger; Driller, Elke

    2013-05-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide. One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using data from N = 213 employees. The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Implementation of depression screening in antenatal clinics through tablet computers: results of a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano-Belisario, José S; Gupta, Ajay K; O'Donoghue, John; Ramchandani, Paul; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip

    2017-05-10

    Mobile devices may facilitate depression screening in the waiting area of antenatal clinics. This can present implementation challenges, of which we focused on survey layout and technology deployment. We assessed the feasibility of using tablet computers to administer a socio-demographic survey, the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to 530 pregnant women attending National Health Service (NHS) antenatal clinics across England. We randomised participants to one of two layout versions of these surveys: (i) a scrolling layout where each survey was presented on a single screen; or (ii) a paging layout where only one question appeared on the screen at any given time. Overall, 85.10% of eligible pregnant women agreed to take part. Of these, 90.95% completed the study procedures. Approximately 23% of participants answered Yes to at least one Whooley question, and approximately 13% of them scored 10 points of more on the EPDS. We observed no association between survey layout and the responses given to the Whooley questions, the median EPDS scores, the number of participants at increased risk of self-harm, and the number of participants asking for technical assistance. However, we observed a difference in the number of participants at each EPDS scoring interval (p = 0.008), which provide an indication of a woman's risk of depression. A scrolling layout resulted in faster completion times (median = 4 min 46 s) than a paging layout (median = 5 min 33 s) (p = 0.024). However, the clinical significance of this difference (47.5 s) is yet to be determined. Tablet computers can be used for depression screening in the waiting area of antenatal clinics. This requires the careful consideration of clinical workflows, and technology-related issues such as connectivity and security. An association between survey layout and EPDS scoring intervals needs to be explored further to determine if it corresponds to a survey layout effect

  14. Evaluating the economic impact of screening and treatment for depression in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Koeser, Leonardo; Knapp, Martin; Longhitano, Calogero; Zohar, Joseph; Kuhn, Karl

    2016-06-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric illness and cause of disability, and associated with durable impacts on productivity and represents one of the major causes of workplace absenteeism and presenteeism. Few studies, however, examine the economic impact of treatment of depression in the workplace, particularly from the perspective of the employer. We estimated the relative cost-effectiveness of treatment for employees with depression in the workplace. We used a decision-analytic model to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of (i) psychotherapy, (ii) pharmacotherapy and (iii) combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy and whether they reduce sickness, absenteeism and presenteeism for people with depression. Costs and savings to the employer were also estimated, and policy recommendations made about how best to translate this evidence into practice. Both pharmacotherapy treatment and psychotherapy treatment were found to be cost-saving from the perspective of the employer. Psychotherapy was found to be the most cost-effective option with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €22,225. This study provides evidence that screening and treatment for depression in the workplace is cost-effective and represents a worthwhile investment from the business perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of screening and partner notification on Chlamydia positivity in the United States: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Satterwhite, Catherine; Leichliter, Jami; Berman, Stuart

    2012-05-01

    Model impact of increasing screening and partner notification (PN) on chlamydia positivity. We used a stochastic simulation model describing pair formation and dissolution in an age-structured heterosexual population. The model accounts for steady, casual, and concurrent partnerships and a highly sexually active core group. The model used existing sexual behavior data from the United States and was validated using chlamydia positivity data from Region X (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington). A screening program with a coverage rate of 20% was implemented among women aged 15 to 24 years. After 10 years, we increased screening coverage to 35%, 50%, and 65% and partner treatment rates from 20% to 40% and 55%. Finally, we included male screening (aged 15-24, screening coverage: 20% and 35%, partner treatment: 25% and 40%). We analyzed the effects on chlamydia positivity in women and the frequency of reinfection 6 months after treatment. The model described the decline in positivity observed from 1988 to 1997 in Region X, given screening coverage of 20% and a 25% partner treatment rate. Increasing screening coverage from 35% to 65% resulted in incremental decreases in positivity as did increasing the PN rate; a 23% reduction in positivity was achieved by either increasing screening by 3-fold or PN by 2-fold. Adding male screening to the program had less impact than increasing screening coverage or PN among women. Increased PN and treatment reduced reinfection rates considerably. Increasing efforts in PN may contribute at least as much to control of chlamydia infection as increasing screening coverage rates.

  16. Family correlates of depression among hiv positive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background information: HIV infection may impact negatively on family relationship and vice versa. Members of the family of HIV positive patients may become frustrated because of the stigma of having a family member with HIV infection, and the burden of having to care for the patient. This can result into the family ...

  17. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Effects of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Positive and Negative Life Events on a One-Year Course of Depressive Symptoms in Euthymic Previously Depressed Patients Versus Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet; Roelofs, Karin; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    We investigated a) the concurrent impact of positive and negative life events on the course of depressive symptoms in persons remitted from depression and healthy controls, b) whether the impact of life events on symptom course is moderated by the history of depression and the personality traits of

  19. Depressive symptoms accelerate cognitive decline in amyloid-positive MCI patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendel, Matthias; Xiong, Guoming; Delker, Andreas [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Pogarell, Oliver [University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter; Rominger, Axel [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich (Germany); Collaboration: for the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-04-01

    Late-life depression even in subsyndromal stages is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, brain amyloidosis is an early biomarker in subjects who subsequently suffer from AD and can be sensitively detected by amyloid PET. Therefore, we aimed to compare amyloid load and glucose metabolism in subsyndromally depressed subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). [{sup 18}F]AV45 PET, [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI were performed in 371 MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Subjects were judged β-amyloid-positive (Aβ+; 206 patients) or β-amyloid-negative (Aβ-; 165 patients) according to [{sup 18}F]AV45 PET. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire depression item 4. Subjects with depressive symptoms (65 Aβ+, 41 Aβ-) were compared with their nondepressed counterparts. Conversion rates to AD were analysed (mean follow-up time 21.5 ± 9.1 months) with regard to coexisting depressive symptoms and brain amyloid load. Aβ+ depressed subjects showed large clusters with a higher amyloid load in the frontotemporal and insular cortices (p < 0.001) with coincident hypermetabolism (p < 0.001) in the frontal cortices than nondepressed subjects. Faster progression to AD was observed in subjects with depressive symptoms (p < 0.005) and in Aβ+ subjects (p < 0.001). Coincident depressive symptoms additionally shortened the conversion time in all Aβ+ subjects (p < 0.005) and to a greater extent in those with a high amyloid load (p < 0.001). Our results clearly indicate that Aβ+ MCI subjects with depressive symptoms have an elevated amyloid load together with relative hypermetabolism of connected brain areas compared with cognitively matched nondepressed individuals. MCI subjects with high amyloid load and coexistent depressive symptoms are at high risk of faster conversion to AD. (orig.)

  20. Depressive symptoms accelerate cognitive decline in amyloid-positive MCI patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, Matthias; Xiong, Guoming; Delker, Andreas; Pogarell, Oliver; Bartenstein, Peter; Rominger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Late-life depression even in subsyndromal stages is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, brain amyloidosis is an early biomarker in subjects who subsequently suffer from AD and can be sensitively detected by amyloid PET. Therefore, we aimed to compare amyloid load and glucose metabolism in subsyndromally depressed subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). [ 18 F]AV45 PET, [ 18 F]FDG PET and MRI were performed in 371 MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Subjects were judged β-amyloid-positive (Aβ+; 206 patients) or β-amyloid-negative (Aβ-; 165 patients) according to [ 18 F]AV45 PET. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire depression item 4. Subjects with depressive symptoms (65 Aβ+, 41 Aβ-) were compared with their nondepressed counterparts. Conversion rates to AD were analysed (mean follow-up time 21.5 ± 9.1 months) with regard to coexisting depressive symptoms and brain amyloid load. Aβ+ depressed subjects showed large clusters with a higher amyloid load in the frontotemporal and insular cortices (p < 0.001) with coincident hypermetabolism (p < 0.001) in the frontal cortices than nondepressed subjects. Faster progression to AD was observed in subjects with depressive symptoms (p < 0.005) and in Aβ+ subjects (p < 0.001). Coincident depressive symptoms additionally shortened the conversion time in all Aβ+ subjects (p < 0.005) and to a greater extent in those with a high amyloid load (p < 0.001). Our results clearly indicate that Aβ+ MCI subjects with depressive symptoms have an elevated amyloid load together with relative hypermetabolism of connected brain areas compared with cognitively matched nondepressed individuals. MCI subjects with high amyloid load and coexistent depressive symptoms are at high risk of faster conversion to AD. (orig.)

  1. Adequacy of Mental Health Services for HIV-Positive Patients with Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    use and antidepressant use, as well as mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines for HIV-positive patients with depression in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study linking data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study...... income or educational attainment, or as non-native English speakers or immigrants to Canada were less likely to obtain care. Of 493 patients using mental health services, 250 (51%) received mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed......BACKGROUND: Major depression can profoundly impact clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of people living with HIV, and this disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated in many HIV-positive individuals. Here, we describe the prevalence of publicly funded primary and secondary mental health service...

  2. Development of a prenatal psychosocial screening tool for post-partum depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila; Wall, Jennifer; Forbes, Kaitlin; Kingston, Dawn; Kehler, Heather; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-07-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries, affecting 10-15% of new mothers. There has been a shift in thinking less in terms of PPD per se to a broader consideration of poor mental health, including anxiety after giving birth. Some risk factors for poor mental health in the post-partum period can be identified prenatally; however prenatal screening tools developed to date have had poor sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to develop a screening tool that identifies women at risk of distress, operationalized by elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety in the post-partum period using information collected in the prenatal period. Using data from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Calgary, Alberta (N = 1578), we developed an integer score-based prediction rule for the prevalence of PPD, as defined as scoring 10 or higher on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-months postpartum. The best fit model included known risk factors for PPD: depression and stress in late pregnancy, history of abuse, and poor relationship quality with partner. Comparison of the screening tool with the EPDS in late pregnancy showed that our tool had significantly better performance for sensitivity. Further validation of our tool was seen in its utility for identifying elevated symptoms of postpartum anxiety. This research heeds the call for further development and validation work using psychosocial factors identified prenatally for identifying poor mental health in the post-partum period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...

  4. C'mon get happy: reduced magnitude and duration of response during a positive-affect induction in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Michelle S; Siegle, Greg J; Schwartz, Robert M; Price, Rebecca B; Haggerty, Agnes E; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S

    2014-11-01

    Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene in the phenomenon, for example, how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and thirty-four never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for 7 min. Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. These data indicate that depressed and nondepressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals' ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  6. Depressive realism and the effect of intertrial interval on judgements of zero, positive, and negative contingencies

    OpenAIRE

    Msetfi, Rachel M.; Murphy, Robin, A.; Simpson, Jane

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed In three experiments we tested how the spacing of trials during acquisition of zero, positive, and negative event–outcome contingencies differentially affected depressed and nondepressed students’ judgements. Experiment 1 found that nondepressed participants’ judgements of zero contingencies increased with longer intertrial intervals (ITIs) but not simply longer procedure durations. Depressed groups’ judgements were not sensitive to either manipulation, producing an effect kn...

  7. Postnatal Depression Symptoms are Associated with Increased Diarrhea among Infants of HIV-Positive Ghanaian Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Okronipa, Harriet E.T.; Marquis, Grace S.; Lartey, Anna; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection is linked to increased prevalence of depression which may affect maternal caregiving practices and place young infants at increased risk of illness. We examined the incidence and days ill with diarrhea among infants of HIV positive (HIV-P), HIV negative (HIV-N), and unknown HIV status (HIV-U) women, and determined if symptoms of maternal postnatal depression (PND) modulated the risk of diarrhea. Pregnant women (n=492) were recruited from 3 antenatal clinics; mothers and infants ...

  8. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  9. A state-independent network of depressive, negative and positive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Geeske; Isvoranu, Adela-Maria; Kruijt, Olle H; van Borkulo, Claudia D; Meijer, Carin J; Wigman, Johanna T W; Ruhé, Henricus G; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.

    Depressive symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia. Several factor analytical studies investigated the associations between positive, negative and depressive symptoms and reported difficulties differentiating between these symptom domains. Here, we argue that a network approach may

  10. Evaluation of positive and false-positive results in syphilis screening of blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandes, V S; Silva, S G C; Motta, I J F; Velarde, L G C; de Castilho, S R

    2017-06-01

    We propose to analyse the positive and false-positive results of treponemal and nontreponemal tests in blood donors from Brazil and to evaluate possible factors associated with the results of treponemal tests. Treponemal tests have been used widely for syphilis screening in blood banks. The introduction of these tests in donor screening has caused an impact and a loss of donors who need to be assessed. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of syphilis screening and confirmatory test results of blood donors that were obtained before and after adopting a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). A comparative analysis was performed using a second sample drawn from positive donors. The possible factors associated with CLIA-positive or CLIA-false-positive results were investigated in a subgroup. Statistical tests were used to compare the proportions and adjusted estimates of association. The reactivity rate increased from 1·01% (N = 28 158) to 2·66% (N = 25 577) after introducing the new test. Among Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)- and CLIA-confirmed results, the false-positive rates were 40·5% (N = 180) and 37·4% (N = 359), respectively (P = 0·5266). Older donors (OR = 1·04; P = 0·0010) and donors with lower education levels (OR = 6·59; P = 0·0029) were associated with a higher risk of positivity for syphilis. CLIA represents an improvement in blood bank serological screening. However, its use in a healthy population appears to result in high rates of false positives. Identifying which characteristics can predict false positives, however, remains a challenge. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    women experiencing a negative screening test, regardless of whether the false positive statement was given following assessment or following surgery. The benign to malignant biopsy ratio, comparing the type B false positives to the true positives, was by the fifth round well below the desirable level...

  12. Daily Stress, Coping, and Negative and Positive Affect in Depression: Complex Trigger and Maintenance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Lewkowski, Maxim; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Foley, J Elizabeth; Myhr, Gail; Westreich, Ruta

    2017-05-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by emotional dysfunction, but mood states in daily life are not well understood. This study examined complex explanatory models of daily stress and coping mechanisms that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (lower) positive affect in depression. Sixty-three depressed patients completed perfectionism measures, and then completed daily questionnaires of stress appraisals, coping, and affect for 7 consecutive days. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that, across many stressors, when the typical individual with depression perceives more criticism than usual, he/she uses more avoidant coping and experiences higher event stress than usual, and this is connected to daily increases in negative affect as well as decreases in positive affect. In parallel, results showed that perceived control, less avoidant coping, and problem-focused coping commonly operate together when daily positive affect increases. MSEM also showed that avoidant coping tendencies and ongoing stress, in combination, explain why people with depression and higher self-critical perfectionism maintain daily negative affect and lower positive affect. These findings advance a richer and more detailed understanding of specific stress and coping patterns to target in order to more effectively accomplish the two predominant therapy goals of decreasing patients' distress and strengthening resilience. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-27

    Blood Donors Screening Positive for Cbagas Disease presented at/published to Military Health System Research Symposium (Florida, 27-30 Aug 2017) in...disease upon blood donation at JBSA -Lackland 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Follow-up evaluation of Air Force blood donors ...Designated Exempt Reviewer Follow-up evaluation of Air Force blood donors screening positive for Chagas disease Joseph Marcus1, Bryant Webber2, Leo Cropper2

  14. Psychological effects of false-positive results in expanded newborn screening in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Tu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As more families participate expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders in China, the overall number of false positives increases. Our goal was to assess the potential impact on parental stress, perceptions of the child's health, and family relationships. METHODS: Parents of 49 infants with false-positive screening results for metabolic disorders in the expanded newborn screening panel were compared with parents of 42 children with normal screening results. Parents first completed structured interview using likert scales, closed and open questions. Parents also completed the parenting stress index. RESULTS: A total of 88 mothers and 41 fathers were interviewed. More mothers in the false-positive group reported that their children required extra parental care (21%, compared with 5% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. 39% of mothers in the false-positive group reported that they worry about their child's future development, compared with 10% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. Fathers in the false-positive group did not differ from fathers in the normal-screened group in reporting worry about their child's extra care requirements, and their child's future development. Children with false-positive results compared with children with normal results were triple as likely to experience hospitalization (27%vs 9%, respectively; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The results showing false-positive screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationship. Parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents about false-positive results.

  15. Screening for depression among indigenous Mexican migrant farmworkers using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlan, William; Lee, Junghee

    2010-04-01

    U.S. farmworkers include growing numbers of individuals from indigenous, pre-Columbian communities in southern Mexico with distinctive languages and cultures. Given the high stress these farmworkers experience in their challenging work environments, they are very susceptible to depression and other mental and emotional health disorders. The present study explores the Spanish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as a screen for the presence and severity of depression among 123 indigenous Mexican-origin, migrant farmworkers in Oregon. Factor structure and inter-item correlations of the PHQ-9 are examined, along with associations between depression and culture-bound syndromes, self-esteem, self-efficacy, acculturation stress, and other sample psychosocial characteristics. The PHQ-9 exhibited strong factor loadings and internal consistency, and its severity score significantly correlated with other indicators of health status that were observed in previous studies to be significantly associated with depression. The PHQ-9 appears to be culturally relevant for use with Mexicans coming from a variety of indigenous cultures and having very low education and literacy.

  16. Twice the negativity bias and half the positivity offset: Evaluative responses to emotional information in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the dual capacity to assign a slightly pleasant valence to neutral stimuli (the positivity offset) to encourage approach behaviors, as well as to assign a higher negative valence to unpleasant images relative to the positive valence to equally arousing and extreme pleasant images (the negativity bias) to facilitate defensive strategies. We conducted an experimental psychopathology study to examine the extent to which the negativity bias and the positivity offset differ in participants with and without major depression.. Forty-one depressed and thirty-six healthy participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure implicit affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. The negativity bias was significantly higher and the positivity offset was significantly lower in depressed relative to healthy participants.. Entry criteria enrolling medication-free participants with minimal DSM-IV comorbidity may limit generalizability of the findings. This study advances our understanding of the positive and negative valence systems in depression, highlighting the irregularities in the positive valence system.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening instruments for depression in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Faller, Herman; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-11-01

    Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology as the criterion standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 and HADS-D was fair for diagnosing major depressive disorder, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79) and 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.77), respectively. The 2 questionnaires did not differ significantly in their areas under the ROC curves (P = .15). The PHQ-9 with a cutoff score ≥7 had the best screening performance, with a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval, 78%-89%) and a specificity of 61% (95% confidence interval, 59%-63%). The American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline screening algorithm had a sensitivity of 44% (95% confidence interval, 36%-51%) and a specificity of 84% (95% confidence interval, 83%-85%). In patients with cancer, the screening performance of both the PHQ-9 and the HADS-D was limited compared with a standardized diagnostic interview. Costs and benefits of routinely screening all patients with cancer should be weighed carefully. Cancer 2017;123:4236-4243. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  18. The INECO Frontal Screening tool differentiates behavioral variant - frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD from major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fiorentino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Executive dysfunction may result from prefrontal circuitry involvement occurring in both neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, multiple neuropsychiatric conditions, may present with overlapping behavioral and cognitive symptoms, making differential diagnosis challenging, especially during earlier stages. In this sense, cognitive assessment may contribute to the differential diagnosis by providing an objective and quantifiable set of measures that has the potential to distinguish clinical conditions otherwise perceived in everyday clinical settings as quite similar. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS for differentiating bv-FTD patients from patients with Major Depression. Methods: We studied 49 patients with bv-FTD diagnosis and 30 patients diagnosed with unipolar depression compared to a control group of 26 healthy controls using the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R. Results: Patient groups differed significantly on the motor inhibitory control (U=437.0, p<0.01, verbal working memory (U=298.0, p<0.001, spatial working memory (U=300.5, p<0.001, proverbs (U=341.5, p<0.001 and verbal inhibitory control (U=316.0, p<0.001 subtests, with bv-FTD patients scoring significantly lower than patients with depression. Conclusion: Our results suggest the IFS can be considered a useful tool for detecting executive dysfunction in both depression and bv-FTD patients and, perhaps more importantly, that it has the potential to help differentiate these two conditions.

  19. Depression and smoking characteristics among HIV-positive smokers in Russia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Karen E; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y; Tindle, Hilary A; Quinn, Emily; Gnatienko, Natalia; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2018-01-01

    Globally, persons with HIV infection, depression and substance use disorders have a higher smoking prevalence and smoke more heavily than other populations. These associations have not been explored among Russian smokers with HIV infection and substance use disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes in an HIV-positive cohort of Russian smokers with a history of substance use disorders (alcohol and/or drug use disorders). We performed a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of a cohort of HIV-positive regular smokers with a history of substance use disorders recruited in St. Petersburg, Russia in 2012-2015. The primary outcome was heavy smoking, defined as smoking > 20 cigarettes per day. Nicotine dependence (moderate-very high) was a secondary outcome. The main independent variable was a high level of depressive symptoms in the past 7 days (defined as CES-D > = 24). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between depressive symptoms and the outcomes, controlling for age, sex, education, income, running out of money for housing/food, injection drug use, and alcohol use measured by the AUDIT. Among 309 regular smokers, 79 participants (25.6%) had high levels of depressive symptoms, and 65 participants (21.0%) were heavy smokers. High levels of depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with heavy smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 95% CI 0.78-2.89) or with moderate-very high levels of nicotine dependence (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 0.75-2.41). This study did not detect an association between depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes among HIV-positive regular smokers in Russia.

  20. The “DOC” screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H.; Cayley, Megan L.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Murray, Brian J.; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Sicard, Michelle N.; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Background Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment (“DOC”) are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool (“DOC” screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. Methods All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. Findings 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Conclusions Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may

  1. Development and Validation of a POSIT-Short Form: Screening for Problem Behaviors among Adolescents at Risk for Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danseco, Evangeline R.; Marques, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    The Problem-Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) screens for multiple problems among adolescents at risk for substance use. A shortened version of the POSIT was developed, using factor analysis, and correlational and reliability analyses. The POSIT-SF shows potential for a reliable and cost-efficient screen for youth with substance…

  2. Associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depression : A detailed repeated-assessments study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology

  3. Factors associated with risk of depression and relevant predictors of screening for depression in clinical practice: a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected individuals in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, M; Sodemann, M; Gabel, C; Holmskov, J; Laursen, T; Rodkjaer, L

    2015-08-01

    Depression and psychiatric disorders are frequent among HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and describe the psychiatric history of HIV-infected individuals in an out-patient clinic in Denmark and to identify factors of clinical importance that may be used to identify patients at risk of depression. In 2013, 212 HIV-infected patients were included in a questionnaire study. We used the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Patients with a BDI-II score ≥ 20 were offered a clinical evaluation by a consultant psychiatrist. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors associated with risk of depression. Symptoms of depression (BDI-II score ≥ 14) were observed in 75 patients (35%), and symptoms of moderate to major depression (BDI-II score ≥ 20) in 55 patients (26%). There was also a high prevalence of co-occurring mental illness. In a multivariate model, self-reported stress, self-reported perception that HIV infection affects all aspects of life, self-reported poor health, not being satisfied with one's current life situation, previous alcohol abuse, nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy and previously having sought help because of psychological problems were independently associated with risk of depression. Symptoms of depression and co-occurring mental illness are under-diagnosed and under-treated among HIV-infected individuals. We recommend that screening of depression should be conducted regularly to provide a full psychiatric profile to decrease the risk of depression and improve adherence and quality of life in this population. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  4. Associations of Parental Rules and Socioeconomic Position With Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviour and Screen Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Hinkley, Trina; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-04-01

    There is little current understanding of the influences on sedentary behavior and screen time in preschool children. This study investigated socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental rules as potential correlates of preschool children's sedentary behavior and screen time. Data from the Healthy Active Preschool Years (HAPPY) Study were used. Participating parents reported their child's usual weekly screen time and their rules to regulate their child's screen time. Children wore accelerometers for 8 days to objectively measure sedentary time. Children whose parents limited television viewing spent significantly less time in that behavior and in total screen time; however, overall sedentary behavior was unaffected. An association between parents limiting computer/electronic game use and time spent on the computer was found for girls only. SEP was inversely associated with girls', but not boys', total screen time and television viewing. As parental rules were generally associated with lower levels of screen time, intervention strategies could potentially encourage parents to set limits on, and switch off, screen devices. Intervention strategies should target preschool children across all SEP areas, as there was no difference by SEP in overall sedentary behavior or screen time for boys.

  5. Missed opportunities in primary care: the importance of identifying depression through screening, family history, and chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Khan, Fakiha

    2013-02-01

    This study explored the adequacy of depression screening in a community health center. The medical charts of individuals (N = 90) enrolled at a community health center were randomly selected, reviewed, and compared to current standard-of-care guidelines for four elements: family history, screening for depression, control of chronic illnesses, and missed opportunities for preventive care. Family history documentation collected by the providers was limited and 44.4% had no family history. There was no routine depression screening process, although 48.9% of the clients had red flags (warning signals) for depression. Laboratory values used for screening control of chronic disease in the medical records were: fasting glucose levels ⩽100 mg/dL (46%), total cholesterol levels ⩽200 mg/dL (38%), and blood pressure ⩽120/80 mmHg (23%). The results highlight the need to focus on depression screening as part of preventive care and the management of chronic disease in the primary care setting. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  7. A comparison of the clinical features of depression in hiv-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by far the worst affected region in the world with a continental prevalence of around ... This study compared the clinical features of major depression between .... programme Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), version 11.5. ... HIV-Positive N=64 n(%) HIV-Negative N=66 n(%) X2. OR (95%CI). P-Value. Gender.

  8. Network support, technology use, depression, and ART adherence among HIV-positive MSM of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, I W; Tan, D; Dunlap, S L; Palmer, L; Beougher, S; Cederbaum, J A

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. This relationship may be moderated by an individual's social network characteristics. Our study sought to examine social network correlates of treatment adherence among HIV-positive men recruited from social service agencies throughout Los Angeles County (N = 150) to inform technology-driven social support interventions for this population. We administered egocentric social network and computer-assisted survey interviews focused on demographic characteristics, health history, depressive symptoms, and ART adherence, where adherence was assessed by the number of reasons participants missed taking their medication, if ever. Significant univariate correlates of adherence were included in a multivariable regression analysis, where the moderating effect of having a network member who reminds participants to take their HIV medication on the relationship between depression and adherence was tested. Over 60% of participants reported clinically significant depressive symptoms; this was significantly associated with lower adherence among those without someone in their social network to remind them about taking their HIV medication, even after adjusting for covariates in an ordinary least squares regression (adjusted mean difference b = -1.61, SE = 0.42, p = 0.0003). Having a network member who reminds participants to take their ART medication significantly ameliorated the negative association between depression and treatment adherence, especially for those reporting greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.0394). Additionally, participants demonstrated high rates of technology use to communicate with social network members. In order to achieve the aims of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, innovative interventions addressing mental health to improve ART adherence are needed. Network strategies that leverage technology may be helpful for improving ART

  9. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  10. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pala, A. Norcini; Steca, P.; Bagrodia, R.; Helpman, L.; Colangeli, V.; Viale, P.; Wainberg, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such ...

  11. Influence of Ceiling Suspended Screen Positioning to the Scatter Radiation Levels in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Bozovic, P.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Antic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of the ceiling suspended screen position to the scatter radiation levels in the interventional cardiology. The scatter radiation in terms of ambient dose equivalent H * (10) was measured for various positions of protective screen in the positions of the first operator, nurse and radiographer, at elevations 100-190 cm and in four different angulations of the x-ray tube. To assess the effectiveness of the protective screen, the scattered dose was also measured in the absence of any protection in all four angulations and elevations. To simulate real clinical situation the measurements were performed in the presence of 30 cm PMMA phantom using standard clinical protocol. The utility of protective screen varied for different positions and angulations. Scatter radiation levels varied in the range 70 - 3400 μSv/h for the first operator, 140 - 3200 μSv/h for the nurse and 50 - 560 μSv/h for radiographer. Ceiling suspended screens can provide a substantial level of protection (up to factor 18) in interventional cardiology, but they have to be properly managed and positioned to achieve sufficient level of protection. The guidance for optimal protection is provided in the paper.(author)

  12. Developing and validating a perinatal depression screening tool in Kenya blending Western criteria with local idioms: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric P; Tuli, Hawa; Kwobah, Edith; Menya, D; Chesire, Irene; Schmidt, Christina

    2018-03-01

    Routine screening for perinatal depression is not common in most primary health care settings. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force only recently updated their recommendation on depression screening to specifically recommend screening during the pre- and postpartum periods. While practitioners in high-income countries can respond to this new recommendation by implementing one of several existing depression screening tools developed in Western contexts, such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) or the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), these tools lack strong evidence of cross-cultural equivalence, validity for case finding, and precision in measuring response to treatment in developing countries. Thus, there is a critical need to develop and validate new screening tools for perinatal depression that can be used by lay health workers, primary health care personnel, and patients. Working in rural Kenya, we used free listing, card sorting, and item analysis methods to develop a locally-relevant screening tool that blended Western psychiatric concepts with local idioms of distress. We conducted a validation study with a random sample of 193 pregnant women and new mothers to test the diagnostic accuracy of this scale along with the EPDS and PHQ-9. The sensitivity/specificity of the EPDS and PHQ-9 was estimated to be 0.70/0.72 and 0.70/0.73, respectively. This compared to sensitivity/specificity of 0.90/0.90 for a new 9-item locally-developed tool called the Perinatal Depression Screening (PDEPS). Across these three tools, internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.77 to 0.81 and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.57 to 0.67. The prevalence of depression ranges from 5.2% to 6.2% depending on the clinical reference standard. The EPDS and PHQ-9 are valid and reliable screening tools for perinatal depression in rural Western Kenya, the PDEPS may be a more useful alternative. At less than 10%, the prevalence of depression in this region appears

  13. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  14. Long-term psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have the potential of intended beneficial effects, but they also inevitably have unintended harmful effects. In the case of screening mammography, the most frequent harm is a false-positive result. Prior efforts to measure their psychosocial consequences have been limite...... by short-term follow-up, the use of generic survey instruments, and the lack of a relevant benchmark-women with breast cancer....

  15. Future Research Directions in the Positive Valence Systems: Measurement, Development, and Implications for Youth Unipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    The Positive Valence Systems (PVS) have been introduced by the National Institute of Mental Health as a domain to help organize multiple constructs focusing on reward-seeking behaviors. However, the initial working model for this domain is strongly influenced by adult constructs and measures. Thus, the present review focuses on extending the PVS into a developmental context. Specifically, the review provides some hypotheses about the structure of the PVS, how PVS components may change throughout development, how family history of depression may influence PVS development, and potential means of intervening on PVS function to reduce onsets of depression. Future research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  16. MEDIATOR EFFECTS OF POSITIVE EMOTIONS ON SOCIAL SUPPORT AND DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENTS SUFFERING FROM MOBILE PHONE ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Menglong; Jiang, Xia; Ren, Yujia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emoti...

  17. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.

  18. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  19. A qualitative study of the acceptability of routine screening of postnatal women using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Judy; Blake, Fiona; Garcia, Jo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for postnatal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been widely recommended and implemented in primary care, although little is known about how acceptable it is to women. AIM: To explore the acceptability to women of postnatal screening by health visitors with the EPDS. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Postnatal patients from 22 general practices within the area of Oxford City Primary Care Group. METHOD: Thirty-nine postnatal women from a purposive sample were interviewed, chosen on the basis of different general practices, EPDS results at eight weeks and eight months postnatal, and whether 'listening visits' were received. The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method. RESULTS: Just over half of the women interviewed found screening with the EPDS less than acceptable, whatever their postnatal emotional health. The main themes identified were problems with the process of screening and, in particular, the venue, the personal intrusion of screening and stigma. The women interviewed had a clear preference for talking about how they felt, rather than filling out a questionnaire. CONCLUSION: For this sample, routine screening with the EPDS was less than acceptable for the majority of women. This is of concern, as universal screening with the EPDS for the detection of postnatal depression is already recommended and widespread in primary care. PMID:14601337

  20. The Concurrent Validity of Brief Screening Questions for Anxiety, Depression, Social Isolation, Catastrophization and Fear of Movement in People with Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Mirkhil, Saeida; Keating, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    (i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions.......(i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions....

  1. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, M.J.; Kooij, L.; Muller, M.A.; Bilardo, K.M.; van Lith, J.M.; Tymstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. METHOD: Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  2. Mediator Effects of Positive Emotions on Social Support and Depression among Adolescents Suffering from Mobile Phone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglong; Jiang, Xia; Ren, Yujia

    2017-06-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emotions on the relationship between social support and depression among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. For this study, conducted in 2016, we selected 1,346 adolescent students from three middle schools (ranging from Junior Grade One to Senior Grade Three) in Hunan Province of China, to participate in the survey. Participants were selected using the stratified cluster random sampling method, and all participants remained anonymous throughout the study. Each participant completed the Self-made General Situation Questionnaire, the Social Support Rating Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale. There was significant positive correlation between positive emotions and social support. Both positive emotions and social support demonstrated significant negative correlation with depression. Positive emotions had partial mediator effects on the relationship between social support and depression (Pphone addiction. Social support contributes to positive emoth mobile phone addiction, thereby reducing their levels of depression. These findings suggest that more support and care should be given to this particular adolescent population.

  3. Harnessing happiness? Uncontrollable positive emotion in bipolar disorder, major depression, and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoona; Gruber, June

    2013-04-01

    The ability to adaptively exert control over negative emotions is associated with beneficial mental health outcomes. Less is known about the associated emotional sequelae surrounding controllable versus uncontrollable positive emotional experiences. The ability to harness positive emotions is of particular importance in populations involving disrupted positive emotion functioning. In the present study, participants engaged in a relived memory task in which they recalled either a controllable or uncontrollable past positive emotional experience in counterbalanced order, while concurrent experiential and autonomic responses were measured. Participants included adults with bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 32), major depression (MDD; n = 32), and or nonpsychiatric controls (CTLs; n = 31). Across all participants, reliving a controllable positive emotion experience was associated with exhibited increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an autonomic marker of regulatory control. Interestingly, only the MDD group reported increased positive emotion and decreased cardiovascular arousal when reliving an event involving uncontrollable positive emotion, compared to the BD and CTL groups. No other group differences emerged. These findings suggest that although controllable positive emotion experiences may be adaptive for most, individuals with a history of restricted affect and depressed mood may actually derive more pleasure from times of unharnessed happiness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Parental knowledge reduces long term anxiety induced by false-positive test results after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Pal, S.M. van der; Reijntjens, A.J.T.; Loeber, J.G.; Dompeling, E.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result

  5. Stress-related clinical pain and mood in women with chronic pain: moderating effects of depression and positive mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary C; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain with comorbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. This study aims to compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N = 110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression × mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions.

  6. Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment (DESEO): protocol for an educational intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Katherine; Eghaneyan, Brittany H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2016-07-29

    Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma, inadequate doctor patient communication (DPC) and resultant sub-optimal use of anti-depressant medications. Stigma is primarily perpetuated due to inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. Common concerns about depression treatments among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. The current manuscript presents the study protocol for the Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment (DESEO) study funded by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Grants to Support the Hispanic Health Services Research Grant Program. DESEO will implement universal screening with a self-report depression screening tool (the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)) that is presented through a customized web application and a Depression Education Intervention (DEI) designed to increase disease literacy, and dispel myths about depression and its treatment among Hispanic patients thus reducing stigma and increasing treatment engagement. This project will be conducted at one community health center whose patient population is majority Hispanic. The target enrollment for recruitment is 350 patients over the 24-month study period. A one-group, pretest-posttest design will be used to asses knowledge of depression and its treatment and related stigma before, immediately after, and one month post intervention. Primary care settings often are the gateway to identifying undiagnosed mental health disorders, particularly for people with comorbid physical health conditions. This study is unique in that it aims to examine the specific role of patient education as an intervention to increase engagement in depression treatment. By participating in the DEI, it is expected that patients will have time to understand treatment

  7. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  8. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda C. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1 screening and referral, (2 facilitators to referral, (3 barriers to referral, (4 culture and language, (5 life events, and (6 support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services.

  9. Seeing light at the end of the tunnel: Positive prospective mental imagery and optimism in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Julie L; Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E

    2017-01-01

    Optimism is associated with positive outcomes across many health domains, from cardiovascular disease to depression. However, we know little about cognitive processes underlying optimism in psychopathology. The present study tested whether the ability to vividly imagine positive events in one's future was associated with dispositional optimism in a sample of depressed adults. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted, using baseline (all participants, N=150) and follow-up data (participants in the control condition only, N=63) from a clinical trial (Blackwell et al., 2015). Vividness of positive prospective imagery, assessed on a laboratory-administered task at baseline, was significantly associated with both current optimism levels at baseline and future (seven months later) optimism levels, including when controlling for potential confounds. Even when depressed, those individuals able to envision a brighter future were more optimistic, and regained optimism more quickly over time, than those less able to do so at baseline. Strategies to increase the vividness of positive prospective imagery may aid development of mental health interventions to boost optimism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of depressive symptoms on distress related to positive psychotic-like experiences in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas, Antía; Barrigón, María Luisa; Lahera, Guillermo; Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) is an effective instrument for detection of the presence of psychotic symptoms and associated distress in the general population. However, little research has studied distress associated with positive psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Our aim is to study PLE-related distress using the CAPE. In this study we analysed factors associated with differences in PLE-related distress in a sample of 200 non-clinical participants recruited by snowball sampling. Presence of PLEs and related psychological distress was measured using the CAPE questionnaire. The influence of age, gender, educational level and drug use was studied. In univariate analysis we found that gender and CAPE positive, depressive and negative scores, were associated with CAPE positive distress. Using multiple linear regression, we found that only the effect of gender, and the interaction between frequency of depression and gender, remained statistically significant. In our sample interaction between gender and depressive symptoms is a determining factor in distress associated with positive PLEs. The results of this study may be useful for the implementation of prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: the role of catecholamines in causation and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Demyttenaere, Koen; Janka, Zoltan; Aarre, Trond; Bourin, Michel; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Stahl, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Despite significant advances in pharmacologic therapy of depression over the past two decades, a substantial proportion of patients fail to respond or experience only partial response to serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants, resulting in chronic functional impairment. There appears to be a pattern of symptoms that are inadequately addressed by serotonergic antidepressants - loss of pleasure, loss of interest, fatigue and loss of energy. These symptoms are key to the maintenance of drive and motivation. Although these symptoms are variously defined, they are consistent with the concept of ;decreased positive affect'. Positive affect subsumes a broad range of positive mood states, including feelings of happiness (joy), interest, energy, enthusiasm, alertness and self-confidence. Although preliminary, there is evidence to suggest that antidepressants that enhance noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity may afford a therapeutic advantage over serotonergic antidepressants in the treatment of symptoms associated with a reduction in positive affect. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic agents, including the dual acting norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitors, have demonstrated antidepressant activity in the absence of serotonergic function, showing similar efficacy to both tricyclic and serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants. Moreover, the norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitor bupropion has been shown to significantly improve symptoms of energy, pleasure and interest in patients with depression with predominant baseline symptoms of decreased pleasure, interest and energy. Focusing treatment on the predominant or driving symptomatology for an individual patient with major depression could potentially improve rates of response and remission.

  12. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cervical Screening within HIV Care: Findings from an HIV-Positive Cohort in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather; Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Tereschenko, Rostislav; Adeyanova, Irina; Kulakovskaya, Elena; Ostrovskaya, Lyudmila; Kvasha, Liliana; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Townsend, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. Methods Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. Results Overall, 30% (337/1120) of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum), a third (115/334) of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before) their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75 p<0.01 for 1st/2nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28–0.63 p<0.01 for 3rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis). Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up), 21% (68/325) had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07–3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11–5.76 respectively). Conclusions In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme for HIV-positive

  14. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological distress in a mammography screening process as a consequence of screening after adjusting for background, personality and prescreening distress. Subjects, aged 50 years, were invitees at their first screening. There were three groups; normal find...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  15. Risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Ngoma, Twalib

    2012-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Women who are widowed/separated, of high parity, of low education and married at a young age are more likely to be VIA positive and thus at risk of developing cervical cancer. The study further documents that a referral linkage between the HIV care and treatment program and the cervical cancer...... screening program is in place in the setting studied, where HIV positive were more likely to participate in the cervical cancer screening program than HIV negative women.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tanzania is among the countries in the world where the cervical cancer incidence is estimated to be highest. Acknowledging an increase in the burden of cervical cancer, VIA was implemented as a regional cervical cancer screening strategy in Tanzania in 2002. With the aim...

  16. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Fujii, Teruhiko; Kurata, Seiji; Ogo, Etsuyo; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Tanaka, Maki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  17. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV− female couples, 98 HIV− ma...

  18. Presence of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Affects the First Time Treatment Efficacy and Recurrence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Sayyid, Zahra N; Ma, Xiulan; Wang, Tian; Dong, Yaodong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the possible effects of anxiety and/or depression symptoms on the treatment outcomes and recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). This is a retrospective study conducted at a single institution. 142 consecutive patients diagnosed with idiopathic BPPV at the Department of Otology in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between October 2016 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. 127 patients were finally included in this study. Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the presence of anxiety and/or depression, respectively, in our BPPV patients. A significant score (at or above 50 for SAS and 53 for SDS) represents the presence of clinically significant symptoms. Two-tailed Student's t -test, χ 2 test, and logistic regression analysis were used as appropriate. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of anxiety and/or depression symptoms in BPPV patients in the present study was 49.61%. The effectiveness of the first time canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM) was 70.08%. With weekly follow-up treatments of CRM, the success rate increased to 97.64% by 1 month. The total recurrence rate at 6-month follow-up post-cure was 14.17%. Holding all other variables constant, patients with psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 3.160; p  = 0.027) and patients with non-posterior semicircular canal (PSC) involvement (Relative-risk ratio: 7.828, p  = 0.013) were more likely to experience residual dizziness (RD) even after effective CRM treatment. Psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 6.543; p  = 0.001) and female gender (Relative-risk ratio: 4.563; p  = 0.010) are risk factors for the failure of first time CRM. In addition, BPPV patients with psychiatric symptoms (Odds ratio: 9.184, p  = 0.008) were significantly more likely to experience recurrences within the first 6 months after a successful

  19. Presence of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Affects the First Time Treatment Efficacy and Recurrence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesTo investigate the possible effects of anxiety and/or depression symptoms on the treatment outcomes and recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.MethodsThis is a retrospective study conducted at a single institution. 142 consecutive patients diagnosed with idiopathic BPPV at the Department of Otology in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between October 2016 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. 127 patients were finally included in this study. Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS were used to evaluate the presence of anxiety and/or depression, respectively, in our BPPV patients. A significant score (at or above 50 for SAS and 53 for SDS represents the presence of clinically significant symptoms. Two-tailed Student’s t-test, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis were used as appropriate. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsThe prevalence of anxiety and/or depression symptoms in BPPV patients in the present study was 49.61%. The effectiveness of the first time canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM was 70.08%. With weekly follow-up treatments of CRM, the success rate increased to 97.64% by 1 month. The total recurrence rate at 6-month follow-up post-cure was 14.17%. Holding all other variables constant, patients with psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 3.160; p = 0.027 and patients with non-posterior semicircular canal (PSC involvement (Relative-risk ratio: 7.828, p = 0.013 were more likely to experience residual dizziness (RD even after effective CRM treatment. Psychiatric symptoms (Relative-risk ratio: 6.543; p = 0.001 and female gender (Relative-risk ratio: 4.563; p = 0.010 are risk factors for the failure of first time CRM. In addition, BPPV patients with psychiatric symptoms (Odds ratio: 9.184, p = 0.008 were significantly more likely to experience recurrences within the first 6

  20. Assessing validity of a depression screening instrument in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A; Fann, Jesse R; Vander Stoep, Ann; Andrew Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the extent to which use of a hypothesized imperfect gold standard, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), biases the estimates of diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We also evaluate how statistical correction can be used to address this bias. The study was conducted among 926 adults where structured interviews were conducted to collect information about participants' current major depressive disorder using PHQ-9 and CIDI instruments. First, we evaluated the relative psychometric properties of PHQ-9 using CIDI as a gold standard. Next, we used a Bayesian latent class model to correct for the bias. In comparison with CIDI, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9 for detecting major depressive disorder at a cut point of 10 or more were 53.1% (95% confidence interval: 45.4%-60.8%) and 77.5% (95% confidence interval, 74.5%-80.5%), respectively. Using a Bayesian latent class model to correct for the bias arising from the use of an imperfect gold standard increased the sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-9 to 79.8% (95% Bayesian credible interval, 64.9%-90.8%) and 79.1% (95% Bayesian credible interval, 74.7%-83.7%), respectively. Our results provided evidence that assessing diagnostic validity of mental health screening instrument, where application of a gold standard might not be available, can be accomplished by using appropriate statistical methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the WHO-5 as a first-step screening instrument for depression in adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliday, Jennifer A.; Hendrieckx, Christel; Busija, Lucy; Browne, Jessica L.; Nefs, G.M.; Pouwer, Francois; Speight, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Screening for depression is recommended internationally. The World Health Organization's 5-item Well-being Index (WHO-5) is used clinically to screen for depression but its empirical suitability for this purpose is not well documented. We investigated the psychometric properties of the WHO-5

  2. Social networks of HIV-positive women and their association with social support and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Rice, Eric; Craddock, Jaih; Pimentel, Veronica; Beaver, Patty

    2017-02-01

    Social support is important to the mental health and well-being of HIV-positive women. Limited information exists about the specific structure and composition of HIV-positive women's support networks or associations of these network properties with mental health outcomes. In this pilot study, the authors examine whether support network characteristics were associated with depressive symptoms. Survey and network data were collected from HIV-positive women (N = 46) via a web-based survey and an iPad application in August 2012. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models in SAS. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with a greater number of doctors in a woman's network; having more HIV-positive network members was associated with less symptom reporting. Women who reported more individuals who could care for them had more family support. Those who reported feeling loved were less likely to report disclosure stigma. This work highlighted that detailed social network data can increase our understanding of social support so as to identify interventions to support the mental health of HIV-positive women. Most significant is the ongoing need for support from peers.

  3. How should we screen for depression following a natural disaster? An ROC approach to post-disaster screening in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph R; Adams, Zachary W; Menon, Suvarna V; Youngstrom, Eric A; Bunnell, Brian E; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2016-09-15

    The present study's aim was to provide the foundation for an efficient, empirically based protocol for depression screening following a natural disaster. Utilizing a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analytic approach, the study tested a) what specific disaster-related stressors (i.e., property damage, loss of basic services) and individual-related constructs (i.e., PTSD symptoms, trauma history, social support) conveyed the greatest risk for post-natural disaster depression, b) specific cutoff scores across these measures, and c) whether the significance or cutoff scores for each construct varied between adolescents and adults. Structured phone-based clinical interviews were conducted with 2000 adolescents who lived through a tornado and 1543 adults who survived a hurricane. Findings suggested that in both adolescents and adults, individual-related constructs forecasted greater risk for depressive symptoms following a natural disaster compared to disaster-related stressors. Furthermore, trauma history and PTSD symptoms were particularly strong indicators for adolescent depressive symptoms compared to adult depressive symptoms. Adolescents and adults who reported vulnerable scores for social support, trauma history, and lifetime PTSD symptoms were approximately twice as likely to present as depressed following the natural disaster. Findings from the present study were limited to post-disaster assessments and based on self-reported functioning 6-12 months following the natural disaster. The present study synthesizes the extensive body of research on post-disaster functioning by providing a clear framework for which questions may be most important to ask when screening for depression following a natural disaster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A High School Counselor's Leadership in Providing School-Wide Screenings for Depression and Enhancing Suicide Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anne; Abel, Nicholas R.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health issues and suicidal thoughts and actions among school-aged children and adolescents is a serious issue. This article examines the scope of the problem nationwide and provides a brief overview of the literature regarding the effectiveness of school-wide screening programs for depression and suicide risk. The authors…

  5. The Factor Structure for the Geriatric Depression Scale in Screening Depression in Taiwanese Patients with Very Mild to Moderate Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Background: To define the factor structures of the 30 items Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) when assessing the depression in patients with very mild to moderate dementia. Methods: A total of 240 pairs of patients with very mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of the medical center in Taiwan from July 2001 to October 2008 were surveyed. The depression of patients with dementia was evaluated using the Chinese version of the GDS-30. We analyzed the ...

  6. [Wuling Capsule for climacteric patients with depression and anxiety state: a randomized, positive parallel controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-juan; Li, Ji; Zou, Qin-di; Jin, Ling

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of menopausal anxiety and depression is increasing. It can induce and aggravate a variety of somatic symptoms. Despite of the good effects of psychotropic drugs on the disease, patients' compliance is poor. Therefore, it is necessary to find a drug which is practical, effective, and easy for patients to take. To evaluate the efficacy of Wuling Capsule (WC), a Chinese herbal medicine, in treatment of female climacteric syndrome with depression and anxiety state. A total of 96 outpatients of female climacteric syndrome from Department of Gynecology of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Department of Gynecology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University were included. The study was designed as a randomized, positive drug parallel controlled trial. The patients were divided into WC group (64 cases) and control group (32 cases) and were orally administered Wuling Capsule and Gengnianan Tablet, respectively. The efficacy was evaluated with Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before treatment, and after 3-week and 6-week treatment. The total response rate was 89.66% (52/58) in the WC group, which was superior to that in the control group [76.67% (23/30)]. Ridit test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups (Pstate. Wuling Capsule is more effective to alleviate depression and anxiety as compared with Gengnianan Tablet.

  7. Patients with endometriosis using positive coping strategies have less depression, stress and pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Lilian; Ramos, Denise Gimenez; Andres, Marina de Paula; Passman, Leigh Jonathan; Podgaec, Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    To determine the correlations between coping strategies, depression, stress levels and pain perception in patients with endometriosis. This prospective and exploratory study included 171 women undergoing treatment for endometriosis between April and August 2014. The questionnaires used were Brief COPE, Beck Depression Inventory, Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults and Visual Analogue Scale. Clinical data were collected from electronic medical records. Patients with endometriosis who used positive coping strategies had better adaptation to stress (pendometriose. Estudo prospectivo e exploratório, que incluiu 171 mulheres em tratamento por endometriose entre abril e agosto de 2014. Foram utilizadas as escalas: COPE Breve, Inventário de Depressão de Beck, Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp e a Escala Visual Analógica. Os dados clínicos foram coletados do prontuário eletrônico. Pacientes com endometriose que utilizaram estratégias positivas de enfrentamento apresentaram melhor adaptação ao estresse (pendometriose. A utilização de estratégias de coping desadaptativa focada na emoção está correlacionada com o aumento da depressão e do estresse.

  8. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  9. Depression recognition and capacity for self-report among ethnically diverse nursing homes residents: Evidence of disparities in screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Audrey; Reinhardt, Joann P; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie M; Silver, Stephanie; Burack, Orah; Eimicke, Joseph P; Cimarolli, Verena; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2017-12-01

    To examine agreement between Minimum Data Set clinician ratings and researcher assessments of depression among ethnically diverse nursing home residents using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Although depression is common among nursing homes residents, its recognition remains a challenge. Observational baseline data from a longitudinal intervention study. Sample of 155 residents from 12 long-term care units in one US facility; 50 were interviewed in Spanish. Convergence between clinician and researcher ratings was examined for (i) self-report capacity, (ii) suicidal ideation, (iii) at least moderate depression, (iv) Patient Health Questionnaire severity scores. Experiences by clinical raters using the depression assessment were analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine concordance and Cohen's kappa to examine agreement between clinicians and researchers. Moderate agreement (κ = 0.52) was observed in determination of capacity and poor to fair agreement in reporting suicidal ideation (κ = 0.10-0.37) across time intervals. Poor agreement was observed in classification of at least moderate depression (κ = -0.02 to 0.24), lower than the maximum kappa obtainable (0.58-0.85). Eight assessors indicated problems assessing Spanish-speaking residents. Among Spanish speakers, researchers identified 16% with Patient Health Questionnaire scores of 10 or greater, and 14% with thoughts of self-harm whilst clinicians identified 6% and 0%, respectively. This study advances the field of depression recognition in long-term care by identification of possible challenges in assessing Spanish speakers. Use of the Patient Health Questionnaire requires further investigation, particularly among non-English speakers. Depression screening for ethnically diverse nursing home residents is required, as underreporting of depression and suicidal ideation among Spanish speakers may result in lack of depression recognition and referral for evaluation and

  10. Willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechi Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proven benefit of integrating cervical cancer screening programme into HIV care has led to its adoption as a standard of care. However this is not operational in most HIV clinics in Nigeria. Of the various reasons given for non-implementation, none is backed by scientific evidence. This study was conducted to assess the willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women. Methods A cross sectional study of HIV positive women attending a large HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Respondents were identified using stratified sampling method. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information by trained research assistants. Obtained information were coded and managed using SPSS for windows version 19. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine independent predictor for acceptance of cervical cancer screening. Results Of the 1517 respondents that returned completed questionnaires, 853 (56.2% were aware of cervical cancer. Though previous cervical cancer screening was low at 9.4%, 79.8% (1210 accepted to take the test. Cost of the test (35.2% and religious denial (14.0% were the most common reasons given for refusal to take the test. After controlling for confounding variables in a multivariate logistic regression model, having a tertiary education (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84, no living child (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, recent HIV diagnosis (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0 and being aware of cervical cancer (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0 retained independent association with acceptance to screen for cervical cancer. Conclusions The study shows that HIV positive women in our environment are willing to screen for cervical cancer and that the integration of reproductive health service into existing HIV programmes will strengthen rather than disrupt the services.

  11. Validation of the Arab Youth Mental Health scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety in Lebanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkash Rima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153. The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 and specificity (79%. However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71% and poor sensitivity for boys (50%. Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.

  12. Screening and Treatment for Depression, Dementia, and Psychosis with Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AND TREATMENT FOR DEPRESSION, DEMENTIA, AND PSYCHOSIS WITH PARKINSON DISEASE Depression, dementia, and psychosis are common in people with Parkinson disease. These conditions can affect how people with ...

  13. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini Pala, A; Steca, P; Bagrodia, R; Helpman, L; Colangeli, V; Viale, P; Wainberg, M L

    2016-08-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. This study sought to explore the patterns of somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms that characterize HIV-positive patients. Our specific aims were (1) to identify subtypes of depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive patients; and (2) to test the subtypes' difference on inflammatory and HIV disease progression biomarkers. HIV-positive men and women (N=102) with and without depressive symptoms were randomly selected from an Italian HIV clinic. Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), viral load (VL), CD4+, Il-6, TNF-α, and monocytes were assessed. The three subtypes formed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patients with (1) severe cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms; (2) severe/moderate somatic symptoms; and (3) absent or low depressive symptoms. The subtype with severe/moderate somatic symptoms was characterized with elevated levels of Il-6 and monocytes. No difference on HIV progression biomarkers was found. The subtypes of depressive symptoms might help differentiating depressive symptoms from HIV- and inflammatory-related somatic symptoms. When present, cognitive-affective and/or somatic symptoms cause significant impairment to patients' lives and thus warrant further assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-12

    Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach's alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource-constrained settings.

  15. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...

  16. Positive Psychology for Overcoming Symptoms of Depression: A Pilot Study Exploring the Efficacy of a Positive Psychology Self-Help Book versus a CBT Self-Help Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Katie

    2018-04-25

    Depression is an extremely common mental health disorder, with prevalence rates rising. Low-intensity interventions are frequently used to help meet the demand for treatment. Bibliotherapy, for example, is often prescribed via books on prescription schemes (for example 'Reading Well' in England) to those with mild to moderate symptomology. Bibliotherapy can effectively reduce symptoms of depression (Naylor et al., 2010). However, the majority of self-help books are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which may not be suitable for all patients. Research supports the use of positive psychology interventions for the reduction of depression symptoms (Bolier et al., 2013) and as such self-help books from this perspective should be empirically tested. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 'Positive Psychology for Overcoming Depression' (Akhtar, 2012), a self-help book for depression that is based on the principles of positive psychology, in comparison with a CBT self-help book that is currently prescribed in England as part of the Reading Well books on prescription scheme. Participants (n = 115) who were not receiving treatment, but had symptoms of depression, read the positive psychology or the CBT self-help book for 8 weeks. Depression and well-being were measured at baseline, post-test and 1-month follow-up. Results suggest that both groups experienced a reduction in depression and an increase in well-being, with no differences noted between the two books. Future directions are discussed in terms of dissemination, to those with mild to moderate symptoms of depression, via books on prescription schemes.

  17. Depression screening and education: an examination of mental health literacy and stigma in a sample of Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Veronica; Sanchez, Katherine; Killian, Michael O; Eghaneyan, Brittany H

    2018-05-22

    Mental health literacy consists of knowledge of a mental disorder and of the associated stigma. Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma which is primarily perpetuated by inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. U.S.-born Hispanics are more likely to have depression compared to Hispanics born in Latin America and are less likely to follow a treatment plan compared to non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic women are more likely to access treatment through a primary care provider, making it an ideal setting for early mental health interventions. Baseline data from 319 female Hispanic patients enrolled in Project DESEO: Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment, were examined. The study implemented universal screening with a self-report depression screening tool (the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and took place at one federally qualified health center (FQHC) over a 24-month period. The current analysis examined the relationship between four culturally adapted stigma measures and depression knowledge, and tested whether mental health literacy was comparable across education levels in a sample of Hispanic women diagnosed with depression. Almost two-thirds of the sample had less than a high school education. Depression knowledge scores were significantly, weakly correlated with each the Stigma Concerns About Mental Health Care (ρ = - .165, p = .003), Latino Scale for Antidepressant Stigma (p = .124, p = .028), and Social Distance scores (p = .150, p = .007). Depression knowledge (F[2, 312] = 11.82, p stigma scores (F[2, 312] = 3.33, p = .037, partial η 2  = .015) significantly varied by education category. Participants with at least some college education reported significantly greater depression knowledge and less stigma surrounding depression and medication than participants with lower education levels. Primary care settings are

  18. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Central Venous Catheter Positioning and Exclusion of Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Rabia; Knio, Ziyad O; Mahmood, Feroze; Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Leibowitz, Akiva; Bose, Ruma; Shaefi, Shahzad; Mitchell, John D; Ahmed, Muneeb; Bardia, Amit; Talmor, Daniel; Matyal, Robina

    2017-07-01

    Although real-time ultrasound guidance during central venous catheter insertion has become a standard of care, postinsertion chest radiograph remains the gold standard to confirm central venous catheter tip position and rule out associated lung complications like pneumothorax. We hypothesize that a combination of transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound is noninferior to chest radiograph when used to accurately assess central venous catheter positioning and screen for pneumothorax. All operating rooms and surgical and trauma ICUs at the institution. Single-center, prospective noninferiority study. Patients receiving ultrasound-guided subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheters. During ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement, correct positioning of central venous catheter was accomplished by real-time visualization of the guide wire and positive right atrial swirl sign using the subcostal four-chamber view. After insertion, pneumothorax was ruled out by the presence of lung sliding and seashore sign on M-mode. Data analysis was done for 137 patients. Chest radiograph ruled out pneumothorax in 137 of 137 patients (100%). Lung ultrasound was performed in 123 of 137 patients and successfully screened for pneumothorax in 123 of 123 (100%). Chest radiograph approximated accurate catheter tip position in 136 of 137 patients (99.3%). Adequate subcostal four-chamber views could not be obtained in 13 patients. Accurate positioning of central venous catheter with ultrasound was then confirmed in 121 of 124 patients (97.6%) as described previously. Transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound are noninferior to chest x-ray for screening of pneumothorax and accurate central venous catheter positioning. Thus, the point of care use of ultrasound can reduce central venous catheter insertion to use time, exposure to radiation, and improve patient safety.

  19. Screening for depression and assessing change in severity of depression. Is the Geriatric Depression Scale (30-.15- and 8- item versions) useful for both purposes in nursing home patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Jongenelis, L.; Pot, A.M.; Eefsting, J.A.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of the 30-, 15- and 8-item versions of the GDS for screening and assessing change in severity of depression in nursing home patients. The GDS and the MADRS were administered to 350 elderly NH-patients by trained interviewers. The presence of

  20. The effect of psychotherapeutic interventions on positive and negative affect in depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumparis, Nikolaos; Karyotaki, Eirini; Kleiboer, Annet; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-09-15

    Depression is a mental disorder characterized by high and dysregulated negative affect in addition to diminished positive affect. To our knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the impact of psychotherapeutic interventions on these affective dimensions. Two comprehensive literature searches for all randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy in adults with depression were performed. The first from 1996 to December 31, 2014 and the second from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. The primary outcome was the mean score of positive and negative affect. Depressive symptoms were measured to be included as a predictor in the meta-regression analyses. Ten studies with 793 adults with depression were included. All studies assessed positive and negative affect. Psychotherapeutic interventions resulted in significantly increased positive affect (g=0.41; 95% CI: 0.16-0.66 p=0.001), and significantly decreased negative affect (g=0.32; 95% CI: 0.15-0.78, p=0.001) in depressed adults. Because of the small number and substantial heterogeneity of the existing studies the meta-regression analyses produced conflicting results. As a consequence, we were unable to sufficiently demonstrate whether NA and depressive symptoms are in fact correlated or not. Given the small number and heterogeneity of the included studies, the findings should be considered with caution. Psychotherapeutic interventions demonstrate low to moderate effects in enhancing positive and reducing negative affect in depressed adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational position, work stress and depressive symptoms: a pathway analysis of longitudinal SHARE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, H; Wahrendorf, M; Siegrist, J

    2015-05-01

    Several studies tested whether stressful work mediates the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. Although providing moderate support, evidence is still inconclusive, partly due to a lack of theory-based measures of SEP and work stress, and because of methodological limitations. This contribution aims at overcoming these limitations. We conduct pathway analysis and investigate indirect effects of SEP on mental health via stressful work. Data are derived from the first two waves of the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' (SHARE) with information from employed men and women aged 50-64 across 11 European countries (N=2798). SEP is measured according to two alternative measures of occupational position: occupational class (focus on employment relations) and occupational status (focus on prestige). We assess work stress according to the effort-reward imbalance and the demand-control model (wave 1), and we use newly occurring depressive symptoms as health outcome (wave 2). Effort-reward imbalance and, less consistently, low control mediate the effect of occupational class and occupational status on depressive symptoms. Our findings point to two important aspects of work stress (effort-reward imbalance and low control) in explaining socioeconomic differences in health. Further, we illustrate the significance of two alternative dimensions of occupational position, occupational class and occupational status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Gender Moderates the Association of Depressive Symptoms to Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive African-American Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babowitch, Jacklyn D; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has reported an association between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore whether gender moderates this association in a sample of HIV-positive African-Americans. Participants (N = 93) self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; CES-D), and sexual risk behavior for the past 4 months. Analyses revealed that the depressive symptoms-by-gender interaction was associated with condomless sex and substance use proximal to sex. When analyses were stratified by gender, depressive symptoms were associated with condomless sex and frequency of substance use only for women. We conclude that depressive symptoms may be a more powerful sexual risk factor among women relative to men.

  3. Patient health questionnaire for school-based depression screening among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Liu, Shen-Ing

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9) and its 2 subscales (1 item and 2 items) for the screening of major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2257 adolescents were recruited from high schools in Taipei. The participants completed assessments including demographic information, the Chinese version of the PHQ-9, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and data on the number of physical illnesses and mental health service utilizations were recorded. Among them, 430 were retested using the PHQ-9 within 2 weeks. Child psychiatrists interviewed a subsample of the adolescents (n = 165) using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia Epidemiological Version as the criterion standard. The PHQ-9 had good internal consistency (α = 0.84) and acceptable test-retest reliability (0.80). The participants with higher PHQ-9 scores were more likely to have MDD. Principal component factor analysis of the PHQ-9 yielded a 1-factor structure, which accounted for 45.3% of the variance. A PHQ-9 score ≥15 had a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.95 for recognizing MDD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.90. The screening accuracy of the 2 subscales was also satisfactory, with a Patient Health Questionnaire-2 item cutoff of ≥3 being 94.4% sensitive and 82.5% specific and a Patient Health Questionnaire-1 item cutoff of ≥2 being 61.1% sensitive and 87.7% specific. The PHQ-9 and its 2 subscales appear to be reliable and valid for detecting MDD among ethnic Chinese adolescents in Taiwan.

  4. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  6. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  7. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV.HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators.1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3.Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  8. An audit to investigate the impact of false positive breast screening results and diagnostic work-up on re-engagement with subsequent routine screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, Julie M.; Borgen, Rita; Porter-Bennett, Lisa; Szczepura, Katy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Women attending breast screening may have suspicious mammographic findings that are subsequently found at assessment clinic to be normal (false positive, FP). A false positive diagnosis is not harmless, with short and long term negative psychosocial consequences reported. Women are at increased relative risk of breast cancer therefore their attendance at subsequent screening is essential. Aims: To assess the impact of FP breast screening diagnosis and diagnostic work-up on re-attendance rates across four consecutive screening rounds at a typical breast screening centre. Method: Diagnostic interventions and screening re-attendance rates at one prior and two consecutive rounds were analysed for women receiving an FP diagnosis between 2004 and 2006. Results: 397 women (5.57%) were referred for further assessment, including 228 (57.43%) false positives. 34 eligible women failed to re-attend routine screening (+3 years), with 17 failing to re-attend subsequently (+6 years). 70.6% (24/34) of non-attenders had attended at least two screening rounds prior to FP assessment. 75% of FP women had an imaging-only assessment with 17.5% (30/171) failing to re-attend, and 25% received a biopsy, with 7% (4/57) failing to re-attend subsequently. Conclusion: This study is unique as it follows FP women through four consecutive screening rounds. FP non-attendance rates were considerably lower compared to the general screening population, with diagnostic work-up having limited influence. FP non-attendance may appear insignificant in comparison to total screened population, but these women are at greater risk of subsequent cancer so should be actively encouraged to re-engage with the screening programme

  9. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  10. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  11. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, NL; Lyubomirsky, S

    2009-01-01

    Do positive psychology interventions - that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions - enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.2...

  12. An evaluation of routine antenatal depression screening and psychosocial assessment in a regional private maternity setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Harish; Reilly, Nicole; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2018-01-30

    There is limited information relating to routine depression screening and psychosocial assessment programs in private maternity settings in Australia. To describe the psychosocial profile of a sample of private maternity patients who participated in a depression screening and psychosocial risk assessment program as part of routine antenatal care, and to explore women's experience of receiving this component of pregnancy care. We conducted a retrospective medical records audit of 455 consecutive women having a routine psychosocial assessment and referral. Assessment was undertaken using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ) for psychosocial risk; 101 women completed a feedback survey about their experience of receiving routine psychosocial care. Of the 87.7% of women who completed both EPDS and ANRQ, 4.3% scored 13 or more on the EPDS. On the ANRQ, 25.3% of women endorsed one risk factor, 11.6% two risk factors and 10.5% three or more risk factors. Elevated EPDS scores were associated with major stresses in the last 12 months, high trait anxiety and significant past mental health issue/s. Acceptability of depression screening and psychosocial risk assessment was high. This study highlights the need for, and acceptability of, depression and psychosocial assessment in the private maternity sector. These findings are particularly timely given the provision of new Medicare Benefits Scheme items for obstetricians to undertake psychosocial assessment (both antenatally and postnally) in line with recommended clinical best practice. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms among HIV-positive persons receiving care and treatment in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Kidder, Daniel; Pals, Sherri; Parent, Julie; Mbatia, Redempta; Chesang, Kipruto; Mbilinyi, Deogratius; Koech, Emily; Nkingwa, Mathias; Katuta, Frieda; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is considerably greater than that among members of the general population. It is particularly important to treat depressive symptoms among PLHIV because they have been associated with poorer HIV care-related outcomes. This study describes overall psychosocial functioning and factors associated with depressive symptoms among PLHIV attending HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania. Eighteen HIV care and treatment clinics (six per country) enrolled approximately 200 HIV-positive patients (for a total of 3,538 participants) and collected data on patients' physical and mental well-being, medical/health status, and psychosocial functioning. Although the majority of participants did not report clinically significant depressive symptoms (72 %), 28 % reported mild to severe depressive symptoms, with 12 % reporting severe depressive symptoms. Regression models indicated that greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with: (1) being female, (2) younger age, (3) not being completely adherent to HIV medications, (4) likely dependence on alcohol, (5) disclosure to three or more people (versus one person), (6) experiences of recent violence, (7) less social support, and (8) poorer physical functioning. Participants from Kenya and Namibia reported greater depressive symptoms than those from Tanzania. Approximately 28 % of PLHIV reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. The scale-up of care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to address psychosocial and mental health needs for PLHIV as part of comprehensive care.

  14. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients’ Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forum T. Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively. Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff- DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease.

  15. Screening Internet forum participants for depression symptoms by assembling and enhancing multiple NLP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmen, Christian; Hsiung, Robert C; Wetter, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a disease that can dramatically lower quality of life. Symptoms of depression can range from temporary sadness to suicide. Embarrassment, shyness, and the stigma of depression are some of the factors preventing people from getting help for their problems. Contemporary social media technologies like Internet forums or micro-blogs give people the opportunity to talk about their feelings in a confidential anonymous environment. However, many participants in such networks may not recognize the severity of their depression and their need for professional help. Our approach is to develop a method that detects symptoms of depression in free text, such as posts in Internet forums, chat rooms and the like. This could help people appreciate the significance of their depression and realize they need to seek help. In this work Natural Language Processing methods are used to break the textual information into its grammatical units. Further analysis involves detection of depression symptoms and their frequency with the help of words known as indicators of depression and their synonyms. Finally, similar to common paper-based depression scales, e.g., the CES-D, that information is incorporated into a single depression score. In this evaluation study, our depressive mood detection system, DepreSD (Depression Symptom Detection), had an average precision of 0.84 (range 0.72-1.0 depending on the specific measure) and an average F measure of 0.79 (range 0.72-0.9). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  17. The Quebec Association of Gastroenterology Position Paper on Colorectal Cancer Screening - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Barkun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death and the third most common cancer in Canada. Evidence suggests that screening can reduce mortality rates and the cost effectiveness of a program compares favourably with initiatives for breast and cervical cancer. The objectives of the Association des gastro-entérologues du Québec Task Force were to determine the need for a policy on screening for colorectal cancer in Quebec, to evaluate the testing methods available and to propose one or more of these alternatives as part of a formal screening program, if indicated. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, endoscopy (including sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema and virtual colonoscopy were considered. Although most clinical efficacy data are available for FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, there are limitations to programs based on these strategies. FOBT has a high false positive rate and a low detection yield, and even a combination of these strategies will miss 24% of cancers. Colonoscopy is the best strategy to both detect and remove polyps and to diagnose colorectal cancer, with double contrast barium enema also being a sensitive detection method. The Task Force recommended the establishment, in Quebec, of a screening program with five- to 10-yearly double contrast barium enema or 10-yearly colonoscopy for individuals aged 50 years or older at low risk. The program should include outcome monitoring, public and professional education to increase awareness and promote compliance, and central coordination with other provincial programs. The program should be evaluated; specific billing codes for screening for colorectal cancer would help facilitate this. Formal feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies in Quebec are now warranted.

  18. Breast cancer risk is increased in the years following false-positive breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Mathijs C; De Brabander, Isabel; De Greve, Jacques; Vaes, Evelien; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Van Herck, Koen; Kellen, Eliane

    2017-09-01

    A small number of studies have investigated breast cancer (BC) risk among women with a history of false-positive recall (FPR) in BC screening, but none of them has used time-to-event analysis while at the same time quantifying the effect of false-negative diagnostic assessment (FNDA). FNDA occurs when screening detects BC, but this BC is missed on diagnostic assessment (DA). As a result of FNDA, screenings that detected cancer are incorrectly classified as FPR. Our study linked data recorded in the Flemish BC screening program (women aged 50-69 years) to data from the national cancer registry. We used Cox proportional hazards models on a retrospective cohort of 298 738 women to assess the association between FPR and subsequent BC, while adjusting for potential confounders. The mean follow-up was 6.9 years. Compared with women without recall, women with a history of FPR were at an increased risk of developing BC [hazard ratio=2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.92-2.31)]. However, 22% of BC after FPR was due to FNDA. The hazard ratio dropped to 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.52-1.87) when FNDA was excluded. Women with FPR have a subsequently increased BC risk compared with women without recall. The risk is higher for women who have a FPR BI-RADS 4 or 5 compared with FPR BI-RADS 3. There is room for improvement of diagnostic assessment: 41% of the excess risk is explained by FNDA after baseline screening.

  19. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): Development and Validation of a Depression Screening Instrument for Children in Pediatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (NI = 200; NII = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised…

  20. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu-Katriina Pesonen

    Full Text Available We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation.Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records.One standard deviation (SD unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04-0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02, corresponding to only 0.1-0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02. Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks, birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions.This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight.

  1. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  2. The influence of the negative-positive ratio and screening database size on the performance of machine learning-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczab, Rafał; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2017-01-01

    The machine learning-based virtual screening of molecular databases is a commonly used approach to identify hits. However, many aspects associated with training predictive models can influence the final performance and, consequently, the number of hits found. Thus, we performed a systematic study of the simultaneous influence of the proportion of negatives to positives in the testing set, the size of screening databases and the type of molecular representations on the effectiveness of classification. The results obtained for eight protein targets, five machine learning algorithms (SMO, Naïve Bayes, Ibk, J48 and Random Forest), two types of molecular fingerprints (MACCS and CDK FP) and eight screening databases with different numbers of molecules confirmed our previous findings that increases in the ratio of negative to positive training instances greatly influenced most of the investigated parameters of the ML methods in simulated virtual screening experiments. However, the performance of screening was shown to also be highly dependent on the molecular library dimension. Generally, with the increasing size of the screened database, the optimal training ratio also increased, and this ratio can be rationalized using the proposed cost-effectiveness threshold approach. To increase the performance of machine learning-based virtual screening, the training set should be constructed in a way that considers the size of the screening database.

  3. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thach Duc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21 for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Results Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. Conclusions The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource

  4. Correlates of oncologist-issued referrals for psycho-oncology services: what we learned from the electronic voluntary screening and referral system for depression (eVSRS-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Jung, Dooyoung; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Noh, Dong-Young; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Depression in cancer patients is under-recognized and under-treated. To better identify depression, we designed a voluntary depression screening system. Based on its data, we examined trends in oncologist-issued referrals for the psycho-oncology service (POS). The Electronic Voluntary Screening and Referral System for Depression (eVSRS-D) comprises self-screening, automated reporting, and referral guidance. Using touch-screen kiosks at a tertiary hospital in Korea, participants with cancer completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 at their convenience, received the results, and reported their willingness to participate in POS. At oncology appointments, oncologists received the screening reports and issued referrals following pre-recommended guidelines. The correlates of actual referrals were examined across all participants and within the willing and non-willing groups. Among the 838 participants, 56.3% reported severe depression symptoms, 30.5% wanted a referral, and 14.8% were actually referred. The correlates of participants' desire for referral were more severe depression symptoms, being unmarried, and being metastasis and recurrence free. Among all participants, the correlates of actual referrals were unemployment, less severe depression symptoms, poorer performance, treatment status, and wanting a referral. The sole correlate of actual referrals within the non-willing group was poorer performance, and no significant correlates existed within the willing group. The non-referrals were mostly (87.1%) because of postponed decisions. The eVSRS-D cannot definitively diagnose major depression but may efficiently self-select a population with significant depression symptoms. The patients' willingness to engage the POS most strongly predicted the actual referrals. Oncologist reviews of screening reports may not result in further depression severity-specific referrals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  6. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  7. Early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Survival Is Dependent on Size: Positive Implications for Future Targeted Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Chin; Tramontano, Angela C; Dowling, Emily C; Brooks, Gabriel A; Jeon, Alvin; Brugge, William R; Gazelle, G Scott; Kong, Chung Yin; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not experienced a meaningful mortality improvement for the past few decades. Successful screening is difficult to accomplish because most PDACs present late in their natural history, and current interventions have not provided significant benefit. Our goal was to identify determinants of survival for early PDAC to help inform future screening strategies. Early PDACs from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database (2000-2010) were analyzed. We stratified by size and included carcinomas in situ (Tis). Overall cancer-specific survival was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was developed and the significance of key covariates for survival prediction was evaluated. A Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated significant differences in survival by size at diagnosis; these survival benefits persisted after adjustment for key covariates in the Cox proportional hazards analysis. In addition, relatively weaker predictors of worse survival included older age, male sex, black race, nodal involvement, tumor location within the head of the pancreas, and no surgery or radiotherapy. For early PDAC, we found tumor size to be the strongest predictor of survival, even after adjustment for other patient characteristics. Our findings suggest that early PDAC detection can have clinical benefit, which has positive implications for future screening strategies.

  8. Double attention bias for positive and negative emotional faces in clinical depression: evidence from an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Almudena; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2015-03-01

    According to cognitive models, attentional biases in depression play key roles in the onset and subsequent maintenance of the disorder. The present study examines the processing of emotional facial expressions (happy, angry, and sad) in depressed and non-depressed adults. Sixteen unmedicated patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 34 never-depressed controls (ND) completed an eye-tracking task to assess different components of visual attention (orienting attention and maintenance of attention) in the processing of emotional faces. Compared to ND, participants with MDD showed a negative attentional bias in attentional maintenance indices (i.e. first fixation duration and total fixation time) for sad faces. This attentional bias was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the MDD group spent a marginally less amount of time viewing happy faces compared with the ND group. No differences were found between the groups with respect to angry faces and orienting attention indices. The current study is limited by its cross-sectional design. These results support the notion that attentional biases in depression are specific to depression-related information and that they operate in later stages in the deployment of attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect in Children at High and Low Familial Risk for Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Gentzler, Amy L.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although low positive affect (PA) and high negative affect (NA) have been posited to predispose to depressive disorders, little is known about the developmental trajectories of these affects in children at familial risk for mood disorders. Methods: We examined 202 offspring of mothers who had a history of juvenile-onset unipolar…

  10. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a white European and South Asian population with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, N.; Skinner, T. C.; Khunti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To compare the identification of prevalent depressive symptoms by the World Health Organization-5 Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for South Asian and white European people, male and female, attending a diabetes screening programme, and ...

  11. Screening for and subsequent participation in a trial for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care: Who do we reach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, C.H.; Nefs, G.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, F.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study investigated (factors related to) (a) the response to a screening procedure for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes in primary care, and (b) participation in a subsequent randomised controlled trial targeting depressive or anxiety symptoms. METHODS: People with

  12. Screening for and subsequent participation in a trial for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care : Who do we reach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, C.H.; Nefs, G.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, François

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated (factors related to) (a) the response to a screening procedure for depression and anxiety in people with type 2 diabetes in primary care, and (b) participation in a subsequent randomised controlled trial targeting depressive or anxiety symptoms. Methods: People with

  13. Reward Devaluation: Dot-Probe Meta-Analytic Evidence of Avoidance of Positive Information in Depressed Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, E. Samuel; Salem, Taban

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression and anxiety have traditionally emphasized the role of attentional biases in the processing of negative information. The dot-probe task has been widely used to study this phenomenon. Recent findings suggest that biased processing of positive information might also be an important aspect of developing psychopathological symptoms. However, despite some evidence suggesting persons with symptoms of depression and anxiety may avoid positive information, many dot-probe studies have produced null findings. The present review used conventional and novel meta-analytic methods to evaluate dot-probe attentional biases away from positive information and, for comparison, toward negative information, in depressed and anxious individuals. Results indicated that avoidance of positive information is a real effect exhibiting substantial evidential value among persons experiencing psychopathology, with individuals evidencing primary symptoms of depression clearly demonstrating this effect. Different theoretical explanations for these findings are evaluated, including those positing threat-processing structures, even-handedness, self-regulation, and reward devaluation, with the novel theory of reward devaluation emphasized and expanded. These novel findings and theory suggest that avoidance of prospective reward helps to explain the cause and sustainability of depressed states. Suggestions for future research and methodological advances are discussed. PMID:26619211

  14. The Effect of Positive Thinking Training on Quality of Life, Depression, Stress and Anxiety in Delinquent Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nikmanesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of positive thinking training on quality of life and reduction of depression, stress and anxiety in delinquent boys of Zahedan Juvenile Correction and Rehabilitation Center (ZJCRC. Method of this research was a quasi-experimental with a design of pretest- posttest- follow up test and with a control group. The sample comprised of 29 boys (17 subjects in experimental group and 12 in control. Method of sampling was the census. That is, all of statistical population were be studied as sample group. Positive thinking training was conducted on the experimental group during 8 sessions with 90 minutes. After the last session the post-test, was conducted and one month after it, the follow-up test. For data gathering, the Quality of Life of Parkerson, Broadhear & Tse et al. and the Depression, Anxiety Stress of Lovibond & Lovibond were used. The results of co-variance analysis showed that the positive thinking training effected on reducing of depression, stress and anxiety and increasing quality of life. Therefore, in regard to effectiveness of positive thinking training on reducing of depression, stress and anxiety and increasing quality of life, it is recommended for Juvenile delinquent trainers to use of the positive thinking training for increasing quality of life and reducing of depression, stress and anxiety in these juveniles.

  15. Criterion Validity of the “HRQOLISP-E”: A New Context-Specific Screening Tool for Poststroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The optimal tool for identifying postsroke depression (PSD is yet to be identified. In the present study, we rely on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D as a meaningful criterion to investigate the psychometric properties of the HRQOLISP-E, a new context-specific screening tool for PSD developed from a large cross-cultural sample. Methods. We assessed baseline data being collected as part of an intervention to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤one month stroke survivors. Depression was measured using the HADS-D and the HRQOLISP-E. We determined sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and posttest probability. The area under a receiver operator curve (AUC and the most appropriate HRQOLISP-E cut-off were also determined using standard procedures. Results. Using data derived from 387 recent stroke survivors, the HRQOLISP-E showed high agreement with the HADS-D, sensitivity = 73.7%, specificity = 79.3%, and posterior test probability = 88% (95% CI = 84%–91%. The AUC was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76–0.86. The HRQOLISP-E cut-off, corresponding to HADS-D score ≥ 8, was 20/21 (out of a total score of 30. Conclusions. Within limitations of using the HADS-D as a referent criterion, the present results provide justification for further development of the HRQOLISP-E as the first stroke-specific screening tool for depression.

  16. Screening for depressive symptoms in older adults in the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Rubin, Leonardo Librelotto; Giacobbo, Sara de Souza; Gomes, Irenio; Cataldo Neto, Alfredo

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of depression in older adults and associated factors. METHODS Cross-sectional study using a stratified random sample of 621 individuals aged ≥ 60 from 27 family health teams in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2010 and 2012. Community health agents measured depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Scores of ≥ 6 were considered as depression and between 11 and 15 as severe depression. Poisson regression was used to search for independent associations of sociodemographic and self-perceived health with both depression and its severity. RESULTS The prevalence of depression was 30.6% and was significantly higher in women (35.9% women versus 20.9% men, p education, especially illiteracy (PR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2;2 6); regular self-rated health (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6;3.0); and poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.0, 95%CI 2.9;5.5). Except for education, the strength of association of these factors increases significantly in severe depression. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depression was observed in the evaluations conducted by community health agents, professionals who are not highly specialized. The findings identified using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in this way are similar to those in the literature, with depression more associated with low education, female gender and worse self-rated health. From a primary health care strategic point of view, the findings become still more relevant, indicating that community health agents could play an important role in identifying depression in older adults.

  17. Mammography Clinical Image Quality and the False Positive Rate in a Canadian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Marie-Hélène; Théberge, Isabelle; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Dufresne, Michel-Pierre; Pelletier, Éric; Brisson, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    The study sought to determine if mammography quality is associated with the false positive (FP) rate in the Quebec breast cancer screening program in 2004 and 2005. Mammography quality of a random sample of screen-film mammograms was evaluated by an expert radiologist following the criteria of the Canadian Association of Radiologists. For each screening examination, scores ranging from 1 (poor quality) to 5 (excellent quality) were attributed for positioning, compression, contrast, exposure level, sharpness, and artifacts. A final overall quality score (lower or higher) was also given. Poisson regression models with robust estimation of variance and adjusted for potential confounding factors were used to assess associations of mammography quality with the FP rate. Among 1,209 women without cancer, there were 104 (8.6%) FPs. Lower overall mammography quality is associated with an increase in the FP rate (risk ratio [RR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.1; P = .07) but this increase was not statistically significant. Artifacts were associated with an increase in the FP rate (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3; P = .01) whereas lower quality of exposure level was related to a reduction of the FP rate (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0; P = .01). Lower quality scores for all other quality attributes were related to a nonstatistically significant increase in the FP rate of 10%-30%. Artifacts can have a substantial effect on the FP rate. The effect of overall mammography quality on the FP rate may also be substantial and needs to be clarified. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Narrative Persuasion to Promote Positive Attitudes toward Depression in Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zexin; Nan, Xiaoli; Qin, Yan; Zhou, Peiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: China and the USA are among the countries where depression is most prevalent. However, the treatment rate of depression is relatively low in these two countries. Negative attitudes toward depression is one of the major contributor to the low-treatment rate. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of narratives to promote positive…

  19. Improving computer-aided detection assistance in breast cancer screening by removal of obviously false-positive findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordang, Jan-Jurre; Gubern-Merida, Albert; Bria, Alessandro; Tortorella, Francesco; den Heeten, Gerard; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems for mammography screening still mark many false positives. This can cause radiologists to lose confidence in CADe, especially when many false positives are obviously not suspicious to them. In this study, we focus on obvious false positives generated

  20. Improving computer-aided detection assistance in breast cancer screening by removal of obviously false-positive findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordang, J.J.; Gubern Merida, A.; Bria, A.; Tortorella, F.; Heeten, G.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems for mammography screening still mark many false positives. This can cause radiologists to lose confidence in CADe, especially when many false positives are obviously not suspicious to them. In this study, we focus on obvious false positives generated

  1. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  2. Measuring psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening results - breast cancer as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John

    Screening, mammografiscreening, psykosociale konsekvenser, falsk positiv screeningssvar, psykometri, differentiel item funktion......Screening, mammografiscreening, psykosociale konsekvenser, falsk positiv screeningssvar, psykometri, differentiel item funktion...

  3. Screening mixed depression and bipolarity in the postpartum period at a primary health care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sercan Bulut; Bucaktepe, Gamze Erten; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Bulut, İbrahim Umud; Erdem, Özgür; Altınbaş, Kürşat

    2016-11-01

    Mixed depression is a clinical condition accompanied by the symptoms of (hypo)mania and is considered to be a predictor for bipolar disorder. Compared to pure major depression, mixed depression is worse in progress. There are limited data on the prevalence of mixed depression since it is a relatively new entity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of mixed depression during the postpartum period which is risky for mood disorders. The study included 63 postpartum women. The participants were administered Beck Depression Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ), and Modified Hypomania Symptom Checklist-32 (mHCL-32). The MDQ scores of the women with expected depression according to the EPDS cut-off scores, were significantly higher than the women with lower EPDS scores (t=-4.968; pdepression scores compared to the women under EPDS cut-off scores (t=-4.713; pdepression, respectively. In addition, 3 (4.8%) women require additional clinical examination for bipolar disorder. The scores for the first item of MDQ were above the cut-off value in 11 (17.5%) women. According to the mHCL-32 results, 50 (79.4%) women had at least 1 symptom, 45 (71.4%) women had at least 3 symptoms, and 43 (68.3%) women had at least 5 symptoms of mixed depression. Postpartum mixed depression should be promptly diagnosed by using appropriate diagnostic tools, particularly by primary health care physicians. Patients with mixed depression should be closely monitored to avoid manic switch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortical thickness and VBM in young women at risk for familial depression and their depressed mothers with positive family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalay, Ozgun; Aksoy, Burcu; Tunay, Sebnem; Simsek, Fatma; Chandhoki, Swati; Kitis, Omer; Eker, Cagdas; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2016-06-30

    It has been demonstrated that compared to low-risk subjects, high-risk subjects for depression have structural and functional alterations in their brain scans even before the disease onset. However, it is not known if these alterations are related to vulnerability to depression or epiphenomena. One way to resolve this ambiguity is to detect the structural alterations in the high-risk subjects and determine if the same alterations are present in the probands. In this study, we recruited 24 women with the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with recurrent episodes and their healthy daughters (the high-risk for familial depression group; HRFD). We compared structural brain scans of the patients and HRFG group with those of 24 age-matched healthy mothers and their healthy daughters at similar ages to the HRFD group; respectively. Both cortical gray matter (GM) volume and thickness analyses revealed that HRFD daughters and their MDD mothers had similar GM differences in two regions: the right temporoparietal region and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These results suggested that the observed alterations may be related to trait clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of MDD and may present before the onset of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  6. Psychologist in a Pocket: Lexicon Development and Content Validation of a Mobile-Based App for Depression Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Paula Glenda Ferrer; Ramos, Roann Munoz; Bitsch, Jó Ágila; Jonas, Stephan Michael; Ix, Tim; See, Portia Lynn Quetulio; Wehrle, Klaus

    2016-07-20

    Language reflects the state of one's mental health and personal characteristics. It also reveals preoccupations with a particular schema, thus possibly providing insights into psychological conditions. Using text or lexical analysis in exploring depression, negative schemas and self-focusing tendencies may be depicted. As mobile technology has become highly integrated in daily routine, mobile devices have the capacity for ecological momentary assessment (EMA), specifically the experience sampling method (ESM), where behavior is captured in real-time or closer in time to experience in one's natural environment. Extending mobile technology to psychological health could augment initial clinical assessment, particularly of mood disturbances, such as depression and analyze daily activities, such as language use in communication. Here, we present the process of lexicon generation and development and the initial validation of Psychologist in a Pocket (PiaP), a mobile app designed to screen signs of depression through text analysis. The main objectives of the study are (1) to generate and develop a depressive lexicon that can be used for screening text-input in mobile apps to be used in the PiaP; and (2) to conduct content validation as initial validation. The first phase of our research focused on lexicon development. Words related to depression and its symptoms based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and in the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines classification systems were gathered from focus group discussions with Filipino college students, interviews with mental health professionals, and the review of established scales for depression and other related constructs. The lexicon development phase yielded a database consisting of 13 categories based on the criteria depressive symptoms in the DSM-5 and ICD-10. For the draft of the depression lexicon for

  7. Screening for Depression and Thoughts of Suicide: A Tool for Use in Alaska's Village Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    Depression occurs at a significant rate in the U.S. population. Untreated depressive symptoms are a primary risk factor for suicide. Studies show that a significant percentage of individuals who commit suicide had visited their health care providers in the months before their deaths. Alaska ranks number one in the nation for suicide. Routine…

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of a Brief Web and Mobile Phone Intervention for Men With Depression: Men's Positive Coping Strategies and Associated Depression, Resilience, and Work and Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea Susan; Proudfoot, Judy; Whittle, Erin Louise; Clarke, Janine; Player, Michael J; Christensen, Helen; Wilhelm, Kay

    2017-08-10

    Previous research has identified that men experiencing depression do not always access appropriate health services. Web-based interventions represent an alternative treatment option for men, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, and have potential for wide dissemination. However, men do not access Web-based programs at the same rate as women. Programs with content explicitly tailored to men's mental health needs are required. This study evaluated the applicability of Man Central, a new Web and mobile phone intervention for men with depression. The impact of the use of Man Central on depression, resilience, and work and social functioning was assessed. A recruitment flier was distributed via social media, email networks, newsletters, research registers, and partner organizations. A single-group, repeated measures design was used. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression. Secondary outcomes included externalizing symptoms, resilience, and work and social functioning. Man Central comprises regular mood, symptom, and behavior monitoring, combined with three 15-min interactive sessions. Clinical features are grounded in cognitive behavior therapy and problem-solving therapy. A distinguishing feature is the incorporation of positive strategies identified by men as useful in preventing and managing depression. Participants were directed to use Man Central for a period of 4 weeks. Linear mixed modeling with intention-to-treat analysis assessed associations between the intervention and the primary and secondary outcomes. A total of 144 men aged between 18 and 68 years and with at least mild depression enrolled in the study. The symptoms most often monitored by men included motivation (471 instances), depression (399), sleep (323), anxiety (316), and stress (262). Reminders were scheduled by 60.4% (87/144). Significant improvements were observed in depression symptoms (Pdepression risk, and externalizing symptoms (Psocial functioning (Pdepressive symptoms

  9. Community-Dwelling People Screened Positive for Dementia in Primary Care: A Comprehensive, Multivariate Descriptive Analysis Using Data from the DelpHi-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Eichler, Tilly; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Wucherer, Diana; Reimann, Melanie; Hertel, Johannes; Richter, Steffen; Dreier, Adina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-30

    Efficient help and care for people with dementia (PWD) is dependent on knowledge about PWD in primary care. This analysis comprehensively describes community-dwelling PWD in primary care with respect to various dementia care specific variables. The analyses are based on baseline data of the ongoing general practitioner-based, randomized, controlled intervention trial DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help). 6,838 patients were screened for dementia in 136 GP practices; 17.1% were screened positive, 54.4% of those agreed to participate and data could be assessed in n = 516 subjects. We assessed age, sex, living situation, cognitive status, functional status, level of impairment, comorbidities, formal diagnosis of dementia, depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, quality of life, utilization of medical support, and pharmacological therapy. Concerning clinical-, dementia-, and health-related variables, the sample under examination was on average mildly cognitively and functionally impaired (MMSE, m = 22.2; BADL, m = 3.7). A level of care was assigned in 38.0%. Depression was identified in 15.4% and other frequent comorbidities were high blood pressure (83.3%), coronary heart diseases (37.1%), cerebrovascular diseases (22.3%), among others. In 48.6%, neuropsychiatric symptoms were present in a clinically relevant severity. Pharmacological treatment with antidementia medication was received by 25.8% and antidepressant medication by 14.0%. Utilization of services was generally low. The comprehensive description of people screened positive for dementia in primary care reveals a complex and unique population of patients. They are considerably underdiagnosed and in their majority mildly to moderately affected. More in-depth analyses are needed to study relations, associations and interactions between different variables.

  10. Gradients in Depressive Symptoms by Socioeconomic Position Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the EXPLORE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Basia; Marshall, Brandon D L; Shoveller, Jean A; Chesney, Margaret A; Coates, Thomas J; Koblin, Beryl; Mayer, Kenneth; Mimiaga, Matthew; Operario, Don

    2016-08-01

    This study examines gradients in depressive symptoms by socioeconomic position (SEP; i.e., income, education, employment) in a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were used from EXPLORE, a randomized, controlled behavioral HIV prevention trial for HIV-uninfected MSM in six U.S. cities (n = 4,277). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (short form). Multiple linear regressions were fitted with interaction terms to assess additive and multiplicative relationships between SEP and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were more prevalent among MSM with lower income, lower educational attainment, and those in the unemployed/other employment category. Income, education, and employment made significant contributions in additive models after adjustment. The employment-income interaction was statistically significant, indicating a multiplicative effect. This study revealed gradients in depressive symptoms across SEP of MSM, pointing to income and employment status and, to a lesser extent, education as key factors for understanding heterogeneity of depressive symptoms.

  11. Elevated alanine aminotransferase independently predicts new onset of depression in employees undergoing health screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, S; Toker, S; Armon, G; Melamed, S; Berliner, S; Shapira, I; Halpern, Z; Santo, E; Shibolet, O

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation. Similarly, patients with depression exhibit insulin resistance and increased inflammatory markers. However, no study has shown a clear association between elevated ALT and the development of depression. The aim of the study was to test whether elevated ALT, a surrogate marker for NAFLD, predicts the development of depression. The present prospective cohort study investigated 12 180 employed adults referred for health examinations that included fasting blood tests and anthropometric measurements between 2003 and 2010. Exclusion criteria were: baseline minor/major depression, excessive alcohol consumption and other causes for ALT elevation. Depression was evaluated by the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) score. The final cohort included 5984 subjects [69.4% men, aged 45.0 (s.d. = 10.24) years]. The incidence rate of minor and major depression was 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Elevated ALT was a significant independent predictor for the occurrence of minor [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.92] and major (OR 3.132, 95% CI 1.81-5.40) depression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education level, serum levels of lipids, glucose, smoking and physical activity. Adding subjective health and affective state parameters (sleep disturbances, self-rated health, anxiety and burnout) as potential mediators only slightly ameliorated the association. Persistently elevated ALT was associated with the greatest risk for minor or major depression as compared with elevation only at baseline or follow-up (p for trend depressive symptoms, thus suggesting that NAFLD may represent an independent modifiable risk factor for depression.

  12. Factors associated with a clinician's offer of screening HIV-positive patients for sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Fernando, I; MacDougall, M

    2011-06-01

    This retrospective study assessed whether Quality Improvement Scotland national standards for the sexual health care offered to HIV-positive individuals are being met by the Edinburgh genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic; specifically whether HIV-positive patients are offered: (a) sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening annually and (b) syphilis testing six-monthly. The study also reviewed what factors were associated with a clinician's offer of STI screening and syphilis testing. Of the 509 patients seen within the study period, case notes documented that 64% were offered STI screens, and 69% were offered syphilis testing, results consistent with audits of services elsewhere. Sexual orientation (P offer of STI screening, while gender (P offer of syphilis testing. Our results suggest that one explanation for clinicians failing to offer STI screens and syphilis serology testing is their (implicit) risk assessment that STI testing is not required in individual patients.

  13. The prevalence of depression in White-European and South-Asian people with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, Navneet; Abrams, Keith R.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2009-01-01

    ) and South-Asian (SA) population attending a community diabetes screening programme, and to explore the association of depression with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Methodology/Principal Findings: Participants were recruited from general practices.......9% in WE, 26.4% in SA, p = 0.86). Age-adjusted prevalences were higher for females than males. Odds ratios adjusted for age, gender, and ethnicity, showed no significant increase in prevalent depression for people with T2DM (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.62 to 1.45) or IGR (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 0.96 to1.42). Conclusions......: Prior to the knowledge of diagnosis, depression was not significantly more prevalent in people with screen detected T2DM or IGR. Differences in prevalent depression between WE and SA people were also not identified. In this multi-ethnic population, female gender was significantly associated...

  14. False Positive Stress Testing: Does Endothelial Vascular Dysfunction Contribute to ST-Segment Depression in Women? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpa; Mehta, Puja K; Arsanjani, Reza; Sedlak, Tara; Hobel, Zachary; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Jones, Erika; Kligfield, Paul; Mortara, David; Laks, Michael; Diniz, Marcio; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2018-06-19

    The utility of exercise-induced ST-segment depression for diagnosing ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women is unclear. Based on evidence that IHD pathophysiology in women involves coronary vascular dysfunction, we hypothesized that coronary vascular dysfunction contributes to exercise electrocardiography (Ex-ECG) ST-depression in the absence of obstructive CAD, so-called "false positive" results. We tested our hypothesis in a pilot study evaluating the relationship between peripheral vascular endothelial function and Ex-ECG. Twenty-nine asymptomatic women without cardiac risk factors underwent maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing and peripheral endothelial function assessment using peripheral arterial tonometry (Itamar EndoPAT 2000) to measure reactive hyperemia index (RHI). The relationship between RHI and Ex-ECG ST-segment depression was evaluated using logistic regression and differences in subgroups using two-tailed t-tests. Mean age was 54 ± 7 years, body mass index 25 ± 4 kg/m 2 , and RHI 2.51 ± 0.66. Three women (10%) had RHI less than 1.68, consistent with abnormal peripheral endothelial function, while 18 women (62%) met criteria for a positive Ex-ECG based on ST-segment depression in contiguous leads. Women with and without ST-segment depression had similar baseline and exercise vital signs, metabolic equivalents (METS) achieved, and RHI (all p>0.05). RHI did not predict ST-segment depression. Our pilot study demonstrates a high prevalence of exercise-induced ST-segment depression in asymptomatic, middle-aged, overweight women. Peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction did not predict Ex-ECG ST-segment depression. Further work is needed to investigate the utility of vascular endothelial testing and Ex-ECG for IHD diagnostic and management purposes in women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. False-positive ethyl glucuronide immunoassay screening caused by a propyl alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Torsten; Grüner, Joachim; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stemmerich, Karsten

    2012-11-30

    Urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is considered as a specific marker of recent ethanol consumption. We describe false-positive DRI(®) EIA EtG enzyme immunoassay results caused by propyl glucuronides in urine after using a propanol-based hand sanitizer. EtG screening was done with the DRI(®) EIA EtG assay (Microgenics), using a cut-off of 0.5 mg/L as recommended by the manufacturer and of 0.1 mg/L as demanded by the German Regulations for Reissuing Drivers Licenses. Confirmatory EtG analysis was done with the ClinMass(®) EtG LC-MS/MS testkit (Recipe), extended by the mass transitions 235.1→75.1, 235.1→85.1, and 235.1→113.1 for the detection of the 1- and 2-propyl glucuronides. Self-experiments were done by staff members of our lab (n=7), using 3 mL Sterillium(®) Classic Pure (30 g/100 g 1-propanol and 45 g/100 g 2-propanol) for hand sanitation every quarter of an hour for 8 h according to DIN EN 1500:2011-05 with and without an exhauster and by passive inhalation of the sanitizer vapor. Spot urine samples were taken immediately before and up to 24 h after the first sanitizer use. False-positive immunoassay results of up to 4 mg/L or 2.3 mg/g creatinine were obtained after normal use of the sanitizer and also after passive inhalation of the sanitizer vapor (up to 0.89 mg/L or 0.61 mg/g). Immunoassay results were positive even after 4-fold use of the sanitizer (up to 0.14 mg/L or 0.38 mg/g) and up to 6 h after the last sanitizer contact (maximum 0.63 mg/L and 0.33 mg/g for sanitizer users and 0.25 mg/g after passive inhalation). Spiking of EtG-free urine with 1-propyl glucuronide (Athena Environmental Sciences) between 0.05 and 10 mg/L clearly demonstrated a cross reaction of the immunoassay of approx. 10% as compared to EtG. LC-MS/MS of urines with a positive immunoassay EtG result did not show EtG signals, but distinct signals of 1-propyl glucuronide (n-propyl glucuronide) and 2-propyl glucuronide (iso-propyl glucuronide). An exhauster effectively prevented

  16. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Michaelides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET. The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients ( years, 103 males with MVP (according to echocardiographic study, and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD. Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET while the rest 128 (group B presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60% while only in 14 patients of group B (11%, . Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP.

  17. Psychometric validation of the POSIT for screening alcohol and other drugs risk consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Manuel; Golpe, Sandra; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús; Rial, Antonio

    2018-04-15

    Early detection of alcohol and drug abuse among adolescents is decisive not only for rapid referral and intervention in cases of risk, but also as an indicator for use in the evaluation of prevention programs and public policies to reduce consumption. One of the most widely-used screening instruments in the world is the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) (Rahdert, 1991), whose substance use and abuse subscale (POSITUAS) is a brief tool of enormous applied potential. However, there is still no empirical validation study that would ensure its good psychometric performance in Spain. The aim of this paper is to analyse the psychometric properties of POSITUAS among Spanish adolescents. For this purpose, 569 students aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.71; SD = 1.79) were personally interviewed. The study sample was selected through two-stage sampling. The results obtained, using the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (Winters & Henly, 1993) as the gold criterion, allow us to inform that the Spanish version of the POSITUAS has excellent psychometric behaviour, both at the level of internal consistency (a  = .82) as well as regards sensitivity (94.3%) and specificity (83.9%), with an area under the ROC curve of .953. Also, the realisation of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis allows for verifying the one-dimensional character of the scale. As a result, POSITUAS is made available to researchers and professionals in the field of addictive behaviours for use with a minimum of psychometric guarantees.

  18. The Relations Between False Positive and Negative Screens and Smoking Cessation and Relapse in the National Lung Screening Trial: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Gorelick, Jeremy J; Sicks, JoRean D; Park, Elyse R; Graham, Amanda L; Abrams, David B; Gareen, Ilana F

    2016-01-01

    Lung screening is an opportunity for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, but smoking behaviors may differ across screening results. Changes in smoking were evaluated among 18 840 current and former smokers aged 55-74 scheduled to receive three annual lung screenings. Participants were randomized to low-dose computed tomography or single-view chest radiography in the American College of Radiology/National Lung Screening Trial. Outcome measures included point and sustained (6-month) abstinence and motivation to quit among smokers; and relapse among smokers who quit during follow-up, recent quitters (quit < 6 months), and long-term former smokers (quit ≥ 6 months). During five years of follow-up, annual point prevalence quit rates ranged from 11.6%-13.4%; 48% of current smokers reported a quit attempt and 7% of long-term former smokers relapsed. Any false positive screening result was associated with subsequent increased point (multivariable hazard ratio HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.35) and sustained (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.43) abstinence among smokers. Recent quitters with ≥1 false positive screen were less likely to relapse (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54, 0.96). Screening result was not associated with relapse among long-term former smokers or among baseline smokers who quit during follow-up. A false positive screen was associated with increased smoking cessation and less relapse among recent quitters. Consistently negative screens were not associated with greater relapse among long-term former smokers. Given the Affordable Care Act requires most health plans to cover smoking cessation and lung screening, the impact and cost-effectiveness of lung screening could be further enhanced with the addition of smoking cessation interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Depression screening in stroke: a comparison of alternative measures with the structured diagnostic interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (major depressive episode) as criterion standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alyna; Hambridge, John; White, Jennifer; Carter, Gregory; Clover, Kerrie; Nelson, Louise; Hackett, Maree

    2012-04-01

    Screening tools for depression and psychological distress commonly used in medical settings have not been well validated in stroke populations. We aimed to determine the accuracy of common screening tools for depression or distress in detecting caseness for a major depressive episode compared with a clinician-administered structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition as the gold standard. Seventy-two participants ≥3 weeks poststroke underwent a diagnostic interview for major depressive episode and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and -9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Distress Thermometer, and Kessler-10. Internal consistency, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and posttest probabilities were calculated. Each measure was validated against the gold standard using receiver operating characteristic curves with comparison of the area under the curve for all measures. Internal consistency ranged from acceptable to excellent for all measures (Cronbach α=0.78-0.94). Areas under the curve (95% CI) for the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression and total score, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Kessler-10 ranged from 0.80 (0.69-0.89) for the Kessler-10 to 0.89 (0.79-0.95) for the Beck Depression Inventory-II with no significant differences between measures. The Distress Thermometer had an area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.61-0.83), significantly smaller than the Beck Depression Inventory-II (P<0.05). Apart from the Distress Thermometer, selected scales performed adequately in a stroke population with no significant difference between measures. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 would be the most useful single screen given free availability and the shortest number of items.

  20. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  1. Positive Impact of Social Media Use on Depression in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farpour, Hamid Reza; Habibi, Leila; Owji, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The focus of attention was the prevalence of depression among cancer patients using social networks. An attempt was made to determine if social media could help cancer patients overcome their stress and depression, causes of serious emotional and mental problems for them and their families. Methods: To ascertain the prevalence of depression among cancer patients with reference to use of social networks, 316 cancer patients in the Association of Cancer Patients and cancer-related ce...

  2. [PTSD-positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims evacuated/ not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Luo, Xingwei

    2009-06-01

    To explore posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims who were evacuated/were not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month. The 3 groups included 235 victims who were not evacuated from Shifang territory (the incident scene, Group A), 44 victims who were evacuated to Second Xiangya Hospital (the wounded, Group B) and 36 relatives (the relatives, Group C). The mental state of all subjects was evaluated by Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and other tools. (1) One month after the disaster, and the positive rate of PTSD screening in these survivors was 35.56%, the positive rate in women was significantly higher than that in men (chi(2)=16.27,PGender, place of residence and evacuating from the earthquake area or not were factors of PTSD symptoms. One month after the earthquake, the victims suffered psychologically. PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression symptoms were their major mental problems, more attention to especially women victims. The protection factors include dispersing victims to the secure place as soon as possible, expanding and strengthening society support. Early psychological interventions will help victims to raise their psychological endurance and prevent PTSD effectively.

  3. Positive Impact of Social Media Use on Depression in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farpour, Hamid Reza; Habibi, Leila; Owji, Seyed Hossein

    2017-11-26

    Objective: The focus of attention was the prevalence of depression among cancer patients using social networks. An attempt was made to determine if social media could help cancer patients overcome their stress and depression, causes of serious emotional and mental problems for them and their families. Methods: To ascertain the prevalence of depression among cancer patients with reference to use of social networks, 316 cancer patients in the Association of Cancer Patients and cancer-related centers in Tehran at 2015 were evaluated. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were analyzed by the Chi-square test with SPSS software. Results: Using the Beck criteria, 61% (N=192) of patients were depressed. Interestingly, a significant difference was observed between depression in users and non-users of social networks (p=0.001), 33.9% and 66.1% being affected, respectively. Conclusion: These results verified a high incidence of depression in cancer patients, but a beneficial effect of social network use. Therefore access to social networks should be promoted for prevention and amelioration of depression. Moreover, it is recommended that particular attention be paid to the patient sex and educational level in designing counseling and psychological skill training programs. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. Evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in screening stroke patients for symptoms: Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayis, Salma A; Ayerbe, Luis; Ashworth, Mark; DA Wolfe, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Variations have been reported in the number of underlying constructs and choice of thresholds that determine caseness of anxiety and /or depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). This study examined the properties of each item of HADS as perceived by stroke patients, and assessed the information these items convey about anxiety and depression between 3 months to 5 years after stroke. The study included 1443 stroke patients from the South London Stroke Register (SLSR). The dimensionality of HADS was examined using factor analysis methods, and items' properties up to 5 years after stroke were tested using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, including graded response models (GRMs). The presence of two dimensions of HADS (anxiety and depression) for stroke patients was confirmed. Items that accurately inferred about the severity of anxiety and depression, and offered good discrimination of caseness were identified as "I can laugh and see the funny side of things" (Q4) and "I get sudden feelings of panic" (Q13), discrimination 2.44 (se = 0.26), and 3.34 (se = 0.35), respectively. Items that shared properties, hence replicate inference were: "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" (Q3), "I get a sort of frightened feeling like butterflies in my stomach" (Q6), and "Worrying thoughts go through my mind" (Q9). Item properties were maintained over time. Approximately 20% of patients were lost to follow up. A more concise selection of items based on their properties, would provide a precise approach for screening patients and for an optimal allocation of patients into clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. POSITIVE LIFE CHANGE AND RECOVERY FROM DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY - A 3-STAGE LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF PRIMARY-CARE ATTENDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENSTRA, AS; ORMEL, J; GIEL, R

    Background. The objective was to examine the relationship between positive life change (PLC) and recovery from depression and anxiety. Following Brown at al (1988, 1992), we hypothesised: (a) that an excess of PLC would be found in the 8-month period before recovery compared with base rates ('excess

  6. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  7. A comparison of the clinical features of depression in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS with prevalence 2 to 3 times higher than the general population. It's still questionable whether HIV related depression is clinically different from depression in HIV-negative populations, a fact that could have treatment implications.This study ...

  8. Raman spectroscopy based screening of IgG positive and negative sera for dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bial, Maria; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, M.; Ikram, Masroor

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative analysis for the screening of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) positive human sera samples is presented for the dengue virus infection. The regression model was developed using 79 samples while 20 samples were used to test the performance of the model. The R-square (r 2) value of 0.91 was found through a leave-one-sample-out cross validation method, which shows the validity of this model. This model incorporates the molecular changes associated with IgG. Molecular analysis based on regression coefficients revealed that myristic acid, coenzyme-A, alanine, arabinose, arginine, vitamin C, carotene, fumarate, galactosamine, glutamate, lactic acid, stearic acid, tryptophan and vaccenic acid are positively correlated with IgG; while amide III, collagen, proteins, fatty acids, phospholipids and fucose are negatively correlated. For blindly tested samples, an excellent agreement has been found between the model predicted, and the clinical values of IgG. The parameters, which include sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, are found to be 100%, 83.3%, 95% and 0.99, respectively, which confirms the high quality of the model.

  9. Panic disorder as a risk factor for post-partum depression: Results from the Perinatal Depression-Research & Screening Unit (PND-ReScU) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambelli, C; Montagnani, M S; Oppo, A; Banti, S; Borri, C; Cortopassi, C; Ramacciotti, D; Camilleri, V; Mula, M; Cassano, G B; Mauri, M

    2010-04-01

    Although the role of anxiety disorders on the development of Post-partum Depression (PPD) have already been studied in literature, that of individual anxiety disorders has not received specific attention. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Panic Disorder (PD) and family history for PD as risk factors for PPD. Six hundred women were recruited in a prospective, observational study at the 3rd month of pregnancy and followed up until the 6th month after delivery. At baseline, risk factors for PPD, Axis-I disorders and family history for psychiatric disorders were assessed. We investigated minor and major depression (mMD) occurred at 1st, 3rd and 6th months post-partum. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between PD, family history for PD and PPD. Forty women had mMD in the post-partum. PD during pregnancy (RR=4.25; 95%CI:1.48-12.19), a history of PD (RR 2.47; 95%CI:1.11-5.49) and family history for PD (RR=2.1; 95%CI:1.06-4.4) predicted PPD after adjusting for lifetime depression and risk factors for PPD. The response rate is moderately low, but it is similar to other studies. The drop out rate is slightly high, however the 600 women who completed the 6th month follow-up did not differ from the presence of PD at baseline. PD is an independent risk factor for PPD, underscoring need to assess PD symptoms during pregnancy. Furthermore, PD represents an important risk factor for the development of PPD and should be routinely screened in order to develop specific preventive interventions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Avoidable surgical consultations in women with a positive screening mammogram: Experience from a southern region of the Dutch breast screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreutelkamp, J.L.; Kwee, R.M.; Booij, M. de; Adriaensen, M.E.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: According to current Dutch guidelines, all women with a positive screening mammogram are referred for a full hospital assessment, which includes surgical consultation and radiological assessment. Surgical consultation may be unnecessary for many patients. Our objective was to determine how often surgical consultations can be avoided by radiological pre-assessment. Materials and methods: All women with a positive screening mammogram, referred to our radiology department between 2002 and 2007, were included (n = 1014). Percentage of women that was downstaged to BI-RADS category 1 or 2 by radiological pre-assessment was calculated. Negative predictive value (NPV) for malignancy was estimated from the in-hospital follow-up, which was available up to September 2012. Results: 423 of 1014 women (42%) were downstaged to BI-RADS category 1 or 2 by radiological pre-assessment. During follow-up, 8 of these 423 women (2%) developed a malignancy in the same breast. At least 6 of these malignancies were located at a different location as the original screening findings which led to the initial referral. The estimated NPV for malignancy was 99.5% (95%CI, 98.3–99.9). Conclusion: By referring women with a positive screening mammogram to the radiology department for pre-assessment, a surgical consultation was avoided in 42%, with an estimated NPV of 99.5% for malignancy

  11. Integrating Optimal Screening, Intervention, and Referral for Postpartum Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Leigh; Wedgeworth, Monika; Turner, Adeline

    2018-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 10% to 13% of postpartum women develop a mental disorder, mainly depression. This number is higher in developing countries. This percentage increases in adolescents and symptoms in adolescents tend to be overlooked. These disorders can be treated successfully if detected early, which will in turn prevent more severe symptoms from developing. This article provides evidence-based clinical best practices for the assessment and early recognition of postpartum depression, specifically in adolescents. In addition, suggestions for integration into practice and recommendations for interprofessional collaboration are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-Term Effects of a Screening Intervention for Depression on Suicide Rates among Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakashita, Tomoe

    2016-04-01

    To explore the long-term impact of a universal screening intervention for depression on suicide rates among older community-dwelling adults, with gender as an effect modifier. Controlled cohort study reporting long-term follow-up of previous research. Two sets of three municipalities in Japan were assigned as intervention and control regions and compared with the surrounding zone and prefecture. Intervention area residents aged 60 years and older (14,291) were invited to participate in a 2-year intervention (2005-2006). Four population-based dynamic cohorts of residents aged 65 years and older (1999-2010) were included as subjects, 6 years before and after the intervention started. At-risk residents within the intervention region (4,918) were invited for a two-step screening program; 2,552 participated in the program linked with care/support services for 2 years. An education program open to the public was held. Changes in suicide from a 6-year baseline to the 2-year intervention and a 4-year follow-up in the intervention region (11,700 adults ≥65 years) were compared with a matched control and two comparison areas using mixed-effects negative binomial regression models. Suicide rates among older adults exposed to screening were compared with those of the control region. Suicide rates in the intervention region decreased by 48%, which was significantly greater than in the three comparison areas. The program's benefits lasted longer for women than men. Screening exposure may be associated with decreased suicide risk over the 4-year follow-up. Universal screening may decrease suicide rates among older adults, with potential gender differences in treatment response. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comorbidity of Drug Abuse in Adolescents: Screening for Depression, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents. Among different disorders, 3 disorders of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder, and depression were studied in a sample of Iranian adolescents.   Materials & Methods: A total of 33 substance abusers, 35 criminal substance abusers, 34 non-substance abusers were selected from Tehran correctional and rehabilitation center for adolescents and 33 normal subjects (girl and boy were studied from schools of Tehran south using Achenbach youth self-report questionnaire (YSR (Achenbach, 1991, demographic and history of drug abuse questionnaire (designed by researchers. Results: There was a significant different regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder between two groups of substance abuser and non-substance abuser, but the difference was not significant between boys and girls. Regarding conduct disorder, there was a significant difference between two sexes. In boys, there was a significant difference between substance abusers and normal groups. In depression disorder, the difference between two sexes was significant regarding boys differences were observed between three groups selected from correctional and rehabilitation center and normal group regarding girls, there was a significant difference between substance abusers with criminals and normal group. Conclusion: Apparently, these 3 disorders have shown significant difference between two sexes. ADHD pattern was the same in two sexes. There was a significant difference between two sexes with regard to depression and conduct disorder. In both sexes, ADHD was not correlated with substance abuse. The conduct disorder was not related to substance abuse in both sexes and depression disorder was only related to substance abuse in girls. Considering the youth self-report test (YSR, there is a special mental profile for substance abusers, which separates them from non-substance abusers.

  14. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  15. Somatostatin-Positive Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Interneuron Deficits in Depression: Cortical Microcircuit and Therapeutic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Corey; Banasr, Mounira; Sibille, Etienne

    2017-10-15

    The functional integration of external and internal signals forms the basis of information processing and is essential for higher cognitive functions. This occurs in finely tuned cortical microcircuits whose functions are balanced at the cellular level by excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) interneurons. The balance of excitation and inhibition, from cellular processes to neural network activity, is characteristically disrupted in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. Specifically, nearly 3 decades of research demonstrate a role for reduced inhibitory GABA level and function across disorders. In MDD, recent evidence from human postmortem and animal studies suggests a selective vulnerability of GABAergic interneurons that coexpress the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST). Advances in cell type-specific molecular genetics have now helped to elucidate several important roles for SST interneurons in cortical processing (regulation of pyramidal cell excitatory input) and behavioral control (mood and cognition). Here, we review evidence for altered inhibitory function arising from GABAergic deficits across disorders and specifically in MDD. We then focus on properties of the cortical microcircuit, where SST-positive GABAergic interneuron deficits may disrupt functioning in several ways. Finally, we discuss the putative origins of SST cell deficits, as informed by recent research, and implications for therapeutic approaches. We conclude that deficits in SST interneurons represent a contributing cellular pathology and therefore a promising target for normalizing altered inhibitory function in MDD and other disorders with reduced SST cell and GABA functions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Depression screening test for patients with metastatic gastric and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Kenji; Sugiyama, Akemi; Yuasa, Shu; Koga, Chiaki; Yamazaki, Emiko; Katayama, Yoshiko; Nagaoka, Masatoshi; Nagao, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of depression has been reported to be higher in cancer patients, especially those of advanced stage, compared to normal controls. However, depression is often under-recognized in clinical oncology settings. And this psychological problem is not routinely assessed even in patients with inoperable metastatic cancer who often have psychological disorders. Psychological distress including depression, is affected by physical, psychosocial, and clinical factors. In order to detect psychiatric problems at the early stage, we assessed the mental conditions of 47 inpatients with metastatic gastric and colorectal cancerusing the Japanese version of Zung's Self Rating Depression Scale(SDS)and analyzed the relationships between these factors and SDS scores. While SDS scores of our patients did not differ according to their gender, age, performance status (PS), ortypes of patients' character, they were significantly higher in Group B(cancer patients with palliative care alone), compared to Group A(those receiving chemotherapy)(pterminal stage, their scores were significantly increased, respectively(pterminally ill patients without any indication of chemotherapy.

  17. Predicting Suicidal Ideation with the Depression Hopelessness and Suicide Screening Form (DHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines a series of interactions between a prior history of suicidal behavior and cognitions permissive of suicide, and the variables of depression and hopelessness in the relationship with suicidal ideation in two samples of incarcerated offenders. Results indicate that both a prior history of suicidal behavior and cognitions…

  18. Stereological Study on the Positive Effect of Running Exercise on the Capillaries in the Hippocampus in a Depression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linmu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Running exercise is an effective method to improve depressive symptoms when combined with drugs. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. Cerebral blood flow perfusion in depressed patients is significantly lower in the hippocampus. Physical activity can achieve cerebrovascular benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of running exercise on capillaries in the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG regions. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS depression model was used in this study. CUS rats were given 4 weeks of running exercise from the fifth week to the eighth week (20 min every day from Monday to Friday each week. The sucrose consumption test was used to measure anhedonia. Furthermore, stereological methods were used to investigate the capillary changes among the control group, CUS/Standard group and CUS/Running group. Sucrose consumption significantly increased in the CUS/Running group. Running exercise has positive effects on the capillaries parameters in the hippocampal CA1 and DG regions, such as the total volume, total length and total surface area. These results demonstrated that capillaries are protected by running exercise in the hippocampal CA1 and DG might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced treatment of depression-like behavior. These results suggest that drugs and behavior influence capillaries and may be considered as a new means for depression treatment in the future.

  19. The effect of prayer on depression and anxiety: maintenance of positive influence one year after prayer intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Peter A; Reeves, Roy R; Replogle, William H; Koenig, Harold G

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of direct contact person-to-person prayer on depression, anxiety, and positive emotions is maintained after 1 year. One-year follow-up of subjects with depression and anxiety who had undergone prayer intervention consisting of six weekly 1-hour prayer sessions conducted in an office setting. Subjects (44 women) completed Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Life Orientation Test, and Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale after finishing a series of six prayer sessions and then again a month later in an initial study. The current study reassessed those subjects with the same measures 1 year later. One-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare findings pre-prayer, immediately following the six prayer sessions, and 1 month and again 1 year following prayer interventions. Evaluations post-prayer at 1 month and 1 year showed significantly less depression and anxiety, more optimism, and greater levels of spiritual experience than did the baseline (pre-prayer) measures (p prayer session. Direct person-to-person prayer may be useful as an adjunct to standard medical care for patients with depression and anxiety. Further research in this area is indicated.

  20. Incomplete follow-up of positive HPV tests: overview of randomised controlled trials on primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M; Lynge, E

    2010-01-01

    with follow-up in HPV-positive women and relative >/=CIN3 detection was 0.48 (P=0.33).Conclusion:There is at present scant evidence to support the view that the measured sensitivity of HPV screening is a simple reflection of compliance with follow-up. Adjustment of measured cervical intraepithelial neoplasia......Background:It has been suggested that adjustment for incomplete compliance with follow-up in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) tests would be appropriate for estimating the true sensitivity of cervical screening with HPV testing. We assessed the compliance and its impact on >/=CIN3...

  1. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: Evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Meader, N.; Davies, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine the validity of screening and case-finding tools used in the identification of depression as defined by an ICD10/DSM-IV criterion standard. Methods: We identified 63 studies involving 19 tools (in 33 publications) designed to help clinicians identify depression in cancer...... as cases. The main cautions are the reliance on DSM-IV definitions of major depression, the large number of small studies and the paucity of data for many tools in specific settings. Conclusions: Although no single tool could be offered unqualified support, several tools are likely to improve upon...

  2. Anxiety and depressive features in chronic disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Overall, 17.0% of patients screened positive for anxiety disorder and 39.1% for depressive disorder. Patients with cancer (47.8%) had the highest rate of anxiety features, and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

  3. Cost-effectiveness of enhanced syphilis screening among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a microsimulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available Syphilis co-infection risk has increased substantially among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM. Frequent screening for syphilis and treatment of men who test positive might be a practical means of controlling the risk of infection and disease sequelae in this population.We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of strategies that increased the frequency and population coverage of syphilis screening in HIV-infected MSM receiving HIV care, relative to current standard of care.We developed a state-transition microsimulation model of syphilis natural history and medical care in HIV-infected MSM receiving care for HIV. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using input data derived from a large observational cohort in Ontario, Canada, and from published biomedical literature. Simulations compared usual care (57% of the population screened annually to different combinations of more frequent (3- or 6-monthly screening and higher coverage (100% screened. We estimated expected disease-specific outcomes, quality-adjusted survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness associated with each strategy from the perspective of a public health care payer.Usual care was more costly and less effective than strategies with more frequent or higher coverage screening. Higher coverage strategies (with screening frequency of 3 or 6 months were expected to be cost-effective based on usually cited willingness-to-pay thresholds. These findings were robust in the face of probabilistic sensitivity analyses, alternate cost-effectiveness thresholds, and alternate assumptions about duration of risk, program characteristics, and management of underlying HIV.We project that higher coverage and more frequent syphilis screening of HIV-infected MSM would be a highly cost-effective health intervention, with many potentially viable screening strategies projected to both save costs and improve health when compared to usual care. The baseline requirement for regular blood testing in this

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Enhanced Syphilis Screening among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Microsimulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R.; Burchell, Ann N.; Fisman, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Syphilis co-infection risk has increased substantially among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Frequent screening for syphilis and treatment of men who test positive might be a practical means of controlling the risk of infection and disease sequelae in this population. Purpose We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of strategies that increased the frequency and population coverage of syphilis screening in HIV-infected MSM receiving HIV care, relative to current standard of care. Methods We developed a state-transition microsimulation model of syphilis natural history and medical care in HIV-infected MSM receiving care for HIV. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using input data derived from a large observational cohort in Ontario, Canada, and from published biomedical literature. Simulations compared usual care (57% of the population screened annually) to different combinations of more frequent (3- or 6-monthly) screening and higher coverage (100% screened). We estimated expected disease-specific outcomes, quality-adjusted survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness associated with each strategy from the perspective of a public health care payer. Results Usual care was more costly and less effective than strategies with more frequent or higher coverage screening. Higher coverage strategies (with screening frequency of 3 or 6 months) were expected to be cost-effective based on usually cited willingness-to-pay thresholds. These findings were robust in the face of probabilistic sensitivity analyses, alternate cost-effectiveness thresholds, and alternate assumptions about duration of risk, program characteristics, and management of underlying HIV. Conclusions We project that higher coverage and more frequent syphilis screening of HIV-infected MSM would be a highly cost-effective health intervention, with many potentially viable screening strategies projected to both save costs and improve health when compared to usual care. The baseline requirement

  5. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and At-Risk Young Children's Internalizing Problems: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Positivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlett, Benjamin D.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin; Crespo, Laura; Wheeler, Rebecca; Williams, Alexis; Chaudhry, Kiren; Smith-Darden, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depressive symptoms predict negative child behaviors, including internalizing problems. However, protective factors, such as positive emotionality and positive parenting behaviors, may play an important a role in attenuating associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems. This article presents two studies…

  6. [Integral Care Guide for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder in Adults. Integral Attention of Adults with a Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder: Part I: Risk Factors, Screening, Suicide Risk Diagnosis and Assessment in Patients with a Depression Diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia Bohórquez; Valencia, Jenny García; Guarín, Maritza Rodríguez; Narváez, Eliana Bravo; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Acosta, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Pedraza, Ricardo Sánchez; Díaz, Sergio Mario Castro

    2012-12-01

    Depression is an important cause of morbidity and disability in the world; however, it is under-diagnosed at all care levels. The purpose here is to present recommendations based on the evidence gathered to answer a series of clinical questions concerning risk factors, screening, suicide risk diagnosis and evaluation in patients undergoing a depressive episode and recurrent depressive disorder. Emphasis has been made upon the approach used at the primary care level so as to grant adult diagnosed patients the health care guidelines based on the best and more updated evidence available thus achieving minimum quality standards. A practical clinical guide was elaborated according to standards of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection. Recommendation from guides NICE90 and CANMAT were adopted and updated so as to answer the questions posed while de novo questions were developed. Recommendations 1-22 corresponding to screening, suicide risk and depression diagnosis were presented. The corresponding degree of recommendation is included. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Moderating role of positive aspects of caregiving in the relationship between depression in persons with Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Zhai, Junwei; He, Runlian; Zhou, Liye; Liang, Ruifeng; Yu, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Improving caregivers' positive perception of their role may be important in reducing their subjective burden when caring for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with depression. The purpose of present study was to explore the moderating role of the positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) on the subjective burden on family caregivers when managing depressive behaviors. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 200 pairs of patients with mild AD and their caregivers from three communities and two hospitals in Taiyuan, China in October 2014. The latent variable interaction model based on a two stage least squares (2SLS) regression was fitted. A significant moderating effect of the PAC was found on the relationship between depression in patients with AD and the caregiver burden they cause. Caregivers dealing with patients with low levels of depression but with high levels of the PAC had significantly lower levels of caregiver burden compared to those caregivers with the low levels of PAC. Continuously detecting the patient's mental state combined with caregivers having an optimistic attitude towards life may improve the quality of life for both patients and caregivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Roles of Self-Stigma, Social Support, and Positive and Negative Affects as Determinants of Depressive Symptoms Among HIV Infected Men who have Sex with Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghua; Mo, Phoenix K H; Wu, Anise M S; Lau, Joseph T F

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health was prevalent among HIV positive men who have sex with men (HIVMSM), and a tremendous burden extents on their families and society. The present study investigated the prevalence of depression and its relationship with social support, HIV self-stigma, positive affect and negative affect among 321 HIVMSM in Chengdu, China. The study was conducted during July 2013 through October 2013. Findings showed that 55.8 % of the participants had mild to severe depression. The results of structural equation modeling showed that social support and positive affect were negatively associated with depression, while HIV self-stigma and negative affect were positively associated with depression. Social support, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between HIV self-stigma and depression. The hypothesized model had a satisfactory fit. Interventions improving mental health among this population are warranted.

  9. Genomic ancestry and the social pathways leading to major depression in adulthood: the mediating effect of socioeconomic position and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Gonçalves, Helen; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Motta, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-09-05

    Evidence suggests that there is an association between ethnicity/skin color and depression; however, many contextual and individual variables, like sense of discrimination and socioeconomic position (SEP), might influence the direction of this association. We assessed the association between African ancestry and major depression among young adults that have been followed-up since birth in a Southern Brazilian city, and the mediating effect of SEP and discrimination. In 1982, all hospital deliveries in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) were identified; liveborns were examined and their mothers interviewed (n = 5914). In 2012-13, at 30 years of age, we used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for major depression diagnosis. In addition, DNA samples were genotyped for approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Illumina (CA, USA) HumanOmni2.5-8v1 array. Genomic ancestry estimation was based on approximately 370 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mutually available for the Pelotas cohort and selected samples (used as reference panels) of the HapMap and Human Genome Diversity (HGDP). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) using Poisson regression models and evaluated the association between percentage of African ancestry and major depression. We used G-computation for mediation analysis. At 30 years, 3576 individuals were evaluated for major depression (prevalence = 7.9 %). Only individuals in the highest SEP, who had a percentage of African ancestry between >5-30 % and >30 % had a prevalence of major depression 2.16 (PR = 2.16 95 % CI [1.05-4.45]) and 2.74 (PR = 2.74 95 % CI [1.06-7.06]) times higher, than those with 5 % or less, respectively. Among these subjects, sense of discrimination by skin color, captured 84 % of the association between African ancestry and major depression. SEP is an important effect modifier of the positive association between African ancestry and major depression. In addition

  10. Impact of terrorism on health and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale screening in medical students, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Sara; Khan, Mahjabeen; Aziz, Sina

    2014-03-01

    To determine the association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity by Hospital Anxiety Depression scale among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2011 and comprised students of the Institute of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation and the Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. The study tool was a validated Hospital Anxiety Depression scale questionnaire. The data was analysed on SPSS 16. Factor analysis was performed to check which factors had the most influence. Overall there were 1036 respondents. The impact of terrorism on physical, social and mental health was 40 (3.9%), 178 (17.2%) and 818 (79%) respectively. There was an association of terrorism in 980 (84.6%) respondents with psychiatric morbidity. There was an association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity in majority of respondents. The significant risk factors were age, gender, physical, mental and social health and the desire to live in Pakistan.

  11. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel; Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan; Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells; Queiro Verdes, Teresa; Natal Ramos, Carmen; Sanz, Maria Ederra; Salas Trejo, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p 14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  12. Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Rasim Somer; de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Ladouceur, Cecile; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-12-30

    Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1 ± 1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the HADS for screening depression and anxiety in psycho-cardiological outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Ding, Rongjing; Hu, Dayi; Zhang, Fan; Sheng, Li

    2014-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used widely with cardiovascular patients. This study aims to examine the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of HADS among psycho-cardiological outpatients. One hundred psycho-cardiological outpatients were asked to complete the Chinese version of HADS and were then interviewed according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Version 5 (MINI). According to the MINI, 38 outpatients were diagnosed with major depression and 15 outpatients were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Compared with the MINI diagnoses, the optimum cutoff value of the anxiety subscale (HADS-A) was six (6) with a sensitivity of 81.6%, specificity of 75.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.0% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%; at the optimum cutoff value of nine (9), the depression subscale (HADS-D) had a sensitivity of 80.0%, specificity of 92.9%, PPV of 52.2% and NPV of 96.1%. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the HADS-A and HADS-D subscales were 0.753 and 0.764, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves of the HADS-A and the HADS-D subscales, as compared to MINI diagnoses of anxiety and depression, were 0.81 (SE = 0.05, 95%CI: [0.73, 0.90]) and 0.86 (SE = 0.05, 95%CI: [0.77, 0.94]), respectively. The HADS was found to be a reliable measurement tool for excluding depression and anxiety in psycho-cardiological outpatients. © 2014.

  14. Positive predictive value estimates for cell-free noninvasive prenatal screening from data of a large referral genetic diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Andrea K; Cheung, Sau Wai; Smith, Janice L; Bi, Weimin; Ward, Patricia A; Peacock, Sandra; Braxton, Alicia; Van Den Veyver, Ignatia B; Breman, Amy M

    2017-12-01

    Since its debut in 2011, cell-free fetal DNA screening has undergone rapid expansion with respect to both utilization and coverage. However, conclusive data regarding the clinical validity and utility of this screening tool, both for the originally included common autosomal and sex-chromosomal aneuploidies as well as the more recently added chromosomal microdeletion syndromes, have lagged behind. Thus, there is a continued need to educate clinicians and patients about the current benefits and limitations of this screening tool to inform pre- and posttest counseling, pre/perinatal decision making, and medical risk assessment/management. The objective of this study was to determine the positive predictive value and false-positive rates for different chromosomal abnormalities identified by cell-free fetal DNA screening using a large data set of diagnostic testing results on invasive samples submitted to the laboratory for confirmatory studies. We tested 712 patient samples sent to our laboratory to confirm a cell-free fetal DNA screening result, indicating high risk for a chromosome abnormality. We compiled data from all cases in which the indication for confirmatory testing was a positive cell-free fetal DNA screen, including the common trisomies, sex chromosomal aneuploidies, microdeletion syndromes, and other large genome-wide copy number abnormalities. Testing modalities included fluorescence in situ hybridization, G-banded karyotype, and/or chromosomal microarray analysis performed on chorionic villus samples, amniotic fluid, or postnatally obtained blood samples. Positive predictive values and false-positive rates were calculated from tabulated data. The positive predictive values for trisomy 13, 18, and 21 were consistent with previous reports at 45%, 76%, and 84%, respectively. For the microdeletion syndrome regions, positive predictive values ranged from 0% for detection of Cri-du-Chat syndrome and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome to 14% for 1p36 deletion

  15. A household survey on screening practices of household contacts of smear positive tuberculosis patients in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, Thuy Hoang Thi; Ngoc, Sy Dinh; Viet, Nhung Nguyen; van, Hung Nguyen; Horby, Peter; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2014-01-01

    Close contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Although passive contact screening guidelines are incorporated in the national TB control program, currently it is unknown how frequent close contacts are screened for TB in Vietnam. This study assesses

  16. Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Amygdala Neurofeedback Changes Positive Information Processing in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Misaki, Masaya; Harmer, Catherine J; Victor, Teresa; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Siegle, Greg J; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2017-10-15

    In participants with major depressive disorder who are trained to upregulate their amygdalar hemodynamic responses during positive autobiographical memory recall with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training, depressive symptoms diminish. This study tested whether amygdalar rtfMRI-nf also changes emotional processing of positive and negative stimuli in a variety of behavioral and imaging tasks. Patients with major depressive disorder completed two rtfMRI-nf sessions (18 received amygdalar rtfMRI-nf, 16 received control parietal rtfMRI-nf). One week before and following rtfMRI-nf training, participants performed tasks measuring responses to emotionally valenced stimuli including a backward-masking task, which measures the amygdalar hemodynamic response to emotional faces presented for traditionally subliminal duration and followed by a mask, and the Emotional Test Battery in which reaction times and performance accuracy are measured during tasks involving emotional faces and words. During the backward-masking task, amygdalar responses increased while viewing masked happy faces but decreased to masked sad faces in the experimental versus control group following rtfMRI-nf. During the Emotional Test Battery, reaction times decreased to identification of positive faces and during self-identification with positive words and vigilance scores increased to positive faces and decreased to negative faces during the faces dot-probe task in the experimental versus control group following rtfMRI-nf. rtfMRI-nf training to increase the amygdalar hemodynamic response to positive memories was associated with changes in amygdalar responses to happy and sad faces and improved processing of positive stimuli during performance of the Emotional Test Battery. These results may suggest that amygdalar rtfMRI-nf training alters responses to emotional stimuli in a manner similar to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  17. Association of positive responses to suicide screening questions with hospital admission and repeated emergency department visits in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Horowitz, Lisa M; Jobes, David A; Wagner, Barry M; Pao, Maryland; Teach, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Although validated suicide screening tools exist for use among children and adolescents presenting to emergency departments (EDs), the associations between screening positive for suicide risk and immediate psychiatric hospital admission or subsequent ED use, stratified by age, have not been examined. This is a retrospective cohort study of a consecutive case series of patients aged 8 to 18 years presenting with psychiatric chief complaints during a 9-month period to a single urban tertiary care pediatric ED. Eligible patients were administered a subset of questions from the Risk of Suicide Questionnaire. Outcomes included the odds of psychiatric hospitalization at the index visit and repeated ED visits for psychiatric complaints within the following year, stratified by age. Of the 568 patients presenting during the study period, responses to suicide screening questions were available for 442 patients (78%). A total of 159 (36%) of 442 were hospitalized and 130 (29%) of 442 had 1 or more ED visits within the following year. The proportion of patients providing positive responses to 1 or more suicide screening questions did not differ between patients aged 8 to 12 years and those aged 13 to 18 years (77/154 [50%] vs 137/288 [48%], P = 0.63). A positive response to 1 or more of the questions was significantly associated with increased odds of psychiatric hospitalization in the older age group [adjusted odds ratio, 3.82; 95% confidence interval, 2.24-6.54) and with repeated visits to the ED in the younger age group (adjusted odds ratio, 3.55 95% confidence interval, 1.68-7.50). Positive responses to suicide screening questions were associated with acute psychiatric hospitalization and repeated ED visits. Suicide screening in a pediatric ED may identify children and adolescents with increased need of psychiatric resources.

  18. Validation of the WHO-5 as a first-step screening instrument for depression in adults with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Hendrieckx, Christel; Busija, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO-5 as a depression screening instrument, comparing two commonly used WHO-5 cut-off values (≤7 and reliability (α=0.90) and convergent validity with the PHQ-9 (r=-0...... was 0.44/0.96 for the ≤7 cut-off, and 0.79/0.79 for the cut-off, with similar findings by diabetes type and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support use of a WHO-5 cut-point of ... symptoms). Analyses were conducted for the full sample, and separately by diabetes type and treatment (type 1, non-insulin-treated type 2, and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes). Construct (convergent and factorial) validity and reliability of the WHO-5 were examined. ROC analyses were used to examine...

  19. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sarkodie

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: A small proportion of confirmed seroreactive donors in this sample had any recall of symptoms or treatment for yaws or syphilis. These data suggest that clinical questioning adds little further information to the current screening algorithm. The relative contribution of yaws and syphilis to frequent positive tests in endemic areas remains speculative.

  20. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porcel, Jacqueline; Feigal, Christine; Poye, Laney; Postma, Ineke R.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Tsigas, Eleni; Wilson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) encompass a spectrum of disorders that affect 6-8% of US pregnancies. We aim to determine the impact of self-reported history of HDP as a risk factor for screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which results from exposure to

  1. Electrocortical reactivity to negative and positive facial expressions in individuals with a family history of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Anna J; Harris, Anthony W F; Williams, Leanne M

    2018-05-21

    Facial expressions signaling threat and mood-congruent loss have been used to probe abnormal neural reactivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and may be implicated in genetic vulnerability to MDD. This study investigated electro-cortical reactivity to facial expressions 101 unaffected, adult first degree relatives of probands with MDD and non-relative controls (n = 101). We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) to five facial expressions of basic emotion: fear, anger, disgust, sadness and happiness under both subliminal (masked) and conscious (unmasked) presentation conditions, and the source localization of group differences. In the conscious condition, controls showed a distinctly positive-going shift in responsive to negative versus happy faces, reflected in a greater positivity for the VPP frontally and the P300 parietally, and less negativity for the N200. By contrast, relatives showed less differentiation of emotions, reflected in less VPP and P300 positivity, particularly for anger and disgust, and which produced an enhanced N200 for sadness. These group differences were consistently source localized to the anterior cingulate cortex. The findings contribute new evidence for neural disruptions underlying the differentiation of salient emotions in familial risk for depression. These disruptions occur in the appraisal (∼200 ms post-stimulus) through to the context evaluation (∼300 ms+ post-stimulus) phases of of emotion processing, consistent with theories that risk for depression involves biased or attenuated processing of emotion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Validation of brief screening tools for depressive and alcohol use disorders among TB and HIV patients in primary care in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART patients in primary care in Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in 16 primary level care clinics. Consecutive sampling was used to select 649 participants who started TB treatment or ART in the preceding month. Participants were first interviewed using the CES-D and AUDIT, and subsequently with a psychiatric diagnostic interview for current major depressive disorder (MDD and alcohol use disorders (AUDs using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The diagnostic accuracy was calculated using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC. The optimum cut-off scores for clinical use were calculated using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV. Results The CES-D and AUDIT had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84; 0.98 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor CES-D model was not a good fit for the data (Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI = 0.86; standardized root-mean square residual (SRMR = 0.06 while the two-factor AUDIT model fitted the data well (TFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.04. Both the CES-D and AUDIT demonstrated good discriminatory ability in detecting MINI-defined current MDDs and AUDs (AUROC for CES-D = 0.78; AUDIT = 0.98 for women and 0.75 for men. The optimum CES-D cut-off score in screening for current MDD was 22 (sensitivity 73%, PPV 76% while that of the AUDIT in screening for AUD was 24 for women (sensitivity 60%, PPV 60%, and 20 for men (sensitivity 55%, PPV 50%. Conclusions The CES-D and AUDIT showed high discriminatory ability in measuring MINI-defined current MDD and AUD respectively. They are

  3. Linear antenna of an arbitrary orientation and position in cylindric screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    An equation of the linear antenna in cylindric screen is formulated. Using the averaging method a solution of this equation for the antenna of arbitrary orientation which does not contact the screen walls or contacts them in one or two ends is received. The obtained asymptotic expression for stream permits to describe in a single manner the case of resonance and non-resonance scattering. These results may be applied in design of UHF and accelerating installations using cylindric screens charged with linear vibrators. 9 refs. (author)

  4. Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Hannes; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Päären, Aivar; Jonsson, Ulf

    2017-03-29

    Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  5. On the Estimation of Disease Prevalence by Latent Class Models for Screening Studies Using Two Screening Tests with Categorical Disease Status Verified in Test Positives Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haitao; Zhou, Yijie; Cole, Stephen R.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary To evaluate the probabilities of a disease state, ideally all subjects in a study should be diagnosed by a definitive diagnostic or gold standard test. However, since definitive diagnostic tests are often invasive and expensive, it is generally unethical to apply them to subjects whose screening tests are negative. In this article, we consider latent class models for screening studies with two imperfect binary diagnostic tests and a definitive categorical disease status measured only for those with at least one positive screening test. Specifically, we discuss a conditional independent and three homogeneous conditional dependent latent class models and assess the impact of misspecification of the dependence structure on the estimation of disease category probabilities using frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Interestingly, the three homogeneous dependent models can provide identical goodness-of-fit but substantively different estimates for a given study. However, the parametric form of the assumed dependence structure itself is not “testable” from the data, and thus the dependence structure modeling considered here can only be viewed as a sensitivity analysis concerning a more complicated non-identifiable model potentially involving heterogeneous dependence structure. Furthermore, we discuss Bayesian model averaging together with its limitations as an alternative way to partially address this particularly challenging problem. The methods are applied to two cancer screening studies, and simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods. In summary, further research is needed to reduce the impact of model misspecification on the estimation of disease prevalence in such settings. PMID:20191614

  6. Interval Breast Cancer Rates and Histopathologic Tumor Characteristics after False-Positive Findings at Mammography in a Population-based Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Sagstad, Silje; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Chen, Ying; Roman, Marta; Lee, Christoph I

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To compare rates and tumor characteristics of interval breast cancers (IBCs) detected after a negative versus false-positive screening among women participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Materials and Methods The Cancer Registry Regulation approved this retrospective study. Information about 423 445 women aged 49-71 years who underwent 789 481 full-field digital mammographic screening examinations during 2004-2012 was extracted from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Rates and odds ratios of IBC among women with a negative (the reference group) versus a false-positive screening were estimated by using logistic regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis and county of residence. Results A total of 1302 IBCs were diagnosed after 789 481 screening examinations, of which 7.0% (91 of 1302) were detected among women with a false-positive screening as the most recent breast imaging examination before detection. By using negative screening as the reference, adjusted odds ratios of IBCs were 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6, 4.2) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.4) for women with a false-positive screening without and with needle biopsy, respectively. Women with a previous negative screening had a significantly lower proportion of tumors that were 10 mm or less (14.3% [150 of 1049] vs 50.0% [seven of 14], respectively; P false-positive screening with benign biopsy. A retrospective review of the screening mammographic examinations identified 42.9% (39 of 91) of the false-positive cases to be the same lesion as the IBC. Conclusion By using a negative screening as the reference, a false-positive screening examination increased the risk of an IBC three-fold. The tumor characteristics of IBC after a negative screening were less favorable compared with those detected after a previous false-positive screening. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  7. Impact of intermediate mammography assessment on the likelihood of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascunce, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Ederra, Maria; Delfrade, Josu; Erdozain, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Baroja, Araceli [Fundacion Rioja Salud, Logrono (Spain); Zubizarreta, Raquel [Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Galicia (Spain); Salas, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia (Spain); Castells, Xavier [Mar Teaching Hospital, CIBERESP, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Breast cancer screening is offered to 100% of the target population in Spain and intermediate mammograms (IMs) are sometimes indicated. This study was aimed at analysing the frequency of IMs, the factors determining their recommendation, and their impact on the risk of false-positive results and the detection rate. Data from 3,471,307 mammograms from Spanish breast cancer screening programmes were included. 3.36% of the mammograms were IMs. The factors associated with the use of IMs were age, initial screening, previous invasive tests, a familial history of breast cancer and use of hormone replacement therapy. In screening episodes with an IM, the probability of a false-positive result was 13.74% (95% CI: 13.43-14.05), almost double that in episodes without IMs (6.02%, 95% CI 5.99-6.05). In young women with previous invasive procedures, a familial history of breast cancer or hormone replacement therapy use who were undergoing their initial screen, this probability was lower when IMs were performed. IMs always increased the detection rate. The factors prompting IMs should be characterised so that radiologists can systematise their recommendations according to the presence of the factors maximising the benefits and minimising the adverse effects of this procedure. (orig.)

  8. Impact of intermediate mammography assessment on the likelihood of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascunce, Nieves; Ederra, Maria; Delfrade, Josu; Erdozain, Nieves; Baroja, Araceli; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Salas, Dolores; Castells, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is offered to 100% of the target population in Spain and intermediate mammograms (IMs) are sometimes indicated. This study was aimed at analysing the frequency of IMs, the factors determining their recommendation, and their impact on the risk of false-positive results and the detection rate. Data from 3,471,307 mammograms from Spanish breast cancer screening programmes were included. 3.36% of the mammograms were IMs. The factors associated with the use of IMs were age, initial screening, previous invasive tests, a familial history of breast cancer and use of hormone replacement therapy. In screening episodes with an IM, the probability of a false-positive result was 13.74% (95% CI: 13.43-14.05), almost double that in episodes without IMs (6.02%, 95% CI 5.99-6.05). In young women with previous invasive procedures, a familial history of breast cancer or hormone replacement therapy use who were undergoing their initial screen, this probability was lower when IMs were performed. IMs always increased the detection rate. The factors prompting IMs should be characterised so that radiologists can systematise their recommendations according to the presence of the factors maximising the benefits and minimising the adverse effects of this procedure. (orig.)

  9. Intensity of positive and negative emotions : Explaining the association between personality and depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to examine to what extent emotional intensity accounted for associations between the Big Five personality dimensions and depressive symptoms. Study 1 tested the model cross-sectionally, using survey data of 266 Dutch social science students. Study 2 experimentally examined how

  10. Associations between Positive Mental Wellbeing and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadow, Corinne; Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association and directionality of effect between mental wellbeing and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents. Data were collected on two occasions 21 months apart. At Time 1, 1,762 10- to 14-year-old adolescents from a range of socio-economic status areas participated. At Time 2 (T2), 1,575 participated again. On…

  11. A randomised controlled trial of positive memory training for the treatment of depression within schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, C.; van der Gaag, M.; Korrelboom, K.; Simon, J.; Phiri, P.; Baksh, M.F.; Wykes, T.; Rose, D.; Hardcastle, M.; Enright, S.; Evans, G.; Kingdon, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is highly prevalent within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, and is associated with an increased risk of suicide. There are no current evidence based treatments for low mood within this group. The specific targeting of co-morbid conditions within complex mental health

  12. A randomised controlled trial of positive memory training for the treatment of depression within schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, Craig; van der Gaag, Mark; Korrelboom, Kees; Simon, Judit; Phiri, Peter; Baksh, M. Fazil; Wykes, Til; Rose, Diana; Rose, Suzanna; Hardcastle, Mark; Enright, Simon; Evans, Gareth; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is highly prevalent within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, and is associated with an increased risk of suicide. There are no current evidence based treatments for low mood within this group. The specific targeting of co-morbid conditions within complex mental health

  13. Factors associated with risk of depression and relevant predictors of screening for depression in clinical practice: a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected individuals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Maria; Sodemann, Morten; Gabel, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    importance that may be used to identify patients at risk of depression. METHODS: In 2013, 212 HIV-infected patients were included in a questionnaire study. We used the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Patients with a BDI-II score ≥ 20 were...... offered a clinical evaluation by a consultant psychiatrist. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors associated with risk of depression. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression (BDI-II score ≥ 14) were observed in 75 patients (35%), and symptoms of moderate to major depression (BDI-II score ≥ 20...

  14. Postpartum depressive symptoms moderate the link between mothers’ neural response to positive faces in reward and social regions and observed caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaohui; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Phillips, Mary L; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hipwell, Alison E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postpartum depression may disrupt socio-affective neural circuitry and compromise provision of positive parenting. Although work has evaluated how parental response to negative stimuli is related to caregiving, research is needed to examine how depressive symptoms during the postpartum period may be related to neural response to positive stimuli, especially positive faces, given depression’s association with biased processing of positive faces. The current study examined the association between neural response to adult happy faces and observations of maternal caregiving and the moderating role of postpartum depression, in a sample of 18- to 22-year old mothers (n = 70) assessed at 17 weeks (s.d. = 4.7 weeks) postpartum. Positive caregiving was associated with greater precuneus and occipital response to positive faces among mothers with lower depressive symptoms, but not for those with higher symptoms. For mothers with higher depressive symptoms, greater ventral and dorsal striatal response to positive faces was associated with more positive caregiving, whereas the opposite pattern emerged for mothers with lower symptoms. There was no association between negative caregiving and neural response to positive faces or negative faces. Processing of positive stimuli may be an important prognostic target in mothers with depressive symptoms, given its link with healthy caregiving behaviors. PMID:29048603

  15. Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: prevalence and association with other substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Rationale and study protocol for a multi-component Health Information Technology (HIT) screening tool for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegler, Kelly; Mollica, Richard; Sim, Susan Elliott; Nicholas, Elisa; Chandler, Maria; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Paigne, Kittya; Paigne, Sompia; Nguyen, Danh V; Sorkin, Dara H

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence rate of depression in primary care is high. Primary care providers serve as the initial point of contact for the majority of patients with depression, yet, approximately 50% of cases remain unrecognized. The under-diagnosis of depression may be further exacerbated in limited English-language proficient (LEP) populations. Language barriers may result in less discussion of patients' mental health needs and fewer referrals to mental health services, particularly given competing priorities of other medical conditions and providers' time pressures. Recent advances in Health Information Technology (HIT) may facilitate novel ways to screen for depression and other mental health disorders in LEP populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of a clustered randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of an HIT intervention that provides a multi-component approach to delivering culturally competent, mental health care in the primary care setting. The HIT intervention has four components: 1) web-based provider training, 2) multimedia electronic screening of depression and PTSD in the patients' primary language, 3) Computer generated risk assessment scores delivered directly to the provider, and 4) clinical decision support. The outcomes of the study include assessing the potential of the HIT intervention to improve screening rates, clinical detection, provider initiation of treatment, and patient outcomes for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among LEP Cambodian refugees who experienced war atrocities and trauma during the Khmer Rouge. This technology has the potential to be adapted to any LEP population in order to facilitate mental health screening and treatment in the primary care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rationale and Study Protocol for a Multi-component Health Information Technology (HIT) Screening Tool for Depression and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in the Primary Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegler, Kelly; Mollica, Richard; Sim, Susan Elliott; Nicholas, Elisa; Chandler, Maria; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Paigne, Kittya; Paigne, Sompia; Nguyen, Danh V.; Sorkin, Dara H.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence rate of depression in primary care is high. Primary care providers serve as the initial point of contact for the majority of patients with depression, yet, approximately 50% of cases remain unrecognized. The under-diagnosis of depression may be further exacerbated in limited English-language proficient (LEP) populations. Language barriers may result in less discussion of patients’ mental health needs and fewer referrals to mental health services, particularly given competing priorities of other medical conditions and providers’ time pressures. Recent advances in Health Information Technology (HIT) may facilitate novel ways to screen for depression in LEP populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of a clustered-randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of an HIT intervention that provides a multi-component approach to delivering culturally competent, mental health care in the primary care setting. The HIT intervention has four components: 1) web-based provider training, 2) multimedia electronic screening of depression and PTSD in the patients’ primary language, 3) Computer generated risk assessment scores delivered directly to the provider, and 4) clinical decision support. The outcomes of the study include assessing the potential of the HIT intervention to improve screening rates, clinical detection, provider initiation of treatment, and patient outcomes for depression and PTSD among LEP Cambodian refugees who experienced war atrocities and trauma during the Khmer Rouge. This technology has the potential to be adapted to any LEP population in order to facilitate mental health screening and treatment in the primary care setting. PMID:27394385

  18. Raising Awareness of False Positive Newborn Screening Results Arising from Pivalate-Containing Creams and Antibiotics in Europe When Screening for Isovaleric Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Bonham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While the early and asymptomatic recognition of treatable conditions offered by newborn screening confers clear health benefits for the affected child, the clinical referral of patients with screen positive results can cause significant harm for some families. The use of pivalate-containing antibiotics and more recently the inclusion of neopentanoate as a component within moisturising creams used as nipple balms by nursing mothers can result in a significant number of false positive results when screening for isovaleric acidaemia (IVA by measuring C5 acylcarnitine. A recent survey conducted within centres from nine countries indicated that this form of contamination had been or was a significant confounding factor in the detection of IVA in seven of the nine who responded. In three of these seven the prominent cause was believed to derive from the use of moisturising creams and in another three from antibiotics containing pivalate; one country reported that the cause was mixed. As a result, four of these seven centres routinely perform second tier testing to resolve C5 isobars when an initial C5 result is elevated, and a fifth is considering making this change within their national programme. The use of creams containing neopentanoate by nursing mothers and evolving patterns in the prescription of pivalate-containing antibiotics during pregnancy require those involved in the design and operation of newborn screening programmes used to detect IVA and the doctors who receive clinical referrals from these programmes to maintain an awareness of the potential impact of this form of interference on patient results.

  19. HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to panic, social anxiety, and depression symptoms among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Parent, Justin; Grover, Kristin W; Hickey, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Although past work has documented relations between HIV/AIDS and negative affective symptoms and disorders, empirical work has only just begun to address explanatory processes that may underlie these associations. The current investigation sought to test the main and interactive effects of HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to symptoms of panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SA), and depression among people with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 164 adults with HIV/AIDS (17.1% women; mean age, 48.40) recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Vermont/New Hampshire and New York City. The sample identified as 40.9% white/Caucasian, 31.1% black, 22.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% mixed/other; with more than half (56.7%) reporting an annual income less than or equal to $10,000. Both men and women reported unprotected sex with men as the primary route of HIV transmission (64.4% and 50%, respectively). HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity (AS) were significantly positively related to PD, SA, and depression symptoms. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in terms of PD and SA symptoms, but not depressive symptoms. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity and HIV symptom distress are clinically relevant factors to consider in terms of anxiety and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS. It may be important to evaluate these factors among patients with HIV/AIDS to identify individuals who may be at a particularly high risk for anxiety and depression problems. Limitations included recruitment from ASOs, cross-sectional self-report data, and lack of a clinical diagnostic assessment.

  20. Depressive symptoms in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results of the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium screening assessment of depression in diabetes study

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the frequency of depressive symptoms and the diagnosis and management of depression in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T1D and T2D registries. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) 2 Self-Report (Short) version ...

  1. Depression and selection of positive and negative social feedback: motivated preference or cognitive balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Lipman, A J

    1992-05-01

    In this commentary we examine Swann, Wenzlaff, Krull, and Pelham's (1992) findings with respect to each of 5 central propositions in self-verification theory. We conclude that although the data are consistent with self-verification theory, none of the 5 components of the theory have been demonstrated convincingly as yet. Specifically, we argue that depressed subjects' selection of social feedback appears to be balanced or evenhanded rather than biased toward negative feedback and that there is little evidence to indicate that depressives actively seek negative appraisals. Furthermore, we suggest that the studies are silent with respect to the motivational postulates of self-verification theory and that a variety of competing cognitive and motivational models can explain Swann et al.'s findings as well as self-verification theory.

  2. Systematic hybrid LOH: a new method to reduce false positives and negatives during screening of yeast gene deletion libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvaro, D.; Sunjevaric, I.; Reid, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method, systematic hybrid loss of heterozygosity, to facilitate genomic screens utilizing the yeast gene deletion library. Screening is performed using hybrid diploid strains produced through mating the library haploids with strains from a different genetic background......, to minimize the contribution of unpredicted recessive genetic factors present in the individual library strains. We utilize a set of strains where each contains a conditional centromere construct on one of the 16 yeast chromosomes that allows the destabilization and selectable loss of that chromosome. After...... complementation of any spurious recessive mutations in the library strain, facilitating attribution of the observed phenotype to the documented gene deletion and dramatically reducing false positive results commonly obtained in library screens. The systematic hybrid LOH method can be applied to virtually any...

  3. Probiotic supplementation can positively affect anxiety and depressive symptoms: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Katz, Joel; de Souza, Russell J; Stearns, Jennifer C; Motamed, Mehras; Ritvo, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal microbiota, consisting of microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in digestive, metabolic, and immune functioning. Preclinical studies on rodents have linked behavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system with deficits or alterations in these bacterial communities. Moreover, probiotic supplementation in rodents has been shown to markedly change behavior, with correlated changes in central neurochemistry. While such studies have documented behavioral and mood-related supplementation effects, the significance of these effects in humans, especially in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms, are relatively unknown. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to systematically evaluate current literature on the impact of probiotic supplementation on anxiety and depression symptoms in humans. To this end, multiple databases, including Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials published between January 1990 and January 2016. Search results led to a total of 10 randomized controlled trials (4 in clinically diagnosed and 6 in non-clinical samples) that provided limited support for the use of some probiotics in reducing human anxiety and depression. Despite methodological limitations of the included trials and the complex nature of gut-brain interactions, results suggest the detection of apparent psychological benefits from probiotic supplementation. Nevertheless a better understanding of developmental, modulatory, and metagenomic influences on the GI microbiota, specifically as they relate to mood and mental health, represent strong priorities for future research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential Risk for Homelessness Among US Male and Female Veterans With a Positive Screen for Military Sexual Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Emily; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Blais, Rebecca K; Carter, Marjorie E; Suo, Ying; Samore, Matthew H; Kimerling, Rachel; Fargo, Jamison D

    2016-06-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes following military separation. Recent research suggests that MST may be a determinant in several factors associated with postdeployment homelessness. To evaluate MST as an independent risk factor for homelessness and to determine whether risk varies by sex. A retrospective cohort study of US veterans who used Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services between fiscal years 2004 and 2013 was conducted using administrative data from the Department of Defense and VHA. Included in the study were 601 892 US veterans deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan who separated from the military between fiscal years 2001 and 2011 and subsequently used VHA services. Positive response to screen for MST administered in VHA facilities. Administrative evidence of homelessness within 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years following the first VHA encounter after last deployment. The mean (SD) age of the 601 892 participants was 38.9 (9.4) years, 527 874 (87.7%) were male, 310 854 (51.6%) were white, and 382 361 (63.5%) were enlisted in the Army. Among veterans with a positive screen for MST, rates of homelessness were 1.6% within 30 days, 4.4% within 1 year, and 9.6% within 5 years, more than double the rates of veterans with a negative MST screen (0.7%, 1.8%, and 4.3%, respectively). A positive screen for MST was significantly and independently associated with postdeployment homelessness. In regression models adjusted for demographic and military service characteristics, odds of experiencing homelessness were higher among those who screened positive for MST compared with those who screened negative (30-day: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.58-2.24; 1-year: AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 2.04-2.53; and 5-year: AOR, 2.63; 95% CI, 2.36-2.93). Military sexual trauma screen status remained independently associated with homelessness after adjusting for co-occurring mental health and substance abuse diagnoses

  5. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Depressive Symptoms in HIV-Positive Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saeedeh; Khalili, Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan; Arbabi, Mohammad; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2016-10-01

    The antidepressant effect of omega-3 fatty acids has been described in the non-HIV population. The effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the mood status of HIV-positive patients has not been evaluated yet. In this study, the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on depressive symptoms was evaluated in HIV-positive individuals. A total of 100 HIV-positive patients with Beck Depression Score ≥16, were assigned to receive either omega-3 fatty acids or placebo twice daily for 8 weeks. Depressive symptoms of each participant were evaluated at baseline (month 0) and at the end of months 1 and 2 of the study. Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition, depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire were used for assessment of depressive symptoms. Reduction in mean ± SD of all depression scores during the study period was statistically significant within the omega-3 group and when compared with the placebo group (for both comparisons, P symptoms in HIV-positive individuals without any significant adverse reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Online versus paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis in Ireland: a cross-sectional exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronly, Jennifer; Duff, Alistair J; Riekert, Kristin A; Perry, Ivan J; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Horgan, Aine; Lehane, Elaine; Howe, Barbara; Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-21

    To compare online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Cross-sectional study in CF clinics in Ireland and through the Cystic Fibrosis Ireland online community. 160 adult patients aged 18 or above were recruited. Of these, 147 were included in the analysis; 83 online and 64 paper-based. The remaining 13 were excluded because of incomplete data. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s %) and body mass index were self-reported based on clinical assessments. Sociodemographic data were collected. Compared with the paper-based participants, the online participants were more likely to be female (61.7% vs 48.4%), older (mean 32.2 vs 28.2 years) and were more likely to be married (32.5% vs 15.6%), living with their spouse or partner (42.5% vs 22.6%) and working either full time (33.7% vs 15.9%) or part time (30.1%vs 17.5%). The prevalence rates of elevated anxiety and depression were not significantly different (P=0.71 and P=0.56). HADS anxiety and depression scores were not statistically different between online (P=0.83) and paper-based (P=0.92) participants based on Mann-Whitney U test. A significant negative correlation was found between depression and pulmonary function (r=-0.39, P=0.01) and anxiety and pulmonary function (r=-0.36, P=0.02). Based on Cronbach's alpha, there were no statistically significant differences between the online and paper-based participants on the internal consistency of the HADS anxiety (P=0.073) and depression (P=0.378) scales. Our findings suggest that online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adult patients with CF yield comparable findings on prevalence rates and scores, associations with health and internal consistency of subscales. This study highlights that online screening offers an alternative method to paper-based screening. Further research with a

  7. Does presence of metabolic syndrome impact anxiety and depressive disorder screening results in middle aged and elderly individuals? A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnoriene, Jurate; Steibliene, Vesta; Saudargiene, Ausra; Bunevicius, Adomas

    2018-01-08

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are common in primary care setting but often remain undiagnosed. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is also prevalent in the general population and can impair recognition of common mental disorders due to significant co-morbidity and overlap with psychiatric symptoms included in self-reported depression/anxiety screening tools. We investigated if MetS has an impact on the accuracy of current major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) screening results using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). A total of 1115 (562 men; mean age 62.0 ± 9.6 years) individuals of 45+ years of age were randomly selected from the general population and evaluated for current MetS; depressive and anxiety symptoms (HADS); and current MDD and GAD (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI]). The MetS was diagnosed in 34.4% of the study participants. Current MDD and GAD were more common in individuals with MetS relative to individuals without MetS (25.3% vs 14.2%, respectively, p Depression subscale for current MDE were ≥9 in individuals with MetS (sensitivity = 87%, specificity = 73% and PPV = 52%) and ≥8 in individuals without MetS (sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 78% and PPV = 38%). At threshold of ≥9 the HADS-Anxiety subscale demonstrated optimal psychometric properties for current GAD screening in individuals with MetS (sensitivity = 91%, specificity = 85% and PPV = 72%) and without MetS (sensitivity = 84%, specificity = 83% and PPV = 56%). The HADS is a reliable screening tool for current MDE and GAD in middle aged and elderly population with and without MetS. Optimal thresholds of the HADS-Depression subscale for current MDD is ≥9 for individuals with MetS and ≥8 - without MetS. Optimal threshold of the HADS-Anxiety subscale is ≥9 for current GAD in individuals with and without MetS. The presence of MetS should be considered when interpreting

  8. Depressive symptoms and positive affect in Chinese and United States breast cancer survivors: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Kathrin; Kavanagh, April; Meng, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Chandwani, Kavita D; Garcia, Kay; Perkins, George H; McQuade, Jennifer; Raghuram, Nelamangala V; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Liao, Zhongxing; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Chen, Jiayi; Guo, Xiaoma; Liu, Luming; Arun, Banu; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Research in the area of cultural response pattern on questionnaires in the oncological setting and direct cross-cultural comparisons are lacking. This study examined response pattern in the reporting of depressive symptoms in Chinese and US women with breast cancer. We hypothesized that Chinese women are less likely to endorse positive affect items compared to their US counterparts. Additionally, we explored cultural differences in the association between positive affect and QOL. Secondary analyses of baseline assessments of two mind-body intervention studies for women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy in the USA (N = 62) and China (N = 97) are presented. All participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and cancer-specific QOL (FACT-B). We examined cultural differences on positive and negative affect items on the CES-D. Controlling for demographic factors, ANCOVA revealed a significant cultural difference in positive (F = 7.99, p = 0.005) but not negative affect (p = 0.82) with Chinese women reporting lower positive affect compared to US women (Chinese = 6.97 vs. US = 8.31). There was also a significant cultural difference (F = 3.94, p = 0.03) in the association between positive affect and QOL so that lower positive affect was more strongly associated with worse emotional well-being in Chinese (beta = 0.57, p different cultures to ascertain effective delivery of clinical services to those in need.

  9. Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Sørensen, Lin; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2016-02-25

    Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity. ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale. The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in

  10. Rates of sexual history taking and screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Alasdair; Lord, Emily; Forsythe, Annabel; Sherrard, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    A case note audit was undertaken of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) to ascertain whether national guidelines for taking sexual histories, including recreational drug use and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening were being met. The notes of 142 HIV-positive men seen in 2015 were available, of whom 85 were MSM. Information was collected regarding sexual history, recreational drug use documentation, sexually transmitted infection screen offer and test results. Seventy-seven (91%) of the MSM had a sexual history documented, of whom 60 (78%) were sexually active. STI screens were offered to 58/60 (97%) of those who were sexually active and accepted by 53 (91%). Twelve (23%) of these had an STI. A recreational drug history was taken in 63 (74%) with 17 (27%) reporting use and 3 (5%) chemsex. The high rate of STIs highlights that regular screening in this group is essential. Additionally, the fact that over a quarter reported recreational drug use and given the increasing concern around chemsex, questions about this should be incorporated into the sexual history proforma.

  11. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Edificio Administrativo da Conselleria de Sanidade, Servicio de Programas Poboacionais de Cribado, Direccion Xeral de Saude Publica e Planificacion, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells [Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Parc de Salut Mar. CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Queiro Verdes, Teresa [Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Natal Ramos, Carmen [Principality of Asturias Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Principality of Asturias (Spain); Sanz, Maria Ederra [Public Health Institute, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Salas Trejo, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with greater reading volume in the previous year: OR 0.77 and OR 0.78, respectively, for a reading volume 500-1,999 mammograms and OR 0.59 and OR 0.60 for a reading volume of >14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  12. Brief depression screening with the PHQ-2 associated with prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention with paclitaxel-eluting stenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan; de Jonge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Depression is associated with adverse prognosis in cardiac patients, warranting the availability of brief and valid instruments to identify depressed patients in clinical practice.......Depression is associated with adverse prognosis in cardiac patients, warranting the availability of brief and valid instruments to identify depressed patients in clinical practice....

  13. False-positive breast screening due to fat necrosis following mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawson, Jennifer N.; Malara, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Traumatic fat necrosis can result in a spectrum of imaging appearances that range from characteristically benign to those indistinguishable from malignancy. In such cases, biopsy might be required for diagnosis. The present case demonstrates a suspicious mammographic mass lesion appearing following a haematoma caused by a previous screening mammogram Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Screening for depression in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: Feasibility and identification of effective tools in the NRG Oncology RTOG 0841 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lynne I; Pugh, Stephanie L; Small, William; Kirshner, Jeffrey; Sidhu, Kulbir; Bury, Martin J; DeNittis, Albert S; Alpert, Tracy E; Tran, Binh; Bloom, Beatrice F; Mai, Julie; Yeh, Alexander; Sarma, Kalika; Becker, Mark; James, Jennifer; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2017-02-01

    Brief tools are needed to screen oncology outpatients for depressive symptoms. Patients starting radiotherapy for the first diagnosis of any tumor completed distress screening tools, including the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer (NCCN-DT), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) (25-item version). Patients exceeding validated cutoff scores and a systematic sample of patients whose screening was negative completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) mood disorder modules via telephone. Four hundred sixty-three patients from 35 community-based radiation oncology sites and 2 academic radiation oncology sites were recruited. Sixty-six percent of the 455 eligible patients (n = 299) were women, and the eligible patients had breast (45%), gastrointestinal (11%), lung (10%), gynecologic (6%), or other cancers (27%). Seventy-five (16.5%) exceeded screening cutoffs for depressive symptoms. Forty-two of these patients completed the SCID. Another 37 patients whose screening was negative completed the SCID. Among the 79 patients completing the SCID, 8 (10.1%) met the criteria for major depression, 2 (2.5%) met the criteria for dysthymia, and 6 (7.6%) met the criteria for an adjustment disorder. The PHQ-2 demonstrated good psychometric properties for screening for mood disorders with a cutoff score of ≥3 (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC], 0.83) and was comparable to the PHQ-9 ( > 9; AUC = 0.85). The NCCN-DT did not detect depression (AUC = 0.59). The PHQ-2 demonstrated good psychometric properties for screening for mood disorders, which were equivalent to the PHQ-9 and superior to the NCCN-DT. These findings support using the PHQ-2 to identify patients in need of further assessment for depression, which has a low prevalence but is a clinically significant comorbidity. These findings could

  15. Likelihood of early detection of breast cancer in relation to false-positive risk in life-time mammographic screening: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, J D M; Fracheboud, J; den Heeten, G J; Otto, S J; Holland, R; de Koning, H J; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2013-10-01

    Women require balanced, high-quality information when making an informed decision on screening benefits and harms before attending biennial mammographic screening. The cumulative risk of a false-positive recall and/or (small) screen-detected or interval cancer over 13 consecutive screening examinations for women aged 50 from the start of screening were estimated using data from the Nijmegen programme, the Netherlands. Women who underwent 13 successive screens in the period 1975-1976 had a 5.3% cumulative chance of a screen-detected cancer, with a 4.2% risk of at least one false-positive recall. The risk of being diagnosed with interval cancer was 3.7%. Two decades later, these estimates were 6.9%, 7.3% and 2.9%, respectively. The chance of detection of a small, favourable invasive breast cancer, anticipating a normal life-expectancy, rose from 2.3% to 3.7%. Extrapolation to digital screening mammography indicates that the proportion of false-positive results will rise to 16%. Dutch women about to participate in the screening programme can be reassured that the chance of false-positive recall in the Netherlands is relatively low. A new screening policy and improved mammography have increased the detection of an early screening carcinoma and lowering the risk of interval carcinoma.

  16. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder: Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-José; Veer, Ilya M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether

  17. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder : Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veer, Ilya M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Aleman, Andre; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether

  18. Application of a stratum-specific likelihood ratio analysis in a screen for depression among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1,2 Ayako Kaneda,2 Ippei Takahashi,3 Shigeyuki Nakaji,3 Norio Yasui-Furukori2 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan Background: Efficient screening for depression is important in community mental health. In this study, we applied a stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR analysis, which is independent of the prevalence of the target disease, to screen for depression among community-dwelling individuals.Method: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI were administered to 789 individuals (19–87 years of age who participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project 2011. Major depressive disorder (MDD was assessed using the MINI.Results: For MDD, the SSLRs were 0.13 (95% CI 0.04–0.40, 3.68 (95% CI 1.37–9.89, and 24.77 (95% CI 14.97–40.98 for CES–D scores of 0–16, 17–20, and above 21, respectively.Conclusion: The validity of the CES-D is confirmed, and SSLR analysis is recommended for its practical value for the detection of individuals with the risk of MDD in the Japanese community. Keywords: screening, depression, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, stratum-specific likelihood ratio

  19. The Effect of Maternal Body Composition and Triglyceride Levels on Newborn Weight in Non-Diabetic Women with Positive Diabetic Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cüneyt Eftal Taner; Seçil Kurtulmuş; Ümit Nayki; Ayşen Kızılyar; Yasemin Baskın

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of maternal body composition and triglyceride levels on newborn weight in nondiabetic women with positive diabetic screening. STUDY DESIGN : 40 pregnant women with positive diabetic screenings and negative glucose tolerance tests were enrolled as the study group. 72 pregnant women with negative diabetic screenings were enrolled as the control group. 50-gram glucose challenge tests were performed at 24-32 weeks of gestations and serum lipid levels were mea...

  20. Distinguishing Binders from False Positives by Free Energy Calculations: Fragment Screening Against the Flap Site of HIV Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Molecular docking is a powerful tool used in drug discovery and structural biology for predicting the structures of ligand–receptor complexes. However, the accuracy of docking calculations can be limited by factors such as the neglect of protein reorganization in the scoring function; as a result, ligand screening can produce a high rate of false positive hits. Although absolute binding free energy methods still have difficulty in accurately rank-ordering binders, we believe that they can be fruitfully employed to distinguish binders from nonbinders and reduce the false positive rate. Here we study a set of ligands that dock favorably to a newly discovered, potentially allosteric site on the flap of HIV-1 protease. Fragment binding to this site stabilizes a closed form of protease, which could be exploited for the design of allosteric inhibitors. Twenty-three top-ranked protein–ligand complexes from AutoDock were subject to the free energy screening using two methods, the recently developed binding energy analysis method (BEDAM) and the standard double decoupling method (DDM). Free energy calculations correctly identified most of the false positives (≥83%) and recovered all the confirmed binders. The results show a gap averaging ≥3.7 kcal/mol, separating the binders and the false positives. We present a formula that decomposes the binding free energy into contributions from the receptor conformational macrostates, which provides insights into the roles of different binding modes. Our binding free energy component analysis further suggests that improving the treatment for the desolvation penalty associated with the unfulfilled polar groups could reduce the rate of false positive hits in docking. The current study demonstrates that the combination of docking with free energy methods can be very useful for more accurate ligand screening against valuable drug targets. PMID:25189630

  1. Chagas' disease: an algorithm for donor screening and positive donor counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical serological screening assays for Chagas' disease are time consuming and subjective. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the enzyme immuno-assay (ELISA methodology and to propose an algorithm for blood banks to be applied to Chagas' disease. Seven thousand, nine hundred and ninety nine blood donor samples were screened by both reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Samples reactive on RPHA and/or IFA were submitted to supplementary RPHA, IFA and complement fixation (CFA tests. This strategy allowed us to create a panel of 60 samples to evaluate the ELISA methodology from 3 different manufacturers. The sensitivity of the screening by IFA and the 3 different ELISA's was 100%. The specificity was better on ELISA methodology. For Chagas disease, ELISA seems to be the best test for blood donor screening, because it showed high sensitivity and specificity, it is not subjective and can be automated. Therefore, it was possible to propose an algorithm to screen samples and confirm donor results at the blood bank.Os testes sorológicos clássicos utilizados na triagem de doadores de sangue são trabalhosos e subjetivos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é o de avaliar a metodologia imuno-enzimática (ELISA e propor um algorítmo para doença de Chagas em bancos de sangue. Foram estudados 7999 doadores de sangue e/ou componentes cujas amostras foram testadas com o objetivo de tria-las sorologicamente para doença de Chagas utilizando hemaglutinação passiva reversa (RPHA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFA. As amostras reativas em pelo menos uma destas metodologias, foram retestadas com reativos diferentes por RPHA, IFA e fixação de complemento (CFA. Esta estratégia nos permitiu criar um painel de 60 amostras com as quais tornou-se possível a avaliação do método imunoenzimático (ELISA. A sensibilidade da triagem dos doadores pelos métodos ELISA e IFA foi de 100%. A especificidade

  2. Positive Illusions in Adolescents: The Relationship between Academic Self-Enhancement and Depressive Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rick N.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions,…

  3. An ecological paradox: high species diversity and low position of the upper forest line in the Andean Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thorsten; Braeuning, Achim; Muenchow, Jannes; Richter, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Systematic investigations of the upper forest line (UFL) primarily concentrate on mid and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, whereas studies of Neotropical UFLs are still fragmentary. This article outlines the extraordinary high tree diversity at the UFL within the Andean Depression and unravels the links between the comparatively low position of the local UFL, high tree-species diversity, and climate. On the basis of Gentry's rapid inventory methodology for the tropics, vegetation sampling was conducted at 12 UFL sites, and local climate (temperature, wind, precipitation, and soil moisture) was investigated at six sites. Monotypic forests dominated by Polylepis were only found at the higher located margins of the Andean Depression while the lower situated core areas were characterized by a species-rich forest, which lacked the elsewhere dominant tree-species Polylepis. In total, a remarkably high tree-species number of 255 tree species of 40 different plant families was found. Beta-diversity was also high with more than two complete species turnovers. A non-linear relationship between the floristic similarity of the investigated study sites and elevation was detected. Temperatures at the investigated study sites clearly exceeded 5.5°C, the postulated threshold value for the upper tree growth limit in the tropics. Instead, quasi-permanent trade winds, high precipitation amounts, and high soil water contents affect the local position of the UFL in a negative way. Interestingly, most of the above-mentioned factors are also contributing to the high species richness. The result is a combination of a clearly marked upper forest line depression combined with an extraordinary forest line complexity, which was an almost unknown paradox.

  4. Positioning graphical objects on computer screens: a three-phase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Robert

    2011-02-01

    This experiment identifies and models phases during the positioning of graphical objects (called cursors in this article) on computer displays. The human computer-interaction community has traditionally used Fitts' law to model selection in graphical user interfaces, whereas human factors experiments have found the single-component Fitts' law inadequate to model positioning of real objects. Participants (N=145) repeatedly positioned variably sized square cursors within variably sized rectangular targets using computer mice. The times for the cursor to just touch the target, for the cursor to enter the target, and for participants to indicate positioning completion were observed. The positioning tolerances were varied from very precise and difficult to imprecise and easy. The time for the cursor to touch the target was proportional to the initial cursor-target distance. The time for the cursor to completely enter the target after touching was proportional to the logarithms of cursor size divided by target tolerances. The time for participants to indicate positioning after entering was inversely proportional to the tolerance. A three-phase model defined by regions--distant, proximate, and inside the target--was proposed and could model the positioning tasks. The three-phase model provides a framework for ergonomists to evaluate new positioning techniques and can explain their deficiencies. The model provides a means to analyze tasks and enhance interaction during positioning.

  5. Selective anti-proliferation of HER2-positive breast cancer cells by anthocyanins identified by high-throughput screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    Full Text Available Overexpressed Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 drives the biology of 20% breast cancer and is a prediction of a poor prognosis for patients. HER2-targeted therapies significantly improve outcomes for HER2-positive patients. Traditional Chinese herbs/medicines have been used to treat breast cancer patients including HER2-positive patients in Asia for decades. Although the traditional medicines demonstrate efficacy in clinics for HER2-positive patients, the mechanism is largely unknown. In this article, we screened a 10,000 natural product library in 6 different cell lines representing breast cancer, and assessed the ability of each drug to cause cytotoxicity through a high-throughput screening approach. We have identified eight natural compounds that selectively inhibit the proliferation of HER2-positive cells. Two of the hit compounds, peonidin-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3-glucoside, are both extracts from black rice. They inhibit the phospho-HER2 and phospho-AKT and were confirmed to induce HER2-psotive breast cancer cells apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Peonidin-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3-glucoside treatments significantly reduced the tumor size and volume in vivo compared to the control group. There is no significant difference of antitumorgenic effects between peonidin-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3-glucoside treatments.

  6. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); H.R. van Tuijl (Ruud); J. Meijer (John); A.J. Kiliaan (Amanda); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The associations of vitamin B(12), folate, and homocysteine with depression were examined in a population-based study. METHOD: The authors screened 3,884 elderly people for depressive symptoms. Subjects with positive screening results had psychiatric workups.

  7. Depression and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobzova, Milada; Prasko, Jan; Vanek, Jakub; Ociskova, Marie; Genzor, Samuel; Holubova, Michaela; Grambal, Ales; Latalova, Klara

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is described as intermittent interruptions or reductions in airflow which are initiated by an incomplete or complete collapse of the upper airways despite respiratory effort. When left untreated, OSA is connected with comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic illnesses. The PubMed database was used to examine papers published until April 2017 using the subsequent terms: "obstructive sleep apnea" or "obstructive sleep apnoea" and "depression" in successive combination with "CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure)", "therapy", "pharmacotherapy", "psychotherapy", "cognitive behavioral therapy" or "quality of life". After assessment for the suitability, 126 articles were chosen. The numerous evidence of a connection between OSA and depressive symptoms, as well as depressive disorder, were found. This connection may be directly or indirectly linked due to the participation of some OSA mediators consequences such as obesity, hypertension, and the decreased quality of life. Patients with the comorbid major depression and OSA reported more severe and longer episodes of depression. Nevertheless, the information on the effect of the treatment of OSA using CPAP on the depressive symptoms was limited. Still, the current state of the art suggests that this treatment decreases the severity of the comorbid depressive symptoms. It is important to evaluate the symptoms of depression in the patients with OSA. On the other side, a psychiatrist should not just treat the depression, as it is also important to screen individuals at high risk of OSA when assessing patients for depressive disorder, especially those with depression resistant to treatment.

  8. Single-item measures for depression and anxiety: Validation of the Screening Tool for Psychological Distress in an inpatient cardiology setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Quincy-Robyn; Nguyen, Michelle; Roth, Susan; Broadberry, Ann; Mackay, Martha H

    2015-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are common among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and confer significant cardiac risk, contributing to CVD morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, due to the lack of screening tools that address the specific needs of hospitalized patients, few cardiac inpatient programs offer routine screening for these forms of psychological distress, despite recommendations to do so. The purpose of this study was to validate single-item measures for depression and anxiety among cardiac inpatients. Consecutive inpatients were recruited from the cardiology and cardiac surgery step-down units at a university-affiliated, quaternary-care hospital. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included: (a) demographics, (b) single-item-measures for depression and anxiety (from the Screening Tool for Psychological Distress (STOP-D)), and (c) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). One hundred and five participants were recruited with a wide variety of cardiac diagnoses, having a mean age of 66 years, and 28% were women. Both STOP-D items were highly correlated with their corresponding validated measures and demonstrated robust receiver-operator characteristic curves. Severity scores on both items correlated well with established severity cut-off scores on the corresponding subscales of the HADS. The STOP-D is a self-administered, self-report measure using two independent items that provide severity scores for depression and anxiety. The tool performs very well compared with other previously validated measures. Requiring no additional scoring and being free, STOP-D offers a simple and valid method for identifying hospitalized cardiac patients who are experiencing psychological distress. This crucial first step triggers initiation of appropriate monitoring and intervention, thus reducing the likelihood of the adverse cardiac outcomes associated with psychological distress. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  9. HERCA WG Medical Applications / Sub WG 'Exposure of Asymptomatic Individuals in Health Care' - 'Position Paper on Screening'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebel, Juergen; Ebdon-Jackson, Steve

    2012-05-01

    Over the course of several meetings the HERCA-Working Group (WG) 'Medical Applications' has discussed the exposure of asymptomatic individuals in health care. In particular, the discussions focused on the issue of the early detection of severe diseases, by use of X-rays, for those who do not present with symptoms. An important and established example is the use of X-ray mammography to detect early breast cancer and this has traditionally been referred to as screening. An emerging application is the use of computed tomography in a range of circumstances, some of which may be better described as a separate category of medical exposure as they are neither diagnostic nor screening in the accepted sense. The discussions have indicated that it is pivotal to clearly define the relevant terms generally applied and to clearly differentiate these terms from diagnostic examinations used in health care. In this context, it is important to note, that the revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards (Euratom BSS) Directive is under way and addresses in particular medical radiological procedures on asymptomatic individuals, intended to be performed for early detection of disease (Draft Proposal 29 September 2011 Article 54). Hereby, two types of examinations of asymptomatic individuals, (that in some cases have both been referred to as screening) are addressed: (1) exposures as part of screening programmes and (2) exposures associated with individual health assessment. On adoption, this directive will have significant implications for and a substantial impact on the work of the radiation protection authorities in Europe. In this position paper the WG 'Medical Applications' proposes a clear distinction between screening and radiological procedures as part of an individual health assessment and highlights special requirements for the latter. Finally, the impact on the work of radiation protection authorities in Europe is addressed

  10. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  11. HPV16/18 genotyping for the triage of HPV positive women in primary cervical cancer screening in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcela; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Poggi, Helena; Cook, Paz; Viviani, Paola; Barriga, María Isabel; Pruyas, Martha; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2015-01-01

    We previously conducted a population-based screening trial of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing and conventional cytology, demonstrating higher sensitivity (92.7 % vs 22.1 % for CIN2+) but lower positive predictive value (10.5 % vs 23.9 %) of hrHPV testing. Here we report the performance of HPV16/18 genotyping to triage the hrHPV positive participants. Women aged 25 years and older received hrHPV (Hybrid Capture 2) and Papanicolaou testing; positives by either test underwent colposcopy and directed biopsy, as did a sample of double-negatives. hrHPV positive women were reflex-tested with HPV16/18 genotyping (Digene HPV Genotyping PS Test). Among the 8,265 participants, 10.7 % were hrHPV positive, 1.7 % had ASCUS+ cytology, 1.2 % had CIN2+; 776 (88 %) hrHPV positive women had complete results, of whom 38.8 % were positive for HPV16 (24.0 %), HPV18 (9.7 %) or both (5.1 %). CIN2+ prevalence in HPV16/18 positive women (16.3 %, 95 % CI 12.3-20.9) was twice that of HPV16/18 negative women (8.0 %, 95 % CI 5.7-10.8). HPV16/18 genotyping identified 40.5 % of CIN2, 66.7 % of CIN3 and 75.0 % of cancers. Compared to hrHPV screening alone, HPV16/18 triage significantly reduced the referral rate (10.7 % vs 3.7 %) and the number of colposcopies required to detect one CIN2+ (9 vs 6). When HPV16/18 negative women with baseline ASCUS+ cytology were also colposcopied, an additional 14 % of CIN2+ was identified; referral increased slightly to 4.2 %. HPV16/18 triage effectively stratified hrHPV positive women by their risk of high-grade lesions. HPV16/18 positive women must be referred immediately; referral could be deferred in HPV16/18 negative women given the slower progression of non-HPV16/18 lesions, however, they will require active follow-up.

  12. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  13. Sleep quality predicts positive and negative affect but not vice versa. An electronic diary study in depressed and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hoenders, H J Rogier; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The exact nature of the complex relationship between sleep and affect has remained unclear. This study investigated the temporal order of change in sleep and affect in participants with and without depression. 27 depressed patients and 27 pair-matched healthy controls assessed their sleep in the morning and their affect 3 times a day for 30 consecutive days in their natural environment. Daily sleep quality and average positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were used to examine whether changes in sleep quality preceded or followed changes in PA and NA, and whether this was different for patients and healthy controls. Second, presumptive mediating factors were investigated. We hypothesized that fatigue mediated the effect of changes in sleep quality on subsequent PA/NA, and that rumination mediated the effect of changes in PA/NA on subsequent sleep quality. Multilevel models showed that changes in sleep quality predicted changes in PA (B=0.08, paffect the following day, partly mediated by fatigue. Treatment of sleep symptoms would benefit affect in clinical care and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Child Perfectionism and its Relationship with Personality, Excessive Parental Demands, Depressive Symptoms and Experience of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Laura B; Iuorno, Ornella; Serppe, Mónica

    2017-02-13

    While adaptive perfectionism ensures good overall performance, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with emotional disorders for which psychological treatment is sought. There are many factors that can explain the development of this disorder throughout childhood. The present study analyzed to what extent the child's personality traits and excessive parental demands can predict maladaptive perfectionism, and, in turn, also analyzed how this relates to positive emotions and depressive symptoms in a sample of 404 Argentinian children (M age = 10.30; SD = 1.03). Stepwise multiple regression analyses and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. Results showed that excessive parental demands, together with high child neuroticism increased the likelihood of developing perfectionism (p children's mental health.

  15. A violência doméstica como indicador de risco no rastreamento da depressão pós-parto Domestic violence as a risk factor in the screening of for post-partum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Mattar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apurar a freqüência de risco para depressão pós-parto (DP em puérperas de hospital de São Paulo, região Sudeste do Brasil, e determinar fatores associados - entre eles a violência doméstica (VD. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, tipo corte transversal. Participaram 133 mulheres, que tiveram partos com idade gestacional de 20 semanas ou mais, no período de agosto a setembro de 2005, em maternidade terciária em São Paulo (Brasil. Foram entrevistadas empregando-se a versão em português do Abuse Assessment Screen para o diagnóstico de violência e responderam questionário de auto-avaliação do risco de DP (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. As variáveis foram representadas por freqüências absoluta e relativa. A associação entre as variáveis de interesse e DP foi avaliada pelo teste do chi2 ou exato de Fisher. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: o risco de DP foi identificado em 24 puérperas (18%. Das mulheres entrevistadas, 38,3% referiram história de abusos. Observou-se associação entre a ocorrência de VD após os 15 anos de idade e o risco de depressão (p=0,03. A ocorrência de abusos no grupo de mulheres com probabilidade de apresentar DP foi de 58,3%, proporção significativamente maior do que a observada no grupo controle com 33,9%. CONCLUSÕES: a probabilidade de apresentar depressão foi alta entre as puérperas assistidas em maternidade terciária da região Sudeste do Brasil. A VD sofrida após os 15 anos de idade esteve estatisticamente associada ao risco de DP.PURPOSE: to assess the prevalence of the risk of post-partum depression in women in the post-natal ward of a hospital in São Paulo city, in the southeastern region of Brazil, and analyze the associated factors, including domestic violence (DV. METHODS: this was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The participants were 133 women with at least 20 weeks of gestation age, who delivered their babies from August to September

  16. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  17. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alex J; Meader, Nick; Davies, Evan; Clover, Kerrie; Carter, Gregory L; Loscalzo, Matthew J; Linden, Wolfgang; Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Carlson, Linda E; Zabora, James

    2012-10-01

    To examine the validity of screening and case-finding tools used in the identification of depression as defined by an ICD10/DSM-IV criterion standard. We identified 63 studies involving 19 tools (in 33 publications) designed to help clinicians identify depression in cancer settings. We used a standardized rating system. We excluded 11 tools without at least two independent studies, leaving 8 tools for comparison. Across all cancer stages there were 56 diagnostic validity studies (n=10,009). For case-finding, one stem question, two stem questions and the BDI-II all had level 2 evidence (2a, 2b and 2c respectively) and given their better acceptability we gave the stem questions a grade B recommendation. For screening, two stem questions had level 1b evidence (with high acceptability) and the BDI-II had level 2c evidence. For every 100 people screened in advanced cancer, the two questions would accurately detect 18 cases, while missing only 1 and correctly reassure 74 with 7 falsely identified. For every 100 people screened in non-palliative settings the BDI-II would accurately detect 17 cases, missing 2 and correctly re-assure 70, with 11 falsely identified as cases. The main cautions are the reliance on DSM-IV definitions of major depression, the large number of small studies and the paucity of data for many tools in specific settings. Although no single tool could be offered unqualified support, several tools are likely to improve upon unassisted clinical recognition. In clinical practice, all tools should form part of an integrated approach involving further follow-up, clinical assessment and evidence based therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Daily Stressors and Adult Day Service Use by Family Caregivers: Effects on Depressive Symptoms, Positive Mood and DHEA-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Rovine, Michael J.; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examines effects of daily use of adult day services (ADS) programs by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on a salivary biomarker of stress reactivity, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and whether these effects on DHEA-S are associated with daily variability in positive mood and depressive symptoms. Design We used a daily diary design of 8 consecutive days with alternation of intervention (ADS) and non-intervention days to evaluate within- and between-person effects of the intervention. Setting Caregivers were interviewed daily by telephone at home. Participants 151 family caregivers of IWD who were using ADS. Measurements Saliva samples were collected from caregivers 5 times a day for 8 consecutive days and were assayed for DHEA-S. Daily telephone interviews assessed daily stressors and mood. Results DHEA-S levels were significantly higher on days following ADS use. Daily DHEA-S levels covaried significantly with daily positive mood, but not depressive symptoms. Conclusions These results demonstrate an association of ADS use by family caregivers and higher DHEA-S levels on the next day. Prior research has found that higher DHEA-S levels are protective against the physiological damaging effects of stressor exposure and may reduce risks of illness. Regular use of ADS may help reduce depletion of DHEA-S and allow the body to mount a protective and restorative response to the physiological demands of caregiving. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine DHEA-S levels across the day in connection with an intervention that affected daily exposure to stressors. PMID:24566240

  19. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  20. Syphilis sero-positivity in recently admitted and long-term psychiatric inpatients: Screening, prevalence and diagnostic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P Henning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Syphilis research has neglected the prevalence of the disease among psychiatric patients, and traditional syphilis screening has been reported as inadequate. Objectives. (i To assess the syphilis prevalence among psychiatric patients; (ii to compare psychiatric diagnoses of syphilis-infected and -uninfected patients; (iii to assess self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour; (iv to establish syphilis/HIV co-morbidity; and (v to investigate the performance of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR test in syphilis screening, compared with the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA test. Methods. Psychiatric inpatients at Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria, who consented to participate in the study (N=195 were categorised according to gender and length of admission (long-term or recent. Non-treponemal RPR, confirmatory TPHA, HIV-rapid and HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests were performed. A reactive TPHA test was used to diagnose syphilis. Results. The estimated prevalence of syphilis was 11.7%. There was no significant association between TPHA sero-positivity and primary psychiatric diagnosis or self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour. Significant co-morbidity existed between syphilis and HIV (p=0.012. Compared with the TPHA test, the RPR test performed poorly, identifying only 2/23 patients who had a sero-positive TPHA test (8.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusions. The prevalence of syphilis was higher than anticipated, supporting the need for routine testing. The significant co-morbidity and alarming prevalence of HIV and syphilis warrant testing for both conditions in all psychiatric admissions. Current syphilis screening with a single RPR test is inadequate; both RPR and TPHA tests should be performed.

  1. Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Three Approaches for Cervical Cancer Screening among HIV-Positive Women in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Phiri, Jane; Michelow, Pam; Smith, Jennifer S; Firnhaber, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has high rates of HIV and HPV and high incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. However, cervical cancer is largely preventable when early screening and treatment are available. We estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of conventional cytology (Pap), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and HPV DNA testing for detecting cases of CIN2+ among HIV-infected women currently taking antiretroviral treatment at a public HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Method effectiveness was derived from a validation study completed at the clinic. Costs were estimated from the provider perspective using micro-costing between June 2013-April 2014. Capital costs were annualized using a discount rate of 3%. Two different service volume scenarios were considered. Threshold analysis was used to explore the potential for reducing the cost of HPV DNA testing. VIA was least costly in both scenarios. In the higher volume scenario, the average cost per procedure was US$ 3.67 for VIA, US$ 8.17 for Pap and US$ 54.34 for HPV DNA. Colposcopic biopsies cost on average US$ 67.71 per procedure. VIA was least sensitive but most cost-effective at US$ 17.05 per true CIN2+ case detected. The cost per case detected for Pap testing was US$ 130.63 using a conventional definition for positive results and US$ 187.52 using a more conservative definition. HPV DNA testing was US$ 320.09 per case detected. Colposcopic biopsy costs largely drove the total and per case costs. A 71% reduction in HPV DNA screening costs would make it competitive with the conservative Pap definition. Women need access to services which meet their needs and address the burden of cervical dysplasia and cancer in this region. Although most cost-effective, VIA may require more frequent screening due to low sensitivity, an important consideration for an HIV-positive population with increased risk for disease progression.

  2. Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Three Approaches for Cervical Cancer Screening among HIV-Positive Women in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lince-Deroche

    Full Text Available South Africa has high rates of HIV and HPV and high incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. However, cervical cancer is largely preventable when early screening and treatment are available. We estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of conventional cytology (Pap, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and HPV DNA testing for detecting cases of CIN2+ among HIV-infected women currently taking antiretroviral treatment at a public HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.Method effectiveness was derived from a validation study completed at the clinic. Costs were estimated from the provider perspective using micro-costing between June 2013-April 2014. Capital costs were annualized using a discount rate of 3%. Two different service volume scenarios were considered. Threshold analysis was used to explore the potential for reducing the cost of HPV DNA testing.VIA was least costly in both scenarios. In the higher volume scenario, the average cost per procedure was US$ 3.67 for VIA, US$ 8.17 for Pap and US$ 54.34 for HPV DNA. Colposcopic biopsies cost on average US$ 67.71 per procedure. VIA was least sensitive but most cost-effective at US$ 17.05 per true CIN2+ case detected. The cost per case detected for Pap testing was US$ 130.63 using a conventional definition for positive results and US$ 187.52 using a more conservative definition. HPV DNA testing was US$ 320.09 per case detected. Colposcopic biopsy costs largely drove the total and per case costs. A 71% reduction in HPV DNA screening costs would make it competitive with the conservative Pap definition.Women need access to services which meet their needs and address the burden of cervical dysplasia and cancer in this region. Although most cost-effective, VIA may require more frequent screening due to low sensitivity, an important consideration for an HIV-positive population with increased risk for disease progression.

  3. From the third month of pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. Prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of depression. Results from the perinatal depression-research & screening unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, Susanna; Mauri, Mauro; Oppo, Annalisa; Borri, Chiara; Rambelli, Cristina; Ramacciotti, Daniele; Montagnani, Maria S; Camilleri, Valeria; Cortopassi, Sonia; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a particular challenge to clinicians, and its prevalence estimates are difficult to compare across studies. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there are no studies that systematically assessed the incidence of perinatal depression. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, minor and major depression (mMD) in an unselected population of women recruited at the third month of pregnancy and followed up until the 12th month postpartum. One thousand sixty-six pregnant women were recruited. Minor and major depression was assessed in a naturalistic, longitudinal study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders were administered at different time points during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The period prevalence of mMD was 12.4% in pregnancy and 9.6% in the postpartum period. The cumulative incidence of mMD in pregnancy and in the postpartum period was 2.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Thirty-two (7.3%) women had their first episode in the perinatal period: 1.6% had a new onset of depression during pregnancy, 5.7% in the postpartum period. Our postpartum prevalence figures, which are lower than those reported in the literature, may reflect treatment during the study, suggesting that casting a multiprofessional network around women in need of support may be potentially useful for reducing the effects of this disorder on the mother and the newborn child. Furthermore, our results indicate that women with a history of depression have a 2-fold risk of developing mMD in the perinatal period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detecting depression in the aged: is there concordance between screening tools and the perceptions of nursing home staff and residents? A pilot study in a rural aged care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Luke; Reid, Alexander; Wilson, Jessica; Levesque, Janelle; Driver, Brian

    2007-08-01

    Recognition of depression in the elderly is exacerbated in rural and remote regions by a lack of mental health specialists. In nursing homes, screening tools have been advocated to circumvent the variable reliability of both nursing staff and residents in recognising depression. Debate concerning the utility of screening tools abounds. Previous research has neglected concordance between screening tools, nursing staff and residents in recognising depression. The present study aimed to determine if there was a significant difference in the proportion of depressed residents identified by recognition sources, and assessed the level of chance corrected agreement between sources. One hundred and two residents of aged care facilities in Wagga Wagga, Australia, mean age of 85.19 +/- 7.09 years. Residents were interviewed within their residential aged care facility. Cross-sectional, between-subjects design. Residents, nursing staff, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-12R) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and nursing staff professional opinion were not significantly different; however, both measures were significantly different to the resident measures (GDS-12R and resident opinion). Kappa statistic analysis of outcome measures revealed, at best, no more than a moderate level of chance corrected agreement between said sources. It is tentatively argued that the different sources might correspond to qualitatively different 'depression' constructs, and that health professionals who are concerned with depression in the elderly be aware of the disparity between, and subsequently consider, a variety of recognition sources.

  5. Effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on patients with a positive fecal occult blood test result for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Chuan; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer and screening and the psychological impact of positive screening results. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2 groups using a pretest and posttest measures design. Patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 51) group. Subjects in the experimental group received a health education and telephone counseling program, while the control group received routine care only. Patients were assessed pretest before intervention (first visit to the outpatient) and posttest at 4 weeks after intervention (4 weeks after first visit to the outpatient). Patients in the experimental group had a significantly better level of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the psychological impact of a positive screening result than did the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the health education and telephone counseling program had a significant main effect on colorectal cancer knowledge. A health education and telephone counseling program can improve knowledge about colorectal cancer and about the psychological impact in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results. The health education and telephone counseling program is an easy, simple, and convenient method of improving knowledge, improving attitudes, and alleviating psychological distress in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results, and this program can be expanded to other types of cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Noise-driven diamagnetic susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of anisotropy, position-dependent effective mass and position-dependent dielectric screening function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of doped quantum dot is studied. • The dot is subjected to Gaussian white noise. • Role of anisotropy, PDEM and PDDSF have been analyzed. • Noise amplifies and suppresses DMS depending on particular condition. • Findings bear significant technological importance. - Abstract: We explore Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of this profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of geometrical anisotropy and dopant location. We have invoked position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) and position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF) of the system. Presence of noise sometimes suppresses and sometimes amplifies DMS from that of noise-free condition and the extent of suppression/amplification depends on mode of application of noise. It is important to mention that the said suppression/amplification exhibits subtle dependence on use of PDEM, PDDSF and geometrical anisotropy. The study reveals that DMS, or more fundamentally, the effective confinement of LDSS, can be tuned by appropriate mingling of geometrical anisotropy/effective mass/dielectric constant of the system with noise and also on the pathway of application of latter.

  7. Adaptive screening for depression--recalibration of an item bank for the assessment of depression in persons with mental and somatic diseases and evaluation in a simulated computer-adaptive test environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, Thomas; Kroehne, Ulf; Wirtz, Markus; Norra, Christine; Baumeister, Harald; Gauggel, Siegfried; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Tennant, Alan; Boecker, Maren

    2013-11-01

    This study conducted a simulation study for computer-adaptive testing based on the Aachen Depression Item Bank (ADIB), which was developed for the assessment of depression in persons with somatic diseases. Prior to computer-adaptive test simulation, the ADIB was newly calibrated. Recalibration was performed in a sample of 161 patients treated for a depressive syndrome, 103 patients from cardiology, and 103 patients from otorhinolaryngology (mean age 44.1, SD=14.0; 44.7% female) and was cross-validated in a sample of 117 patients undergoing rehabilitation for cardiac diseases (mean age 58.4, SD=10.5; 24.8% women). Unidimensionality of the itembank was checked and a Rasch analysis was performed that evaluated local dependency (LD), differential item functioning (DIF), item fit and reliability. CAT-simulation was conducted with the total sample and additional simulated data. Recalibration resulted in a strictly unidimensional item bank with 36 items, showing good Rasch model fit (item fit residualsLD. CAT simulation revealed that 13 items on average were necessary to estimate depression in the range of -2 and +2 logits when terminating at SE≤0.32 and 4 items if using SE≤0.50. Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis showed that θ estimates based on the CAT algorithm have good criterion validity with regard to depression diagnoses (Area Under the Curve≥.78 for all cut-off criteria). The recalibration of the ADIB succeeded and the simulation studies conducted suggest that it has good screening performance in the samples investigated and that it may reasonably add to the improvement of depression assessment. © 2013.

  8. Screening, prevalence, and risk factors for cervical lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative women in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Jolly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical Cancer (CC is the number one cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although CC is preventable, most women in developing countries do not have access to screening. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical lesions using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA among 112 HIV positive and 161 negative women aged 18–69 years. Results The presence of cervical lesions was greater among HIV positive (22.9% than HIV negative women (5.7%; p < 0.0001. In logistic models, the risk of cervical lesions among HIV positive women was 5.24 times higher when adjusted by age (OR 5.24, CI 2.31–11.88, and 4.06 times higher in a full model (OR 4.06, CI 1.61–10.25, than among HIV negative women. In the age-adjusted model women who had ≥2 lifetime sexual partners were 3 times more likely (OR 3.00, CI 1.02–8.85 to have cervical lesions compared to women with one lifetime partner and the odds of cervical lesions among women with a history of STIs were 2.16 greater (OR 2.16, CI 1.04–4.50 than among women with no previous STI. In the fully adjusted model women who had a previous cervical exam were 2.5 times more likely (OR 2.53, CI 1.06–6.05 to have cervical lesions than women who had not. Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV infection and the strong association between HIV and cervical lesions highlight the need for substantial scale-up of cervical screening to decrease the rate of CC in Swaziland.

  9. Screening for Depressive Disorder in Elderly Patients with Chronic Physical Diseases Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Hwa-Young; Lee, Dong-Woo; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yeo Ju; Choi, Jae Sung; Lee, Ho-Sung; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Jung, Sung Won; Shim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ki Won; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kwon, Young-Joon

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to identify depressive symptom profiles that indicated the presence of depressive disorder and present optimal cut-off sub-scores for depressive symptom profiles for detecting depressive disorder in elderly subjects with chronic physical diseases including diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, and coronary artery disease, using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Two hundred and thirty-one elderly patients with chronic physical diseases were recruited consecutively from a university-affiliated general hospital in South Korea. Greater severities of all 9 depressive symptoms in the PHQ-9 were presented in those with depressive disorder rather than those without depressive disorder. A binary logistic regression modeling presented that little interest [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.648, pdepressive disorder. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis presented that the optimal cut-off value of score on the items for little interest, reduced/increased sleep, psychomotor retardation/agitation and concentration problem (PHQ-9) for detecting depressive disorder was 4 with 61.9% of sensitivity and 91.5% of specificity [area under curve (AUC)=0.937, pdepressive disorder among the elderly patients with chronic physical diseases.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of opportunistic screening and minimal contact psychotherapy to prevent depression in primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van den Berg (Merlijn); F. Smit (Filip); T. Vos (Theo); P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Depression causes a large burden of disease worldwide. Effective prevention has the potential to reduce that burden considerably. This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of minimal contact psychotherapy, based on Lewinsohn's 'Coping with depression' course,

  11. False positive results using calcitonin as a screening method for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Loch Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of serum calcitonin as part of the evaluation of thyroid nodules has been widely discussed in literature. However there still is no consensus of measurement of calcitonin in the initial evaluation of a patient with thyroid nodule. Problems concerning cost-benefit, lab methods, false positive and low prevalence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC are factors that limit this approach. We have illustrated two cases where serum calcitonin was used in the evaluation of thyroid nodule and rates proved to be high. A stimulation test was performed, using calcium as secretagogue, and calcitonin hyper-stimulation was confirmed, but anatomopathologic examination did not evidence medullar neoplasia. Anatomopathologic diagnosis detected Hashimoto thyroiditis in one case and adenomatous goiter plus an occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the other one. Recommendation for routine use of serum calcitonin in the initial diagnostic evaluation of a thyroid nodule, followed by a confirming stimulation test if basal serum calcitonin is showed to be high, is the most currently recommended approach, but questions concerning cost-benefit and possibility of diagnosis error make the validity of this recommendation discussible.

  12. Positive and Negative Affect as Links Between Social Anxiety and Depression: Predicting Concurrent and Prospective Mood Symptoms in Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonah N; Taylor Dryman, M; Morrison, Amanda S; Gilbert, Kirsten E; Heimberg, Richard G; Gruber, June

    2017-11-01

    The co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression is associated with increased functional impairment and a more severe course of illness. Social anxiety disorder is unique among the anxiety disorders in sharing an affective profile with depression, characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA) and high levels of negative affect (NA). Yet it remains unclear how this shared affective profile contributes to the covariation of social anxiety and depressive symptoms. We examined whether self-reported PA and NA accounted for unique variance in the association between social anxiety and depressive symptoms across three groups (individuals with remitted bipolar disorder, type I [BD; n = 32], individuals with remitted major depressive disorder [MDD; n = 31], and nonpsychiatric controls [n = 30]) at baseline and follow-ups of 6 and 12 months. Low levels of PA, but not NA, accounted for unique variance in both concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the BD group; in contrast, high levels of NA, but not PA, accounted for unique variance in concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the MDD group. Limitations include that social anxiety and PA/NA were assessed concurrently and all measurement was self-report. Few individuals with MDD/BD met current diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder. There was some attrition at follow-up assessments. Results suggest that affective mechanisms may contribute to the high rates of co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression in both MDD and BD. Implications of the differential role of PA and NA in the relationship between social anxiety and depression in MDD and BD and considerations for treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A longitudinal examination of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth: The roles of attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal relationship of perceived peer or adult discrimination and depressive symptoms in a sample of African American and Latino high school students (n = 155). African American and Latino youth who experienced increases in perceived peer discrimination also reported greater depressive symptoms over time, but positive ethnic/racial affect buffered the longitudinal association. Emotional reactivity also served as a significant moderator but only of the baseline association between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Thus, perceived ethnic/racial discrimination appears to play a significant role in the development of depressive symptoms for ethnic minority youth, especially those who start high school with lower levels of positive ethnic/racial affect. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. HIV-related stigma and optimism as predictors of anxiety and depression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick J; Garrido-Hernansaiz, Helena; Mulcahy, Fiona; Hevey, David

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between forms of HIV-related optimism, HIV-related stigma, and anxiety and depression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. HIV health optimism (HHO) and HIV transmission optimism (HTO) were hypothesised to be protective factors for anxiety and depression, while the components of HIV-related stigma (enacted stigma, disclosure concerns, concern with public attitudes, and internalised stigma) were hypothesised to be risk factors. Data were collected from 278 HIV-positive MSM using an online questionnaire. The prevalence of psychological distress was high, with close to half (48.9%) of all participants reporting symptoms of anxiety, and more than half (57.9%) reporting symptoms of depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that both anxiety and depression were positively predicted by internalised stigma and enacted stigma, and negatively predicted by HHO. For both anxiety and depression, internalised stigma was the strongest and most significant predictor. The results highlight the continued psychological burden associated with HIV infection among MSM, even as community support services are being defunded across the United Kingdom and Ireland. The results point to the need for clinicians and policy makers to implement stigma reduction interventions among this population.

  15. Positive and negative affect, depression, and cognitive processes in the Cognition in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (Co-STAR) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C; Legault, Claudine; Bandos, Hanna; Kidwell, Kelley; Costantino, Joseph; Vaughan, Leslie; Avis, Nancy E; Rapp, Steve; Coker, Laura H; Naughton, Michelle; Naylor, Cecile; Terracciano, Antonio; Shumaker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between positive and negative affect, depressive symptoms, and cognitive performance. The sample consisted of 1479 non-demented, postmenopausal women (mean age = 67 years) at increased risk of breast cancer enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene. At each annual visit, women completed a standardized neuropsychological battery and self-report measures of affect and depression. Data from three visits were used in linear mixed models for repeated measures using likelihood ratio tests. Separate analyses were performed to relate positive/negative affect and depression to each cognitive measure. Higher positive affect was associated with better letter fluency (p = .006) and category fluency (p negative affect was associated with worse global cognitive function (p negatively associated with verbal knowledge (p = .004), figural memory (p positive affect and increased verbal fluency and between depressive symptoms and decreased memory. The most novel finding shows that negative affect is related to decreased global cognition and visuospatial ability. Overall, this research in a large, longitudinal sample supports the notion that positive affect is related to increases and negative affect to decreases in performance on distinct cognitive measures.

  16. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections.

  17. screening for cognitive impairment in late onset depression in a Brazilian sample using the BBRC-edu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria da Silva Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Depression and dementia are the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in the elderly population. Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia in most countries, being responsible for more than half of all dementia cases. Late-onset depression is a frequent cause of cognitive decline in the elderly. Differentiating between cognitive impairment secondary to depression and incipient dementia poses a challenge in the clinical setting. Objective: To evaluate the performance of elderly depressed patients using the BBRC-Edu. Methods: We studied 25 patients with late onset depression (mean age: 73.6 y (6.6; schooling: 9.1 y (5.7 and 30 patients with mild AD (mean age 76.6 y (5.4; schooling: 7.5 y (7.1, who were compared to a control group of 30 healthy elderly (mean age 73.8 y (5.8; schooling: 9.1 y (5.4 using the CERAD and BBRC-Edu batteries. Results: For the CERAD battery, depressed patients performed better than AD patients on all tasks (p0.05, and performed poorer than controls on verbal fluency (animals and Word List Recall tasks (p0.05, and performed worse than controls on Learning (second presentation and verbal fluency (fruits tasks (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Overall performance on the BBRC-Edu allowed differentiation of controls and depressed patients from AD patients.

  18. Do HIV-positive adult immigrants need to be screened for measles-mumps-rubella and varicella zoster virus immunization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenas-García, Jara; Rubio, Rafael; Hernando, Asunción; Arrazola, Pilar; Pulido, Federico

    2013-08-01

    A systematic screening for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in HIV-positive adult immigrants in Spain was evaluated, and factors associated with MMR and VZV vaccines' indication were studied. Every HIV-positive immigrant was tested for VZV and MMR-IgG. MMR vaccine was indicated to patients with lymphocytes CD4+ >200 cells/mm³ and a negative measles-IgG, a negative mumps-IgG and/or a negative rubella-IgG. VZV vaccine was indicated to every VZV-IgG negative patient with CD4+ >400 cells/mm³. In total, 289 patients were screened; seroprevalence was 95.2%, 92.2%, 70.3% and 89.3% for VZV, measles, mumps and rubella IgG, respectively. Having a negative VZV-IgG was statistically associated with coming from sub-Saharan Africa (prevalence ratio [PR]: 6.52; 95% CI: 1.71-24.84; p=0.006), while having secondary education was a protective factor (PR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.97; p=0.045). Fourteen patients (4.8%) had indication of VZV vaccine; vaccination was feasible in 21.4% of them at first visit. Eighty-one patients (29.7%) had indication of MMR vaccine, most of them due to mumps-IgG negative (53.1%) or rubella-IgG negative (24.7%). Age Especial attention should be given to immigrant women of childbearing age.

  19. Screening for At-Risk Drinking in a Population Reporting Symptoms of Depression: A Validation of the AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levola, Jonna; Aalto, Mauri

    2015-07-01

    Excessive alcohol use is common in patients presenting with symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and its most commonly used abbreviated versions perform in detecting at-risk drinking among subjects reporting symptoms of depression. A subsample (n = 390; 166 men, 224 women) of a general population survey, the National FINRISK 2007 Study, was used. Symptoms of depression were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form and alcohol consumption with the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB). At-risk drinking was defined as ≥280 g weekly or ≥60 g on at least 1 occasion in the previous 28 days for men, 140 and 40 g, respectively, for women. The AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT-3 were tested against the defined gold standard, that is, alcohol use calculated from the TLFB. An optimal cutoff was designated as having a sensitivity and specificity of over 0.75, with emphasis on specificity. The AUDIT and its abbreviations were compared with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase. At-risk drinking was common. The AUDIT and AUDIT-C performed quite consistently. Optimal cutoffs for men were ≥9 for the AUDIT and ≥6 for AUDIT-C. The optimal cut-offs for women with mild symptoms of depression were ≥5 for the AUDIT and ≥4 for AUDIT-C. Optimal cutoffs could not be determined for women with moderate symptoms of depression (specificity AUDIT. The AUDIT-3 failed to perform in women, but in men, a good level of sensitivity and specificity was reached at a cutoff of ≥2. With standard threshold values, the biochemical markers demonstrated very low sensitivity (9 to 28%), but excellent specificity (83 to 98%). Screening for at-risk drinking among patients presenting with symptoms of depression using the full AUDIT is recommended, although the AUDIT-C performed almost equally well. Cut-offs should be adjusted according to gender, but not according to the severity

  20. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  1. Depression and coronary heart disease: recommendations for screening, referral, and treatment: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Judith H; Bigger, J Thomas; Blumenthal, James A; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Kaufmann, Peter G; Lespérance, François; Mark, Daniel B; Sheps, David S; Taylor, C Barr; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan

    2008-10-21

    Depression is commonly present in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Screening tests for depressive symptoms should be applied to identify patients who may require further assessment and treatment. This multispecialty consensus document reviews the evidence linking depression with CHD and provides recommendations for healthcare providers for the assessment, referral, and treatment of depression.

  2. The effect of information about false negative and false positive rates on people's attitudes towards colorectal cancer screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anne; Rodrigues, Vania; Sevdalis, Nick

    2013-11-01

    To examine the impact of numeric risk information about false negative (FN) and false positive (FP) rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) on attitudes towards screening. 95 people aged 45-59, living in England, read 6 hypothetical vignettes presented online about the use of FOB testing to detect bowel cancer, in which information about FN and FP rates was systematically varied. Both verbal and numeric FN risk information reduced people's interest in screening compared with no FN information. Numeric FN risk information reduced people's perceptions of screening effectiveness and lowered perceived trust in the results of screening compared with both verbal FN information and no FN information. FP information did not affect attitudes towards FOB testing. There was limited evidence that FN information reduced interest and perceptions of screening effectiveness more in educated groups. Numeric FN risk information decreased people's perceptions of screening effectiveness and trust in the results of screening but did not affect people's interest in screening anymore than verbal FN risk information. Numeric FN information could be added to patient information without affecting interest in screening, although this needs to be replicated in a larger, more representative sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Positive and Negative Impact of Spiritual Religious Coping on Quality of Life and Depression in Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciano Magalhães; Soares, Renata de Castro E Santos; Santos, Ana Eliza Oliveira; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Cortez, Paulo José Oliveira; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that spiritual/religious beliefs are associated with mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, few studies evaluated how spiritual/religious coping (SRC) could affect hemodialysis patients. The present study investigated the role of SRC behaviors on HRQoL and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients. This was cross-sectional study with 184 patients. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Brief SRC Scale, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and a Sociodemographic and Health Characterization Questionnaire. From 218 patients, 184 (84.4%) were included (53.8% male with a median age of 55.9 years). Negative SRC, but not positive SRC, was associated with depressive symptoms. Positive SRC presented significant effects in SF-36 pain and physical and social functioning. On the other hand, negative SRC exhibited significant effects in SF-36 role emotional, energy/fatigue, pain, and physical functioning. SRC influences the mental health and HRQoL in Brazilian hemodialysis patients in two distinct ways. If used positively, it may have positive outcomes. However, if used negatively, it may lead to dysfunctional consequences such as greater depressive symptomatology and affect HRQoL. Health professionals must be aware of these "two sides of the same coin."

  4. Dietary B Vitamins and Depression in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    B vitamins have beneficial roles in mental health functional impairments; however, research on the role of B vitamins in depression among HIV-infected persons is limited. This study assessed the association between dietary B vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in a cohort of HIV-infected persons. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 314 HIV-infected persons (180 men and 134 women) aged 18 to 60 y residing in the Kathmandu, Nepal. The Beck Depression Inventory-I was used to measure depression, with a cutoff score of 20 or higher. Dietary intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The relationships between B vitamins and depressive symptoms were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Twenty-six percent participants (men: 23%; women: 29%) were depressed. More than two thirds of participants' B vitamins intake were below the estimated average requirements (EAR) level. Low intake of riboflavin was associated with an increased risk of depression in women but not in men. Multivariate OR (95% CI) for depression in the first, second, and third tertiles of riboflavin in total participants were 1 (reference), 0.87 (0.46-1.64), and 0.49 (0.24-0.98), respectively (p for trend=0.048) and in women were 1 (reference), 0.94 (0.36-2.40), and 0.23 (0.07-0.77), respectively (p for trend=0.020). No clear associations were seen between other B vitamins and depressive symptoms in either sex. Low intake of riboflavin was independently associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms in all participants and in HIV-infected women. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm the role of vitamin B vitamins in depressive symptoms among HIV-infected persons.

  5. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and suicidal behavior: evidence for a positive association in a sample of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Gabriel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    To explore the association between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and suicidal behavior. Subjects referred for a psychiatric consultation were evaluated with structured interviews for mood and personality disorders (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders), a history of suicidal behavior, and levels of coping. A total of 311 subjects were investigated using a 3-group design to test the association between OCPD and suicidal behavior, controlling for the presence of depression. Subjects with OCPD and a history of depression were compared to depressed subjects without any Axis II diagnosis and to subjects without depression or personality disorders. The study was conducted at Verdun Community Psychiatric Clinic, Douglas Hospital, McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and subjects were recruited from 2003 until 2005. Subjects in the comorbid OCPD-depression group presented increased current and lifetime suicide ideation compared to the groups with depression alone or without depression or personality disorders (P = .004); they also had increased history of suicide attempts (P = .04), which were often multiple attempts (P = .01). They also scored lower on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and the Death Anxiety Questionnaire. Interestingly, comorbid OCPD-depression patients differed from patients with depression alone on the Moral Objections items of the RFL, on which individuals with OCPD-depression scored lowest. Limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, retrospective sample, and limited generalizability to the population at large. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a factor increasing risk for nonfatal suicidal behavior independently of risk conferred by depressive disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Validation of Standardized Questionnaires Evaluating Symptoms of Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Approaches to Screening for a Frequent Yet Underrated Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englbrecht, Matthias; Alten, Rieke; Aringer, Martin; Baerwald, Christoph G; Burkhardt, Harald; Eby, Nancy; Fliedner, Gerhard; Gauger, Bettina; Henkemeier, Ulf; Hofmann, Michael W; Kleinert, Stefan; Kneitz, Christian; Krueger, Klaus; Pohl, Christoph; Roske, Anne-Eve; Schett, Georg; Schmalzing, Marc; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Peter Tony, Hans; Wendler, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    To validate standard self-report questionnaires for depression screening in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compare these measures to one another and to the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a standardized structured interview. In 9 clinical centers across Germany, depressive symptomatology was assessed in 262 adult RA patients at baseline (T0) and at 12 ± 2 weeks followup (T1) using the World Health Organization 5-Item Well-Being Index (WHO-5), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The construct validity of these depression questionnaires (using convergent and discriminant validity) was evaluated using Spearman's correlations at both time points. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaires was evaluated in RA patients who had not undergone a psychotherapeutic intervention or received antidepressants between T0 and T1. The sensitivity and the specificity of the questionnaires were calculated using the results of the MADRS, a structured interview, as the gold standard. According to Spearman's correlation coefficients, all questionnaires met convergent validity criteria (ρ > |0.50|), with the BDI-II performing best, while correlations with age and disease activity for all questionnaires met the criteria for discriminant validity (ρ questionnaire to meet the predefined retest reliability criterion (ρ ≥ 0.70) was the BDI-II (r s  = 0.77), which also achieved the best results for both sensitivity and specificity (>80%) when using the MADRS as the gold standard. The BDI-II best met the predefined criteria, and the PHQ-9 met most of the validity criteria, with lower sensitivity and specificity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Development and Validation of a Short Version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia for Screening Residents in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Zhicheng; Low, Lee-Fay; Chenoweth, Lynn; O'Connor, Daniel; Beattie, Elizabeth; Davison, Tanya E; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-11-01

    To develop and validate a short version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD-19) for routine detection of depression in nursing homes. Australian nursing homes. A series of cross-sectional studies were conducted involving: 1) descriptive analysis of pooled data from five nursing home studies that used the CSDD-19 (N = 671) to identify patterns of responses and missing data on individual CSDD items; 2) analysis of four of the five studies (N = 556) to assess CSDD-19 for unidimensionality, item fit, and differential item functioning using Rasch modeling to develop a shorter version, the CSDD-4; 3) validation of the CSDD-4 against the DSM-IV using the fifth study of 115 residents and through expert consultations; and 4) evaluation of the clinical utility of CSDD-4 using an independent cohort of 92 nursing home residents. Four items from the original CSDD-19 were found to be most suitable for depression screening: anxiety, sadness, lack of reactivity to pleasant events, and irritability. The CSDD-4 highly correlated with the original scale (N = 474, r = 0.831, p dementia. The CSDD-4 had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (z = 3.47, p depression in nursing homes. Its adoption is feasible and practical for nursing home staff, and may facilitate more comprehensive assessment and management of depression in nursing home residents. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Levels in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mustafa; Sarıkaya, Yasin; Acar, Mustafa; Kalenderoğlu, Aysun; Doğan, Sedat; Kaskalan, Emin; Karataş, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on depression, anxiety, and perceived stress levels and to identify factors predictive of treatment efficacy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study included 51 patients admitted to the Adiyaman University Medical School Otorhinolaryngology Department or Eskisehir Yunus Emre State Hospital between January and September 2014 with one or more complaints including snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, or apnea witnessed by the partner. Diagnosis of OSAS was made by polysomnography and CPAP treatment was initiated. Depression levels were assessed in all study subjects using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at the start of treatment and at 3 months. Anxiety levels were assessed using both the HADS and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and perceived stress level was assessed using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). After CPAP treatment, we observed significant decreases in both the Depression and Anxiety Subscales of the HADS, in the Trait Anxiety subscale of the STAI, and in the PSQ. An evaluation of the initial parameters that predict improvements in these scales revealed that snoring time predicted decreases in all scale scores. In OSAS patients CPAP treatment has positive effects on psychological parameters like depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. We suggest that possible psychogenic benefits should be considered when deciding to start CPAP treatment, particularly in patients with pronounced and extended snoring who may also have social problems.

  9. Screening for depression and anxiety : Correlates of non-response and cohort attrition in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Veen, Willem Jan; Van Der Meer, Klaas; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in the analysis of attrition of cohorts in Studies on mental health problems is that data on those who do not participate at the outset of a study are largely unavailable. It is not known how underlying psychopathology affects the first stages of screening where non-response and

  10. Screening of current post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with substance use disorder using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21): a reliable and convenient measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein A; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa M; De Jong, Cor A J

    2015-01-01

    Several instruments have been developed and validated as screens for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Unfortunately, many of these instruments have one or several disadvantages (e.g. low specificity, low sensitivity or high costs). No research has been conducted on instruments that screen simultaneously for other psychiatric disorders, which would be a potentially time-saving and cost-effective approach. In the current study we tested the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) as a screen for PTSD. The DASS was assessed in an inpatient facility during intake with 58 patients and again 4 weeks after admission. Another 138 patients were assessed 4 weeks after admission only. The results were compared to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) that was also administered after 4 weeks of abstinence. ROC curve analyses showed an area under the curve of 0.84 for the DASS at intake and 0.78 for the DASS after 4 weeks' abstinence. The DASS is therefore a reliable and convenient measure to use as a screen for PTSD in SUD patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Parental expectations, physical punishment, and violence among adolescents who score positive on a psychosocial screening test in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Ireland, Marjorie; McNeely, Clea; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2006-02-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between perceived and stated parental expectations regarding adolescents' use of violence, parental use of physical punishment as discipline, and young adolescents' violence-related attitudes and involvement. Surveys were completed by 134 youth and their parents attending 8 pediatric practices. All youth were 10 to 15 years of age and had scored positive on a psychosocial screening test. Multivariate analyses revealed that perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence was associated with a more prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence and a decreased likelihood of physical fighting by the youth. Parental report of whether they would advise their child to use violence in a conflict situation (stated parental expectations) was not associated with the adolescents' attitudes toward interpersonal peer violence, intentions to fight, physical fighting, bullying, or violence victimization. Parental use of corporal punishment as a disciplining method was inversely associated with a prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence among the youth and positively correlated with youths' intentions to fight and fighting, bullying, and violence victimization. Perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence may be an important protective factor against youth involvement in violence, and parental use of physical punishment is associated with both violence perpetration and victimization among youth. Parents should be encouraged to clearly communicate to their children how to resolve conflicts without resorting to violence and to model these skills themselves by avoiding the use of physical punishment.

  12. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Hassall, Oliver; Bates, Imelda; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Ullum, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    To describe the recalled medical history, clinical manifestations, and treatment of yaws and syphilis by syphilis seroreactive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Of the blood donors at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana tested with the syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and later by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, 526 were seroreactive. Four hundred and seventy-one (89.5%) of these subjects were confirmed with the Ortho-Vitros Syphilis TP test as the gold standard and were interviewed to determine past or present clinical manifestations of yaws and syphilis. Of the 471 respondent donors, 28 (5.9%) gave a history of skin lesions and sores; four (14.3%) of these subjects, who were all male and RPR-positive, recalled a diagnosis of syphilis. All four reported having had skin lesions/bumps with slow-healing sores, but only one of them had had these symptoms before the age of 15 years. A small proportion of confirmed seroreactive donors in this sample had any recall of symptoms or treatment for yaws or syphilis. These data suggest that clinical questioning adds little further information to the current screening algorithm. The relative contribution of yaws and syphilis to frequent positive tests in endemic areas remains speculative. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50–79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Proyer, Rene T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. Method: We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.