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Sample records for positive cotton effect

  1. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  2. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Khalifa, Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments and then large scale application of irradiated cotton seeds (C.V. Aleppo-40) were carried out during three seasons (1986, 1987 and 1988) for field experiment at ACSAD Station in Dier-Ezzor and 1988, 1989 and 1990 for large scale application at Euphrate's Basin, Al-Ghab and Salamia, farmers farms. The above areas were selected as they represent major cotton production areas in Syria. The aims of the experiments were to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy on cotton yield and to look for the optimum dose of gamma irradiation to obtain best results. The results show that, there were positive effect (P<0.95) for doses 5-30 Gy in increasing cotton yield. The highest increase was at dose of 10 Gy. which as 19.5% higher than control. For the large scale application using 10 Gy the increase in cotton yield varied from 10-39% compared to control. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  3. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  4. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  5. The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

  6. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  7. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  8. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  9. Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

    2004-02-01

    Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used.

  10. Effect of abiotic factors on the infestation of spotted bollworm in advance genotypes of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Subhani, M.N.; Murtaza, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were conducted on ten advance varieties of cotton Viz., BH-121, NIAB KRISHMA, DNA-137, VH-142, BH-125, MNH-635, SLH-627, FNH-245, CRIS-467 and CRIS-82 to see the effect of different weather conditions on the incidence and development of spotted bollworm infestation at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Temperature and relative humidity were correlated positively and rainfall affected negatively to the infestation of spotted bollworm on squares and green bolls in advance genotype of cotton. (author)

  11. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv Coker-312 callus culture was assessed in terms of its usefulness as a system for investigating the effect of nitrates from different chemical compounds of nitrogen on embryo induction percentage in calli as the plant growth and cell differentiation mainly based on nitrogen. Both sources and ...

  12. Effect of Iranian Bt cotton on life table of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Alyrodidae and Cry 1Ab detection in the whitefly honeydew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Azimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic cotton expressing the Cry 1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis developing against Helocoverpa armigera may be affect on secondary pest such as Bemisia tabaci. In this study effects of Bt cotton on demographic parameters of B. tabaci were assessed and the data analyzed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. Results showed that getting to the adulthood stage, was faster on non-Bt cotton in comparison with Bt cotton. Also the fecundity was higher on non-Bt cotton than that on Bt cotton. Some of the population parameters (r, R0 and T of B. tabaci were affected by the Bt cotton significantly. The intrinsic rate of increase (r on Bt and non-Bt cotton was 0.07 day-1 and 0.1 day-1 , respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0 was 20.68 and 15.04 offspring/individual on Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. Mean generation time (T in non-Bt cotton was 27.22 and 34.62 days in Bt cotton. The results indicated that the life history of B. tabaci in the laboratory condition was influenced by host plant quality and Bt cotton was not a suitable host for B. tabaci. The western immunoblot method showed that the Cry protein detection in honeydew was positive which indicated that the Cry protein was ingested. Results revealed that the transgenic cotton could adversely affect the secondary pest and the natural enemies which feed on such pests as a host or their honeydew as a food source should be considered.

  13. [Effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton on rhizosphere bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lianhua; Meng, Ying; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-04

    The effect of transgenic cotton on the rhizosphere bacteria can be important to the risk assessment for the genetically modified crops. We studied the rhizosphere microbial community with cultivating genetically modified cotton. The effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI Cotton (SGK321) and its receptor cotton (SY321) on rhizosphere total bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population size were studied by using droplet digital PCR. We collected rhizosphere soil before cotton planting and along with the cotton growth stage (squaring stage, flowering stage, belling stage and boll opening stage). There was no significant change on the total bacterial population between the transgenic cotton and the receptor cotton along with the growth stage. However, the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both type of cottons showed significant difference between different growth stages, and the variation tendency was different. In squaring stage, the numbers of AOB in rhizosphere of SY321 and SGK321 increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. In flowering stage, AOB number in rhizosphere of SY321 significantly decreased to be 5.96 x 10(5) copies/g dry soil, however, that of SGK321 increased to be 1.25 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil. In belling stage, AOB number of SY321 greatly increased to be 1.49 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil, but no significant change was observed for AOB number of SGK321. In boll opening stage, both AOB number of SY321 and SGK321 clearly decreased and they were significantly different from each other. Compared to the non-genetically modified cotton, the change in abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was slightly smooth in the transgenic cotton. Not only the cotton growth stage but also the cotton type caused this difference. The transgenic cotton can slow down the speed of ammonia transformation through impacting the number of AOB, which is advantageous for plant growth.

  14. Landscape crop composition effects on cotton yield, Lygus hesperus densities and pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Zaviezo, Tania; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2017-01-01

    Landscape crop composition surrounding agricultural fields is known to affect the density of crop pests, but quantifying these effects, as well as measuring how they translate to changes in yield, is difficult. Using a large dataset consisting of 1498 records of commercial cotton production in California between 1997 and 2008, we explored the relationship between landscape composition and cotton yield, the density of Lygus hesperus (a key cotton pest) at field-level and within-field spatial scales and pesticide use. We found that the crop composition immediately adjacent to a cotton field was associated with substantial differences in cotton yield, L. hesperus density and pesticide use. Furthermore, crops that tended to be associated with increased L. hesperus density also tended to be associated with increased pesticide use and decreased cotton yield. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which landscape composition can affect cotton yield: by increasing the density of pests which in turn damage cotton plants. Our quantification of how surrounding crops affect pest densities, and in turn yield, in cotton fields has significant impacts for cotton farmers, who can use this information to help optimize crop selection and ranch layout. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Lee, Soomin; Nishimura, Takayuki; Katsuura, Tetsuo; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2011-01-10

    Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL). The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level (<6 pg/mL), although the BA plots didn't show proportional and relative biases, there was no significant correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection samples. Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  16. Effect of chitosan on resist printing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of chitosan, types of resist agent, curing temperature and curing time were varied to determine their effects on resist-printed cotton fabrics. An optimal chitosan concentration of 1.6% resulted in the greatest resist effect on printed cotton fabrics. For mixtures, a 6:4 ratio of citric acid : chitosan and an 8:2 ...

  17. Eucalyptus oil-loaded microcapsules grafted to cotton fabrics for acaricidal effect against Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Ran

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop acaricidal cotton fabrics grafted with eucalyptus oil-loaded microcapsules (EOMCs) produced from green resources. EOMCs showed a broad size distribution between 0.5 and 6.5 μm, and had the average diameter 1.8 μm. EOMCs exhibited nonporous spherical shapes and individually remained on cotton fibres. Through AATCC mortality tests against house dust mites (HDMs) (Dermatophagoides farinae), the treated cotton fabric containing EOMCs resulted in 98.7% mortality. Acaricidal efficiency was due to the large amount of oxygenated monoterpene, 1,8-eucalyptol (75.8%) and hydroxylated monoterpenes such as α-terpineol (3.6%), terpinen-4-ol (0.4%) and linalool (0.3%) found in eucalyptus oil. These compounds are effective in enhancing penetration into HDMs. EOMCs produced from safe and natural sources can serve as a replacement for synthetic acaricides in controlling the population of HDM, leading to positive impacts on the human health and environment.

  18. Effects of the mutation of selected genes of cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus on infectivity, symptoms and the maintenance of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Z.; Sattar, M.N.; Kvarnheden, A.; Mansoor, S.; Briddon, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) is a cotton-infecting monopartite begomovirus (family Geminiviridae). The effects of mutation of the coat protein (CP), V2, C2 and C4 genes of CLCuKoV on infectivity and symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana were investigated. Each mutation introduced a premature

  19. A novel chitosan 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole hybrid: Preparation and its effects on cotton fabric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Aboelnaga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid of chitosan and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole was prepared using the semi-wet method, which allows for the adsorption of the triazole molecules on the chitosan surface. Moreover, an easy method for applying this hybrid to cotton fabric was established. The tensional strength, uniformity and compatibility of the hybrid components in forming of a strong film were studied using different variables, including the chitosan 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole ratio, fixation temperature and time. The loading of the hybrid onto the fabric in the absence and presence of cross linker (butane tetra carboxylic acid was also studied. The best conditions for preparing the hybrid was a 1:4 molar ratio of chitosan to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole at 60 °C for 240 min, and those for the application of the hybrid to cotton fabric were a 1:1 molar ratio at 150 °C with a 5 min curing time. Both hybrid and treated cotton fabrics were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA, and DSC as well as the nitrogen content and tensional strength of the treated cotton. Finally, the antibacterial activities of the treated cotton fabric display 100% activity and excellent effects against gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli.

  20. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuura Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO. In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Methods Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection. The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. Results The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL. The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level ( Conclusion Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  1. EFFECTS OF AN EXPORT SUBSIDY ON THE U.S. COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Patricia A.; Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an export subsidy for cotton are analyzed using a linear elasticity model. The study explicitly addresses the interaction of current domestic policies with the proposed export subsidy. An export subsidy may be a successful method of reducing the government costs of the cotton program.

  2. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swab on cortisol enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Kaji, Yumi; Yasukouchi, Akira; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    Cotton swabs are among the most commonly used devices for collecting saliva, but various studies have reported that their use impacts the results of salivary cortisol assays. These studies, however, estimated this impact by comparing the average of the concentration and/or scatter plots. In the present study, we estimated the impact of cotton swabs on the results of salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) by Bland-Altman plot. Eight healthy males (aged 20-23 years) provided four saliva samples on different days to yield a total of 32 samples. Saliva samples were collected directly in plastic tubes using plastic straws and then pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). There was a lower correlation between cotton and passive saliva collection. Individually, four subjects showed a negative correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection. A Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes a proportional bias on the EIA assay result. Our findings indicate a considerable effect of using cotton swabs for saliva collection, and subject-specific variability in the impact. A Bland-Altman plot further suggests possible reasons for this effect.

  3. Effects of Different Densities of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum and Common Lambsquarter (Chenopodium Album on Some Cotton Growth Characteristics in Birjand Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velayati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weeds are problematic plants in agroecosystems as a competitor for crops. In order to evaluate effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album densities on some crop growth indices, a study was conducted during 2006 in Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand as factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Three densities of cotton (6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 and four weed densities (0, 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 were used to provide different weed interference levels. Indeed, three plots in each replication were intended to cultivation of lambsquarter alone at 6, 9 or 12 Pl.m-2. Results showed that crop growth rate (CGR of cotton was influenced by weed density, and its relative growth rate (RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR indicated a declining trend as weed density increased. Dry matter accumulation of cotton also was affected negatively by weed densities, as interference of lambsquarter at 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 resulted to 35, 42 and 48 percent dry matter reduction, respectively, than weed-free treatment. Increasing of cotton density could partly compensate for negative impact of weed attendance on cotton growth. Thus, it seems higher plant densities can be used as a managing tool against weeds in cotton fields to avoid reduction of yield. Keywords: Cotton, Density, Weed, competition, Growth analysis

  4. Analytic expressions for polarimetry in plasma with large Cotton endash Mouton or Faraday effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic expressions for plasma polarimetry are derived for the case when either the Cotton endash Mouton effect or the Faraday effect is large while the other effect is small. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    cotton species (Zhang, 1994b). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration systems have been established from cotton tissue, protoplasts and ovules (Zhang and Li,. 1992; Feng and Zhang, 1994; Zhang, 1995). Regeneration procedures have been used to obtain genetically modified plants after Agrobacterium- ...

  6. The multi-year effects of repeatedly growing cotton with moderate resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerait, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine Land DP458 B/R (susceptible standard, 0% suppression). Cotton was grown in fumigated and non-fumigated plots to measure yield loss. Each genotype and nematicide combination was planted in the same place for three years at two sites to document cumulative effects. In 2006, following three years of the different genotypes, all plots at one site were planted with susceptible cotton to document residual effects of planting resistant genotypes. Root galling and nematode population densities in the soil were significantly lower, and percentage yield suppression was numerically lower, when moderately resistant cotton was grown compared to the susceptible standard in both fields in all three years. Differences between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes are established quickly (after only one season) and then either maintained at similar levels or slightly increased in subsequent years depending on initial nematode levels. However, when susceptible cotton was grown following three years of the moderately resistant genotypes, the nematode suppression provided by moderate resistance was undetectable by the end of the first season. Moderately resistant cotton genotypes are more beneficial than previously reported and should be pursued for nematode management. Rotation of moderately resistant and susceptible cotton could be used along with nematicides to manage root-knot nematodes in a continuous cotton cropping system and reduce selection pressure on the nematodes. PMID:22661787

  7. Plasma polarimetry for large Cotton--Mouton and Faraday effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    A formalism is presented for treating plasma polarimetry when both the Cotton--Mouton and the Faraday effects are large. For this general case it is shown that, for each measuring chord, up to nine parameters related to the plasma can be determined, instead of the usual single Faraday rotation. These parameters can be measured by a convenient modulation of the polarization state of the input radiation, and they can be used in the reconstruction of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. Thus, the potential of the polarimetric diagnostic can be significantly increased, and the range of plasma conditions where the latter can be used, is extended. The importance of refraction is discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. [Effects of drought and waterlogging on carbohydrate contents of cotton boll and its relationship with boll biomass accumulation at the flowering and bolling stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qin; Liu, Jing-Ran; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Liu, Rui-Xian; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cultivar NuCOTN 33B was planted in isolated pools treated with drought or waterlogging for 7 or 14 d to explore their effects on cotton boll carbohydrate content and its relationship with the biomass accumulation. The results showed that the drought treatment reduced the carbohydrate content of cotton boll shell on middle fruit branches, but had a weak effect on cotton boll shells on lower fruit branches. Soluble sugar, starch and sucrose contents of cotton boll shell on upper fruit branches under the drought condition and on whole plant branches under waterlogging treatment changed similarly, namely, the soluble sugar and starch content increased, while the sucrose content went down firstly and then increased later, which indicated that the exportation of sucrose from boll shell was inhibited and became worse with the increase of waterlogging duration. Compared with the boll shell, the carbohydrate contents of cotton seed were less affected by the drought and waterlogging treatments at the flowering and bolling stage. Under the treatments of drought and 7 d-waterlogging, the biomass accumulation of cotton bolls on the middle fruit branches initiated earlier but lasted less days, and the maximum speed at lower and upper fruit branches reduced, while the treatment of waterlogging for 14 d caused the decline of maximum speed of biomass accumulation of bolls on whole branches. On the other side, the correlation analysis showed the significant positive relationships among the boll biomass, the maximum speed and the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose in the boll shell respectively. In conclusion, the treatment of drought and waterlogging at the flowering and bolling stage retarded the outward transportation of sucrose from cotton bolls, changed the boll biomass accumulation characteristics, and therefore were detected as the important cause of cotton boll total biomass reduction.

  9. Azotobacter chroococcum as a potentially useful bacterial biofertilizer for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): Effect in reducing N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perdomo, Felipe; Abril, Jorge; Camelo, Mauricio; Moreno-Galván, Andrés; Pastrana, Iván; Rojas-Tapias, Daniel; Bonilla, Ruth

    The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the application of two plant growth-promoting (rhizo)bacteria might reduce nitrogen fertilization doses in cotton. We used strains Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10 for their proven ability to promote seed germination and cotton growth. These microorganisms were characterized by their plant growth-promoting activities. Then, we conducted a glasshouse study to evaluate the plant growth promoting ability of these strains with reduced doses of urea fertilization in cotton. Results revealed that both strains are capable of fixing nitrogen, solubilizing phosphorus, synthesizing indole compounds and producing hydrolytic enzymes. After 12 weeks, the glasshouse experiment showed that cotton growth was positively influenced due to bacterial inoculation with respect to chemical fertilization. Notably, we observed that microbial inoculation further influenced plant biomass (p<0.05) than nitrogen content. Co-inoculation, interestingly, exhibited a greater beneficial effect on plant growth parameters compared to single inoculation. Moreover, similar results without significant statistical differences were observed among bacterial co-inoculation plus 50% urea and 100% fertilization. These findings suggest that co-inoculation of A. chroococcum strains allow to reduce nitrogen fertilization doses up to 50% on cotton growth. Our results showed that inoculation with AC1 and AC10 represents a viable alternative to improve cotton growth while decreasing the N fertilizer dose and allows to alleviate the environmental deterioration related to N pollution. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and multi-combination of bioinoculants on regenerated seedlings of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindi, P.K.; Sultana, T.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and multi-combination of bioinoculants on regenerated seedlings of cotton Cotton, referred as 'The white gold' is an important commercial crop in India and stands third in the world by means of area of cultivation. Cotton plant regeneration from callus by somatic embryogenesis and its efficiency has been improved significantly in recent times. Our primary investigation was on regenerative studies and multiple shoot induction system focusing mainly on meristematic tissues like seedling cotyledonary nodal explants in RAH-9750 cotton cultivar. An attempt has been made to improve the rate of surveillance and growth of regenerated cotton seedlings by bio-inoculant (mainly AMF) treatment under greenhouse conditions. Out of a total seven pure cultures of AMF fungi, R1-R2 have shown maximum mycorrhizal colonization with RAH-9750 (R) and was identified as Glomus mosseae. This variety was also tested with three different bioinoculants i.e., Rhizobium sp. RHPU-7, Azospirillum sp. PPK-27, Bacillus sp. PU-1, apart from AMF R1-R2 in different combinations. The cotton seedlings have shown the best results in single, dual, triple and multiple combinations i.e R+R1-R2, R+R1-R2+Rhizobium, R+R1-R2+Rhizobium+Azospirillum and R+R1-R2+Rhizobium+Azospirillum+Bacillus respectively. The growth of cotton plants (RAH-9750) generated from meristematic tissue culture was found to be increasing significantly when compared with the normal seeds. Similar results were noticed when the same experiment was subjected to the different soil types of Mahabubnagar district. The investigation clearly infers that better yield of cotton RAH-9750 (R) could be achieved by treating the regenerated cotton seedlings with bioinoculants in different combination in various soil types of Mahabubnagar district. (author)

  11. The Effect of Rate and Application Method of Potassium on Yield and Yield Components of Cotton in Saline Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ardakani

    2016-12-01

    cotton yield, biological yield and lint percentage. In both K rate, split application of K at planting, vegetative stage, flowering and early boll development (equally at each stage had the highest seed cotton yield. Potassium application at flowering or early boll development had more positive effect on seed cotton yield than planting or vegetative stage. Conclusions The best seed cotton yield could be achieved with a combination of high dose of K fertilizer and split application of K at planting, vegetative stage, flowering and early boll development (equally at each stage. Increased K rate increased seed cotton yield because of improved boll weight and boll number in saline condition. Boll weight had more correlated with seed cotton yield than boll number. The K application as 25% at planting+25% at vegetative stage (5-8 leaves stage, 25% at first flowering and 25% at early boll development (25P+25V+25F+25B gave higher cotton yields than other split applications in saline conditions.

  12. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. DETERMINATION THE EFFECT OF DEFOLIATION TIMING ON COTTON YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karademir Emine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for determining the effect of different application times at 40, 50, 60 and 70 % boll opening and untreated plot of the defoliant on cotton yield, earliness and technological properties in Southeast Anatolia Region conditions in Turkey. Maras 92 cotton variety was used as plant material in the experiment field of the Southeast Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute during 2000-2001. Defoliant was including thidiazuron + diuron chemical substance. The result of this study showed that ginning percentage, 100 seed weight, seed germination percentage, fiber fineness, fiber length, fiber strength, reflectance, elongation and seed cotton yield were not affected by the treatment; plant height and first picking percentage in 2001, fiber uniformity in 2000 were 5 % significantly affected. This study showed that application of defoliant didn’t affect significantly yield and technological properties of cotton and after 40 % boll opening the defoliant can be used.

  14. Effects of the irradiation in seeds of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ana Leticia; Arthur, Paula Bergamin; Arthur, Valter; Franco, Camilo Flamorion de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The experiment aimed to verify if seeds of cotton of variety FiberMax FM 993, irradiated with the doses of 0 (test); 25; 50; 75; 100 Gy can induce the production increase in cotton culture. For all treatments with irradiation, was used a source of cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. After the irradiation, the seeds were planted in the experimental field of the Department of Plant Production ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba-SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and 60 g of seed were used for each repetition, the rows were 5m and the spacing of 0.90m, using randomized blocks and rows of edging. After planting the final height and productivity were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in the Tukey test at 5% level of probability. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the dose of 50Gy was the one that induced a greater production of cotton. (author)

  15. Effects of the irradiation in seeds of cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ana Leticia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula Bergamin; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Franco, Camilo Flamorion de Oliveira [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The experiment aimed to verify if seeds of cotton of variety FiberMax FM 993, irradiated with the doses of 0 (test); 25; 50; 75; 100 Gy can induce the production increase in cotton culture. For all treatments with irradiation, was used a source of cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. After the irradiation, the seeds were planted in the experimental field of the Department of Plant Production ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba-SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and 60 g of seed were used for each repetition, the rows were 5m and the spacing of 0.90m, using randomized blocks and rows of edging. After planting the final height and productivity were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in the Tukey test at 5% level of probability. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the dose of 50Gy was the one that induced a greater production of cotton. (author)

  16. Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is increasingly planted throughout China. However, negative effects of this cultivar on the honey bee Apis mellifera L., the most important pollinator for cultivated ecosystem, remained poorly investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential side effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen from cotton on young adult honey bees A. mellifera L. Two points emphasized the significance of our study: (1) A higher expression level of insecticidal protein Cry1Ac in pollen tissues was detected (when compared with previous reports). In particular, Cry1Ac protein was detected at 300 ± 4.52 ng g(-1) [part per billion (ppb)] in pollen collected in July, (2) Effects on chronic mortality and feeding behaviour in honey bees were evaluated using a no-choice dietary feeding protocol with treated pollen, which guarantee the highest exposure level to bees potentially occurring in natural conditions (worst case scenario). Tests were also conducted using imidacloprid-treated pollen at a concentration of 48 ppb as positive control for sublethal effect on feeding behaviour. Our results suggested that Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen carried no lethal risk for honey bees. However, during a 7-day oral exposure to the various treatments (transgenic, imidacloprid-treated and control), honey bee feeding behaviour was disturbed and bees consumed significantly less CCRI41 cotton pollen than in the control group in which bees were exposed to conventional cotton pollen. It may indicate an antifeedant effect of CCRI41 pollen on honey bees and thus bees may be at risk because of large areas are planted with transgenic Bt cotton in China. This is the first report suggesting a potential sublethal effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of risk assessment for bees as well as for directions of future work involving risk assessment of CCRI41 cotton.

  17. ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES FOR NON-PRICE EXPORT PROMOTION: THE CASE OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2002-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate linked subsidies for non-price export promotion for US cotton. Study results show that an increase in promotion expenditure increased the dollar value and producer welfare of cotton growers. The gross gain to the domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked subsidy scheme was positive. These evidences support exchange rate linked subsidies for US cotton export promotion.

  18. Effect of cotton leaf-curl virus on the yield-components and fibre properties of cotton genotypes under varying plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Hayat, K.; Ashraf, F.; Sadiq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton leaf-curl virus (CLCu VB. Wala strain) is one of the major biotic constraints of cotton production in Punjab. Development of resistant cotton genotype is the most feasible, economical and effective method to combat this hazardous problem, but so far no resistant genotype has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare yield and yield-components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer as a management strategy to cope with this viral disease. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH- 6070, CIM- 496, and BH-160), three plant-spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer-levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags Urea / ha) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exist for plant height, no. of bolls/m/sup -2/, seed-cotton yield (kg/ha) due to genotype, interaction of genotype with plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer level. Whereas boll weight, ginning out-turn, staple length and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer, the effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV infestation varied significantly with genotypes, while all other factors, i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, have non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is production of lint for the country and seed- cotton yield for the farmers, it is noted that genotypes grown in narrow plant-spacing (15 cm) and higher nitrogen fertilizer level (11.0 bags of urea/ha) produced maximum seed-cotton yield under higher CLCu V infestation in case of CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-I60, while the new strain MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30cm plant-spacing and 8.6 bags of urea/ha has the 2.3% CLCu V infestation was observed in this variety. From the present study, it is concluded that

  19. Interaction between Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton effects in polarimetry modeling for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A.; Carter, T. A.; Kubota, S.; Peebles, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of electromagnetic wave polarization is modeled for propagation in the major radial direction in the National Spherical Torus Experiment with retroreflection from the center stack of the vacuum vessel. This modeling illustrates that the Cotton-Mouton effect-elliptization due to the magnetic field perpendicular to the propagation direction-is shown to be strongly weighted to the high-field region of the plasma. An interaction between the Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton effects is also clearly identified. Elliptization occurs when the wave polarization direction is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the local transverse magnetic field. Since Faraday rotation modifies the polarization direction during propagation, it must also affect the resultant elliptization. The Cotton-Mouton effect also intrinsically results in rotation of the polarization direction, but this effect is less significant in the plasma conditions modeled. The interaction increases at longer wavelength and complicates interpretation of polarimetry measurements.

  20. Parametric Study of Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment on the Wettability of Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In textiles processing, wettability of fabric plays a very important role in enhancing processes such as dyeing and printing. Although well-prepared cotton fabric has very good wettability, further enhancement of its wettability can effectively improve the subsequent dyeing and printing processes. Plasma treatment, especially atmospheric pressure plasma treatment (APPT, a continuous process, is now drawing attention of the industry. In this study, we investigated the effect of APPT under four operational parameters: (1 discharge power; (2 flow rate of oxygen; (3 jet travelling speed; and (4 jet-to-substrate distance on wettability (in terms of wickability and wetting area of cotton fabric. Experimental results revealed that the four parameters interact with each other in affecting the wettability of the cotton fabric. The results are discussed comprehensively.

  1. Antibacterial effect of novel synthesized sulfated β-cyclodextrin crosslinked cotton fabric and its improved antibacterial activities with ZnO, TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S; Rajiv Gandhi, R; Suresh, J; Gowri, S; Ravikumar, S; Sundrarajan, M

    2012-09-15

    Sulfated β-cyclodextrin was synthesized from sulfonation of β-cyclodextrin and sulfated polymer was crosslinked with cotton fabric using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as crosslinker. ZnO, TiO(2) and Ag nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by XRD, UV, DLS, SEM and PSA. The prepared nanoparticles were coated on crosslinked cotton fabric. The crosslinking and nanoparticles coating effects of cotton fabrics were studied by FTIR and SEM analysis. The antibacterial test was done against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli bacterium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature effects on early season cotton growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; Reddy, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental factor controlling growth and developmental rates of plants, yet little specific information is available regarding cotton (Gossypium hisutum L.) responses to temperature. Information covering a wide range of temperatures would be useful for predicting both developmental and growth rates in cotton. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in naturally lit, temperature- and CO 2 -controlled cabinets from soon after emergence until 56 d after emergence (DAE). The cabinets were maintained at 20/12, 25/17, 30/22, 35/27, and 40/32C day/night cycles. Plant heights, number of nodes, and leaf areas were determined weekly throughout the experiment, and dry weight measurements were obtained at three intervals. Mainstem elongation, leaf area growth, and biomass accumulation rates were very sensitive to temperature about 3 wk after emergence. Prior to that time, they were relatively insensitive to temperature. The temperature optimum for stem elongation, leaf area expansion, and biomass accumulation was 30/22 C. Developmental rates, as depicted by number of mainstem nodes produced, number of fruiting branches, and fruiting branch nodes, were not as sensitive to temperatures above 30/22 C as were growth rates. Four times as many fruiting branches were produced at 30/22 C as at 20/12 C; whereas more vegetative branches were produced at low temperatures. All flower buds abscised from plants grown at 40/32 C. Essentially, all bolls and squares were retained at 30/22 C while a 10% boll and square loss was observed at 35/27 C during the early reproductive period. Less time was required for this cultivar to produce squares at any temperature, suitable for growing cotton, than was suggested by previous experiments

  3. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T., E-mail: aruna_reddy@nal.res.in; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-07-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  4. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  5. Effect of water pressure on absorbency of hydroentangled greige cotton nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A studied has been conducted to determine the effect of water pressure in a commercial-grade Fleissner MiniJet hydroentanglement system on the absorbency of greige (non-bleached) cotton lint-based nonwoven fabric. The study has shown that a water pressure of 125 Bar or higher on only two high-pressu...

  6. Effect of pre-heating on the thermal decomposition kinetics of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pre-heating at low temperatures (160-280°C) on the thermal decomposition kinetics of scoured cotton fabrics was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis under nonisothermal conditions. Isoconversional methods were used to calculate the activation energies for the pyrolysis after one-...

  7. Effect of Polylactic Acid-Degradable Film Mulch on Soil Temperature and Cotton Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concern on biodegradable plastic film is increasing because of pollution problems caused by the plastic films currently used. The objective of this field experiment is to evaluate the effect of two thicknesses of polyactic acid-degradable film on soil temperature and cotton yield. The results showed that small holes appeared in the polyactic acid-degradable film at 17~22 d after it was installed. Burst period appeared about 60 d after installation. Splits were observed in the polyactic acid-degradable film at 130 d after installation. Soil temperatures rose slowly under polyactic acid-degradable film during the cotton seedling stage. Daytime soil temperatures were 0.8℃ and 6.2℃ lower under 18μm and 15μm thick polyactic acid-degradable film than non-degradable plastic film(CK, respectively. Nighttime soil temperatures under the polyactic acid-degradable film were about 1℃ warmer than CK. There was no significant difference in cotton yields between the 18μm polyactic acid degradable film treatment and CK. In contrast, yields in the 15μm degradable plastic film treatment were 8.9% less than that in CK. This study indicated that 18μm polyactic acid degradable plastic film had good degradability and no negative effect on cotton growth. The 18μm polyactic acid degradable plastic film can replace ordinary plastic film in agricultural production.

  8. Effects of soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor on the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Octávio L; Dias, Simoni C; Magalhães, Claudio P; Monteiro, Ana C S; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2004-01-01

    The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is an economically important pest of cotton in tropical and subtropical areas of several countries in the Americas, causing severe losses due to their damage in cotton floral buds. Enzymatic assays using gut extracts from larval and adult boll weevil have demonstrated the presence of digestive serine proteinase-like activities. Furthermore, in vitro assays showed that soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) was able to inhibit these enzymes. Previously, in vivo effects of black-eyed pea trypsin chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) have been demonstrated towards the boll weevil pest. Here, when neonate larvae were reared on an artificial diet containing SKTI at three different concentrations, a reduction of larval weight of up to 64% was observed for highest SKTI concentration 500 microM. The presence of SKTI caused an increase in mortality and severe deformities of larvae, pupae and adult insects. This work therefore represents the first observation of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor active in vivo and in vitro against A. grandis. Bioassays suggested that SKTI could be used as a tool in engineering crop plants, which might exhibit increased resistance against cotton boll weevil.

  9. Derivation of the pure Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects when polarimetric effects in a tokamak are large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S E; Zanza, V

    2006-01-01

    When polarimetric effects are large the Cotton-Mouton and Faraday effects do not combine linearly and it is not possible to separate exactly the pure Cotton-Mouton effect W 1 and the pure Faraday effect, W 3 . Four alternative approximate expressions for W 1 and W 3 in terms of measurable quantities are examined for tokamak configurations. Two of these approximations proposed recently are found to be preferable, some previous statements concerning them are corrected and the errors incurred by their use are evaluated

  10. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera a littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor ((Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  11. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  12. T-Stimulator effect on cotton protein composition and synthesis in salinization stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.A.; Nazirova, E.R.; Samarkhodjaeva, N.R.; Nalbandyan, A.A.; Babaev, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: T-stimulator was established to possess a wide spectrum of physiological effects, to enhance plant adaptation to thermal stress and to increase plant resistance to pathogens. Plant adaptation to unfavorable conditions manifests in changes in many links of metabolism, that of proteins included. We studied effect of cottonseed treatment with T-stimulator on composition and synthesis of plasma membrane proteins upon chloride salinization by means of the radioisotope method. Electrophoretic fractionation of cottonseed plasma membrane proteins showed absence of more than 40 polypeptides with molecular mass from 10 to more than 100 kDa in the cotton root membranes. Major fractions-polypeptides with molecular mass of 61, 53, 46, 25, 21, 20 and 18 kDa constitute about 50% of the total polypeptide composition. The salinization significantly affects the total membrane protein output, proportion of some polypeptides and their synthesis rate. Analysis of phoreogram radioautographs showed that 2-hour exposition of cotton roots to 35 S methionine suppresses synthesis of major polypeptides with molecular mass of 63, 61 and 53 kDa, that of low molecular polypeptides (46, 20, 18 kDa) increasing. Changes in the proportion of major polypeptides in cotton plasma membranes, reduction in rate of biosynthesis of high molecular fractions with the general suppression of label inclusion in the membrane fraction are the evidence for a disturbance in biosynthesis of some membrane proteins in cotton tissue cells upon salinization. The inhibiting effect of salinization on the protein-synthesizing system was observed in plants treated with T-stimulator, but the rate of synthesis in plasma membranes of the treated plants was found significantly higher. The activation of some plasma membrane proteins under T-stimulator effect suggests an association with the increase in adaptation of the treated plants to the disturbing effect of salinization

  13. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  14. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the phosphorus availability and yield of cotton (gossypium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Iqbal, A.; Qureshi, M.A.; Khan, K.H

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and plants have symbiotic relationship, as bacteria provide soluble phosphate for the plants and plants supply root borne carbon compounds which can be metabolized for bacterial growth. PSB solubilize the applied and fixed soil phosphorus resulting in higher crop yield. Intensive cropping has resulted in wide spread deficiency of Phosphorus in our soils and situation is becoming more serious because of a drastic increase in the cost of phosphatic fertilizers. Keeping in view the capabilities of microbes (Bacillus sp.), a field experiment was conducted on cotton at farmer field district Faisalabad in 2008. Effect of PSM (Bacillus spp.) was studied at three phosphorus levels i.e.20, 40 and 60 kg ha-l while N was applied at recommended dose (120 kg ha/sup -1/). Bacillus spp. was applied as seed coating to the cotton crop (Var. BT 121). Recommended plant protection measures were adopted. Results revealed that Bacillus spp. significantly increased the seed cotton yield; number of boll plant-I, boll weight, plant height, GOT (%), staple length, plant P and available P in the soil. Maximum seed cotton yield 4250 kg ha/sup -l/ was obtained with Bacillus inoculation along with 60 kg of P followed by 4162 kg ha/sup -1/ with Bacillus inoculation and 40 kg of P compared with their respective controls i.e.4093 and 3962 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. Soil P was improved from 8.1 to 9.5 ppm by Bacillus inoculation. Phosphorus in plant matter was also higher (0.39%) as compare with control (0.36%). Rhizosphere soil pH was found slightly decreased (8.12 to 8.0) by Bacillus inoculation compare with control. It is concluded that PSB inoculation not only exerts beneficial effect on crop growth but also enhances the phosphorus concentration in the plant and soil. (author)

  15. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR. Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5% produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9% was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%. The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis. The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase.

  16. Effect of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zare Feizabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., a Randomized Complete Block design with 12 treatments and four replications was conducted in Mahvelat of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of weeding, harrowing, burning, two times weeding, weeding + harrowing, weeding + burning, harrowing + harrowing, harrowing + weeding, harrowing + burning, weeding+ harrowing+ burning, weed free and weedy as a check treatment. Investigated traits were plant height, number of boll in plant, 20 boll weight, 20 boll cotton lint weight, cotton lint yield per plant, cotton yield, number and biomass of weeds, outcome, net and gross income. The result showed that treatments had significant effect (p

  17. Effects of Soil Water Deficit on Insecticidal Protein Expression in Boll Shells of Transgenic Bt Cotton and the Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil water deficit on insecticidal protein expression in boll shells of cotton transgenic for a Bt gene. In 2014, Bt cotton cultivars Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar were planted in pots and five soil water content treatments were imposed at peak boll stage: 15% (G1, 35% (G2, 40% (G3, 60% (G4, and 75% field capacity (CK, respectively. Four treatments (G2, G3, G4, and CK were repeated in 2015 in the field. Results showed that the insecticidal protein content of boll shells decreased with increasing water deficit. Compared with CK, boll shell insecticidal protein content decreased significantly when soil water content was below 60% of maximum water holding capacity for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3. However, increased Bt gene expression was observed when boll shell insecticidal protein content was significantly reduced. Activity assays of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism showed that boll shell protease and peptidase increased but nitrogen reductase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT decreased. Insecticidal protein content exhibited significant positive correlation with nitrogen reductase and GPT activities; and significant negative correlation with protease and peptidase activities. These findings suggest that the decrease of insecticidal protein content associated with increasing water deficit was a net result of decreased synthesis and increased decomposition.

  18. Efeito de doses reduzidas de oxyfluorfen em cultivares de algodoeiro Effect of reduced oxyfluorfen rates on cotton cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O agronegócio do algodão apresenta-se, no Brasil, como uma atividade de grande importância para a economia nacional, ocupando posição de destaque no processo produtivo do Estado do Mato Grosso. Para que a cultura possa expressar o máximo potencial produtivo, é necessária a adoção de técnicas de manejo e práticas agronômicas, visando o controle das plantas daninhas. A fim de que a lavoura se mantenha limpa e livre de matocompetição, o controle químico é o método mais utilizado. Os herbicidas registrados para algodão devem ser aplicados, quando do estabelecimento da cultura, em jato dirigido. O contato desses produtos, como o oxyfluorfen, nas folhas pode incorrer em fitointoxicação e prejuízos para o produtor. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi mensurar o potencial de danos provocados pelo oxyfluorfen, quando em contato com diferentes cultivares de algodoeiro em estádio inicial de desenvolvimento. Para isso, foram avaliados cinco cultivares, tratados com 90 e 180 g ha-1 do herbicida, aplicado em plantas com 15 e 30 dias de emergência. Quanto às variáveis analisadas (fitointoxicação, altura de planta, número de folhas, massa seca de planta, foi possível observar que não houve diferença entre cultivares e que as plantas menores foram mais afetadas que as mais velhas, havendo aumento dos danos à medida que as doses eram aumentadas.Cotton agribusiness is a very important economic activity in Brazil, occupying a prominent position in the productive process of the state of Mato Grosso. For cotton crop to express its maximum productive potential, it is necessary to adopt handling techniques and agronomic practices seeking the control of weeds. For farming to stay clean and free from weed competition, chemical control is the most frequently used method. The herbicides registered for cotton crop should be applied when the culture is established in driven jet. The contact of products, such as oxyfluorfen, on the leaves may

  19. Effect of mutagens on the quality characters and disease resistant genes of diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, S.; Khan, I.A.; Mansoor, S.

    2002-01-01

    In both M1 and M2 plant height decreased with the increase in dose for both the mutagens. The 15 Krad and 0.15M EMS doses increased 122.7 and 128.3 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control respectively while all other doses of both mutagens decreased the yield of seed cotton. The EMS dose 0.10 M drastically decreased 184 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control. There was no larger effect of both mutagens on GOT % whereas staple length was slightly increased and micronaire value decreased as compared to control for all the doses of both mutagens. It was observed in M2 that mutation dose 10 Krad increased 165.6 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control but slight reduction in GOT % was observed. In M2 GOT were increased 3.5 % with 15 Krad and 3.6 % with EMS 0.10 M as compared to control. There were no larger effects for both mutagens in case of staple length, micronaire and uniformity ratio for all the doses as compared to control. respectively. In both M1 and M2 no plant was observed susceptible to cotton leaf curl virus and bacterial blight diseases of cotton

  20. Effect of surfactant concentration on the evaporation of droplets on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaolu; Cao, Chong; Cao, Lidong; Zheng, Li; Xu, Jun; Li, Fengmin; Huang, Qiliang

    2018-04-05

    The evaporation kinetics of pesticide droplets deposited on a leaf surface can affect their application efficiency. Evaporation of droplets on the hydrophobic leaves has received considerable attention, but little is known about hydrophilic leaf surfaces. In this study, the effect of surfactant concentration on the evaporation of droplets deposited on cotton leaves was investigated. The evaporation time is roughly decreased for concentrations ranging from 0% to 0.01% and increased from 0.01% to 0.10%. Contrary to the widely held belief that pesticide retention on target crops can rapidly be formed only with surfactant concentrations exceeding the CMC (critical micelle concentration), this study demonstrates that, on hydrophilic cotton leaves, fast evaporation of the droplet at surfactant concentrations of 0.01% (CMC) can reduce the volume quickly, lower the loss point and enhance pesticide retention. In addition, the evolution of droplet volume, height and contact angle on the cotton leaf surface were measured to confirm this conclusion. The result presented herein can be used to guide the use of surfactants and pesticides in agriculture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimizing the photocatalytic properties and the synergistic effects of graphene and nano titanium dioxide immobilized on cotton fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Loghman; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail; Khajavi, Ramin; Rashidi, Abosaeed; Mirjalili, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Producing superior photo-active cotton fabric using graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. • Optimizing processing conditions using response surface methodology. • Obtaining significant photo-activity properties on cotton fabric by this method under sun irradiation. • Possessing excellent antimicrobial activity with low cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts. - Abstract: A new facile route based on cotton fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite is reported to produce photo-active cellulose textiles. A thin layer of graphene oxide has been produced on cotton fabrics by a dip-dry process. The graphene oxide-coated cotton fabrics were then immersed in titanium trichloride aqueous solution to yield a fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. The photo-activity efficiency of the coated fabrics was tested by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV and sunlight irradiations. To obtain the optimum condition, the response surface methodology (RSM) through the central composite design was applied and the role of both graphene oxide and titanium trichloride concentrations on photo-activity efficiency was investigated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared samples has been characterized by a series of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the application of graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite on the physical properties of the cotton fabric, such as tensile strength, bending rigidity and crease recovery angle has been analyzed. Other characteristics of treated fabrics such as antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity were also investigated. Cotton fabric coated with optimum concentrations of graphene oxide and titanium trichloride obtained significant photo-activity efficiency under UV and sunlight irradiations. Moreover, the graphene

  2. Genotype-by-sowing date interaction effects on cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of dera ismail khan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.; Khan, S.; Ayatullah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is a major export commodity of Pakistan. It is affected by variable environmental conditions throughout the country which limits its production. A 2-year field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of six sowing dates on yield and quality attributes of four cotton genotypes. The experiments were laid out in split-plot within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots treatments were six sowing dates, namely March 20, April 4, April 19, May 4, May 19, and June 3 while subplots treatments were four approved transgenic varieties of cotton (CIM-598, CIM-599, CIM-602, and Ali Akber-703). Results revealed that earlier planting produced more vegetative growth rather than lint yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield and quality. The results further indicate that the genotype CIM-599 scored first rank in number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, seed cotton yield, ginning out turn, fiber length, fiber strength, fiber fineness, and fiber uniformity when sown on April 19. CIM-598 was the next suitable genotype after CIM-599 which produced higher yield and quality traits in April 19 sowing. Earlier and later sowing than April 19 resulted in lower cotton yield and quality characters due to unfavorable environmental conditions and shorter growth period, respectively. Thus it is concluded that the genotype, CIM-599 sown on April 19 suits well to the study area and had the potential to optimize cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. (author)

  3. Effect Of Bird Manure On Cotton Plants Grown On Soils Sampled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton plant had a better development and growth when bird manure was only applied to soil or combined with mineral fertilizer and when cotton was grown on a soil where the previous crops were cereals (maize or sorghum). Planting cotton on a soil where the previous crop grown was maize or sorghum had no significant ...

  4. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping; Mao Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  5. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

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    Lianguang Shang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton.

  6. Polyploidization effect in two diploid cotton (Gossypium herbaceum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... 2Department of Biology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ... examined the effects of different doses of colchicine on polyploidy ... number of stomata are generally increased in the poly- ... species; one comprising the New World (D-genome ... used for preparation of microscopic slides.

  7. Gamma-radiation effect of the ATP-ASE-activity in various parts of cotton sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimov, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    ATP-ase is a thiol enzyme whose sulfhydryl group plays an important role. The transport of substances through biological membranes is the result of the action of the sodium-potassium pump of the cell, which functions with ATP energy. The action of this transport mechanism depends on the activity of ATP-ase. It may be postulated, therefore, that the suppression of the active transport of Na + and K + ions in cells under irradiation is partially the result of a disturbance of the activity of the ATP enzyme system. The author studied the effect of gamma radiation on ATP-ase activity in various parts of seven-day-old seedlings of type 108-F cotton, which were irradiated using Co 60 gamma radiation. The results of the experiment showed that the ATP-ase activity of the cotton seedling rootlets depends on the dose and the time elapsed after irradiation (a table is given). Small radiation doses (0.2 and 0.5 krad) significantly increased ATP-ase activity in the rootlets, while heavy doses inhibited it significantly. Similar results were obtained for the stems and leaves (tables are given). It was estblished that the ATP-ase of cotton seedlings has varying sensitivity to irradiation. The most sensitive ATP-ases were those of the rootlets. The activity of background ATP-ase is less subject to change than Na + and K + activated ATP-ases. For example, while the activity of ATP-ase (without ions) was inhibited by 25% when a 25 krad irradiation dose was administered, the retardation of Na + and K + activated ATP-ases reached 41%. The author suggests that the inhibition of ATP-ase activity under irradiation is mainly the result of a disturbance of the structure of the membrane functions. It is also possible that ATP-ase activity decreases because of a lack of the enzyme substrate - ATP, which is formed during the process of oxydative phosphorylization. A table is also provided showing the effect of irradiation on the activity of ATP-ase activated by various ions in the roots of

  8. Bt cotton and employment effects for female agricultural laborers in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouser, Shahzad; Abedullah; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-25

    The literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%. Manual harvesting, which is common in Pakistan, is a labor-intensive activity primarily carried out by female laborers. Accordingly, gender disaggregation shows that the employment-generating effects are particularly strong for women, who often belong to the most disadvantaged groups of rural societies. These results suggest that Bt technology can contribute to additional employment income for the poor and to more equitable rural development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  10. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossipium hirsitum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ávila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar

  11. Effect of ionization radiation (γ-rays 60Co) on germination of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lall, S.B.; Bhute, M.G.

    1974-01-01

    Effect of ionization radiation (γ-rays 60 Co) on germination of cotton varieties viz. AK 235 and 197/3, also B 147 and B 296-7 belonging to Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum respectively under field and laboratory conditions were studied. Materials under study were tried in two radiation doses i.e. 10,000 r and 20,000 r in two (R1 and R2) generations. In laboratory and field condition, both doses (10,000r and 20,000r) depressed the germination percentage in R1 generation of radiation to greater degree in almost all the varieties of cotton. Maximum depression was noted under field condition in both the varieties belonging to Gossypium arboreum species in R1 generation under 20,000 r. In R2 generation, depressing effect on germination capacity of seed is reduced to much extent in field condition in almost of all the varieties. The germination percentage has increased over control in R2 generation in both doses in laboratory conditions in all the varieties used in this experiment. (author)

  12. ptxD gene in combination with phosphite serves as a highly effective selection system to generate transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, Devendra; Campbell, LeAnne M; Nunes, Eugenia; Lopez-Arredondo, Damar L; Janga, Madhusudhana R; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rathore, Keerti S

    2017-12-01

    This report demonstrates the usefulness of ptxD/phosphite as a selection system that not only provides a highly efficient and simple means to generate transgenic cotton plants, but also helps address many of the concerns related to the use of antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes in the production of transgenic crops. Two of the most popular dominant selectable marker systems for plant transformation are based on either antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes. Due to concerns regarding their safety and in order to stack multiple traits in a single plant, there is a need for alternative selectable marker genes. The ptxD gene, derived from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88, that confers to cells the ability to convert phosphite (Phi) into orthophosphate (Pi) offers an alternative selectable marker gene as demonstrated for tobacco and maize. Here, we show that the ptxD gene in combination with a protocol based on selection medium containing Phi, as the sole source of phosphorus (P), can serve as an effective and efficient system to select for transformed cells and generate transgenic cotton plants. Fluorescence microscopy examination of the cultures under selection and molecular analyses on the regenerated plants demonstrate the efficacy of the system in recovering cotton transformants following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under the ptxD/Phi selection, an average of 3.43 transgenic events per 100 infected explants were recovered as opposed to only 0.41% recovery when bar/phosphinothricin (PPT) selection was used. The event recovery rates for nptII/kanamycin and hpt/hygromycin systems were 2.88 and 2.47%, respectively. Molecular analysis on regenerated events showed a selection efficiency of ~ 97% under the ptxD/Phi system. Thus, ptxD/Phi has proven to be a very efficient, positive selection system for the generation of transgenic cotton plants with equal or higher transformation efficiencies compared to the commonly used, negative selection systems.

  13. Effect of weather factors on the incidence and development of pink bollworm on flowers of advance cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Subhani, M.N.; Hassan, S.W.; Afzal, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ten advance genotypes of cotton Viz. BH-121, NIAB KRISHMA, DNH-137, VH-142, VH-142 BH-125, MNH-635, SLH-267, FNH-245, CRIS-467 and CRIS-82 were used to determine the effect of different weather factors on the incidence and development of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossyiella) infestation at Nuclear institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) Faisalabad. Trials were laid out using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Finally data were subjected to statistical analysis and for correlation studies between weather factors and pink bollworm. Temperature and relative humidity and rainfall affected negatively for the infestation of pink bollworm on flowers in advance genotypes of cotton. (author)

  14. Real-time electron density measurements from Cotton-Mouton effect in JET machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Boboc, A.; Zabeo, L.; Murari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time density profile measurements are essential for advanced fusion tokamak operation and interferometry is a proven method for this task. Nevertheless, as a consequence of edge localized modes, pellet injections, fast density increases, or disruptions, the interferometer is subject to fringe jumps, which produce loss of the signal preventing reliable use of the measured density in a real-time feedback controller. An alternative method to measure the density is polarimetry based on the Cotton-Mouton effect, which is proportional to the line-integrated electron density. A new analysis approach has been implemented and tested to verify the reliability of the Cotton-Mouton measurements for a wide range of plasma parameters and to compare the density evaluated from polarimetry with that from interferometry. The density measurements based on polarimetry are going to be integrated in the real-time control system of JET since the difference with the interferometry is within one fringe for more than 90% of the cases.

  15. Gamma radiation effects on fattly acid composition of lipids in cotton leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanova, S.V.; Stepanenko, G.A.; Umarov, A.K.; Nazirov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of high irradiation dose (30 kR) effect on the lipid fatty acid composition of cotton leaves was studied in the ontogenesis. The experiment was carried out in vegetation vials (capacity 25 kg, humidity level - 65% of full water capacity). Before seeding, each vial was fertilized with 5g P 2 O 5 , 3g K 2 O and 5gN as an auxillary nutrition during vegetation. The test vials also contained 0.4 - 0.5 g CaO per kg of soil. A portion of irradiated seeds was soaked in 1.5% solution of CaO and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 before seeding. The cotton seeds were gamma-irradiated at 50 R/sec in the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Usbec SSR Academy of Sciences. The fatty acid composition of mature leaf lipids determined by gas-liquid chromatography proved to change in the blooming phase. Leaves of irradiated plants contained traces of myristic acid, higher levels of palmitic, palmitoleinic and strearinic acids and lower levels of oleinic and linoleic acids. Lower content of fatty acids with long carbon chains seemed to handicap the renewal of membranes and their components, especially in mitochondria. When irradiated seeds were soaked in calcium salt solution and CaO is added to the soil, the amount of unsaturated long chain fatty acids increased. The fact probably promotes the membrane renewal in irradiated plants

  16. Effects of irrigation levels on interactions among Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae), insecticides, and predators in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Peter; Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Variation in plant quality and natural enemy abundance plays an important role in insect population dynamics. In manipulative field studies, we evaluated the impact of varying irrigation levels and insecticide type on densities of Lygus hesperus Knight and the arthropod predator community in cotton. Three watering levels were established via irrigations timed according to three levels of percent soil water depletion (SWD): 20, 40, or 60, where 40% SWD is considered standard grower practice, 60% represents a deficit condition likely to impose plant productivity losses, and 20% represents surplus conditions with likely consequences on excessive vegetative plant production. The two key L. hesperus insecticides used were the broad-spectrum insecticide acephate and the selective insecticide flonicamid, along with an untreated check. We hypothesized that densities of L. hesperus and its associated predators would be elevated at higher irrigation levels and that insecticides would differentially impact L. hesperus and predator dynamics depending on their selectivity. L. hesperus were more abundant at the higher irrigation level (20% SWD) but the predator densities were unaffected by irrigation levels. Both L. hesperus and its predators were affected by the selectivity of the insecticide with highest L. hesperus densities and lowest predator abundance where the broad spectrum insecticide (acephate) was used. There were no direct interactions between irrigation level and insecticides, indicating that insecticide effects on L. hesperus and its predators were not influenced by the irrigation levels used here. The implications of these findings on the overall ecology of insect-plant dynamics and yield in cotton are discussed.

  17. Effect of potassium fertilizer on the physiological mechanisms of cotton fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chai, Z.; Sheng, J.; Jiang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous hormones are a key factor in cotton fiber quality. Studying the relationship among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality can provide a theoretical basis for exploring physiological measurements to improve fiber quality. The relationships among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality for different boll positions and potassium (K) conditions were investigated for the main cultivar 'Xinluzao' 24. We used eight application rates of K fertilizer (K/sub 2/O 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, 150, 37.5 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 75 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and 150 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ kg ha/sup -1/ under field conditions). We then measured the contents of indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA3), zeatin (Z), and abscisic acid (ABA) in relation to changes in fiber quality indices. Results showed that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the contents of IAA, GA3, and Z in the upper and middle boll, and decreased the contents of ABA in the upper, middle, and the lower boll. Compared with the control, applying K fertilizer between 37.5 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ and 112.5 kg K2O ha/sup -1/ can significantly increase the length, uniformity, strength, micronaire, and maturity of fiber in three parts of the plant. However, excessive application of K fertilizer can reduce fiber uniformity, strength, and micronaire in these locations. Through comprehensive comparison, we determined that the optimal application of K fertilizer for regulating endogenous hormones and improving fiber quality was a basal application of 75 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ and a spray application of 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The endogenous hormones IAA, GA/sub 3/, and Z can improve cotton fiber quality, but ABA can inhibit cotton fiber quality. Results indicate that reasonable applications of potassium fertilizer could regulate endogenous hormones and improve fiber quality.

  18. Utilizing management zones for Rotylenchulus reniformis in cotton: Effects on nematode levels, crop damage, and Pasteuria sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode management zones (MZs) based on soil electrical conductivity (EC, a proxy for soil texture) have not been published for R. reniformis. We tested 1) whether R. reniformis levels and the amount of damage caused to cotton differed among MZs, 2) if the relative effectiveness of nematicides dif...

  19. A review of the effects of ginning practices on cotton fibre and yarn properties and processing performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sanderson, KW

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, since the first formal cotton ginning experiments were conducted by the United State department of agriculture in 1962, a large volume of literature, from research papers to popular articles, has been published on the effect...

  20. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  1. Effect of tillage on water advance and distribution under surge and continuous furrow irrigation methods for cotton in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of tillage on water advance and water distribution in the root zone area (0.5 m) under continuous and surge flow irrigation in a cotton field. The experiment was conducted at the Agriculture Experimental Station, Assiut University, Assiut,

  2. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  3. 75 FR 11559 - Certain Combed Cotton Yarns: Effect of Modification of U.S.-Bahrain FTA Rules of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. Bahrain-FTA-103-025] Certain Combed Cotton Yarns: Effect of Modification of U.S.- Bahrain FTA Rules of Origin AGENCY: United States International Trade... to section 104 of the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Implementation Act (19 U.S.C...

  4. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on physiology and insecticide activity in non-transgenic and Bt-transgenic cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan eLe Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg·L−1 but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg·L−1. Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health.

  5. [Effects of soil wetting pattern on the soil water-thermal environment and cotton root water consumption under mulched drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-wei; Li, Ming-si; Liu, Dong; Lyu, Mou-chao; Jia, Yan-hui

    2015-08-01

    Abstract: To explore the effects of soil wetting pattern on soil water-thermal environment and water consumption of cotton root under mulched drip irrigation, a field experiment with three drip intensities (1.69, 3.46 and 6.33 L · h(-1)), was carried out in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The soil matric potential, soil temperature, cotton root distribution and water consumption were measured during the growing period of cotton. The results showed that the main factor influencing the soil temperature of cotton under plastic mulch was sunlight. There was no significant difference in the soil temperature and root water uptake under different treatments. The distribution of soil matrix suction in cotton root zone under plastic mulch was more homogeneous under ' wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern (W633). Under the 'wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern, the average difference of cotton root water consumption between inner row and outer row was 0.67 mm · d(-1), which was favorable to the cotton growing trimly at both inner and outer rows; for the 'narrow and deep' soil wetting pattern (W169), the same index was 0.88 mm · d(-1), which was unfavorable to cotton growing uniformly at both inner and outer rows. So, we should select the broad-shallow type soil wetting pattern in the design of drip irrigation under mulch.

  6. Effects of 1,1-Dimethylpiperidinium Chloride on the Pests and Allelochemicals of Cotton and Pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. A. Hedin; J. N. Jenkins; J. C. McCarty; J. E. Mulrooney; W. L. Parrott; A. Borazjani; C. H. Graves; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    The growth regulator, PIX (mepiquat chloride - 1,1-dimethyl-piperdinium chloride), when applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and pecan (Carya illinoensis Koch), caused internode shortening. PIX did not elicit an increase in resistance in cotton to the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens (Fab.)], or in pecan...

  7. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F.

    2007-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  8. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH REACTIVE BLUE 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes are synthetic organic compounds used on a wide scale in textile industry, for painting materials of different types and compositions (e.g. 100% cotton, wool, natural satin, viscose, synthetic fibres. Reactive dyes are solid compounds (powders completely water soluble at normal temperature and pressure conditions. Their structures contain chromophore groups, which generate colour, and auxochrome groups, which determine the compounds water solubility and the capacity to fix to the textile fiber. Such organic compounds absorb UV-Vis radiations at specific wavelengths, corresponding to maximum absorbtion peaks, in both solution and dyed fiber. The human organism, through the dyed clothing, comes in direct contact with those dyes which can undergo modifications once exposed to UV radiations, having the posibility to reach the organism via cutanated transport. As it is known, the provoked negative effects are stronger during summer when UV radiations are more intense and in order to reduce their intensity dark coloured clothing is avoided. Dyes can be transformed in compounds which are easily absorbed into the skin. Some of these metabolites can be less toxic than the original corresponding dye, whilst others, such as free radicals, are potentially cancerous. Knowledge of the biological effects of the organic dyes, reactive dyes in particular, correlated with their structural and physical characteristics, permanently consists an issue of high scientific and practical interest and its solution may contribute in the diminishing of risk factors and improving of population health. UV radiation influence on the structural and colour modifications of textile materials were studied. Colour modifications are due to structural changes in aromatic and carbonil groups. In most cases photo-oxidative processes were identified in the dye structure. Dyeing was performed using non-irradiated and irradiated cotton painted with reactive blue dye 204.

  9. Effect of Mowing Cotton Stalks and Preventing Plant Re-Growth on Post-Harvest Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation plus applying a herbicide to kill plants prior to cutting the stalks, and 3) chemical defoliation without cutting stalks. Experiments were conducted in both the greenhouse and in the field. The greenhouse experiments demonstrated that M. incognita reproduction (measured as egg counts and root gall rating indices) was significantly greater when stalks were not cut. Cutting stalks plus applying herbicide to kill cotton roots did not significantly reduce nematode reproduction compared to cutting stalks alone. In field experiments, cutting stalks reduced egg populations and root galling compared to defoliation without stalk cutting. In a greenhouse bioassay which used soil from the field plots, plants grown in soil from the defoliation only treatment had greater root gall ratings and egg counts than in the stalk cutting plus herbicide treatment. Therefore, we conclude that cutting cotton stalks immediately after harvest effectively reduces M. incognita reproduction, and may lead to a lower initial population density of this nematode in the following year. PMID:22736845

  10. Effects of Soil Salinity on the Expression of Bt Toxin (Cry1Ac and the Control Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in Field-Grown Transgenic Bt Cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yu Luo

    Full Text Available An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner in the field, is poorly understood. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the expression of Bt toxin (Cry1Ac and the control efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in field-grown transgenic Bt cotton using three natural saline levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil-salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil-salinity] and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil-salinity]. We found that the Bt protein content in the transgenic Bt cotton leaves and the insecticidal activity of Bt cotton against CBW decreased with the increasing soil salinity in laboratory experiments during the growing season. The Bt protein content of Bt cotton leaves in the laboratory were negatively correlated with the salinity level. The CBW populations were highest on the Bt cotton grown in medium-salinity soil instead of the high-salinity soil in field conditions. A possible mechanism may be that the relatively high-salinity soil changed the plant nutritional quality or other plant defensive traits. The results from this study may help to identify more appropriate practices to control CBW in Bt cotton fields with different soil salinity levels.

  11. The study of antibacterial activity and stability of dyed cotton fabrics modified with different forms of silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles and commercial RUCO-BAC AGP agent with silver chloride as an active component on antibacterial activity of dyed cotton fabrics. Cotton fabrics were dyed with vat dyes Bezanthren olive T and Bezanthren grey FFB. Antibacterial activity of silver loaded dyed cotton fabrics was tested against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Unlike RUCO-BAC AGP synthesized silver nanoparticles deposited onto dyed cotton fabrics provided maximum bacteria reduction independently of applied dye. The stability of modified cotton fabrics was analyzed in artificial sweat at pH 5.5 and 8.0. Approximately the same amount of silver was released from differently modified cotton fabrics in artificial sweat. Larger amount of silver was released in the sweat at pH 8.0.

  12. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses on Some Chemical Characteristics of Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Cotton Seeds c.v. Giza 85 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy to improve some chemical characteristics of cotton seed oil i.e. saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, gossypol and βsitosterol that were bound oil. The presented study showed that, the saturated fatty acids; lauric, palmitic and stearic increased when the cotton seeds were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5 up to 1.5 kGy, On the other hand, arachidic acid content decreased in all the irradiated treatments compared with untreated cotton seed. The unsaturated fatty acid oleic was increased in irradiated cotton seed samples compared with untreated one, while linoleic, the major unsaturated fatty acid decreased in irradiated cotton seed oil than untreated seeds. Gossypol and βsitosterol, bound oil, in irradiated cotton seeds increased gradually with gamma irradiated doses compared with untreated control samples

  13. What are farmers really planting? Measuring the presence and effectiveness of Bt cotton in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Spielman

    Full Text Available Genetically modified, insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is cultivated extensively in Pakistan. Past studies, however, have raised concerns about the prevalence of Bt cotton varieties possessing weak or nonperforming insect-resistance traits conferred by the cry gene. We examine this issue using data drawn from a representative sample of cotton-growing households that were surveyed in six agroclimatic zones spanning 28 districts in Pakistan in 2013, as well as measurements of Cry protein levels in cotton tissue samples collected from the sampled households' main fields. The resultant dataset combines information from 593 sampled households with corresponding plant tissue diagnostics from 70 days after sowing, as well as information from 589 sampled households with corresponding diagnostics from 120 days after sowing. Our analysis indicates that 11 percent of farmers believed they were cultivating Bt cotton when, in fact, the Cry toxin was not present in the tested tissue at 70 days after sowing (i.e., a Type I error. The analysis further indicates that 5 percent of farmers believed they were cultivating non-Bt cotton when, in fact, the Cry toxin was present in the tested tissue (i.e., a Type II error. In addition, 17 percent of all sampled farmers were uncertain whether or not they were cultivating Bt cotton. Overall, 33 percent of farmers either did not know or were mistaken in their beliefs about the presence of the cry gene in the cotton they cultivated. Results also indicate that toxic protein levels in the plant tissue samples occurred below threshold levels for lethality in a significant percentage of cases, although these measurements may also be affected by factors related to tissue sample collection, handling, storage, and testing procedures. Nonetheless, results strongly suggest wide variability both in farmers' beliefs and in gene expression. Such variability has implications for policy and regulation in Pakistan

  14. A comprehensive assessment of the effects of Bt cotton on Coleomegilla maculata demonstrates no detrimental effects by Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Li

    Full Text Available The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer, is a common and abundant predator in many cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are predaceous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran larvae and plant tissues, such as pollen. Therefore, this species is exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. A tritrophic bioassay was conduced to evaluate the potential impact of Cry2Ab- and Cry1Ac-expressing cotton on fitness parameters of C. maculata using Bt-susceptible and -resistant larvae of Trichoplusia ni as prey. Coleomegilla maculata survival, development time, adult weight and fecundity were not different when they were fed with resistant T. ni larvae reared on either Bt or control cotton. To ensure that C. maculata were not sensitive to the tested Cry toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, C. maculata larvae were fed artificial diet incorporated with Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac or both at >10 times higher concentrations than in cotton tissue. Artificial diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. No differences were detected in any life-table parameters between Cry protein-containing diet treatments and the control diet. In contrast, larvae of C. maculata fed the E-64 could not develop to the pupal stage and the 7-d larval weight was significantly negatively affected. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources were confirmed by ELISA and sensitive-insect bioassays. Our results show that C. maculata is not affected by Bt cotton and is not sensitive to Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac at concentrations exceeding the levels in Bt cotton, thus demonstrating that Bt cotton will pose a negligible risk to C. maculata. More importantly, this study demonstrates a comprehensive system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non

  15. Integrated nutrients management for 'desi' cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Akram, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khattak, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive cropping with no return of crop residues and other organic inputs result in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient supply in (Desi) cotton-wheat cropping system in Pakistan. For appraisal of problem and finding solution to sustainability, we evaluated six treatments comprised of two fertilizer doses and three management techniques over a period of three years (2003-05) monitoring their effects on seed cotton yield and soil fertility. The techniques included chemical fertilizers, municipal solid waste manure (MSWM) integrated with chemical fertilizers in 1:4 ratios with, and without pesticides. The results revealed that cotton yields. Were enhanced by 19% due to site-specific fertilizer dose over conventional dose. Ignoring weeds control by means of herbicided application resulted in 5% decrease of seed cotton yield in IPNM technique positive effect of MSWM integration was noted on soil test phosphorus and SOM. Site-specific fertilizer application and integrated plant nutrient management by MSWM proved their suitability as the techniques not only improve soil quality in terms of sustained levels of organic matter and phosphorus but also provide a safe way of waste disposal. (author)

  16. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on the Growth and Foliar Chemistry of Transgenic Bt Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Feng Ge; Yu-Cheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    A field study was carried out to quantify plant growth and the foliar chemistry of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)cotton (cv. GK-12) exposed to ambient CO2 and elevated (double-ambient) CO2 for different lengths of time (1, 2 and 3 months) in 2004 and 2005. The results indicated that CO2 levels significantly affected plant height, leaf area per plant and leaf chemistry of transgenic Bt cotton. Significantly, higher plant height and leaf area per plant were observed after cotton plants that were grown in elevated CO2 were compared with plants grown in ambient CO2 for 1, 2 and 3 months in the investigation. Simultaneously, significant interaction between CO2 level x investigating year was observed in leaf area per plant. Moreover, foliar total amino acids were increased by 14%, 13%, 11% and 12%, 14%, 10% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Condensed tannin occurrence increased by 17%, 11%, 9% in 2004 and 12%, 11%, 9% in 2005 in transgenic Bt cotton after being exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 for the same time. However, Bt toxin decreased by 3.0%,2.9%, 3.1% and 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.9% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3months compared with ambient CO2 for same time in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Furthermore, there was prominent interaction on the foliar total amino acids between the CO2 level and the time of cotton plant being exposed to elevated CO2. It is presumed that elevated CO2 can alter the plant growth and hence ultimately the phenotype allocation to foliar chemistical components of transgenic Bt cotton, which may in turn, affect the plant-herbivore interactions.

  17. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  18. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Acrylic Acid-Grafted Cotton, Wool and Polyester Fabrics on the Growth of Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, E.H.; Hussien, H.A.; Hassan, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of nutrient time (t) and acrylic acid graft yield (GY) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on cotton, wool and polyester fabrics have been studied. The bacterial growth increases with the increase in t after a 6 h-incubation period (IP). For cotton fabrics, the IP increases from 6 h to 12 h as the GY increases to 20%. The initial growth rate (R) is found to decrease with the increase in graft yield. The order (n) and rate constant (k) of the growth process are calculated at 303 K from the logarithmic dependence of R on GY. Both kinetic parameters are dependent on the type of fabric. The growth rate constant k is the lowest for grafted cotton and the highest for grafted polyester fabrics. The inhibiting effect of grafted poly acrylic acid (PAA), on the S. aureus growth rate is attributed to the release of hydrogen ions (H + ) from the grafts into the nutrient aqueous solution. The accumulation of H + ions, which increase with the increase in GY, at the cell wall and their possible diffusion inside the cell cause a perturbing effect that impairs the viability of the cells. This is observed from the increase in the polysaccharide layer around the cell due to increase in GY to 20%. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the existence of considerable changes in the shape of the cells as a result of PAA grafted on the fabrics

  20. Pest diagnosis and pesticide use by cotton growers of multan area and their and their occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, Q.U.; Fareedi, I.A.; Iftkhar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Economy of Pakistan is based on exports of cotton and cotton products, and cotton-growing farmers are the vertebrae of Economical backbone of the country. Cotton growing farmers (male) involved in monitoring of quality and quantity of cotton crops by handsome usage of pesticides for better yield and marketing. To assess their knowledge for diagnosing the pests, attacking their crops and their orientation about the pesticide chemicals and their usage, study in hand was designed and conducted in 20 villages of district Multan selected by multistage random sampling technique. The selected 20 villages, from the list bearing the villages, mouzas and union councils of district Multan. 220 cotton growers were selected by simple random sampling technique and interviewed through a reliable and validated interview schedule. The data collected were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that almost 71% of cotton growing farmers were in a position to diagnose the pests, damaging their cotton crops whereas; almost 29% of respondents had no pest diagnosis concept. The data showed that 75% of cotton growing farmers were having orientation about side effects of pesticide chemicals, whereas almost 94% of respondents were involved in pesticide using practices. (author)

  1. Biodiesel unsaturation degree effects on diesel engine NOx emissions and cotton wick flame temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Fareez Edzuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As compared with conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel has better lubricity and lower particulate matter (PM emissions however nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions generally increase in biodiesel-fuelled diesel engine. Strict regulation on NOx emissions is being implemented in current Euro 6 standard and it is expected to be tighter in next standard, thus increase of NOx cannot be accepted. In this study, biodiesel unsaturation degree effects on NOx emissions are investigated. Canola, palm and coconut oils are selected as the feedstock based on their unsaturation degree. Biodiesel blends of B20 were used to fuel a single cylinder diesel engine and exhaust emissions were sampled directly at exhaust tailpipe with a flue gas analyser. Biodiesel flame temperature was measured from a cotton wick burned in simple atmospheric conditions using a thermocouple. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer was also used to identify the functional groups presence in the biodiesel blends. Oxygen content in biodiesel may promote complete combustion as the NOx emissions and flame temperatures were increased while the carbon monoxide (CO emissions were decreased for all biodiesel blends. It is interesting to note that the NOx emissions and flame temperatures were directly proportional with biodiesel unsaturation degree. It might be suggested that apart from excess oxygen and free radical formation, higher NOx emissions can also be caused by the elevated flame temperatures due to the presence of double bonds in unsaturated biodiesel.

  2. EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON THE PROPERTIES OF DYED COTTON CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSU Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes have been reported of causing various stages of contact dermatitis. Reactive dyes are widely applied in dyeing cellulose fiber based textiles (100% cotton, skin fibers (hemp, flax, regenerated cellulose (cellulose acetate, viscose, protein fibers (natural silk, wool. The human body comes in contact daily with such compounds. This aspect is important for elucidating their biological effects on the human body, in correlation with physico-chemical properties. Dyes are chemical compounds containing chromophore and auxochrome groups. Authors herein report results concerning the influence of UV irradiation with λ > 300 nm on the structure and properties of different colored textiles. Subjects to study were textiles painted with four azo-triazine based dyes which were exposed to 100 h UV irradiation time and irradiation dose values up to 3500 J cm-2. The five azo dyes were: reactive orange 13, reactive red 183, reactive yellow 143, reactive blue 204 and reactive red 2. Structural modifications as a result of irradiation were undertaken by UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was observed that during UV exposure there occurred partial dyes detachment from the textiles, accompanied by glucosidic units and dye photodecomposition by C–N bond scission and degradation of aromatic entities and azo based chromophores. Color modifications were also investigated. Color differences significantly increased with the irradiation dose for all the studied samples.

  3. Acute, sublethal, and combination effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-02-26

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp . kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  4. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, A. M.; Akram, M.; Ahmad, A.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  5. Mechanisms of degradation of cotton and effects of mercerization-stretching upon the course of these mechanisms. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebeish, A; Abou-Zeid, N Y; Shalaby, S E; El-Aref, A T; Waly, A; Abdel-Thalouth, I; Tawfik, M

    1981-10-06

    Changes in the physical as well as chemical structure of scoured and slack mercerized restretched (90-103% of original length) cotton yarns brought about by heat treatments and the effects of these on the strenght properties of the cotton yarn were investigated. No striking changes in copper number, carboxyl content, iodine sorption, degree of polymerization (P) and strenght properties were observed when the scoured and the mercerized yarns were heated at 160, 180, 200, and 210/sup 0/C for up to 10 min. On the contrary, with the exception of carboxyl content, marked changes in these properties were determined when heat treatment was carried out for up to 96 h and 5 h at 160/sup 0/C and 210/sup 0/C, respectively. However, the mercerized yarns retained higher strenghts in spite of higher degradation as compared to scoured yarn. The interrelationship between strenght and P as well as strength and percentage of bonds broken together with measurements of frequency of successive regions of high lateral order indicated that mercerized cotton exhibited a more uniform structure which improved the distribution of stress along the fibre.

  6. Effect of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambok, I.O.

    1986-01-01

    The problem associated with black cotton and lateritic soils because of the swelling-shrinkage property of their constituent clay minerals were investigated. Samples of black cotton lateritic soils were collected from different parts of Kenya. The samples were analysed for their mineral compositions and later treated with hydrated lime in order to eliminate the swelling shrinkage behaviour. The samples were subsequently tested for their engineering properties in a soil mechanics laboratory using shear box and Casagrande apparatus. It was found that the chemical treatment of the soils with hydrated lime removes their plastic property and improves their shear strength. (author)

  7. Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger

    2008-01-01

    measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being...... analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary...

  8. Effects of temperature on the feeding behavior of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO S. RAMALHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The host acceptance behavior and environmental factors as temperature affect the feeding behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Thus, they must be considered in studies about the risk potential of resistance evolution. The current study sets the differences in the feeding behavior of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae exposed to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, under different temperatures and time gap after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used: the Bt (DP 404 BG - bollgard and the non-transformed isoline, DP 4049. We found that the feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea is significantly different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. Based on the number of larvae with vegetal tissue in their gut found on the plant and in the organza as well as on the amount of vegetal tissue ingested by the larvae. A. argillacea shows feeding preference for non-Bt cotton plants, in comparison to that on the Bt. However, factors such as temperature and exposure time may affect detection capacity and plant abandonment by the larvae and it results in lower ingestion of vegetal tissue. Such results are relevant to handle the resistance of Bt cotton cultivars to A. argillacea and they also enable determining how the cotton seeds mix will be a feasible handling option to hold back resistance evolution in A. argillacea populations on Bt cotton, when it is compared to other refuge strategies. The results can also be useful to determine which refuge distribution of plants is more effective for handling Bt cotton resistance to A. argillacea.

  9. Greenhouse and field-based studies on the distribution of dimethoate in cotton and its effect on Tetranychus urticae by drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Zhou, Lijuan; Yao, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Hanhong; Huang, Jiguang

    2018-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amounts of dimethoate compared with cotton roots and stems, with higher amounts in young leaves compared with old leaves and cotyledon having the lowest amounts among leaves. Field results showed the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae by drip irrigation varied by volume of dripping water, soil pH and dimethoate dosage. Dimethoate applied at 3.00 kg ha -1 with 200 m 3  ha -1 water at weak acidic soil pH (5.70-6.70) through drip irrigation can obtain satisfactory control efficacy (81.49%, 7 days) to T. urticae, without negatively impacting on its natural enemy Neoseiulus cucumeris. The residue of dimethoate in all cotton seed samples were not detectable. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying dimethoate by drip irrigation for control of T. urticae on cotton. This knowledge could aid in the applicability of dimethoate by drip irrigation for field management of T. urticae populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of rain drop washes on soil fertility in cotton production zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop production in the Sahel is limited by nutrients availability. The study aimed to estimate the contribution of avifauna, crop rotation and trees to soil fertility and crop production improvement. Pot experiment was carried out with soils sampled in Faidherbia albida parklands in cotton production zone of West Burkina Faso.

  11. Genotype and planting density effects on rooting traits and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Li, B.G.; Yan, G.T.; Werf, van der W.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhang, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Root density distribution of plants is a major indicator of competition between plants and determines resource capture from the soil. This experiment was conducted in 2005 at Anyang, located in the Yellow River region, Henan Province, China. Three cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were

  12. Effect of farm yard manure and nitrogen application on seed cotton yield under arid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of farm yard manure and green manuring is well established for better crop production. The availability of farm yard manure is becoming difficult due to mechanized farming. An experiment was conducted with farm yard manure application in less quantity i.e. 5000 kg per hectare through fermenter with irrigation water as concentrated solution of farm yard manure. Four levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were applied through soil to Cotton crop planted on bed-furrows. Two years average results indicated that application of FYM at the rate of 5 metric ton per hectare through fermenter with 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha through soil increased seed cotton by 7 percent, on over all average basis of all fertilizer levels, as compared with no farm yard manure application. There was 6 percent increase with first 50 kgN/ha in the presence of FYM where as 100 kgN/ha gave 15% increase in seed cotton yield over no nitrogen application. It indicated that the efficiency of nitrogen at the rate of 100 kg/ha in the presence of farm yard manure was increased. There was 7, 15 and 20 percent increase in seed cotton with 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha over no nitrogen on over all average basis of farm yard manure variables. Benefit cost ratio was more with FYM application alone.(author)

  13. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  14. In situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on the cotton fabrics modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization of acrylic acid for durable multifunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.X., E-mail: cxwang@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building, Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu, 226019 (China); Ren, Y. [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu, 226019 (China); Lv, J.C.; Zhou, Q.Q.; Ma, Z.P.; Qi, Z.M.; Chen, J.Y.; Liu, G.L.; Gao, D.W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Lu, Z.Q. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building, Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Zhang, W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Jin, L.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201204 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A new means for multifunctional cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA and AgNPs synthesis. • Surface modification by PIVPGP of AA had a positive effect on AgNPs loading. • Antibacterial, self-cleaning and thermal stability were greatly improved. • AgNP loaded cotton fabric exhibited excellent laundering durability. • Mechanism of AgNPs in situ synthesis on cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA was proposed. - Abstract: A practical and ecological method for preparing the multifunctional cotton fabrics with excellent laundering durability was explored. Cotton fabrics were modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization (PIVPGP) of acrylic acid (AA) and subsequently silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in situ synthesized on the treated cotton fabrics. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability, respectively. SEM observation and EDX, XPS and XRD analysis demonstrated the much more AgNPs deposition on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics also exhibited better antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability. It was concluded that the surface modification of the cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA could increase the loading efficiency and binding fastness of AgNPs on the treated cotton fabrics, which could fabricate the cotton fabrics with durable multifunction. In addition, the mechanism of in situ synthesis of AgNPs on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA was proposed.

  15. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  16. Variation in water-use efficiency and its relation to carbon isotope ratio in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranga, Y.; Flash, I.; Yakir, D.

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is often exposed to drought, which adversely affects both yield and quality. Improved water-use efficiency (WUE = total dry matter produced or yield harvested / water used) is expected to reduce these adverse effects. Genetic variability in WUE and its association with photosynthetic rate and carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) in cotton are reported in this paper. WUE of six cotton cultivars--G. hirsutum L., G. barbadense L., and an interspecific F1 hybrid (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense, ISH), was examined under two irrigation regimes in two field trials. The greatest WUE was obtained by two G. hirsutum cultivars (2.55 g dry matter or 1.12 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O) the ISH obtained similar or somewhat lower values, and that G. barbadense cultivars and one G. hirsutum cultivar exhibited the lowest values (2.1 g dry matter or 0.8 to 0.85 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O). These results indicate that different cotton cultivars may have evolved different environmental adaptations that affect their WUE. Photosynthetic rate was correlated with WUE in only a few cases emphasizing the limitation of this parameter as a basis for estimating crop WUE. Under both trials WUE was positively correlated with carbon isotope ratio, indicating the potential of this technique as a selection criterion for improving cotton WUE

  17. Assessment of immunotoxic effects of environmental contamination using a cotton rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.R.; Propst, T.L.; McMurry, S.T.; Lochmiller, R.L.; McBee, K.; Quails, C.W. Jr.; Burks, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    Adult National Institute of Health inbred cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were housed in six terrestrial mesocosms on or near an abandoned oil refinery in central Oklahoma for 56 days. Exposure sites included three mesocosms located on sites judged to be contaminated with a variety of complex mixtures of contaminants and three matched reference mesocosm. In addition, wild cotton rats were collected from contaminated and reference areas near the mesocosm sites. Peripheral leukocyte and erythrocyte variables, secondary lymphoid organ weight and cellularity, proliferative response of splenocytes to mitogens, lymphocyte subpopulations, delayed-type hypersensitivity response, 24 h hypersensitivity, antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, NK cell activity, macrophage metabolic functions, and complement activity were measures as a comprehensive screen of immunocompetence. According to current data analysis, peripheral leukocyte numbers, mitogenic response of splenocytes, antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, delayed-type sensitivity and 24 h hypersensitivity were altered by contaminant exposure

  18. Effects of genetically modified cotton stalks on antibiotic resistance genes, intI1, and intI2 during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Manli; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Sheqi; Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Ranran

    2018-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton production generates a large yield of stalks and their disposal is difficult. In order to study the feasibility of using GM cotton stalks for composting and the changes that occur in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting, we supplemented pig manure with GM or non-GM cotton stalks during composting and we compared their effects on the absolute abundances (AA) of intI1, intI2, and ARGs under the two treatments. The compost was mature after processing based on the germination index and C/N ratio. After composting, the AAs of ARGs, intI1, and intI2 were reduced by 41.7% and 45.0% in the non-GM and GM treatments, respectively. The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and ammonia nitrogen. In addition, excluding tetC, GM cotton stalks had no significant effects on ARGs, intI1, and intI2 compared with the non-GM treatment (p composting with livestock manure, and the AAs of ARGs can be reduced. Furthermore, the results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the harmless utilization of GM cotton stalks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of fluoride and 6 benzylaminopurine on growth and respiration of corn and cotton roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C R

    1967-01-01

    Corn and cotton plants exhibit a wide difference in their susceptibility to atmospheric fluoride. Corn shows leaf lesions when 100 ..gamma../gm on a dry weight basis are accumulated but cotton can tolerate 5000 ..gamma../gm without showing leaf necrosis. A comparison of respirational response of potted seedlings of the two species to 10 ..gamma../M/sup 3/ HF caused an increase of about 10%. Addition of 2 x 10/sup 2/M F/sup -/ to solutions for germinating the plants showed that cotton accumulated about twice as much as F/sup -/ in seedling roots. Growth was reduced about one half by 2 x 10/sup -3/M F/sup -/ in both species but respirational rates of root tips from control and fluoride treated tissues were equal. Prolonged treatment of excised root tips with fluoride reduced respiration. Because fluoride causes cellular changes in roots similar to aging and kinetin seems to act to reverse these changes, corn was germinated with 2 x 10/sup -3/M F/sup -/ and increasing levels of 6-benzylaminopurine. Root growth inhibition (63%) was reversed significantly at 0.2 - 0.8..gamma.. ml. Respirational rates of root tips grown in fluoride, fluoride plus 6-benzylaminopurine and controls were equal.

  20. A cost-effective assay for antioxidant using simple cotton thread combining paper based device with mobile phone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateanchok, Suphasinee; Wangkarn, Sunanta; Saenjum, Chalermpong; Grudpan, Kate

    2018-01-15

    A cost-effective assay for antioxidant using simple cotton thread combining paper based device with mobile phone detection has been investigated. Standard and sample solutions flow along a bunch of cotton thread treated with sodium hydroxide via microfluidic behaviors without external pumping. The analyte solution reacts with the reagents that have been immobilized on the paper strip fixed at the end of the cotton bunch. The developed platforms were used for the assays of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by employing Folin-Ciocalteu and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) respectively. Simple detection can be made by employing a mobile phone camera (iPhone 4S) with Image J or Photoshop for image processing and evaluation. Gallic acid was used as a reference standard in this work, as its polyphenol structures can be found in many plants. The total phenolic content is expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (mg/g material). Inhibition capacity is calculated by the equation: % I = [(I o - I s )/ I o ] × 100, where I s is the relative magenta intensity (CMYK mode) of sample, and I o the relative magenta intensity of DPPH•. IC 50 inhibition can be estimated from the graph and can be used for the antioxidant capacity consideration. Applications to the assay green tea samples were demonstrated. The total phenolic contents in the green tea samples were found to be 48-105mg/g, with %RSD of less than 10 for that of higher 50 GAE mg/g and IC 50 values of the samples studied were 25-50mg/L. The results obtained by the developed methods agree with that of the standard methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Cotton WRKY Gene GhWRKY41 Positively Regulates Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Chu

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors constitute a very large family of proteins in plants and participate in modulating plant biological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses. However, the exact roles of WRKY proteins are unclear, particularly in non-model plants. In this study, Gossypium hirsutum WRKY41 (GhWRKY41 was isolated and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results showed that overexpression of GhWRKY41 enhanced the drought and salt stress tolerance of transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. The transgenic plants exhibited lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated in transgenic plants exposed to osmotic stress. A β-glucuronidase (GUS staining assay showed that GhWRKY41 was highly expressed in the stomata when plants were exposed to osmotic stress, and plants overexpressing GhWRKY41 exhibited enhanced stomatal closure when they were exposed to osmotic stress. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GhWRKY41 may enhance plant tolerance to stress by functioning as a positive regulator of stoma closure and by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging and the expression of antioxidant genes.

  2. Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac?+?CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac?+?CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is increasingly planted throughout China. However, negative effects of this cultivar on the honey bee Apis mellifera L., the most important pollinator for cultivated ecosystem, remained poorly investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential side effects of transgenic Cry1Ac?+?CpTI pollen from cotton on young adult honey bees A. mellifera L. Two points emphasized the significance of our study: (1) A higher expression level of inse...

  3. Effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on the N-fertilizer use efficiency, lint properties and seed cotton yield using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, Kh

    2001-12-01

    Field experiment was carried out at Der El-Hajar research station during 1998 growing season to evaluate the effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on N-recovery, seed cotton yield and lint properties using 15 N isotope dilution technique. Aleppo 40 variety was tested, irrigation scheduling was set up at 80% of field capacity. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied as TSP 46% before planting at a rate of 180 kg/ha. N fertilizer was applied as urea (46%) in four different applications follows: one application 180 kg N/ha before planting (T1), two split application 180 (90 + 90) kg N/ha (T2), three equally split applications 180 (60 + 60 + 60) kg N/ha (T3), and four equally split applications 180 (45 + 45 + 45 + 45) kg N/ha (T4). Labeled N-fertilizer (5.09 a.e%) was also applied as urea 46% to the subplots (1.0 m 2 each) of the corresponding treatments. All agricultural practices were carried out as the common practices locally employed. Soil samples were analyzed for CEC, ph, EC, OM, total N, available P, and CaCO 3 as outlined by our laboratory standard procedure. Plant samples were collected at physiological maturity and analyzed for 15 N enrichment to assess N recovery. Lint samples were analyzed for lint properties. the results showed no significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer time course application on the tested parameters such as dry matter production, seed cotton yield, N uptake and lint properties. on the other hand the T2, T3 and T4 treatments where shown to have a positive significant response toward time course application relative to T1 treatment. (authors)

  4. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  5. Cotton Study: Albumin Binding and its Effect on Elastase Activity in the Chronic Non-Healing Wound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, N.; Goheen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton, as it is used in wound dressings is composed of nearly pure cellulose. During the wound-healing process, cotton is exposed to various blood components including water, salts, cells, and blood proteins. Albumin is the most prominent protein in blood. Elastase is an enzyme secreted by white blood cells and takes an active role in tissue reconstruction. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase is often over-expressed such that this enzyme digests tissue and growth factors, and interferes with the normal healing process. Our goal is to design a cotton wound dressing that will sequester elastase or assist in reducing elastase activity in the presence of other blood proteins such as albumin. The ability of cotton and various cotton derivatives to sequester elastase and albumin has been studied by examining the adsorption of these two proteins separately. We undertook the present work to confirm the binding of albumin to cotton and to quantify the activity of elastase in the presence of various derivatives of cotton. We previously observed a slight increase in elastase activity when exposed to cotton. We also observed a continuous accumulation of albumin on cotton using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. In the present study, we used an open-column-absorption technique coupled with a colorimetric protein assay to confirm losses of albumin to cotton. We have also confirmed increased elastase activity after exposure to cotton. The results are discussed in relation to the porosity of cotton and the use of cotton for treating chronic non-healing wounds.

  6. Effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of Beech (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of beech according to EN113 and ASTM-D1037 standards respectively. The heat treatment with raw cotton seed oil was carried out in the cylinder at the temperatures of 130 and 170oC for 30 and 60 minutes. Oil uptake, density, volumetric swelling, water absorption and weight loss exposed to decay were measured. Oil uptake at 30 and 60 min were determined 10.5 and 13.3 Kg/cm3 respectively. Oil-heat treated samples at 30min and 130°C indicated the maximum density with 87.7% increase. According to results, oil-heat treatment improved water repellency and dimensional stability. Water absorption in 130°C and 60 minutes decreased 76% in comparison with control. Decay resistance of oil soaked samples for 60minutes was 80.2% more than control samples. Oil-heat treatment compared with oil treatment improved decay resistance, this effect was significant at 30 min. The temperature rise of oil–heat treatment at 30 minutes improved decay resistance, but the improvement under same level of temperature with increase time was not significant.

  7. Salt Stress Effects on Secondary Metabolites of Cotton in Relation to Gene Expression Responsible for Aphid Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Many secondary metabolites have insecticidal efficacy against pests and may be affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known of how plants may respond to such stress as pertains the growth and development of pests. The objective of this study was to determine if and how salt stress on cotton plants affects the population dynamics of aphids. The NaCl treatment (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM increased contents of gossypol in cotton by 26.8-51.4%, flavonoids by 22.5-37.6% and tannic by 15.1-24.3% at 7-28 d after salt stress. Compared with non-stressed plants, the population of aphids on 150 and 200 mM NaCl stressed plants was reduced by 46.4 and 65.4% at 7d and by 97.3 and 100% at 14 days after infestation. Reductions in aphid population were possibly attributed to the elevated secondary metabolism under salt stress. A total of 796 clones for aphids transcriptome, 412 clones in the positive- library (TEST and 384 clones in the reverse-library (Ck, were obtained from subtracted cDNA libraries and sequenced. Gene ontology (GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis showed more genes related to fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, and fewer genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility pathways in TEST than in Ck library, which might be the reason of aphids population reduction. A comparative analysis with qRT-PCR indicated high expression of transcripts CYP6A14, CYP6A13, CYP303A1, NADH dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the TEST group. However, CYP307A1 and two ecdysone-induced protein genes were down regulated. The results indicate that genes of aphids related to growth and development can express at a higher level in reaction to the enhanced secondary metabolism in cotton under salinity stress. The expression of CYP307A1 was positively correlated with the population dynamics of aphids since it was involved in ecdysone synthesis.

  8. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  9. Salt-induced effects on some key morpho-physiological attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. at various growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Lubna Shaheen and Muhammad Shahbaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a multidimensional stress affecting crop yield and productivity at various levels of plant organization. To assess salt induced adverse effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., ten cultivars were grown in sand culture supplemented with full strength Hoagland’s nutrients solutions and different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Salt stress markedly reduced growth attributes, relative water contents, efficiency of photosystem II, net CO2 assimilation rate (A, transpiration rate (E and stomatal conductance in all cultivars. Reduction was maximum at the highest level of salt stress i.e. 200 mM. However, response of cotton cultivars was variable to various levels of salinity and even at various developmental stages. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 were ranked as relatively salt tolerant on the basis of their better growth performance and net CO2 assimilation rate whereas cvs. CIM-496, CIM-473 and FH-901 were relatively salt sensitive. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 exhibited high shoot fresh and dry weights, photosynthetic rate (A, and Photosystem II (Fv/Fm efficiency at both seedling and maturity growth stages. Results suggest that selection of plants having high photosynthetic rate and biomass at seedling stage may be a good source of high yield at mature stage of growth.

  10. Analyzing the Effect of Spinning Process Variables on Draw Frame Blended Cotton Mélange Yarn Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchibrata; Ghosh, Anindya; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2017-12-01

    An investigation has been made to study the effect of important spinning process variables namely shade depth, ring frame spindle speed and yarn twist multiplier (TM) on various yarn quality parameters like unevenness, strength, imperfection, elongation at break and hairiness index of draw frame blended cotton mélange yarn. Three factors Box and Behnken design of experiment has been used to conduct the study. The quadratic regression model is used to device the statistical inferences about sensitivity of the yarn quality parameters to the different process variables. The response surfaces are constructed for depicting the geometric representation of yarn quality parameters plotted as a function of process variables. Analysis of the results show that yarn strength of draw frame blended cotton mélange yarn is significantly affected by shade depth and TM. Yarn unevenness is affected by shade depth and ring frame spindle speed. Yarn imperfection level is mainly influenced by the shade depth and spindle speed. The shade depth and yarn TM have shown significant impact on yarn hairiness index.

  11. Ion transport in roots of cotton seedlings under the effect of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasymov, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It has been found that small doses (0.1 to 0.5kR) increase the ion transport (K + and Na + ) in seedling roots, and relatively high radiation doses (25 to 100 kR) markedly decrease it. ATPase activity varied with the dose. Mgsup(++)-, Na + - and K + -activated ATPases were more sensitive than a background ATPase. It is suggested that high radiation doses destroy the work of the sodium-potassium pump of cotton root cells inhibiting the activity of the transfer ATPase

  12. Gamma radiation effect on the mitochondria ultrastructure in different radiosensitive types of cotton plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanov, S V

    1973-01-01

    When germinated seeds are irradiated with a dose of 10 krad, the mitochondrial ultrastructure is disrupted in the early-ripening 1306-DV and the late-ripening S-1622 varieties of the cotton-plant. The mitochondria exhibited swelling, breakdown of internal structure and vacuolation. In the S-1622 variety the mitochondria shrink owing to their small number and larger size and to the smaller number of cristae. Changes in the ultrafine organization of mitochondria lead to inhibition of carbohydrate oxidation through the Krebs cycle and intensification of oxidation through the pentosophosphate cycle.

  13. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  14. Passive and active protection of cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochove, C. van

    1967-01-01

    In rotproofing of cotton a distinction is made between passive and active protection. In passive protection, the structure of the cotton fibre is modified in such a way that the fibre can longer be attacked. This modification of structure can be effected on different levels: microscopical,

  15. Effect of different rates of potassium fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and cotton yield using an 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Chamma'a, M.; Al-Ain, F.

    2005-03-01

    A field study was carried out during the 2003 growing season on a loamy to sandy clay loamy soil, located at the Lower Euphrate's Valley, 15 km southeast of Deir - Ezzor city to evaluate the effect of K fertilizer on nitrogen , potassium use efficiency and cotton yield. Three nitrogen ( N1 =120, N2 =180, and N3 = 240 kg N / ha ) and four potassium application rates ( K0 = 0 , K1 = 50, K2 = 100, K3 = 150 kg K2O / ha ) were employed. The cotton variety was Deir 22 sown on April 2003 at a spacing of 70 cm between rows and 20 cm between pits with 5 seeds per pit. The plants were thinned to 2 plants per pit 4 weeks after planting. Representative samples of aboveground portions of cotton plants were harvested from labeled subplots at 108 and 161 days after planting . Dry matter weight , N uptake, N fertilizer yield, N use efficiency, K use efficiency, seed cotton yield, earliness, leaf area, number of bolls / plant, and number of branches / plant were evaluated. The results showed that seed cotton yield increased with increasing K levels applied under each rate of N ( except N120 ). The highest seed cotton yield was obtained with the combined treatment N3K1 ( 6442 kg/ha ). This treatment gave also the optimum potassium use efficiency ( 42 % ). Nitrogen use efficiency (at 180 days of harvest ) increased with the increasing K application rate. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was decreased with increasing N rates . Increasing K application rate ( KUE ) decreased potassium use efficiency. A maximum N use efficiency ( 98% ) was obtained for combined treatment N2 K3. Also the results indicated that dry matter weight and N uptake increased with increasing K rates applied. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff ) was higher in combined treatments than the control treatments (K0 ). (Authors)

  16. Effect of radioactive irradiation and subsequent storage on supermolecular structure and some properties of cotton cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratov, A.; Vakhidov, N.; Razikov, K.Kh.; Yul'chibaeva, S.G.; Usmanov, Kh.U.

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscope study of the submolecular structure of cotton cellulose immediately after 60 Co gamma irradiation and after subsequent storage in vacuum and in air is presented. Changes in some physical chemical properties of the irradiated cellulose preparations were also studied. The data obtained indicate the relaxation nature of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the irradiated fibers during storage. At first (immediately after irradiation) there is some disintegration in the fine structure of the fiber - the sample density decreases, the total heat of wetting increases, and the shear strength of the fiber decreases, and then these properties are restored. After a 3-year vacuum storage, of irradiated fibers, recovery of the structure of all parts of the fiber was complete; and for those irradiated in air, the differences were mainly in the structure of the surface layer. This is due to an irreversible process - oxidation or the irradiated cellulose by oxygen of the air during long storage (presence of long-lived radicals). Hydrolysis of irradiated cotton during storage was also studied. The hydrolyzability of irradiated fibers stored both in vacuum and in air increased over the original values, more in air than in vacuum

  17. POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR COTTON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITOR MARQUES VIDAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton has great socio-economic importance due to its use in textile industry, edible oil and biodiesel production and animal feed. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify the best potassium rate and soil management for cotton crops and select among cultivars, the one that better develops in the climatic conditions of the Cerrado biome in the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thus, the effect of five potassium rates (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1 of K2O and two soil management systems (no-till and conventional tillage on the growth, development and reproduction of four cotton cultivars (BRS-371, BRS-372, BRS-286 and BRS-201 was evaluated. The data on cotton growth and development were subjected to analysis of variance; the data on potassium rates were subjected to regression analysis; and the data on cultivars and soil management to mean test. The correlation between the vegetative and reproductive variables was also assessed. The conventional tillage system provides the best results for the herbaceous cotton, regardless of the others factors evaluated. The cultivar BRS-286 has the best results in the conditions evaluated. The cultivar BRS-371 under no-till system present the highest number of fruiting branches at a potassium rate of 105.5% and highest number of floral buds at a potassium rate of 96.16%. The specific leaf area was positively correlated with the number of bolls per plant at 120 days after emergence of the herbaceous cotton.

  18. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in

  19. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  20. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  1. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  2. Non-conventional procedure of polarimetry data inversion in conditions of comparable Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A.; Chrzanowski, J.; Mazon, D.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for inverting plasma polarimetry data is proposed in this paper. The procedure is based on the fit between a two parameter knowledge-based plasma model, which is using both magnetic and Thompson scattering data, and the polarimetric measurements. In turn the polarimetry system is assumed to measure two angular parameters of polarization: its azimuthal and ellipticity angles. The inversion procedure under consideration is based on the angular variables technique (AVT), describing evolution of the angular parameters of polarization ellipse in weakly anisotropic plasma. Generally inversion procedure can be applied both for weak and significant Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects. For weak polarimetric effects inversion procedure shows the results of traditional polarimetry.

  3. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  4. Positive effects of creating mandalas

    OpenAIRE

    Toroš, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present master’s thesis is to examine the psychological effects of creating mandalas and to give recommendations for a better use of the mandalas in the practice of art assistance in order to help in this way others and oneself. Mandalas are sacred symbols, used in Hinduism and Buddhist religion practices as tools for meditation and concentration. They are geometrical representations of the creation of the cosmos and schemas of all that was created. Jung sat the foundations...

  5. Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T A; Leser, J F; Keeling, J W; Mullinix, B

    2008-06-01

    Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log(10) (J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log(10)(J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18 degrees C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10 degrees C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty.

  6. Study of radiation induced grafting of [(methacryloylamino)-propyl] trimethyl ammonium chlorite (MPTAC) on to cotton fabrics and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selambakkannu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium salt, [(methacryloylamino)-propyl] trimethyl ammonium chlorite (MPTAC) had been used as monomer in mutual radiation grafting process on cotton fabrics with the aid of high energy gamma radiation source. The polymer chains of MPTAC were successfully grafted covalently onto cotton fabrics. Effect of selected experimental variables such as irradiation dose, monomer concentration, and ambient conditions and effect of inhibitors on extent of grafting had been analyzed. Grafting yield increases steadily with monomer concentration. The highest grafting yield obtained at 2 kGy and reduces thereafter then become almost constant at higher dose range. The grafted samples characterized for its surface morphology. Finally the grafted cotton subjected to its dye uptake capacity and antibacterial efficacy. The grafted cotton fiber was used in absorption studies of aqueous basic dye solution, namely AB74. The grafted cotton posses very good dye uptake capacity. The maximum dye uptake capacity of the grafted cotton sample was 150 mg/g. Antibacterial efficacy has been tested by qualitative and quantitative methods against model bacteria S. aureus and E. coli from gram positive and gram negative respectively. 20 % grafted cotton was found to be responsible of 2 log cycle reductions for the E.coli and S.aureus colonies. (author)

  7. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  8. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Water Stress on Protein and Phenolic Contents in Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Muhammad, S.; Murtaza, G.; Ahmad, I.; Shakeel, A.; Islam, M.; Ahmad, M.; Abdullah, M.

    2015-01-01

    Crop quality and production are affected by various fertilizers and water stress. In present research, the response of cotton variety CIM-496 to water stress and phosphorus fertilizer was investigated. Samples were collected after 90 days of planting. Kjeldahl method and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of total protein and phenolic compounds, respectively. Proteins were greatly affected by fertilizer treatment and water stress, but phenolic compounds remained unchanged upon fertilizer treatment. However, they were greatly affected by irrigation and water stress. Crop treated with 100 kg ha/sup -1/ P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ under water stress maintained high protein content as compared to unfertilized and no water stress treatments. However, phenolic compounds were found higher in fully irrigated plants as compared to water stress ones. Fertilizer treatments had no considerable effect on phenolic compounds. (author)

  9. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  10. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  11. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  12. A prospective study on the effectiveness of cotton versus waterproof cast padding in maintaining the reduction of pediatric distal forearm fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christopher E; Jiang, Jimmy J; Khoury, Joseph G

    2011-03-01

    Distal forearm fractures, one of the most common fractures seen in the pediatric population, are regularly treated by closed reduction and casting. Our study investigates the effectiveness of Gore-Tex-lined casting in maintaining the reduction of 100% displaced distal forearm fractures compared with traditional cotton-lined casts. We screened all patients from February 2007 to July 2009 who presented to Children's Hospital in Birmingham, AL with a distal radius fracture. Only patients with 100% displaced distal radius fractures were eligible to be assigned to either the cotton-lined or Gore-Tex-lined cast groups. Power analysis was performed to identify an adequate patient sample size. The mean maximum change between initial post-reduction x-rays and follow-up x-rays for anterior-posterior (AP) angulation, AP displacement, lateral angulation, and lateral displacement of the radius were calculated for both cotton and Gore-Tex groups. The rate of subsequent intervention and/or unacceptable results for each group was also analyzed. Seven hundred and twenty-two patients were treated with distal radius fractures at our hospital with 59 patients eligible for inclusion in our study. Thirty-six of our patients were treated with cotton-lined casts, and 23 patients were treated with Gore-Tex-lined cast. The mean maximum change in AP angulation, AP displacement, lateral angulation, and lateral displacement of the radius after initial reduction was 9.2 degrees, 6.9%, 13.9 degrees, and 13.6%, respectively, for the cotton-lined cast group and 7.7 degrees, 6.1%, 14.6 degrees, and 9.6%, respectively, for the Gore-Tex-lined cast group. There were no statistical differences between the means of the 4 measurements (P=0.33, 0.69, 0.73, and 0.10, respectively). There were also no significant differences between groups for final AP and lateral angulation and displacement. Subgroup analysis showed no significant differences in all measurements between cotton and Gore-Tex groups. Gore

  13. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  15. Pantoea agglomerans : a marvelous bacterium of evil and good. Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans , Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  16. [Effects of nitrogen and irrigation water application on yield, water and nitrogen utilization and soil nitrate nitrogen accumulation in summer cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhuan Yun; Gao, Yang; Shen, Xiao Jun; Liu, Hao; Gong, Xue Wen; Duan, Ai Wang

    2017-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen and irrigation water application on growth, yield, and water and nitrogen use efficiency of summer cotton, and to develop the optimal water and nitrogen management model for suitable yield and less nitrogen loss in summer cotton field in the Huang-Huai region. Two experimental factors were arranged in a split plot design. The main plots were used for arranging nitrogen factor which consisted of five nitrogen fertilizer le-vels(0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kg·hm -2 , referred as N 0 , N 1 , N 2 , N 3 , N 4 ), and the subplots for irrigation factor which consisted of three irrigation quota levels (30, 22.5, 15 mm, referred as I 1 , I 2 , I 3 ). There were 15 treatments with three replications. Water was applied with drip irrigation system. Experimental results showed that both irrigation and nitrogen fertilization promoted cotton growth and yield obviously, but nitrogen fertilizer showed more important effects than irrigation and was the main factor of regulating growth and yield of summer cotton in the experimental region. With the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate and irrigation amount, the dry mater accumulation of reproductive organs, the above-ground biomass at the flowering-bolling stage and seed cotton yield increased gradually, reached peak values at nitrogen fertilization rate of 180 kg·hm -2 and decreased slowly with the nitrogen fertilization rate further increased. The maximum yield of 4016 kg·hm -2 was observed in the treatment of N 3 I 1 . Increasing nitrogen fertilizer amount would improve significantly total N absorption of shoots and N content of stem and leaf, but decrease nitrogen partial factor productivity. The maximum irrigation-water use efficiency of 5.40 kg·m -3 and field water use efficiency of 1.24 kg·m -3 were found in the treatments of N 3 I 3 and N 3 I 1 , respectively. With increasing nitrogen fertilization amount, soil NO 3 - -N content increased and the main soil

  17. Cadmium-induced functional and ultrastructural alterations in roots of two transgenic cotton cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.K.; Sun, Yuqiang; Dawood, M. [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Hayat, Y. [Institute of Bioinformatics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Variath, M.T.; Wu Yuxiang [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Raziuddin [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Mishkat, Ullah [Zoological Sciences Division, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Garden Avenue, Shakarparian, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Salahuddin [District Agriculture Extension Offices, Bannu Road, Dera Ismail Khan (NWFP) (Pakistan); Najeeb, Ullah [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhu, Shuijin [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: shjzhu@zju.edu.cn

    2009-01-15

    The toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) at increasing concentrations was studied with special attention being given to the root morphological and ultrastructural changes in two transgenic cotton cultivars viz. BR001 and GK30 and their wild relative viz. Coker 312. In comparison to their respective controls, low concentration (10 and 100 {mu}M) of Cd greatly stimulated seed germination, while it was inhibited by highest concentration of Cd (1000 {mu}M) in case of two transgenic cultivars. However, in Coker 312 the seed germination percentage progressively decreased over the control at all Cd levels. Various physiological and morphological parameters of the root and whole plant in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their relative wild cotton genotype respond differently towards the Cd toxicity. Bioavailability of Cd was concentration-dependent where seedling root captured more Cd as compared to shoot. BR001 accumulated more Cd followed by GK30, while Coker 312 was less Cd accumulator. The ultrastructural modifications in the root tip cells of both the transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative were also dose-dependent. With the increase in Cd levels, the fine structures of their root cells also invariably changed. Increase in plasmolysis of the plasma membrane, greater number of nucleoli and vacuoles and enlarged vacuoles could be observed in both transgenic cotton cultivars. In comparison to them, Coker 312 showed relatively well developed ultrastructures of the root tips except enlarged vacuoles and greater number of mitochondria. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd in the form of electron dense granules and crystals both in vacuoles and attached to cell walls were visible in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative. These results suggest that both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative cotton genotype responded positively towards Cd stress at seedling stage, the internal Cd-detoxification might be through apoplastic and symplastic

  18. Cadmium-induced functional and ultrastructural alterations in roots of two transgenic cotton cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.K.; Sun, Yuqiang; Dawood, M.; Hayat, Y.; Variath, M.T.; Wu Yuxiang; Raziuddin; Mishkat, Ullah; Salahuddin; Najeeb, Ullah; Zhu, Shuijin

    2009-01-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) at increasing concentrations was studied with special attention being given to the root morphological and ultrastructural changes in two transgenic cotton cultivars viz. BR001 and GK30 and their wild relative viz. Coker 312. In comparison to their respective controls, low concentration (10 and 100 μM) of Cd greatly stimulated seed germination, while it was inhibited by highest concentration of Cd (1000 μM) in case of two transgenic cultivars. However, in Coker 312 the seed germination percentage progressively decreased over the control at all Cd levels. Various physiological and morphological parameters of the root and whole plant in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their relative wild cotton genotype respond differently towards the Cd toxicity. Bioavailability of Cd was concentration-dependent where seedling root captured more Cd as compared to shoot. BR001 accumulated more Cd followed by GK30, while Coker 312 was less Cd accumulator. The ultrastructural modifications in the root tip cells of both the transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative were also dose-dependent. With the increase in Cd levels, the fine structures of their root cells also invariably changed. Increase in plasmolysis of the plasma membrane, greater number of nucleoli and vacuoles and enlarged vacuoles could be observed in both transgenic cotton cultivars. In comparison to them, Coker 312 showed relatively well developed ultrastructures of the root tips except enlarged vacuoles and greater number of mitochondria. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd in the form of electron dense granules and crystals both in vacuoles and attached to cell walls were visible in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative. These results suggest that both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative cotton genotype responded positively towards Cd stress at seedling stage, the internal Cd-detoxification might be through apoplastic and symplastic binding

  19. Living Mulch Performance in a Tropical Cotton System and Impact on Yield and Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Bhaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a major crop in the Vidarbha region of central India. The vertisol soils on which much of the cotton is grown have been severely degraded by the tropical climate, excessive tillage and depletion of organic matter. Living mulches have the ability to mitigate these problems but they can cause crop losses through direct competition with the cotton crop and unreliable weed control. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at four locations in Vidarbha to study the potential for growing living mulches in mono-cropped cotton. Living mulch species evaluated included gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], sesbania [Sesbania sesban (L. Merr.], sorghum sudan grass [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench × Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench ssp. Drummondii (Nees ex Steud. de Wet & Harlan] and sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Living mulch height was controlled through mowing and herbicides were not used. Living mulches generated 1 to 13 tons ha−1 of dry matter across sites and years. Weed cover was negatively correlated with both living mulch biomass and cover. Where living mulches were vigorous and established quickly, weed cover was as low as 7%, without the use of herbicides, or inter-row tillage. In a dry year, living mulch growth had a negative impact on cotton yield; however, in a year when soil moisture was not limiting, there was a positive relationship between cotton yield and living mulch biomass. Use of living mulches in cotton production in the Vidarbha region of India is feasible and can lead to both effective weed suppression and acceptable cotton yields.

  20. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  1. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-11

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  2. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: effect of bloom period of infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    Verde plant bugs, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), were released onto caged cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L., for a 1-wk period to characterize the effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton injury and yield in 2011 and 2012, Corpus Christi, TX. When plants were infested during early bloom (10-11 nodes above first white flower), a linear decline in fruit retention and boll load and a linear increase in boll injury were detected as verde plant bug infestation levels increased from an average of 0.5 to 4 bugs per plant. Lint and seed yield per plant showed a corresponding decline. Fruit retention, boll load, and yield were not affected on plants infested 1 wk later at peak bloom (8-9 nodes above first white flower), even though boll injury increased as infestation levels increased. Second-year testing verified boll injury but not yield loss, when infestations occurred at peak bloom. Incidence of cotton boll rot, known to be associated with verde plant bug feeding, was low to modest (verde plant bug were important contributors to yield decline, damage potential was greatest during the early bloom period of infestation, and a simple linear response best described the yield response-insect density relationship at early bloom. Confirmation that cotton after peak bloom was less prone to verde plant bug injury and an early bloom-specific economic injury level were key findings that can improve integrated pest management decision-making for dryland cotton, at least under low-rainfall growing conditions.

  4. Emotional Effects of Positive Forms of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Валентиновна Ионова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of emotional significance of a positive form of speech. Based on the methodology of emotions linguistics, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and the methods of description, comparison and discourse analysis, the author distinguishes some types of speech situations that demonstrate visible differences between positive expression of emotions and their content and the pragmatic effect. The difference between the notions of “positive communication” and “positive form of communication” is demonstrated. Special attention is given to the following types of positive emotional communication: tolerant emotional communication, emotional emphasis, emotional neglect, and emotional tabooing. The utterances in situations of real and textual communication demonstrate negative effects of statements expressed in a positive form and identify the specifics of positive forms of emotional communication in comparison with rational communication.

  5. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY... Assistance Program (EAAP) and clarifying the definition of ``active shipping order.'' DATES: Effective Date... address that matter this rule amends in the payment calculation for semi-processed and reginned motes in 7...

  6. Effect of Lowering Twist Levels on Quality Parameters of Rotor Spun Cotton Yarn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAROOQ AHMED

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made to explore the influence of lowering twist level on quality characteristics of rotor spun yarn. Three levels of yarn linear density (i.e. 40, 35 and 30 tex and five levels of twist (i.e. 700, 600, 550, 500, and 450 were employed during yarn spinning trials. Each twist multiple was investigated at all linear densities for tensile strength, elongation, total CVm (Coefficient of Mass Variation imperfection index and hairiness. 100% cotton yarn samples were prepared on Reiter R-40 at rotor speed of 90,000 rpm. Determination of elongation, yarn strength, hairiness, mass variation, and total imperfections index was carried out on Uster Tensorapid-4 and Uster Tester-4 as per set standards of ISO standard test methods. Based on investigations it is established that yarn strength and elongation declined minutely (Insignificant with lowering twist levels but still can be confidently used for knitting yarns. However, significant improvement in total imperfection index and marginal enhancement in CVm were experienced.

  7. Emotional Effects of Positive Forms of Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Валентиновна Ионова

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problem of emotional significance of a positive form of speech. Based on the methodology of emotions linguistics, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and the methods of description, comparison and discourse analysis, the author distinguishes some types of speech situations that demonstrate visible differences between positive expression of emotions and their content and the pragmatic effect. The difference between the notions of “positive communication” and “pos...

  8. Locally Grown: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions About Organic Cotton Production and Manufacturing Between Mississippi Cotton Growers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland and Reproduction of Female Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Rahman, H.A.; Sallam, H.; El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Female pupae of the cotton leaf worm were gamma irradiated at different ages with different doses to study the histology of the female sex pheromone gland in normal and irradiated produced moths. Reproduction of adult produced from irradiated full grown pupae was also investigated. The gland of normal female moth is found in the ninth abdominal segment, which is usually invaginated in the 8 th segment. It is formed of enlarged glandular epithelial cells under the cuticle. These epithelial cells are deeply invaginated in side the body cavity to form paired pouches and a sac-like structure. From each glandular cell there grows one long hair. in females emerging from 3 day-old pupae irradiated with 60 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells, became loose and were separated from each other, their nuclei were not clear. The pouches were randomly distributed. Gamma radiation effects were also noticed in case of 6 day-old pupae irradiated with 120 Gy. In addition, the glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape, with the appearance of some vacuoles between them. When full grown pupae were irradiated with 200 or 350 Gy the glands of emerged adult showed increasing vacuoles, cytoplasm deterioration and more destruction of pouches. Irradiating full-grown female pupae with 200 and 350 Gy decreased significantly the fecundity and egg hatch ability of the emerging adult females. The effect was dose dependent and the dose of 350 Gy almost prevented egg hatching

  10. Superoleophobic cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, B.; Shao, Z.; With, de G.; Ming, W.

    2009-01-01

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we

  11. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  12. The "Cotton Problem"

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2005-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in many developing economies, supporting the livelihoods of millions of poor households. In some countries it contributes as much as 40 percent of merchandise exports and more than 5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The global cotton market, however, has been subject to numerous policy interventions, to the detriment of nonsubsidized producers. This ...

  13. The seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the "seesaw effect." Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates

  14. Cotton Leaf worm: Inherited Effects of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on The Progeny of Irradiated Males. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; El-Naggar, S M; Shible, M M [Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, (Egypt); El-Dessouki, S A; El-Awady, S M [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Full grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50,75, and 100 Gy. The effects on reproduction, development and sex ratio were the biological aspects studied among P{sub 1}, F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3} generations. Fecundity of normal females mated with F{sub 1} or F{sub 2} males was significantly reduced for all doses. The F{sub 1} males were more sterile than their irradiated parental males, while F{sub 2} males were more fertile F{sub 1} males. Irradiation of P{sub 1} males did not clearly affect neither the percentage of mated females nor the average number of spermatophores per mated females among the individuals of P{sub 1}, F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3} generations. The percent of larvae surviving to the adult stage was gradually decreased by increasing dose to P{sub 1} male throughout the first three filial generation. The average larval and pupal durations were not affected among the progeny of P{sub 1} males for both males and females. The sex ratio among the progeny of irradiated males was nearly 1:1. 3 tabs.

  15. Cotton Leaf worm: Inherited Effects of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on The Progeny of Irradiated Males. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.M.; Shible, M.M.; El-Dessouki, S.A.; El-Awady, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50,75, and 100 Gy. The effects on reproduction, development and sex ratio were the biological aspects studied among P 1 , F 1 , F 2 , F 3 generations. Fecundity of normal females mated with F 1 or F 2 males was significantly reduced for all doses. The F 1 males were more sterile than their irradiated parental males, while F 2 males were more fertile F 1 males. Irradiation of P 1 males did not clearly affect neither the percentage of mated females nor the average number of spermatophores per mated females among the individuals of P 1 , F 1 , F 2 , F 3 generations. The percent of larvae surviving to the adult stage was gradually decreased by increasing dose to P 1 male throughout the first three filial generation. The average larval and pupal durations were not affected among the progeny of P 1 males for both males and females. The sex ratio among the progeny of irradiated males was nearly 1:1. 3 tabs

  16. Evaluation of Brevibacillus brevis as a potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Vibha; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Choudhary, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to isolate, screen and evaluate a selected promising PGPR Brevibacillus brevis on cotton crop. Out of 156 bacterial isolates one of the most promising isolate was analyzed for the various PGP traits. A seed germination analysis was conducted with cotton seeds to evaluate the potential of the isolate to promote plant growth. The bacterial isolate was checked for its growth and survival at high temperatures. The isolate was also analyzed for the PGP traits exhibited after the heat treatment. To identify the isolate morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed. The isolate was found positive for many of the PGP attributes like IAA, ARA, anti-fungal activity and ammonia production. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters was used as an indicator. The isolate showed significant growth and exhibited various PGP traits at high temperature making it suitable as an inoculant for cotton crop. Isolate was identified as Brevibacillus brevis [SVC(II)14] based on phenotypic as well as genotypic attributes and after conducting this research we propose that the B. brevis which is reported for the first time for its PGP potential in cotton, exerts its beneficial effects on cotton crop through combined modes of actions.

  17. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  18. Effect of fire retardants on cotton fabric grafted with acrylic acid by EB radiation: a thermal analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, D.; Sabharwal, S.; Majali, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation technique has been utilized to graft acrylic acid to cotton fabric in order to provide suitable functional groups that can subsequently react with urea or borax for making the fabric fire resistant. Thermal analytical technique such as, DSC and TG have been utilized to investigate the flame retardency characteristic of the grafted and treated fabric. The result shows that decay curve of exothermic peak due to combustion of cotton fabric in case of urea treated fabric at 330 degC becomes broad and shifts to higher temperature in DSC analysis as compared to pure cotton fabric and char residue in TG analysis is 20% in both the case. In borax treated fabric, char residue is found to be 40% in TG analysis and DSC profile is similar to that of urea treated fabric. (author)

  19. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  20. Effect of chitosan-nanosilica self-assembly layers chitosan- on cotton linter fibers and the paper properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrineh M.Tavakoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties of cellulosic fibers can be modified by Layer-by-Layer (LbL technique. Cotton fibers are one of important non-wood and industrial cellulosic resources in the world. Cotton linters is produced as a by-product accompany with cotton fibers which is used as a significant cellulosic sources in paper industry for producing durable paper. In this research, the influence of alternate adsorption of cationic chitosan and anionic Nanosilica on modification of fiber surface of cotton linter was investigated. The adsorption of materials on cellulosic fibers was analyzed via electrolyte titration. Experiments were conducted at pH≈3-4 for formation of cationic layer and pH≈9-10 for formation of anionic layer applying stirring rate of about 750rpm, for15 minute deposition time to construct 1 to 3 layers. Hand sheets of about 60 g/ m2 basis weight were made form modified pulp fibers prepared by multilayering of chitosan and nanosilica, then their structural properties and bonding ability were evaluated. Bonding ability of fibers was improved by polyelectrolyte multilayering (PEM on the surface of cotton linter fibers which was visualized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM.The results showed that apparent density and also bonding ability was improved in the treated fibers because of the increased electrostatic attraction between polycation and anion sites existed on the fiber surface. Apparant density of paper was improved remarkably compared to the untreated fibers. Tensile index of the sheet was increased about 16% with consecutive adsorption onto the cotton linter fibers compared to untreated fibers. Formation index of paper was slightly deteriorated after polyelectrolytes multilayering.

  1. Effects of variable-row-spacing harvesting picker platform scraping plates on cotton fiber quality and quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Michele de Campos Baraviera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing demands for high-quality cotton fibers that meet the textile industry quality standards. Concurrently, there have been efforts to reduce contaminants during harvesting to reduce harvesting costs. The goal of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the picker platform with Variable-Row-Spacing (VRS for harvesting cotton in narrow rows, over two harvest seasons in two regions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In this study, how the presence vs. absence of scraping plates and variations in travel speed was related to quantifiable levels of impurities the harvested fibers was examined. The research was divided into three experiments (Exp. I, II, and III, using cotton varieties FM 975 WS, IMA 5672 B2 RF, and IMA 5675 B2 RF, with row spacing of 0.45 m. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 ? 3 factorial design, using the presence/absence of the plate and three speeds (0.61, 1.0, and 1.42 m·s-¹, with seven repetitions, totaling 42 experimental plots. The plot size was 108 m² (3.6 ? 30 m. The data were analyzed using the F test in ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed that scraping plates increased the number of stems and cones, and reduced the harvest efficiency of cotton planted in narrow rows in the region of Sorriso-MT during the 2013/2014 harvest. For the 2014/2015 harvest, the highest speed and the presence of the scraping plates increased the number of cones in the cotton samples. In the experiment conducted in Serra da Petrovina, the removal of the scraping plates decreased the amount of cones in the harvested cotton.

  2. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  3. Problems and achievements of cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. weeds control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Weed control in the cultivation of cotton is critical to the yield and quality of production. The influence of economically important weeds was studied. Chemical control is the most effective method of weed control in cotton but much of the information on it relates to primary weed infestation. Problems with primary weed infestation in cotton have been solved to a significant extent. The question of secondary weed infestation with annual and perennial graminaceous weeds during the period of cotton vegetation is also determined largely by the use of antigraminaceous herbicides. The data related to herbicides to effectively control secondary germinated broadleaf weeds in conventional technology for cotton growing are quite scarce, even globally. We are still seeking effective herbicides for control of these weeds in cotton crops. Studies on their influence on the sowing characteristics of cotton seed and the quality of cotton fiber are still insufficient. In the scientific literature there is not enough information on these questions. The combinations of herbicides, as well as their tank mixtures with fertilizers or plant growth regulators are more efficient than autonomous application. Often during their combined application higher synergistic effect on yield is produced. There is information about cotton cultivars resistant to glyphosate. These cultivars are GMO and they are banned within the European Union, including Bulgaria.

  4. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... as backdrop in GIS environment. Positional error of ... integrated dataset obviously bore the cumulative effect of the input datasets. ... change. The shoreline, which is the interface between land ... modelling, which enables future shoreline change trend to ..... as gaps due to cloud cover and limitation of the.

  5. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  6. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v microcapsules increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  7. Effect of carrageenan on properties of biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch/low-density polyethylene composites reinforced by cotton fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachayawarakorn, Jutarat; Pomdage, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We prepared the TPCS/LDPE composites modified by carrageenan and/or cotton fibers. • The IR O–H stretching peak of the modified composites shifts to lower wavenumber. • Stress and Young’s modulus of the modified composites increase significantly. • The modified composites degrade faster than the non-modified composite. - Abstract: Applications of biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS) have been restricted due to its poor mechanical properties, limited processability and high water uptake. In order to improve properties and processability, thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) was compounded with low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The TPCS/LDPE blend was, then, modified by a natural gelling agent, i.e. carrageenan and natural fibers, i.e. cotton fibers. All composites were compounded and processed using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/LDPE composites significantly increased by the addition of the carrageenan and/or the cotton fibers. The highest mechanical properties were obtained from the TPCS/LDPE composites modified by both the carrageenan and the cotton fibers. Percentage water absorption of all of the TPCS/LDPE composites was found to be similar. All modified composites were also degraded easier than the non-modified one. Furthermore, all the composites were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  8. Lasting effects of soil health improvements with management changes in cotton-based cropping systems in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil microbial component is essential for sustainable agricultural systems and soil health. This study evaluated the lasting impacts of 5 years of soil health improvements from alternative cropping systems compared to intensively tilled continuous cotton (Cont. Ctn) in a low organic matter sandy...

  9. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C W; Lam, Y L; Yuen, C W M; Luximon, A; Lau, K W; Chen, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  10. Positive mood effects on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-10-01

    Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Competição de plantas daninhas com a cultura do algodoeiro Effect of weed competition on cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Cia

    1978-01-01

    comprimento e índice Pressley.The effect of weed competition on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. was evaluated in the Centro Experimental de Campinas and the Estação Experimental de Tietê during the 1970/71, 1971/72 and 1972/73 agricultural seasons. In the first season, competition periods of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 or 120 days, after emergence were studied, compared to checks always either with or without weeds. In the next seasons, competition was studied during the first 10, 20, 30 or 40 days after emergence, or after these periods, until harvest, maintained previously weed free for these different periods and afterwards competition was allowed until harvest. The experimental plots had four rows of five meters, distributed in randomized blocks with five or six replications. For evaluation of the competition effects the following parameters were considered: number, fresh and dry weights of weeds, after each competition period; fiber percentage, boll and seed weight, cotton yield, fiber length uniformity, Micronaire, Pressley and maturity, at harvest. The results showed a lower yield of cotton when the competition period was longer than 20 days after emergence. When the crop was maintained weed free for the first 30 to 40 days yield was similar to the completely weed free treatment. Competition periods of 90 days or longer determined negative effect on yield. In some cases a negative effect of weed competition was observed on fiber percentage, boll and seed weight, Micronaire, fiber uniformity and Pressley.

  12. Effect of saline absorption on the flexural stress relaxation behavior of epoxy/cotton composite materials for orthopedics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxis, L. C.; Pavlou, C.; Portan, D. V.; Papanicolaou, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, a composite material consisting of a polymeric epoxy resin matrix, reinforced with forty layers of non-woven cotton fiber fabric was manufactured. The method used to manufacture the composite was the Resin Vacuum Infusion technique. This is a technique widely used for high-performance, defect-free, composite materials. Composites and neat polymers are subjected to stresses during their function, while at the same time being influenced by environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. The main goal of this study was the investigation of the degradation of composite's viscoelastic behavior, after saline absorption. At this point, it should be mentioned, that this material could be used in biomedical applications. Therefore, a sealed container full of saline was used for the immer s ion of the specimens manufactured, and was placed in a bath at 37°C (body temperature). The specimens remained there for five different immersion periods (24, 72, 144, 216, 336 hours). The viscoelastic behavior of the composite material was determined through stress relaxation under flexure conditions, and the effect of immersion time and amount of saline absorption was studied. It was observed that after 24 hours of immersion a 42% decrease in stress was observed, which in the sequence remained almost constant. The stress relaxation experimental results were predicted by using the Residua l Property Model (RPM), a model developed by Papanicolaou et al. The same model has been successfully applied in the past, to many different materials previously subjected to various types of damage, in order to predict their residual behavior. For its application, the RPM predictive model needs only two experimental points. It was found that in all cases, predictions were in good agreement with experimental findings. Furthermore, the comparison between experimental values and theoretical predictions formed the basis of useful observations and conclusions.

  13. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Wanderley, Paulo A; Malaquias, José B; Fernandes, Francisco S; Nascimento, Antônio R B; Zanuncio, José C

    2011-09-01

    This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman) at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs) in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs) and 30ºC (49.60 eggs). The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75) was greater than at 20ºC (31.40) and 30ºC (25.15). The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m) were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133% in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC) or 20 day old (at 20ºC) should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.

  14. Indian Bt cotton varieties do not affect the performance of cotton aphids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora C Lawo

    Full Text Available Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184 and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields.

  15. Theoretical and numerical evaluation of polarimeter using counter-circularly-polarized-probing-laser under the coupling between Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated an effect of an coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect to a measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method which uses counter-circular-polarized probing-laser for measuring the Faraday effect. When the coupling is small (the Faraday effect is dominant and the characteristic eigenmodes are approximately circularly polarized), the measurement signal can be algebraically expressed and it is shown that the finite effect of the coupling is still significant. When the Faraday effect is not dominant, a numerical calculation is necessary. The numerical calculation under an ITER-like condition (Bt = 5.3 T, Ip = 15 MA, a = 2 m, ne = 10(20) m(-3) and λ = 119 μm) showed that difference between the pure Faraday rotation and the measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method was an order of one degree, which exceeds allowable error of ITER poloidal polarimeter. In conclusion, similar to other polarimeter techniques, the Dodel-Kunz method is not free from the coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect.

  16. Radiation synthesis of silver nanostructures in cotton matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, Dagmara; Sartowska, Bożena

    2012-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most popular natural fibres, composed mainly of cellulose, which finds a wide range of applications in paper, textile and health care products industry. Researchers have focused their interest on the synthesis of cotton nanocomposites, which enhances its mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties by the incorporation of various nanoparticles into the cotton matrix. Silver is one of the most popular antimicrobial agents with a wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activity that results from a complex mechanism of its interactions with the cells of harmful microorganism. In this work, electron beam radiation was applied to synthesise silver nanostructures in cotton fibres. Investigations of the influence of the initial silver salt concentration on the size and distribution of the obtained silver nanostructures were carried out. A detailed characterisation of these nanocomposites with SEM-BSE and EDS methods was performed. TGA and DSC analyses were performed to assess the influence of different size silver nanoparticles and the effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of cotton fibres. A microbiological investigation to determine the antibacterial activity of Ag-cotton nanocomposites was carried out. - Highlights: ► Ag NPs embedded in cotton matrix were synthesised by electron beam irradiation. ► Concentration of silver salt solution influences on size of silver nanoparticles. ► Silver content as well as irradiation affect thermal properties of cotton fabrics. ► Ag-cotton nanocomposites exhibit antibacterial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  17. Photoelectric effect photon beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Stability of the electron orbit is of critical importance at the NSLS. Many experimenters utilizing the NSLS photon beams can take full advantage of the small transverse dimensions of the source only if the electron orbit variation is kept below 10 to 20% of the transverse electron bunch size. Clearly the first step in a program to stabilize the orbit is to develop position monitors with the required sensitivity, reliability and dynamic range. Of great importance are monitors detecting the photon beams themselves, and also monitors measuring the position of the electron beam. In this section the authors discuss photon beam position monitors utilizing the photoelectric effects, and in the following section the use of capacitively coupled pick-up electrodes to detect electron beam position will be described. In what follows they shall proceed to consider two generic types of monitor geometries (1) Gap monitors, which are designed with the idea that the fringes of the synchrotron radiation will be measured, and the hot or fundamental beam will pass through the monitor unimpeded. (2) Area monitors, which are comprised of two triangular elements nested together similar to the electrodes of a split ion chamber or the diodes described by Siddons and Kraner or Mitsuhashi et al

  18. Effect of chitosan on resist printing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... levels may cause the dyes to form a partial covalent bond with chitosan, thereby diminishing the resist-printing effect. In such a case, the resist printing would not be linear as a function of chitosan concentration. Red 184 exhibited the highest resist-printing effect, followed by. Blue 204 and Yellow 143.

  19. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: II. Insecticide residues and impact on dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, K.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Dhawan, A.K.; Dureja, P.

    2001-01-01

    Insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages post crop emergence in cotton fields and soil was sampled at regular intervals after each treatment. Soil was analysed for insecticide residues and activity of the enzymes dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Insecticide residues detected in the soil were in small quantities and they did not persist for long. Only endosulfan leached below 15 cm. Insecticides had only temporary effects on enzyme activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment or by the end of the experimental period. (author)

  20. The combined effect of irradiation and chlorpyrifos on the cotton leaf worm spodoptera littoralis (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banby, M.A., Souka, S.R.; Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; El-Shall, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The combined treatment of L D 10 chlorpyrifos and radiation had no deleterious effects on adult emergence, adult longevity or number of spermatophores per mated female, whereas it caused considerable reduction in both fecundity and egg hatchability as compared with the effect of radiation alone. Treating larvae with L D 10 insecticide or irradiating their male pupae (each treatment separately) did not affect the percentage of mated females, while combining both treatment on females slightly decreased this percentage.3 tab

  1. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF TEXTILE TRADE MANAGEMENT AND THE U.S. COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Shui, Shangnan; Wohlgenant, Michael K.; Beghin, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on the U.S. cotton industry of textile trade liberalization using a multi-market equilibrium displacement model. The simulation results suggest that textile trade liberalization would induce small changes in the total demand for U.S. cotton but would affect considerable y U.S. cotton demand structure, making U. S, cotton growers more dependent on world markets. The welfare analyses reveal that textile trade liberalization would result in a small welfare los...

  2. Cotton Trade Liberalizations and Domestic Agricultural Policy Reforms: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...

  3. Effect of urea additive on the thermal decomposition kinetics of flame retardant greige cotton nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunghyun Nam; Brian D. Condon; Robert H. White; Qi Zhao; Fei Yao; Michael Santiago Cintrón

    2012-01-01

    Urea is well known to have a synergistic action with phosphorus-based flame retardants (FRs) in enhancing the FR performance of cellulosic materials, but the effect of urea on the thermal decomposition kinetics has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the activation energy (Ea) for the thermal decomposition of greige...

  4. Field experimental design comparisons to detect field effects associated with agronomic traits in Upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field variation is one of the important factors that can have a significant impact on genetic data analysis. Ineffective control of field variation may result in an inflated residual variance and/or biased estimation of genetic variations and/or effects. In this study, we addressed this problem by m...

  5. Efficacy of some synthetic insecticides for control of cotton bollworms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Betsulfan at 3.2 l ha-1 recorded the highest and lowest yields, respectively. For effective control of cotton bollworms for maximum yield in the ecology, Thionex applied at 2.8 l ha-1 is recommended. Keywords: Control, cotton bollworms, efficacy, Ghana, synthetic insecticides. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 20, No.

  6. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  7. Biodiesel unsaturation degree effects on diesel engine NOx emissions and cotton wick flame temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Zhing Sim Shu; Bilong Bugik Clarence

    2017-01-01

    As compared with conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel has better lubricity and lower particulate matter (PM) emissions however nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generally increase in biodiesel-fuelled diesel engine. Strict regulation on NOx emissions is being implemented in current Euro 6 standard and it is expected to be tighter in next standard, thus increase of NOx cannot be accepted. In this study, biodiesel unsaturation degree effects on NOx emissions are investigated. Canola, palm and coco...

  8. Polymeric nanoencapsulation of insect repellent: Evaluation of its bioefficacy on Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population and effective impregnation onto cotton fabrics for insect repellent clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.B. Balaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diethylphenylacetamide (Bulk-DEPA, an organic insect repellent was subjected to Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG polymerization followed by Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT emulsification method to yield the polymeric nanodroplets of DEPA (Nano-DEPA. The mean hydrodynamic diameter was found to be 149 ± 1.06 nm. The efficacy of Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA was comparatively investigated on the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population. The larvicidal bioassay was performed on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and the median lethal indices (LC50 of was found to be 0.055, 0.208, 1.397 mg/L and 0.023, 0.144, 0.260 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA respectively. The histopathological studies were found to be corroborative with the larvicidal bioassay. The median knockdown indices (KD50 on 2–3 day old sucrose fed adult mosquitoes determined by WHO cone bioassay and was found to be 55.168 and 33.277 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA. The obtained results indicate the improved efficacy possessed by the Nano-DEPA as comparative to Bulk-DEPA even at lower concentrations. Further, the Nano-DEPA was impregnated onto the alginate cross-linked (ACL and Plain (PL cotton fabrics, and the Washing resistance index (WRI was determined. The obtained results indicate the higher WRI possessed by the ACL cotton fabric than the PL cotton fabric. This was owing to the effective physical entrapment of Nano-DEPA onto the alginate matrices, which was further substantiated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopic (HR-SEM studies. Overall, the present study has emphasized the benefit of formulating Bulk-DEPA into Nano-DEPA to exert higher efficacy on the mosquito population. In addition, study has provided the methodology for the effective impregnation of Nano-DEPA onto the cotton fabrics for the reliable application in long lasting insect repellent clothing.

  9. Effect of repeated applications of pesticides used on cotton on soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Soliman, S.M.; Taha, H.

    2001-01-01

    Repeated application of monocrotophos, methomyl and carbaryl for four years considerably reduced microbial counts, iron reduction, nitrification and arginine deaminase activity in soil. The microbial activities seemed to recover several weeks following pesticide application. The inhibition of enzyme activities was in general more obvious during the second to the fourth years. The maximum inhibition of iron reduction capacity and arginine deaminase activity was observed by the end of the fourth year and amounted to about 90% of control values. No pronounced effect of the used insecticides on respiration and dehydrogenase activity could be detected over the experimental period. (author)

  10. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  11. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  12. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  13. Inventories of Asian textile producers, US cotton exports, and the exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmaz Nazif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper develops a model with US cotton exports depending on the stock-to-use ratio, trade weighted exchange rates, and the relative cotton prices. The role of inventories in cotton consumption is examined in five textile producing cotton importers, China, Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea, and Taiwan. Cotton inventory dynamics is diverse among Asian textile producers. Relative prices have negative effect in all markets as expected. Exchange rate elasticities show that effects should be examined for each separate market. Changes in rates of depreciation also have stronger effects than exchange rate. Results reveal that these countries are not all that homogenous.

  14. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.H.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  15. Field Comparison of Fertigation Vs. Surface Irrigation of Cotton Crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous results of the same nature, one nitrogen rate 180 kg N ha -1 was tested under two-irrigation methods, surface irrigation and drip fertigation of cotton (Cultivar Rakka-5) for two consecutive seasons 2000 and 2001. The study aimed to answer various questions regarding the applicability of drip fertigation at farm level and the effect of its employment on yield and growth parameters, compared to surface irrigation. Nitrogen fertilizer was either injected in eight equally split applications for the drip fertigated cotton or divided in four unequally split applications as recommend by Ministry of Agriculture (20% before planting, 40% at thinning, 20% after 60 days from planting and 20% after 75 days after planting). 15 N labeled urea was used to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The experimental design was randomized block design with seven replicates. Results showed that drip fertigation led to water saving exceeding 50% in some cases. Field germination percentage was highly increased under drip- fertigated cotton relative to surface-irrigated cotton. Dry matter and seed cotton yield of surface-irrigated cotton was slightly higher than that of drip-fertigated cotton in the first growing season. The reason for that was due to the hot spill that occurred in the region, which exposed the cotton crop to water stress and consequently pushed the cotton into early flowering. Lint properties were not affected by the introduction of drip-fertigation. Actually some properties were improved relative to the standard properties identified by the cotton Bureau.Nitrogen uptake was slightly increased under drip fertigation whereas nitrogen use efficiencies were not constant along the growing seasons. The reason for that could be lateral leaching and root proliferation into the labeled and unlabeled subplots. Field water use efficiency was highly increased for both growing seasons under drip fertigation practice. The rate of field water use efficiencies

  16. Orientation of cotton growers of multan district about heal hazards and pesticide use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, Q.U.; Hussain, R.; Ali, T.; Ahmad, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton growing farmers and cotton pickers are the twin pillars of cotton growing community. Cotton growing farmers (male) are involved in monitoring of quality and quantity of cotton crops by handsome usage of pesticides for better marketing of cotton crops. Whereas, cotton pickers (female) are involved in picking of cotton mainly. To assess their knowledge and source of knowledge about pesticides related health problems, the study was designed and conducted in 20 villages of district Multan selected by multistage random sampling technique. From the selected 20 villages, from the list bearing the villages, mouzas and union councils of district Multan, 220 cotton growers and 150 cotton pickers were selected by simple random sampling technique and interviewed through a reliable and validated interview schedule. The data collected were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that 75% of cotton growing farmers were having orientation about side effects of pesticides whereas, almost 8% of cotton growers were having no knowledge about side effects of pesticides. (author)

  17. Effect of Seed Quality and Combination Fungicide-Trichoderma spp. Seed Treatments on Pre- and Postemergence Damping-Off in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Good quality seeds of cotton cultivars often escaped pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae, and they were resistant to postemergence damping-off incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Poor quality seeds, however, were highly susceptible to both phases of seedling disease and required seed treatment in order to survive. Pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae could be controlled by seed treatment with biocontrol preparations of a number of Trichoderma spp., but these treatments were much less effective in controlling postemergence disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Postemergence seedling disease can be controlled by fungicides, but they were much less effective in controlling the pre-emergence phase of the disease. Combination seed treatments of poor quality cotton seeds with fungicides and Trichoderma spp. preparations, followed by planting in pathogen-infested soil, indicated that this technique will control both phases of seedling disease. Seed treatment with either the fungicides or the biocontrol agents alone did not achieve this goal. The optimum combination treatment for disease control was that of chloroneb plus Trichoderma spp., followed by chloroneb plus metalaxyl (Deltacoat AD) plus T. virens strain G-6.

  18. Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zue Teh; Zhou Rui Min

    1984-01-01

    Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters has been studied by using X-ray diffraction, an infrared spectrometer and a viscosimeter. Average molecular weight and crystallinity of short-cotton linters and the change of reducing sugar in γ-radiation degradation were examined. It was found that cellulosic saccharification in hydrolysis was enhanced with preirradiation of linter. This probably resulted from the radiation induced change of cellulosic structure. Sensitizers to promote radiation degradation effect were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride has been found to be effective. (author)

  19. Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Treated Cotton Fabric Subjected to Zinc Oxide-Anti-Microbial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics are highly popular because of their excellent properties such as regeneration, bio-degradation, softness, affinity to skin and hygroscopic properties. When in contact with the human body, cotton fabrics offer an ideal environment for microbial growth due to their ability to retain oxygen, moisture and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and body sweat. Therefore, an anti-microbial coating formulation (Microfresh and Microban together with zinc oxide as catalyst was developed for cotton fabrics to improve treatment effectiveness. In addition, plasma technology was employed in the study which roughened the surface of the materials, improving the loading of zinc oxides on the surface. In this study, the low stress mechanical properties of plasma pre-treated and/or anti-microbial-treated cotton fabric were studied. The overall results show that the specimens had improved bending properties when zinc oxides were added in the anti-microbial coating recipe. Also, without plasma pre-treatment, anti-microbial-treatment of cotton fabric had a positive effect only on tensile resilience, shear stress at 0.5° and compressional energy, while plasma-treated specimens had better overall tensile properties even after anti-microbial treatment.

  20. Correlations and Correlated Responses in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echekwu, CA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders must be concerned with the total array of economic characters in their efforts to develop a crop variety acceptable to farmers. Their selection endeavours must therefore take into consideration how changes in one trait affect, simultaneously changes in other economic attributes. The importance of correlations and correlated responses is therefore self evident in plant breeding endeavours. In this study F3 progenies from a cross between two cotton lines SAMCOT-9 x Y422 were evaluated for two years and performance data were used to obtain correlations between nine agronomic and fibre quality traits in upland cotton. The results indicated that plant helght was significantly and positively correlated with seed cotton yield, number of sympodial and monopodial branches, seed index, fibre length and micronaire index. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between : seed cotton yield, tint percent and fibre strength and fibre length. Significant negative correlations were obtained between : plant height and lint percent ; number of monopodial branches, sympodial branches and lint percent ; fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire index. The correlated responses in the other eight traits when selection was practiced for seed cotton yield in the present study shows that it might be more profitable to practice direct selection for seed cotton yield compared to selecting for seed cotton yield through any of the other traits.

  1. Effects of source and sink manipulation on distribution of 14C-assimilate and endogenous hormone contents of high-yield cotton in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Honghai; Zhao Ruihai; Li Junhua; Zhang Yali; Zhang Wangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Effects of leaf-cutting and bud-thinning treatment on partitioning of 14 C-assimilate and endogenous hormone contents of source leaf (respective axial leaf and sympodian leaf) during flowering and boll-setting stage in high-yield cotton were studied by using Gossipium hirsutum L. cv. Xinluzao 132 as plant material. Results showed that bud-thinning reduced the peak value of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) delayed the accumulation of isopenteny ladenime and its riboside (iP + iPA), and decreased the contents of abscisic acid (ABA) zeatin and its riboside (Z + ZR) of source leaf. Thus, the export and partitioning of percentage of 14 C-assimilate in boll was significantly decreased at full bolling and boll opening stages. As a result, both of boll weight and yield in bud-thinning were significantly lower than control. Leaf-cutting significantly improved the content of cytokinins (CTKs) and the distributive percentage of 14 C-assimilates in boll. Furthermore, when leaves were cut 1/4 at anthesis, no differences were found in number of bolls per plant, boll weight and yield compared with control. These results suggested that regulating source-sink relation with key practices of cultivation would be of great importance to super-high and stable yield of cotton, as it would affect the changes of endogenous hormone levels and regulate the distribution of 14 C-assimilate between source and sink. (authors)

  2. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Large scale rearing and the effect of gamma radiation on selected life history parameters of this pest in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Daguang; Liu Xiaohui; Hu Jiangguo; Wang Endong; He Qiulan; Li Yongjun

    2002-01-01

    Effective large scale rearing of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner), has been developed in China. A 'celled unit' system was developed to replace the traditional test tube for cotton bollworm laboratory rearing. Larvae are reared at 26.5 deg. C, ∼ 70% RH, and a long day photoperiod of 14L:10D. Pupae are harvested at about day 20. Percent adult emergence is between 89-93%, and adult females lay an average of 768 eggs. Under this rearing system one generation is completed in 40-42 days and percent pupation is about 66-71%. Mature Helicoverpa armigera female and male pupae were treated with different doses of gamma radiation and out-crossed with untreated mates. Mating ability of both sexes was not affected by radiation. Treated females were highly sterile and laid significantly fewer eggs than untreated controls. Females treated with 300 Gy were completely sterile, while females treated with 250 Gy and 200 Gy still had minimal residual fertility. (author)

  3. Effectiveness of two insect growth regulators against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their impact on population densities of arthropod predators in cotton in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogi, Muhammad D; Sarfraz, Rana M; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Arif, Muhammad J; Keddie, Andrew B; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2006-10-01

    Field efficacies of two insect growth regulators (IGRs) at two recommended application rates, buprofezin at 370 and 555 g AI ha(-1) and lufenuron at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1), were determined against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), in experimental plots of cotton at the Directorate of Cotton Research, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Adverse effects of the IGRs on populations of associated arthropod predators, namely geocorids, chrysopids, coccinellids, formicids and arachnids, were also assessed. Both IGRs significantly reduced populations of B. tabaci at each application rate 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, and higher doses were more effective than lower doses. Buprofezin was not effective against H. armigera at any tested dose for any time of treatment in any spray. Lufenuron applied at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1) effectively suppressed H. armigera populations, resulting in significant reductions in crop damage. At lower doses, both IGRs appeared safe to predator populations, which did not differ significantly in IGR-treated versus untreated control plots. Population densities of formicids and coccinellids were significantly lower at high concentrations of both IGRs in treatment plots, possibly as a result of reduced prey availability. The potential role of buprofezin and lufenuron for control of B. tabaci and H. armigera in a spray programme and the likelihood of direct toxic effects of IGRs on predatory fauna of cotton are discussed.

  4. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Zhou; Wang, Jim J.; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Zengqiang; Dodla, Syam K.; Myers, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH 3 ) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH 3 and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N 2 O-N than NH 3 -N and the most N 2 O-N and NH 3 -N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH 3 -N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N 2 O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N 2 O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH 3 -N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N 2 O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO 2 -C and CH 4 -C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N 2 O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH 3 emission in the subtropical cotton production system of the

  5. Assesment of economic benefits of foliarly applied osmoprotectants in alleviating the adverse effects of water stress on growth and yield of cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Z. U.; Hussain, K.; Athar, H. U. R.

    2015-01-01

    Water stress reduces crop growth and productivity by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes. Although foliar application of osmoprotectants alleviates the detrimental effects of drought stress growth and productivity of crops, its economic benefits on large scale has not been explored yet. The studies were carried out to quantify the interactive effects of some osmoprotectantsand various watering regimes on cotton crop. The treatments consisted of water stress and osmoprotectant applications ((a) two watering regimes (well watered, 2689m /sup 3/ water; drought stressed, 2078m /sup 3/), and (b) three osmoprotectants (untreated check; water spray containing 0.1 percentage Tween-80; salicylic acid (100 mg L /sup -1/); proline (100 mg L /sup -1/); glycine betaine (100 mg L /sup -1/)) in split plot design. The crop was subjected to drought stress at day 45 after sowing, i.e. at the flowering stage. The solutions of osmoprotectants were foliarly applied after two weeks of imposition of water stress (at the peak flowering stage). The results showed that imposition of water stress caused substantial reduction in plant growth, biological yield, fruit production, and fiber characteristics as compared to fully irrigated cotton crop. However, the application of osmoprotectants was found effective in off-setting the negative impacts of drought stress. The exogenous application of salicylic acid (100 mgL /sup -1/) caused improvement by 47.9 percentage, 36.5 percentage, 17.4 percentage, 4.86 percentage and 9.9 percentage in main stem height, biological yield, fruit production, fiber length and seed cotton yield over an untreated check, respectively. The efficiency of various osmoprotectants was in order of salicylic acid > glycinebetaine > proline in alleviating the harmful effects of drought stress. The usage of osmoprotectants was also found most cost-effective and the value for money. The cost-benefit ratio was 1:9.1, 1:3.9 and 1:1.7 by spraying of salicylic

  6. cotton fabric 51

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    1Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, Kano – Nigeria. 2Department of ... its versatility were examined taken into consideration, the molecular structure. ... hemicelluloses, pectin, coloring matter and ash ... temperature for a fixed period of time. These processes rendered the cotton 99% cellulose in nature.

  7. Cotton, Prof. Frank Albert

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1985 Honorary. Cotton, Prof. Frank Albert. Date of birth: 9 April 1930. Date of death: 20 February 2007. Last known address: Department of Chemistry, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, U.S.A..

  8. Cotton regeneration in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. F. Sakhanokho and K. Rajasekaran Over the years, plant breeders have improved cotton via conventional breeding methods, but these methods are time-consuming. To complement classical breeding and, at times, reduce the time necessary for new cultivar development, breeders have turned to in vitro ...

  9. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  10. Effects of GhWUS from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) on somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanqing; Chen, Yanli; Ding, Yanpeng; Wu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Yu, Ya; Wei, Xi; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Chaojun; Li, Fuguang; Ge, Xiaoyang

    2018-05-01

    The WUSCHEL (WUS) gene encodes a plant-specific homeodomain-containing transcriptional regulator, which plays important roles during embryogenesis, as well as in the formation of shoot and flower meristems. Here, we isolated two homologues of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS (AtWUS), GhWUS1a_At and GhWUS1b_At, from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Domain analysis suggested that the two putative GhWUS proteins contained a highly conserved DNA-binding HOX domain and a WUS-box. Expression profile analysis showed that GhWUSs were predominantly expressed during the embryoid stage. Ectopic expression of GhWUSs in Arabidopsis could induce somatic embryo and shoot formation from seedling root tips. Furthermore, in the absence of exogenous hormone, overexpression of GhWUSs in Arabidopsis could promote shoot regeneration from excised roots, and in the presence of exogenous auxin, excised roots expressing GhWUS could be induced to produce somatic embryo. In addition, expression of the chimeric GhWUS repressor in cotton callus inhibited embryogenic callus formation. Our results show that GhWUS is an important regulator of somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening of post emergence herbicides for weed control in cotton (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) and their effect on yield and yield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, N.; Khan, M.B.; Khan, M.A.; Hameed, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Response of varying herbicides at different levels: round up 490 G/L at the rate of 4.7 L ha/sup -1/ and 1.5 L ha/sup -1/ (Glyphosat) and Gramaxone 20 EC (Paraquat) at the rate of 2.5 L ha/sup -1/ against untreated (control, were investigated to cotton cultivar CIM-473 under field conditions during Kharif 2002 at Agronomic Research Area. Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan. Significant control of weeds and increase in yield and yield contributing factors were observed. It was indicated that maximum yield and weed control were obtained by using Round up (Glyphosate) at the rate of 4.7 L ha/sup -1/ as compared to other treatments including untreated (control). Average boll weight was not significant among treatments but significant against control. Maximum net profit was obtained from Round up 490 G/L when treated at the rate of 4.7 L ha/sup -1/ than all other treatments. (author)

  12. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Ramalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs and 30ºC (49.60 eggs. The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75 was greater than at 20ºC (31.40 and 30ºC (25.15. The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133% in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC or 20 day old (at 20ºC should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.Estudamos os efeitos da temperatura na reprodução de Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, ectoparasitóide do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, em câmaras climatizadas, em temperaturas constantes de 20, 25 and 30ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 h. As fêmeas do parasitóide produziram mais ovos a 25ºC (124,65 ovos do que aquelas expostas a 20 (43,40 ovos e a 30ºC (49,60 ovos. O número médio de larvas parasitadas por fêmea de B. vulgaris a 25ºC(71,75 larvas foi maior do que a 20ºC (31,40 larvas e 30ºC (25,15 larvas. As taxas diárias de aumento (r m foram -0,007 a 20ºC, 0,07 a 25ºC e 0,03 a 30ºC, indicando que a temperatura de 25ºC produziu aumento de 1100 e 133% no valor de r m em relação às temperaturas de 20 e 30ºC, respectivamente. Nos programas de controle biol

  13. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  14. Heterosis and correlation in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, S; Hussain, S B; Manzoor, H; Quereshi, M K; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Shehzad, A N; Rasul, S; Manzoor, S A

    2016-06-24

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids show varying degrees of heterosis for yield and yield components. Yield-component traits have complex genetic relationships with each other. To determine the relationship of yield-component traits and fiber traits with seed cotton yield, six lines (Bt. CIM-599, CIM-573, MNH-786, CIM-554, BH-167, and GIZA-7) and three test lines (MNH-886, V4, and CIM-557) were crossed in a line x tester mating design. Heterosis was observed for seed cotton yield, fiber traits, and for other yield-component traits. Heterosis in interspecific hybrids for seed cotton yield was more prominent than in intraspecific hybrids. The interspecific hybrid Giza-7 x MNH-886 had the highest heterosis (114.77), while among intraspecific hybrids, CIM-554 x CIM-557 had the highest heterosis (61.29) for seed cotton yield. A major trait contributing to seed cotton yield was bolls/plant followed by boll weight. Correlation studies revealed that bolls/plant, boll weight, lint weight/boll, lint index, seed index, lint/seed, staple length, and staple strength were significantly and positively associated with seed cotton yield. Selection based on boll weight, boll number, lint weight/boll, and lint index will be helpful for improving cotton seed yield.

  15. Single-position Hall effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method for determining a distance (Y) between a first position on and an electrical boundary (34) of a test sample by a multi-point probe comprising four contact elements, comprising: contacting the test sample with the four contact elements (20,22,24,26) at the first position, applying a magne...

  16. Transcript mapping of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Fazal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus are major limiting factors for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the warmer regions of the world. In the Old World a small number of begomoviruses have genomes consisting of two components whereas the majority have single-component genomes. Most of the monopartite begomoviruses associate with satellite DNA molecules, the most important of which are the betasatellites. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD is one of the major problems for cotton production on the Indian sub-continent. Across Pakistan, CLCuD is currently associated with a single begomovirus (Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus [CLCuBuV] and the cotton-specific betasatellite Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB, both of which have recombinant origins. Surprisingly, CLCuBuV lacks C2, one of the genes present in all previously characterized begomoviruses. Virus-specific transcripts have only been mapped for few begomoviruses, including one monopartite begomovirus that does not associate with betasatellites. Similarly, the transcripts of only two betasatellites have been mapped so far. The study described has investigated whether the recombination/mutation events involved in the evolution of CLCuBuV and its associated CLCuMuB have affected their transcription strategies. Results The major transcripts of CLCuBuV and its associated betasatellite (CLCuMuB from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants have been determined. Two complementary-sense transcripts of ~1.7 and ~0.7 kb were identified for CLCuBuV. The ~1.7 kb transcript appears similar in position and size to that of several begomoviruses and likely directs the translation of C1 and C4 proteins. Both complementary-sense transcripts can potentially direct the translation of C2 and C3 proteins. A single virion-sense transcript of ~1 kb, suitable for translation of the V1 and V2 genes was identified. A predominant

  17. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  18. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regrowth of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., can provide boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, with an extended opportunity to feed and reproduce beyond the production season. Effective methods for timely areawide detection of these potential host plants are critically needed to achieve eradicati...

  19. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  20. Genetic diversity in upland cotton for cotton leaf curl virus disease, earliness and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, F.; Farooq, J.; Mahmood, A.; Hussain, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Pakistan during last two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both these traits also showed their positive association with ginning out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial branches and plant height. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first five PCs having eigen value >1 explaining 67.8% of the total variation with days to st 1 square and flowering along with plant height and sympodia plant which were being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 101 accessions into five divergent groups. The genotypes in st cluster 1 only showed reasonable values for days to 1 square and flower, sympodia per plant, ginning out turn, staple length and fiber fineness and the genotypes in cluster 5 showed promising values for the traits like cotton leaf curl virus, ginning out turn and fiber fineness. The genotypes in cluster 1 and 5 may be combined to obtain desirable traits related to earliness and better disease tolerance. Scatter plot and tree diagrams demonstrated sufficient diversity among the cotton accessions for various traits and some extent of association between various clusters. It is concluded that diversity among the genotypes could be utilized for the development of CLCuD resistant lines with increased seed

  1. The Optimal Tax on Antebellum U.S. Cotton Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas A. Irwin

    2001-01-01

    The United States produced about 80 percent of the world's cotton in the decades prior to the Civil War. How much monopoly power did the United States possess in the world cotton market and what would have been the effect of an optimal export tax? This paper estimates the elasticity of foreign demand for U.S. cotton exports and uses the elasticity in a simple partial equilibrium model to calculate the optimal export tax and its effect on prices, trade, and welfare. The results indicate that t...

  2. Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Toxicity of Azadirachtin to the Egyptian Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed H. Shaurub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the bio-degradation of azadirachtin was well studied under storage or environmental conditions, its toxicity was not characterized so far under the impact of environmental conditions. Therefore, the present study aims to elucidate the toxicity of azadirachtin, at the level of LC50, to the fourth larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval under the stress of temperature, ultraviolet radiation (365 nm (UV-A and of artificial sunlight. The increase in post-treatment temperatures insignificantly affected azadirachtin toxicity. Likewise, insignificant change was also attained for the increase in the exposure periods of both UV and sunlight, except for exposure to sunlight without UV filter starting from 10 h, where the toxicity of azadirachtin was significantly declined. It can be concluded that azadirachtin toxicity will last efficiently against S. littoralis larvae under the stress of the environmental factors prevailing during the season of cotton cultivation in Egypt.

  3. Effects of Gamma Radiation on Reproduction and Mating Competitiveness in the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H. A.; Alm El-Din, M. M. S.; El-Dessouki, S. A.; El-Awady, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 100, 125, 150 Gy. The fecundity of normal females crossed with treated males decreased with the increase of the dose given to males. The reduction in egg hatch was significant at all tested doses. The percentage of mated females was not clearly affected. However, the reduction observed in either percentage of inseminated female or the average number of spermatophores per mated female was increased by increasing the dose to males. Males irradiated by low doses of 125 and 150 Gy were fully competitive against untreated males for mating with normal females. Increasing the ratio of irradiated males to normal males from 1:1 to 5:1 decreased the rate of egg viability among P 1 and their successive filial generations. (Authors)

  4. Sustainable cotton production and water economy through different planting methods and mulching techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, H.M.; Khan, M.B.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmad, S.; Hanif, M.; Nazeer, W

    2011-01-01

    Planting methods and mulching techniques are important factors which affect crop growth, development and yield by conserving soil and plant moisture. A multifactorial experiment was conducted to study the water economy involving different planting methods and mulching techniques in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for two consecutive years (2004 and 2005) at the Agronomic Research Station, Khanewal. Two moisture stress tolerant cotton varieties (CIM-473 and CIM-499) were planted using four different planting methods i.e. 70c m spaced single row planting, 105 cm spaced double row strip planting, 70 cm spaced ridge planting and 140 cm spaced furrow beds (or bed and furrows) along four mulching practices i.e. cultural, straw, sheet and chemical for their individual and interactive effects on various parameters including water use efficiency. Positive interactive effects of furrow bed planting method (140 cm spaced) with plastic sheet/film mulching were observed for all the parameters i.e., highest seed cotton yield (3009 and 3332 kg ha/sup -1/), maximum water saving (up to 25.62% and 26.53%), highest water use efficiency up to 5.04 and 4.79 [macro mol (CO/sub 2/)/mmol (H/sub 2/O)], highest net income (Rs. 27224.2 and 50927.7 ha/sup -1/) with a cost-benefit ratio of 1.64 and 2.20 followed by maximum net income (Rs. 27382.2 and 47244.5 ha/sup -1/) with 1.64 and 2.10 cost-benefit ratio in case of plastic mulch and 2814 and 3007 kg ha/sup -1/ in ridge planting method during 2004 and 2005, respectively. It is concluded that cotton crop can be grown using bed and furrow planting method with plastic sheet/film mulching technique for sustainable cotton production and better water economy. (author)

  5. Evaluation of superabsorbent efficiency in response to dehydration frequencies, salinity and temperature and its effect on yield and quality of cotton under deficit irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid-Reza Fallahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Reduced availability of water resources in many arid countries including Iran, particularly in response to the indiscriminate harvesting of water reservoirs and climate change, has created concerns. Therefore, the sustainable use of water resources especially in agriculture is a necessity for these countries. Strategies such as deficit irrigation and superabsorbent application are two important ways for improving water use efficiency in agricultural lands. In deficit irrigation the crop must be irrigated less than its required water. Therefore, some reduction may occur in crop yield, but the savings in water will improve the water use efficiency (Akbari Nodehi, 2011. Superabsorbent polymers also increase the nutrients and water holding capacity of soil for a long time and thereby reduce crop water requirement. However, the effectiveness of these materials could be affected by dehydration frequencies, temperature and irrigation water quality (Karimi et al., 2009. Due to the limitation of water resources in many parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cotton production under deficit irrigation along with application of different rates of superabsorbent. In addition, simulation of superabsorbent efficiency at different levels of salinity, temperature and dehydration frequencies (swelling and de-swelling were the other objectives in this study. Materials and methods 1. Laboratory experiments In these experiments the effects of temperature (4, 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C, salinity (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% NaCl solutions at two temperatures of 10 and 25°C and frequency of partial dehydration (from 1 to 5 stages watering and 70% dewatering were simulated on water absorption capacity of superabsorbent polymer at laboratory of environmental stresses, Sarayan Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University. 2- Field experiment This experiment was designed at Research Station of Sarayan Faculty of Agriculture

  6. Evaluation of cotton stalks destroyers

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Aloisio; Borges, Pedro H. de M.

    2013-01-01

    The destruction of the cotton crop residues (cotton stalks) is a mandatory procedure in Brazil for prophylactic issues, but is a subject unexplored by the research and there are few studies that deal with this issue. However, this is not encouraged in recent decades, studies aimed at developing and evaluating equipment for this purpose. The present study had the objective to evaluate six methods for mechanical destruction of cotton crop residues. Each method was defined based on the principle...

  7. Response of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growth, development and consumption of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2 (double-ambient vs. ambient) in open-top chambers were examined. Significant decreases in protein, total amino acid, water and nitrogen content and increases in free fatty acid were observed in cotton bolls. Changes in quality of cotton bolls affected the growth, development and food utilization of H. armigera. Significantly longer larval development duration in three successive generations and lower pupal weight of the second and third generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower fecundity was also found in successive three generations of H. armigera fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The consumption per larva occurred significant increase in successive three generations and frass per larva were also significantly increased during the second and third generations under elevated CO2. Significantly lower relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and significant higher relative consumption rate in successive three generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower potential female fecundity, larval numbers and population consumption were found in the second and third generations of cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The integrative effect of higher larval mortality rate and lower adult fecundity resulted in significant decreases in potential population consumption in the latter two generations. The results show that elevated CO2 adversely affects cotton bolls quality, which indicates the potential population dynamics and potential population consumption of cotton bollworm will alleviate the harm to the plants in the future rising CO2 atmosphere.

  8. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... Data quality may be expressed in terms of several indicators such as attributes, temporal or positional accuracies. ... It is concluded that for the purpose of shoreline change analysis, such as shoreline change trends, large scale data sources should be used where possible for accurate ...

  9. Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre a seletividade do alachlor ao algodoeiro Effect of environmental factors on the selectivity of alachlor to cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    cotton. The first assay used germination boxes with sand substrate to study two alachlor rates (0 and 96 µg kg-1 at temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35 ºC, combined with three levels of substrate moisture (40%, 60%, and 80% of water holding capacity and evaluated after 10 days. Seedling growth was affected by environmental conditions, but this response was reduced or cancelled when alachlor was present, with better conditions causing proportionally greater growth reductions. The herbicide caused reductions in aerial part traits and, to a greater extent, in root length. The second assay consisted of pots filled with soil substrate and three irrigation treatments (23, 34, and 45 mm studied after application of two alachlor levels (0 and 2.88 kg ha-1, and evaluated after 21 days. Higher irrigation levels caused reductions in fresh and dry matter of the roots. Alachlor reduced all variables measured in the aerial part of the cotton plants, but this effect, in general, had low intensity and was similar for all the irrigation levels. The independent effect between alachlor and irrigation does not support the assumption that higher water levels would increase herbicide leaching and its phytotoxicity to cotton.

  10. Performance enhancement of a solar still using cotton regenerative medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Gopal Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a single slope solar still using cotton cloth regenerative medium. The performance was evaluated under the metrological conditions of Chennai city in India during the summer months of 2016. Two single-slope solar stills are fabricated with an effective area of 0.5 m2 with various thicknesses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mm of cotton cloth were used for the performance comparison. The results showed, the solar still with 6 mm thick cotton assisted regenerative solar still has about 28% improved productivity when compared to conventional solar still.

  11. Effect of Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol blended cotton seed methyl ester fuelled automotive diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Senthil; Raj, R. Thundil Karuppa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of di-tertiary butyl peroxide on ethanol blended biodiesel is investigated. • Cetane enhanced ethanol up to 10% can be blended with cotton seed biodiesel. • Nitrogen oxides emissions are lower for cetane enhanced ethanol biodiesels. • Performance characteristics of cetane improved ethanol biodiesels are reasonable. • Cetane enhanced ethanol blended biodiesel is an promising renewable energy source. - Abstract: An experimental study is carried out to examine and analyze the influence of Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide in bioethanol diesel blends on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a single cylinder, 4-stroke, naturally aspirated, automotive diesel engine for variable speed at full load conditions. Esterified cotton seed oil of 5% by volume is emulsified with 95% pure diesel to get the base fuel (BE0) for the experiments. Bioethanol diesel blends are produced from base fuel by adding 5% and 10% pure ethanol on a volumetric basis to obtain BE5 and BE10 respectively. The bioethanol fuels are low in Cetane number and hence Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide a Cetane enhancer is added by 0.4% by volume to produce BE5CN0.4% and BE10CN0.4% emulsions respectively. It is found from the experiments carried out, that an inverse trend exists between brake thermal efficiency and percentage of ethanol in base fuel. This is due to the lower calorific value of ethanol and an improvement in brake thermal efficiency is observed with ignition improver added blends. The presence of Cetane improver significantly reduced oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydro carbon emissions for overall engine speed and carbon monoxide emissions for low to medium speed range.

  12. Effects of silicon treatment and inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum on cellular defences in root tissues of two cotton cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Jennifer A; Dann, Elizabeth K; Aitken, Elizabeth A B

    2016-08-01

    Silicon has been shown to enhance the resistance of plants to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here, the effect of potassium silicate was assessed on two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars subsequently inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov). Sicot 189 is moderately resistant whilst Sicot F-1 is the second most resistant commercial cultivar presently available in Australia. Transmission and light microscopy were used to compare cellular modifications in root cells after these different treatments. The accumulation of phenolic compounds and lignin was measured. Cellular alterations including the deposition of electron-dense material, degradation of fungal hyphae and occlusion of endodermal cells were more rapidly induced and more intense in endodermal and vascular regions of Sicot F-1 plants supplied with potassium silicate followed by inoculation with Fov than in similarly treated Sicot 189 plants or in silicate-treated plants of either cultivar not inoculated with Fov. Significantly more phenolic compounds were present at 7 d post-infection (dpi) in root extracts of Sicot F-1 plants treated with potassium silicate followed by inoculation with Fov compared with plants from all other treatments. The lignin concentration at 3 dpi in root material from Sicot F-1 treated with potassium silicate and inoculated with Fov was significantly higher than that from water-treated and inoculated plants. This study demonstrates that silicon treatment can affect cellular defence responses in cotton roots subsequently inoculated with Fov, particularly in Sicot F-1, a cultivar with greater inherent resistance to this pathogen. This suggests that silicon may interact with or initiate defence pathways faster in this cultivar than in the less resistant cultivar. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Mutagenesis in naturally coloured cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatod, J.P.; Meshram, L.D.; Jain, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The seeds of naturally coloured cotton were treated with 15 kR, 20 kR doses of gamma rays and 0.5% Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) and their combinations. The M 1 and M 2 generations were studied for mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in inducing the useful mutants, spectrum of mutation and their effects on bract characters. Results obtained revealed that 15 kR and 20 kR doses were more effective in inducing the mutations. In G. hirsutum, significant differences were found for bract size and dry weight of bract was noted in 20 kR dose and low in 0.5% EMS in M 1 . In the M 2 generation increased ratio of bract surface area to lint weight per boll was noted in 20 kR + 0.5% EMS. (author)

  14. Study on Bleaching Technology of Cotton Fabric with Sodium Percarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhi; Wang Yanling; Wang Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Bleach cotton fabric with sodium percarbonate solution. Analyse of the effect of the concentration of sodium percarbonate solution, bleaching time, bleaching temperature and the light radiation on the bleaching effect of fabric.The result shows that increasing concentrations of percarbonate,increasing the bleaching time , raising the bleaching temperature and the UV irradiation may whiten the cotton fabric.The most suitable conditions for the bleaching process is concentration of sodium perca...

  15. Crop growth, light utilization and yield of relay intercropped cotton as affected by plant density and a plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, X.; Liu, S.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Modern cotton cultivation requires high plant densities and compact plants. Here we study planting density and growth regulator effects on plant structure and production of cotton when the cotton is grown in a relay intercrop with wheat, a cultivation system that is widespread in China. Field

  16. In vitro microbiologic evaluation of PTFE and cotton as spacer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Avina; Jain, Sumita; Alibhai, Karim J; Wadhwani, Chandur P; Darveau, Richard P; Johnson, James D

    2012-09-01

    To microbiologically evaluate the efficacy of cotton and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape used as spacer materials. Twenty-six extracted human molars were restored using either cotton or PTFE tape as spacers under a standardized provisional restorative material (Cavit). The teeth were incubated for 7 days in a culture of Streptococcus gordonii or in liquid media alone. The spacers were removed and tested for bacterial contamination. The access cavities were also evaluated for bacterial contamination. Nine of 10 teeth with cotton spacers and one of 10 teeth with PTFE spacers were positive for S gordonii growth. The nine teeth in the cotton group also showed contamination of the access cavities. Even under optimal conditions, cotton spacers may cause leakage into the access cavities. Cotton fibers may serve as a route for bacterial contamination of the access cavities and root canal space. In contrast, PTFE tape did not provide an avenue for bacterial contamination.

  17. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  18. Field studies on health effects from the application of two organophosphorus insecticide formulations by hand-held ULV to cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, R; van Sittert, N J

    1986-10-01

    Two field studies to assess the health implications for farmers applying two different formulations containing organophosphorus (OP) pesticides to cotton by hand-held ULV are described. The first study, carried out in the Ivory Coast, involved the application of an endrin/DDT/methylparathion (MEP) formulation in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. The second study took place in Indonesia with a 20% monocrotophos formulation in a mixture of a glycol and a glycol ether. Both studies were carried out under actual field conditions. The purpose of the studies was to get a good assessment of the health hazards of the particular formulation, used under the specific circumstances and agronomic requirements of the area of application and taking into account all local, climatic and cultural conditions that could be of possible influence. The results showed that in both studies skin exposures took place during application and especially during handling, filling and cleaning, and that inhalation of spray mist was negligible. Absorption was confirmed by the presence in urine of metabolites of endrin and methylparathion in the Ivory Coast study, and of dimethyl phosphate in the Indonesia study. No clinical signs or symptoms of intoxication were discovered in either study, nor were inhibitions of cholinesterase (ChE) activity of health significance established under the conditions of the studies. In addition, various practical aspects such as choice of apparatus, of formulation, the application procedures etc. are discussed.

  19. [Effects of plastic film mulching on soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration in an oasis cotton field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-xiang; Zhao, Cheng-yi; Jia, Hong-tao; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Tian-he; Yang, Yu-guang; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration between mulched and non-mulched cotton fields by using closed chamber method and diffusion chamber technique. Soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration exhibited a similar seasonal pattern, decreasing from July to October. Mulched field had a lower soil CO2 efflux but a higher CO2 concentration, compared to those of non-mulched fields. Over the measurement period, cumulative CO2 efflux was 1871.95 kg C . hm-2 for mulched field and 2032.81 kg C . hm-2 for non-mulched field. Soil CO2 concentration was higher in mulched field (ranging from 5137 to 25945 µL . L-1) than in non- mulched field (ranging from 2165 to 23986 µL . L-1). The correlation coefficients between soil CO2 concentrations at different depths and soil CO2 effluxes were 0.60 to 0.73 and 0.57 to 0.75 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, indicating that soil CO2 concentration played a crucial role in soil CO2 emission. The Q10 values were 2.77 and 2.48 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, respectively, suggesting that CO2 efflux in mulched field was more sensitive to the temperature.

  20. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  1. Asymmetric evolution and domestication in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy plays a major role in genome evolution, which corresponds to environmental changes over millions of years. The mechanisms of genome evolution, particularly during the process of domestication, are of broad interest in the fields of plant science and crop breeding. Upland cotton is derived from the hybridization and polyploidization of its ancient A and D diploid ancestors. As a result, cotton is a model for polyploid genome evolution and crop domestication. To explore the genomic mysteries of allopolyploid cotton, we investigated asymmetric evolution and domestication in the A and D subgenomes. Interestingly, more structural rearrangements have been characterized in the A subgenome than in the D subgenome. Correspondingly, more transposable elements, a greater number of lost and disrupted genes, and faster evolution have been identified in the A subgenome. In contrast, the centromeric retroelement (RT-domain related sequence of tetraploid cotton derived from the D subgenome progenitor was found to have invaded the A subgenome centromeres after allotetrapolyploid formation. Although there is no genome-wide expression bias between the subgenomes, as with expression-level alterations, gene expression bias of homoeologous gene pairs is widespread and varies from tissue to tissue. Further, there are more positively selected genes for fiber yield and quality in the A subgenome and more for stress tolerance in the D subgenome, indicating asymmetric domestication. This review highlights the asymmetric subgenomic evolution and domestication of allotetraploid cotton, providing valuable genomic resources for cotton research and enhancing our understanding of the basis of many other allopolyploids.

  2. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhou [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Liu, Shuai [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Zhang, Zengqiang, E-mail: zqzhang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); Dodla, Syam K.; Myers, Gerald [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N{sub 2}O-N than NH{sub 3}-N and the most N{sub 2}O-N and NH{sub 3}-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH{sub 3}-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N{sub 2}O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N{sub 2}O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH{sub 3}-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N{sub 2}O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO{sub 2}-C and CH{sub 4}-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N{sub 2}O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH{sub 3} emission

  3. Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... ... has positive and negative effects on social bonds in South African communities ... to contribute to positive social cohesion and to prevent violence. ... including shared values and identity, feelings of belonging, civic pa.

  4. Conductive Cotton Fabrics for Motion Sensing and Heating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conductive cotton fabric was prepared by coating single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs on a knitted cotton fabric surface through a “dip-and-dry” method. The combination of CNTs and cotton fabric was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The CNTs coating improved the mechanical properties of the fabric and imparted conductivity to the fabric. The electromechanical performance of the CNT-cotton fabric (CCF was evaluated. Strain sensors made from the CCF exhibited a large workable strain range (0~100%, fast response and great stability. Furthermore, CCF-based strain sensors was used to monitor the real-time human motions, such as standing, walking, running, squatting and bending of finger and elbow. The CCF also exhibited strong electric heating effect. The flexible strain sensors and electric heaters made from CCF have potential applications in wearable electronic devices and cold weather conditions.

  5. Positive effects of radiation on forest production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.; De la Cruz O, A.; Aguilar, M. A.; Caxnajoy, P. A.; Salceda S, V.

    2009-10-01

    The deforestation is a world problem and due to of increment of seed demand and seedling of good quality, was realized a work about the production improvement on commercial or forest trees for the Mexico State. It was combined the use of two techniques: the plant tissue culture and ionizing application. It was utilized seed of Pinus hartwegii collected and valued previously by ProBosque, with them were formed homogeneous lots that were irradiated to dose of 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 Gy into irradiator Gammacel-220 and later were decontaminated and cultivated in vitro. The seeds-planting were placed in a growth room with temperature and controlled light. After 10 cultivation days was obtained germination among 87-100% without observing the induction of negative changes in none of treatments. After 21 days already developed the embryos completely, modifications were presented in some structures. With these was possible to determine the lethal dose mean that oscillates between 100 and 105 Gy; since to dose bigger than 100 Gy more of 75% of individuals or seedlings present the phenols formation inducing the material lost by oxidation starting from day 32. Also, it is observed that applied doses between the 30 and 90 Gy do not affect or modify the embryogenesis in Pinus hartwegii but if the structures formation and seedling size since after 12 development days it is possible to appreciate to dose of 90, 75 and 45 Gy the presence of a primary radicular system, same that is observed after 22 development days in the witness. Another observation was that to dose of 45 and 90 Gy the leafs presents bigger elongation increasing the seedlings size on 22% in comparison with the witness. We can say that the doses understood between 45 and 90 Gy affect in a positive way the hormonal production of Pinus hartwegii seedlings and that the dose of 90 Gy accelerates the rhizogenes process and it increases the seedling size allowing to diminish the production time of Pinus hartwegii

  6. [Ecological regionalization of national cotton fiber quality in China using GGE biplot analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai Yin; Jin, Shi Qiao; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The distinctive regional characteristics of cotton fiber quality in the major cotton-producing areas in China enhance the textile use efficiency of raw cotton yarn by improving fiber quality through ecological regionalization. The "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot analysis method was adopted to explore the interaction between conventional cotton sub-regions and cotton fiber quality traits based on the datasets collected from the national cotton regional trials from 2011 to 2015. The results showed that the major cotton-producing area in China were divided into four fiber quality ecological regions, namely, the "high fiber quality ecological region", the "low micronaire ecological region", the "high fiber strength and micronaire ecological region", and the "moderate fiber quality ecological region". The high fiber quality ecological region was characterized by harmonious development of cotton fiber length, strength, micronaire value and the highest spinning consistency index, and located in the conventional cotton regions in the upper and lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley. The low micronaire value ecological region composed of the northern and south Xinjiang cotton regions was characterized by low micronaire value, relatively lower fiber strength, and relatively high spinning consistency index performance. The high fiber strength and micronaire value ecological region covered the middle reaches of Yangtze River Valley, Nanxiang Basin and Huaibei Plain, and was prominently characterized by high strength and micronaire value, and moderate performance of other traits. The moderate fiber quality ecological region included North China Plain and Loess Plateau cotton growing regions in the Yellow River Valley, and was characterized by moderate or lower performances of all fiber quality traits. This study effectively applied "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot to regionalize cotton fiber quality, which provided a helpful reference for the regiona-lized cotton growing

  7. Gone with transgenic cotton cropping in the USA. A perception of the presentations and interactions at the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans (Louisiana, USA, 4-7/01/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Beltwide Cotton Conferences provided a new vision of the consequences of about 15 years of widespread and uncoordinated cropping of transgenic cotton in the United States. Insect-resistant and/or herbicide-tolerant cotton varieties modified parasite complexes, namely those of insects and weeds damaging cotton crops. The Conferences have revealed that the adaptation solutions so far proposed make illusory the expectations at the launch of transgenic cotton, in terms of effective pest control, cost reduction, and antagonism between chemical and biotech methods. The USA case points out that the technical and economic sustainability of transgenic varieties must lie in a systemic and coordinated approach.

  8. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  9. Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of cotton farmers. Presentation made in the Seventy Second Annual Meeting Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Indore 11th November 2006.

  10. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  11. An Integrated DEMATEL-VIKOR Method-Based Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-01-01

    Selection of the most appropriate cotton fibre type for yarn manufacturing is often treated as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem as the optimal selection decision needs to be taken in presence of several conflicting fibre properties. In this paper, two popular MCDM methods in the form of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and VIse Kriterijumska Optimizacija kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are integrated to aid the cotton fibre selection decision. DEMATEL method addresses the interrelationships between various physical properties of cotton fibres while segregating them into cause and effect groups, whereas, VIKOR method helps in ranking all the considered 17 cotton fibres from the best to the worst. The derived ranking of cotton fibre alternatives closely matches with that obtained by the past researchers. This model can assist the spinning industry personnel in the blending process while making accurate fibre selection decision when cotton fibre properties are numerous and interrelated.

  12. The natural refuge policy for Bt cotton (Gossypium L. in Pakistan – a situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajjad Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bt cotton (event Cry1Ac was formally commercialized in Pakistan in 2010. However, there has been an increasing trend of planting unauthorized Bt cotton germplasm in farmers' fields since 2003 with a high rate of adoption in the core cotton areas especially in the province Punjab. The transgenic cotton technology has provided the growers with substantial economic benefits and has reduced their dependence on pesticides for pest control, especially against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner. However, keeping in view the capacity of this insect to develop resistance against novel chemical formulations, it is easily speculated that Bt toxin, too, is no exception. Refuge crop policy for mono transgenic crop events has helped in delaying the rate of resistance evolution in the target pests. Thus, in Pakistan, where planting of structured refuge crops along Bt cotton fields is not mandatory, the effectiveness and durability of Bt cotton technology may decrease due to a number of factors which are discussed in this review.

  13. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates.

  14. Effect of Positive Training on Positive Psychological States (Character Strengths of Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available psychological states of female students in second and third grades of high school. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The sample consisted of forty students selected randomly in two groups (twenty students in each group. To collect data, Positive Psychological State Inventory (Rajaei, Khuy Nzhad and Nesaei was used. The experimental group received ninety minute positive training sessions (for two months and the control group did not receive treatment. The results of analysis  of covariance showed that positive training had positive effects on positive psychological states (trust in God, optimism, self-efficacy, duty, sense of control, targeted, hope, satisfaction with life, meaningful life, pleasant, sociability, self-esteem and self-worth, sense of peace, gratitude, and forgiveness among adolescents  both in the post  and follow-up tests

  15. Export taxes and sectoral economic growth: evidence from cotton and yarn markets in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren; Ethridge, Don

    1999-01-01

    Pakistan used an export tax on raw cotton from 1988-1995 in order to suppress the internal price of cotton to benefit the domestic yarn industry. An analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of this policy on both the cotton and yarn sectors. These effects were simulated using the results of a structural econometric model of these sectors of Pakistan's economy. Results indicated that the export tax had a negative impact on the growth rate in the cotton sector, while having little or no im...

  16. Enhancing Dark Shade Pigment Dyeing of Cotton Fabric Using Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on dark shade pigment dyeing of cotton fabric. Experimental results reveal that plasma-treated cotton fabric can attain better color yield, levelness, and crocking fastness in dark shade pigment dyeing, compared with normal cotton fabric (not plasma treated. SEM analysis indicates that cracks and grooves were formed on the cotton fiber surface where the pigment and the binder can get deposited and improve the color yield, levelness, and crocking fastness. It was also noticed that pigment was aggregated when deposited on the fiber surface which could affect the final color properties.

  17. Studies on Coloration and UV Protective Action of Anar Peel (Pomegranate Rind) as an Effective Natural Colorant for Cotton Khadi Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnur, H. D.; Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Verma, D. K.; Kaware, Runali

    2017-10-01

    Besides optimization of conditions of colour extraction from dried anar peel, effect of different single and double mordants, dyeing process variables and UV protective action of anar peels (pomegranate rind i.e. Punica granatum L.) as a natural colourant is studied in this work. Mordants used are potash alum, aluminium sulphate and stannous chloride (as metallic salt mordant) and harda (i.e., myrobolan as natural mordant) from natural source. Relevant results indicate that 50:50 ratio of harda plus potash aluminium sulphate at overall 15% application level offers maximum K/S value and overall good colour fastness than any other combination. After finalizing the mordants, dyeing process variables were studied for standardization of conditions for dyeing cotton khadi fabric with aqueous extract of pomegranate rind. The results indicate that standardized conditions for dyeing are (a) dyeing time : 60 min, (b) dyeing temperature: 80 °C, (c) dye bath MLR : 1:30, (d) dye bath pH : 9.0, (e) max dye concentration : 20% and (f) common salt : 3%. Studies of FTIR, UV scan, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and UV Protection Factor (UPF) characters show a medium to good level of ultraviolet protection. Corresponding reaction mechanism amongst mordant/fibre and dye forming giant complex is also reported.

  18. Studies on Coloration and UV Protective Action of Anar Peel (Pomegranate Rind) as an Effective Natural Colorant for Cotton Khadi Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnur, H. D.; Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Verma, D. K.; Kaware, Runali

    2018-06-01

    Besides optimization of conditions of colour extraction from dried anar peel, effect of different single and double mordants, dyeing process variables and UV protective action of anar peels (pomegranate rind i.e. Punica granatum L.) as a natural colourant is studied in this work. Mordants used are potash alum, aluminium sulphate and stannous chloride (as metallic salt mordant) and harda (i.e., myrobolan as natural mordant) from natural source. Relevant results indicate that 50:50 ratio of harda plus potash aluminium sulphate at overall 15% application level offers maximum K/S value and overall good colour fastness than any other combination. After finalizing the mordants, dyeing process variables were studied for standardization of conditions for dyeing cotton khadi fabric with aqueous extract of pomegranate rind. The results indicate that standardized conditions for dyeing are (a) dyeing time : 60 min, (b) dyeing temperature: 80 °C, (c) dye bath MLR : 1:30, (d) dye bath pH : 9.0, (e) max dye concentration : 20% and (f) common salt : 3%. Studies of FTIR, UV scan, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and UV Protection Factor (UPF) characters show a medium to good level of ultraviolet protection. Corresponding reaction mechanism amongst mordant/fibre and dye forming giant complex is also reported.

  19. Raman spectroscopy and the forensic analysis of black/grey and blue cotton fibres Part 1: investigation of the effects of varying laser wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J; Buzzini, P; Massonnet, G; Reedy, B; Roux, C

    2005-09-10

    Raman spectroscopy was investigated to determine the optimal conditions, mainly laser wavelength/s, for the analysis of the commonly encountered black/grey and blue cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes. In this first part, a single blue cotton fibre, its three dye components, and an undyed cotton fibre were analysed with five different laser wavelengths from two different Raman microprobe spectrometers. The quality of the spectra, fibre degradation and speed of acquisition were used to determine that, under the conditions used, the 785 and 830 nm lasers gave superior results. The 632.8 nm laser wavelengths provided good results with little acquisition time and no spectral degradation. Results indicate that, at least, the major dye component could be identified using Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  1. Nature Relation Between Climatic Variables and Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria M. Sawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of climatic variables on flower and boll production and retention in cotton (Gossypium barbadense. Also, this study investigated the relationship between climatic factors and production of flowers and bolls obtained during the development periods of the flowering and boll stage, and to determine the most representative period corresponding to the overall crop pattern. Evaporation, sunshine duration, relative humidity, surface soil temperature at 1800 h, and maximum air temperature, are the important climatic factors that significantly affect flower and boll production. The least important variables were found to be surface soil temperature at 0600 h and minimum temperature. There was a negative correlation between flower and boll production and either evaporation or sunshine duration, while that correlation with minimum relative humidity was positive. Higher minimum relative humidity, short period of sunshine duration, and low temperatures enhanced flower and boll formation.

  2. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of cotton genotypes to boron under-b-adequate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J. A.; Sial, M. A.; Hassan, Z. U.; Rajpar, I.

    2015-01-01

    Balanced boron (B) application is well-known to enhance the cotton production; however, the narrow range between B-deficiency and toxicity levels makes it difficult to manage. Cotton genotypes extensively differ in their response to B requirements. The adequate dose of B for one genotype may be insufficient or even toxic to other genotype. The effects of boron (B) on seed cotton yield and its various yield associated traits were studied on 10 cotton genotypes of Pakistan. The pot studies were undertaken to categorize cotton genotypes using B-deficient (control) and B-adequate (2.0 kg B ha-1) levels arranged in CRD with four repeats. The results indicated that the seed cotton yield, yield attributes and B-uptake of genotypes were comparatively decreased in B-deficient stressed treatment. Genotype NIA-Ufaq exhibited wide range of adaptation and ranked as efficient-responsive, as it produced higher seed cotton yield under both B-regimes. SAU-2 and CIM-506 were highly-efficient and remaining all genotypes were medium-efficient. Genotype Sindh-1 produced low seed cotton yield under B deficient condition and ranked as low-efficient. B-efficient cotton genotypes can be grown in B deficient soils without B application. (author)

  4. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Nutrient Composition, Anti-nutritional Factors, In vitro Digestibility and Ruminal Degradation of Whole Cotton Seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, S.W.; Son, H.Y.; Kim, W.; Son, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    Whole cotton seed (WCS) has become one of the major feed ingredients in TMR for dairy cattle in Korea, and WCS for feed use is mostly imported from abroad. Since this genetically modified oil seed is usually fed to the animal in raw state, its germination ability, if last long, often causes concerns about ecological disturbances. In the process of looking for effective conditions to remove germination ability of WCS this study had the objectives to evaluate the nutritional effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 8, 10 and 12 kGy on changes in nutrient contents, anti-nutritional factors, in vitro digestibility and ruminal degradability. No significant differences were found in proximate analysis of nutrients between raw WCS and gamma irradiated one. Glycine and threonine contents significantly increased when the WCS was exposed to gamma ray as compared to untreated WCS(p0.05). As for fatty acid composition, no significant differences were observed with the irradiation treatment. Free gossypol in WCS was decreased(p0.05) by gamma irradiation treatment. Of the 3 different levels of gamma irradiation, a dose of 12kGy was found to be the most effective in reducing free gossypol concentration. Results obtained from in situ experiment indicated that gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy significantly(p0.05) lowered rumen degradability of both dry matter and crude protein as compared with raw WCS. However, there were no significant differences in rapidly degradable and potentially degradable fractions of crude protein due to 10kGy gamma irradiation. Overall, this study show that gamma irradiation at a dose of 10kGy is the optimum condition for removing germination ability of WCS, and could improve nutritive value for the ruminant with respect to the decrease in both ruminal protein degradability and gossypol content of WCS

  5. Is Hedging a Habit? Hedging Ratio Determination of Cotton Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorfman, J.H.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role that habit plays when producers determine their hedge ratio. Data were collected from U.S. cotton growers in which they indicated their hedging position in 2001 and 2002 as well as their perceived profitability, land ownership structure, and income. To account for heterogeneity,

  6. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  7. Positivity Effect Specific to Older Adults with Subclinical Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional…

  8. Potential effect of diaper and cotton ball contamination on NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies of urine from newborn babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpaster, Aaron M; Ramadas, Eshwar H; Kennedy, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) based metabonomics screening of urine has great potential for discovery of biomarkers for diseases that afflict newborn and preterm infants. However, urine collection from newborn infants presents a potential confounding problem due to the possibility that contaminants might leach from materials used for urine collection and influence statistical analysis of metabonomics data. In this manuscript, we have analyzed diaper and cotton ball contamination using synthetic urine to assess its potential to influence the outcome of NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies of human infant urine. Eight diaper brands were examined using the "diaper plus cotton ball" technique. Data were analyzed using conventional principal components analysis, as well as a statistical significance algorithm developed for, and applied to, NMR data. Results showed most diaper brands had distinct contaminant profiles that could potentially influence NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies. On the basis of this study, it is recommended that diaper and cotton ball brands be characterized using metabonomics methodologies prior to initiating a metabonomics study to ensure that contaminant profiles are minimal or manageable and that the same diaper and cotton ball brands be used throughout a study to minimize variation.

  9. Effects of morning and night application of Beauveria bassiana strains NI8 and GHA against the tarnished plant bug in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug, (TPB), Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), (Hemiptera: Miridae) an important pest of cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum L.) found in the Mississippi Delta is naturally attacked by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vueillemin. In this study, two isolates o...

  10. Creating prescription maps from satellite imagery for site-specific management of cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a century-old cotton disease that can now be controlled with Topguard Terra Fungicide. However, as this disease tends to occur in the same general areas within fields year after year, site-specific treatment can be more effective and economical. The objective of this study was to ...

  11. Using airborne imagery to monitor cotton root rot infection before and after fungicide treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a severe soilborne disease that has affected cotton production for over a century. Recent research has shown that a commercial fungicide, flutriafol, has potential for the control of this disease. To effectively and economically control this disease, it is necessary to identify in...

  12. Combining fuzzy set theory and nonlinear stretching enhancement for unsupervised classification of cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a destructive disease affecting cotton production. Accurate identification of infected areas within fields is useful for cost-effective control of the disease. The uncertainties caused by various infection stages and newly infected plants make it difficult to achieve accurate clas...

  13. Physical and combustion properties of nonwoven fabrics produced from conventional and naturally colored cottons

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted to identify the effects of processing parameters on physical and combustion properties of needlepunched (NP) and hydroentangled (H-E) nonwoven fabrics produced from fibers of a standard Mid-South white fiber cotton and a naturally colored brown fiber cotton. The fl...

  14. Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding for ESL learners struggling with reading. ... are intended to open up for debate a topic of critical importance to the country's education system. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  16. Exploring potential and opportunities for pakistan cotton export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, G. S.; Tariq, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is the single largest shareholder to GDP an employment to labour force. It has major share in export but unfortunately unable to meet international standards. This study aims to analyze the pattern of Pakistan cotton export, and to explore sector's export potential and opportunities. This new research endeavor with well-tested analytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been used with latest data from 2004 to 2013 for the panel 39 countries. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have comparative advantage in export and there is gradual gain in the competitiveness with time. The opportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and upper middle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and non-tariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies with malaysia, kenya jordan, thailand, mauritius, netherlands norway, Australia and russian federation for export of cotton, however, export potential for cotton has been exhausted with canada, france, india, iran and saudi arabia. The study provide the policy information that countries of Latin america, eastern europe, central asia and northern africa are virgin for export. Therefore, pakistan should penetrate in these markets for export of cotton and other agricultural products. cognizant to new trade theories, pakistan focus on quality to gain maximum trade volume in the markets of high income countries, Pakistan may develop trade agreement with ASEAN, SAFTA, and EU-27 for export of agricultural products. (author)

  17. [Effects of soil progressive drought during the flowering and boll-forming stage on gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of the subtending leaf to cotton boll].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-wei; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Rui; Kuai, Jie; Li, Lei; Wang, You-hua; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic changes and response mechanisms of gas exchange parameters and fluorescence indices of the subtending leaf to cotton boll under soil progressive drought stress, pot experiments of the hybrid cotton No. 3 were conducted with soil relative water content (SRWC) (75 +/- 5)% as control group, SRWC (60 +/- 5)% and SRWC (45 +/- 5)% as experimental groups dealt with progressive drought for 50 days. Results showed that, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased while Ls increased under SRWC (60 +/- 5)% for 0-21 days. Furthermore, there was no significant change in chlorophyll fluorescence indices. This indicated that stomatal limitation was the main reason for the reduction of photosynthesis of cotton. In addition, when drought for 21-49 days under SRWC (60 +/- 5)%, Pn kept decreasing, while Ci began to increase and Ls began to decrease. Potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of photo system II (phi(PSI)) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)) reduced significantly, but non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) first rose then decreased. Thus, nonstomatal limitation was the main reason why the photosynthesis of cotton reduced. Photosynthetic organization and photosynthetic enzyme system were destroyed, boll setting intensity reduced and the number of boll and yield reduced significantly. Drought for 0-14 days under SRWC (45 +/- 5)% treatment led to sharp decrease in Pn, g(s) and Ci, whereas Ls obviously increased. There was no significant change in Fv/Fm, phi(PSII), q(P), indicating stomatal limitation was the main reason why the photosynthesis of cotton reduced. Pn decreased slowly, while Ci began to rise and Ls began to decline under SRWC (45 +/- 5)% treatment for 14-49 days. Fv/Fm, phi(PSII), q(P) decreased while NPQ rose first then declined, which indicated that nonstomatal limitation worked to reduce the cotton photosynthetic performance

  18. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  19. Going positive: The effects of negative and positive advertising on candidate success and voter turnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam C Malloy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the depth of research on negative advertising in campaigns, scholars have wondered why candidates continue to attack their opponents. We build on this research by considering real-world campaign contexts in which candidates are working in competition with each other and have to react to the decisions of the opposing campaign. Our results suggest that it is never efficacious for candidates to run attack ads, but running positive ads can increase a candidate’s margin of victory. These results are conditioned by two factors: candidates must both stay positive and out-advertise their opponent. Second, the effects of positive advertising are strongest in areas where the candidate is losing or winning by a large margin—areas where they might be tempted to not advertise at all.

  20. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  1. Co-solvents transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel: Effects of reaction conditions on quality of fatty acids methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Y.; Kumar, N.; Bugaje, I.M.; Pali, H.S.; Kathkar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using co-solvent systems reduce reaction time by 60%. • Only small volume of co-solvent is required to improve the process. • Greater than 90% yields were obtained within the first 10 min. • Physico-chemical and fuel properties of FAMEs were within standard limits. • Acetone was found to be the best co-solvent for the transesterification. - Abstract: Solvent Technology, is gaining the interest of researchers in improving transesterification process recently. Transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel using different mixtures of methanol with Diethyl Ether (DEE), Dichlorobenzene (CBN) or Acetone (ACT) co-solvent systems was conducted. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as the catalyst all through. The reaction conditions optimized include; the molar ratio of co-solvent in methanol, reaction temperature and time. The catalyst concentration was also optimized. The optimization was based on the percentage yields of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs) produced. In addition, the effects of co-solvent systems on physico-chemical properties (Acid value and fatty acids composition) and fuel properties (viscosity, density and calorific value) were investigated as well. The result obtained, indicated 10% (v/v) addition of co-solvents CBN and ACT in methanol was the optimal volume. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 ° 0 C for 10 min when the catalyst concentration of 0.75% (w/w) weight of oil was used. Fuel properties were within the acceptable limit of ASTM and not significantly affected by the co-solvent systems except for the calorific value. It was concluded that the addition of co-solvent reduced the reaction time and improved some fuel properties of the biodiesel produced

  2. Cotton : Market setting, trade policies, and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2004-01-01

    The value of world cotton production in 2000-01 has been estimated at about $20 billion, down from $35 billion in 1996-97 when cotton prices were 50 percent higher. Although cotton's share in world merchandise trade is insignificant (about 0.12 percent), it is very important to a number of developing countries. Cotton accounts for approximately 40 percent of total merchandise export earnin...

  3. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  4. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  5. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  6. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  7. Cotton proteomics for deciphering the mechanism of environment stress response and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Sun, Guoqing; Sun, Zhanmin; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2014-06-13

    Cotton fiber is considered as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop is severely hampered by the occurrence of pathogens, pests, and various environmental factors. Nevertheless, cotton plant has developed sophisticated mechanisms to respond to environment stresses to avoid detrimental effects on its growth and development. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber development and environment stress response is of considerable interest for designing agriculture breeding strategies to ensure sustainable productivity. The application of proteomics technologies to advance our knowledge in cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance has increased dramatically in the last 5years as evidenced by the large amount of publications in this area. This review summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics and evaluates the findings in context of the approaches that are widely employed with the aim to generate novel insight useful for cotton improvement. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop grown all over the world and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. Cotton is also an important source of edible oil seed and a nutrient-rich food crop as cottonseed contains high-quality protein and oil. The growth and productivity of cotton crop are often hampered by various biotic stress factors, such as insect pests and pathogens. In addition, cotton plants are frequently subjected to unavoidable environmental factors that cause abiotic stress, such as salt, heat and drought. Proteomic techniques provide one of the best options for understanding the gene function and phenotypic changes during cotton fiber development and stress response. This review first summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics about cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance, and also evaluates the findings in context of the approaches

  8. Does transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton pollen affect hypopharyngeal gland development and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) cotton cultivar CCRI41 is increasingly used in China and potential side effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have been documented recently. Two studies have assessed potential lethal and sublethal effects in young bees fed with CCRI41 cotton pollen but no effect was observed on learning capacities, although lower feeding activity in exposed honey bees was noted (antifeedant effect). The present study aimed at providing further insights into potential side effects of CCRI41 cotton on honey bees. Emerging honey bees were exposed to different pollen diets using no-choice feeding protocols (chronic exposure) in controlled laboratory conditions and we aimed at documenting potential mechanisms underneath the CCRI41 antifeedant effect previously reported. Activity of midgut proteolytic enzyme of young adult honey bees fed on CCRI41 cotton pollen were not significantly affected, i.e. previously observed antifeedant effect was not linked to disturbed activity of the proteolytic enzymes in bees' midgut. Hypopharyngeal gland development was assessed by quantifying total extractable proteins from the glands. Results suggested that CCRI41 cotton pollen carries no risk to hypopharyngeal gland development of young adult honey bees. In the two bioassays, honey bees exposed to 1 % soybean trypsin inhibitor were used as positive controls for both midgut proteolytic enzymes and hypopharyngeal gland proteins quantification, and bees exposed to 48 ppb (part per billion) (i.e. 48 ng g(-1)) imidacloprid were used as controls for exposure to a sublethal concentration of toxic product. The results show that the previously reported antifeedant effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees is not linked to effects on their midgut proteolytic enzymes or on the development of their hypopharyngeal glands. The results of the study are discussed in the framework of risk assessment of transgenic crops on honey bees.

  9. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  10. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  11. Optimization of properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from cotton stalk and sawdust containing calcium chloride CaCl2 as an additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza nazerian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of hydration behavior and mechanical properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from different ratio of cotton stalk to poplar wood particle, sawdust content and CaCl2 as additive at different weight ratios. At the first, curing time of cement paste containing different amount of additive (CaCl2 and wood and cotton fines was determined. Besides, the effect of additive (CaCl2 content, weight ratio of cotton to poplar wood particles and percentage of sawdust on modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE and internal bonding (IB of cement-bonded particleboard was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. In order to optimize the properties of panels, a mathematical model equation (second order plan was done by a computer simulation program. According to results, there is a good coincidence between predicted values and actual values (R2 for MOR, MOE and IB was 0.93, 0.90 and 0.95, respectively. This study showed that the response surface methodology (RSM can be effectively used for modeling of panel properties. Results showed that using weight ratio of cotton to poplar particle 43:57 the MOR, MOE and IB of panels can be reached to maximum values (12.5, 2545 and 0.35 MPa, respectively. Simultaneously, application of 4.5% additive and 9% sawdust at had a positive effect on the properties of the panels.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-wai Kan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity.

  13. Thwarting one of cotton's nemeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, D.

    1991-01-01

    There's not much good to be said for the pink bollworm, cotton's most destructive pest, except that it is being controlled to cut crop damage. Scientists have developed strategies, such as increasing native populations of predatory insects and pest-resistant cotton varieties. Thanks to research, growers today can also use cultural practices such as early plowdown of harvested cotton to break up stalks and bury overwintering pink bollworms. And they can disrupt normal mating by releasing sterile insects and using copies of natural compounds, called pheromones, that the pink bollworm uses to attract mates. Such strategies, together with judicious use of insecticides, put together in various combinations, form what is called an integrated pest management system

  14. Estimation of Heterosis and Combining Ability in F1 Hybrids of Upland Cotton for Yield and Fiber Traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, B.T.; Baloch, M.J.; Bughio, Q.U.A.; Sial, P.; Arain, M.A.; Baloch, A.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental research was conducted so as to determine the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) estimates and heterotic effects for seed cotton yield and fibre traits in 5 x 5 half diallel crosses of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The parental genotypes studied were; CRIS-134, IR-3701, IR-1524, FH-113 and MG-6. The characters such as bolls/plant, sympodial branches/plant, boll weight (g), plant height (cm), fibre length (mm), seed cotton yield/plant (g), seed index (g) and ginning out turn percentage were studied. The experiment was laid-out in a randomized complete block design with four replications at experimental field of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan during 2013. The results revealed that, parents and hybrids differed significantly for their mean performance regarding all the traits studied. The importance of heterotic effects was evident from the significance of parents vs. hybrids performance. The variances due to GCA and SCA were significant for all the traits except that GCA was non-significant for boll weight only whereas, SCA was non-significant for boll weight, seed index and ginning out turn percentage. The significance of GCA indicated the importance of additive genes advocating the traits while, the involvement of non-additive genes was evident from the significance of SCA variances. The GCA variances were greater than SCA for bolls per plant, plant height, seed cotton yield and lint percentage while, SCA variances were higher than GCA for sympodial branches/plant and fibre length. Parents IR-3701, FH-113 and MG-6 displayed higher positive GCA effects for bolls/plant, sympodial branches/plant, fibre length, seed cotton yield, seed index and ginning out turn percentage. The per se performance of these three parents was exactly reflected in their GCA effects and such happenings are exceptional. Such results suggested that, all three parents were

  15. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Sasse

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  16. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  17. Time perspective and positivity effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Linzy; Kwong See, Sheree T; Fung, Helene H

    2016-09-01

    This study tested whether time perspective, a central tenant of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 2006), moderates positivity effects in emotional memory. To provide measures of time perspective, young (YA; M = 22.48 years), young-old (YO; M = 67.56 years), old-old adults (OO; M = 80.24 years), and participants with moderate severity Alzheimer's disease (PAD; M = 84.28 years) completed a line task and reported subjective age. As expected, YA, YO, and OO reported successively more constrained future time perspectives. PAD showed distortion in time perspective, envisioning a future comparable with the YO, although closer matched in chronological age to OO adults. To evince positivity effects, participants were oriented to pairs of emotional images and were then tested for memory (recall and recognition) of the images. Recall and recognition memory for the images indicated an age-related advantage for positive over negative material (positivity effects). Time perspective, however, did not moderate these age effects. In memory performance, PAD were more comparable with OO adults with whom they shared a similar chronological age, rather than YO adults, who had a corresponding time perspective. These results suggest that age correlates that are shared by PAD and OO, such as reduced processing resources, rather than time perspective, may drive the age associated positivity effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Position-dependent Effects of Polylysine on Sec Protein Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K.; Musser, Siegfried M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or “pause sites,” were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport. PMID:22367204

  19. Position-dependent effects of polylysine on Sec protein transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2012-04-13

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or "pause sites," were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport.

  20. The prevalence of byssinosis among cotton workers in the north of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, A V; Schlünssen, V; Agodokpessi, G; Sigsgaards, T; Fayomi, B

    2014-10-01

    Cotton is the main agricultural export product in Benin. Cotton dust is thus present in the air during the handling and processing of cotton. This dust contains a mixture of substances including ground up plant matter, fibres, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton matter, and other contaminants. While cotton processing is decreasing in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries. Cotton processing, particularly in the early processes of spinning, can cause byssinosis. To determine the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure among cotton mill workers in Benin. In a cross-sectional study, 109 workers exposed to cotton dust and 107 unexposed workers were studied. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) questionnaire was used for data collection on respiratory symptoms. For each worker, crossshift pulmonary function was performed with a dry spirometer. Based on the severity of respiratory symptoms and spirometry byssinosis was defined and classified according to the criteria of Schilling, et al. The mean ± SD age of the exposed and unexposed workers was 46.3 ± 7.8 and 37.0 ± 8.3 years, respectively (pcotton mill workers in Benin is high and needs prompt attention of health care workers and policymakers.

  1. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  2. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  3. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  4. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  5. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  6. Viewing-position effects in the Stroop task: Initial fixation position modulates Stroop effects in fully colored words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Patrick; Ducrot, Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    In two experiments that we conducted with adult (Experiment 1) and child (Experiment 2) participants, we experimentally controlled the eyes' first fixation in the word using a variable viewing-position technique in a classical all-letter-coloring Stroop procedure. We explored the impact of initial-fixation position (optimal viewing position [OVP] vs. end of the word) on the magnitude of Stroop effects (both interference and facilitation). The results showed that both interference and facilitation effects were reduced when the first fixation was located at the end of the word rather than at the OVP. These data make a new contribution to the study of the role of low-level processes in Stroop effects and add support to the growing body of research indicating that oculomotor processes can act as moderators of cognitive processes in the determination of Stroop effects.

  7. Progressive and cumulative fabric effects of multiple hydroentangling impacts at different water pressures on greige cotton substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    A practical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroentangling jet strip’s orifice size and the hydroentangling water pressure on the energy expended and the properties of the resulting nonwoven fabrics produced on a commercial-grade hydro-entanglement (HE) system, using greige cott...

  8. Physiological response of wheat, maize and cotton to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Gaweesh, S.S.M.; Orabi, I.O.A.; Hammad, A.H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Grains of wheat triticum aestivum vulgare cv. Giza 155, maize Zea mays cv. double hybrid strain 17 S and cotton seeds Gossypium barbadence cv. Giza 67 were irradiated with successive doses of gamma rays from 0 to 64 Krad. Irradiating wheat grains with 1 Krad, maize grains with 0.5 Krad and cotton seeds with 4 Krad stimulated their germination and enhanced the growth of seedlings and their chlorophyll content. Also, these doses activated Alpha- and Beta-Amylase in the seeds. Higher doses had suppression effects. Peroxidase value in the seedlings of the three species was accelerated progressively in concomitant with the increase in the dosage

  9. The Coo Effect in the International Brand Positioning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kobuszewski Volles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: This study aims to develop a model in order to understand how Chinese companies strategically position their brands, considering the causes of the country of origin (COO effect, when going through the process of internationalization. Design/methodology/approach: The study approach a qualitative case study that incorporates two different Chinese companies with subsidiaries settled in Brazil. It was conducted depth interviews with different components of the studied firms. Findings: In this way, it was developed a model that try to explain the positive and/or negative effect of general attributes from China (labor market, institution framework and education on the brand positioning divers (value preposition, points of leverage, primary target and image reinforcement, which influences on the cost-benefit strategy approach of the brands when positioning internationally. Research limitations/implications: Considering that this research is a qualitative study of two Chinese companies, further qualitative and quantitative studies would be fruitful to the validity of the presented model. Originality/value: In order to contribute to the academic field, it was found that this research present a unique model considering different causes of the COO effect that might affect the international branding positioning.

  10. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  11. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: I. Impact on microbes, iron reduction capacity and respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, K.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Dhawan, A.K.; Dureja, P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil microorganisms have a primary catabolic role in the environment through degradation of plant and animal residues. The activities of microorganisms in soil are thus, essential to the global cycling of nutrients. As these pesticides are designed to be biologically active, their continuous use might affect soil microflora either by changing their properties or their numbers, which may lead to impairment in soil fertility. Soil was analyzed for microbial numbers, iron reduction capacity and respiration. Stimulatory, inhibitory or no effects of insecticide treatments were observed on microbes and microbial activities. The insecticides used had only temporary effects on microbes and their activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment was carried out or at the end of experimental period. (author)

  12. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  13. Efeito do manejo da irrigação e de populações de plantas sobre o rendimento do algodoeiro herbáceo Effect of irrigation management and plant population on herbaceous cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Assis de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar, num solo aluvial, franco siltoso, no vale do Açu, no Rio Grande do Norte, o efeito do momento da última irrigação e da população de plantas sobre a altura das plantas e a produtividade do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch, cultivar Acala del cerro. Os tratamentos foram definidos pelos momentos da última irrigação aos 65, 80, 95 e 110 dias após a emergência e pela população com 30.000, 60.000, 90.000 e 120.000 plantas/ha. Usou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, e quatro repetições. A altura das plantas aumentou com o retardamento da última irrigação e com o tamanho das populações. Houve efeito (P In an alluvial soil, silt loam, of Açu valley, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, a research was carried out to study the effect of time of the last irrigation and plant population on yield and plant height of the herbaceous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch cultivar Acala del cerro. Treatments consisted of times of the last irrigation at 65, 80, 95 and 110 days after emergence and populations with 30,000, 60,000, 90,000 and 120,000 plants/ha. The experimental plan was a randomized complete blocks in a split-plot design, with four replications. Delaying time of last irrigation increased height and plant populations. A significant effect (P <= 0.01 of interaction between time of last irrigation and plant population was found for cotton yield. The highest cotton yield (4,090 kg/ha was obtained with the interaction between time of last irrigation at 95 days and in population of 90,000 plants/ha. Irrigation times at 65 and 80 days were considered too early, and at 110 days too late for cotton yields.

  14. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  15. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  16. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  17. Effect of X-irradiation on fecundity, fertility and longevity of the red cotton bug Dysdercus koenigii Fabr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.P.; Deshpande, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    X-irradiation of the sexes affects reproduction in D. koenigii differently. Irradiation of the male has no effect on the fecundity of the female but that of the female affects it adversely. Fertility shows fluctuations at lower doses and a linear decline at higher ones irrespective of the sex irradiated. But whereas complete sterility (infertility) sets in the female at 2000 rad, the male needs 4000 rad to induce the same in the female, which indicates a greater radiosensitivity of the former, longevity is unaffected by X-irradiation, indicating lack of correlation between sterility and longevity reported to exist in some insects. (author)

  18. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daohua He

    2014-10-01

    fiber elongation. The highest positive effect on UHML and STR was observed for haplotype Hap_6 of Exp2. There was a significant association of Exp2 with fiber quality traits. There were many haplotypes in the Exp2 region, of which the most favorable was Hap_6. The association between nucleotide diversity and these fiber traits sheds light on the gene's potential contribution to the improvement of fiber quality, and should be useful to facilitate MAS programs in cotton.

  19. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıışık Merih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL process on cotton fabrics properties.

  20. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  1. The Positive Effects of Cognitive Learning Styles in ELT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagcioglu, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted.…

  2. Divergent Effects of Different Positive Emotions on Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohminger, Nina; Lewis, Richard L.; Meyer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Positive emotions are often treated as relatively similar in their cognitive-behavioral effects, and as having unambiguously beneficial consequences. For example, Valdesolo and DeSteno (2006) reported that a humorous video made people more prone to choose a utilitarian solution to a moral dilemma. They attributed this finding to increased positive…

  3. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region. Cotton-producing region means each of the following groups of cotton-producing States: (a) Southeast Region: Alabama...

  4. Determination of ABA-binding proteins contents in subcellular fractions isolated from cotton seedlings using radioimmunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunkhodjayeva, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge of plants' hormone receptor sites is essential to understanding of the principles of phytohormone action in cells and tissues. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) takes part in many important physiological processes of plants, including water balance and resistance to salt stress. The detection of salt tolerance in the early stages of ontogenesis is desirable for effective cultivation of cotton. Usually such characteristics are determined visually after genetic analysis of hybrids over several generations. This classic method of genetics requires a long time to grow several generations of cotton plants. In this connection we study ABA-binding protein contents in subcellular fractions isolated from seedlings of several kinds of cotton with different tolerance to salt stress. The contents of ABA-binding protein in nuclei and chloroplasts fractions isolated from cotton seedlings were determined using radioimmunoanalysis. The subcellular fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation in 0,25 - 2,2 M sucrose gradient. ABA-binding protein was isolated from cotton seedlings by affinity chromatography. The antibodies against ABA-binding protein of cotton were developed in rabbits according standard protocols. Than the antibodies were labelled by radioisotope J 125 according Greenwood et al. It was shown, that the nuclei and chloroplasts fractions isolated from cotton with high tolerance to salt stress contain ABA-binding protein up to 1,5-1,8 times more, than the same fractions from cotton with low tolerance to salt stress. So, the ABA-binding protein contents in cotton seedlings may be considered as a marker for screening of cotton kinds, which may potentially have high tolerance to salt stress

  5. Valuing financial, health and environmental benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kouser, Shahzad; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Data from a farm survey and choice experiment are used to value the benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan. Unlike previous research on the economic impacts of Bt, which mostly concentrated on financial benefits in terms of gross margins, we also quantify and monetize positive externalities associated with technology adoption. Due to lower chemical pesticide use on Bt cotton plots, there are significant health advantages in terms of reduced incidence of acute pesticide poisoning, and environmental...

  6. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS IN ABUSE OF DOMINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MĂRGINEAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of a dominant position is a threat to the functioning of the free market. This is the reason why we have proposed to highlight the impact of this particular anti-competitive practice in the European Union area. The aim of this paper is to present, from a theoretical and practical approach, the implications and the effects of this type of behavior and also to highlight the main actors in this process. In order to achieve these goals, we will use the content analysis to compress the effects of the abuse of dominant position in two categories: positive and negative effects. The historical method to emphasize the historical origins of the concepts and institutions involved. The comparative method will be used to nominate specific features, concepts or institutions that we will analyze and also it will help us to analyze the evolution that have occurred over time in terms of their development and to highlight certain advantages or disadvantages in terms of choice of competition policy on the abuse of a dominant position. In this paper we will notice that both the companies and the market itself are facing with companies that use anti-competitive since 1900. These kind of practices are harmful both for competition and for consumers, so that should not be allowed to expand. In this context, the European Commission imposed a set of rules that all operators must comply in order to protect, maintain and stimulate competition in the Single Market and to promote fair competition.

  7. Impact of Bollgard ® genetically modified cotton on the biodiversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using cotton cultivars that express a gene of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium producing a protein (Cry1Ac) with an insecticide effect on the Lepidoptera pests has made it possible to reduce the number of insecticide applications during the crop cycle. Thus, the objective was to determine, in the field during the ...

  8. A Positive Generation Effect on Memory for Auditory Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Richard, Alison G; Stephens, Joseph D W

    2017-06-01

    Self-generation of information during memory encoding has large positive effects on subsequent memory for items, but mixed effects on memory for contextual information associated with items. A processing account of generation effects on context memory (Mulligan in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30(4), 838-855, 2004; Mulligan, Lozito, & Rosner in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(4), 836-846, 2006) proposes that these effects depend on whether the generation task causes any shift in processing of the type of context features for which memory is being tested. Mulligan and colleagues have used this account to predict various negative effects of generation on context memory, but the account also predicts positive generation effects under certain circumstances. The present experiment provided a critical test of the processing account by examining how generation affected memory for auditory rather than visual context. Based on the processing account, we predicted that generation of rhyme words should enhance processing of auditory information associated with the words (i.e., voice gender), whereas generation of antonym words should have no effect. These predictions were confirmed, providing support to the processing account.

  9. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  10. Site-specific management of cotton root rot using airborne and satellite imagery and variable rate technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a serious cotton disease that can now be effectively controlled with Topguard Terra Fungicide. However, its recurrence in the same areas year after year makes fungicide application only to infested areas more effective and economical than uniform application. Base on 17 years of r...

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of Genetically Modified Cotton After 20 Years of Cultivation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Rocha-Munive

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than 20 years cotton has been the most widely sown genetically modified (GM crop in Mexico. Its cultivation has fulfilled all requirements and has gone through the different regulatory stages. During the last 20 years, both research-institutions and biotech-companies have generated scientific and technical information regarding GM cotton cultivation in Mexico. In this work, we collected data in order to analyze the environmental and agronomic effects of the use of GM cotton in Mexico. In 1996, the introduction of Bt cotton made it possible to reactivate this crop, which in previous years was greatly reduced due to pest problems, production costs and environmental concerns. Bt cotton is a widely accepted tool for cotton producers and has proven to be efficient for the control of lepidopteran pests. The economic benefits of its use are variable, and depend on factors such as the international cotton-prices and other costs associated with its inputs. So far, the management strategies used to prevent development of insect resistance to GM cotton has been successful, and there are no reports of insect resistance development to Bt cotton in Mexico. In addition, no effects have been observed on non-target organisms. For herbicide tolerant cotton, the prevention of herbicide resistance has also been successful since unlike other countries, the onset of resistance weeds is still slow, apparently due to cultural practices and rotation of different herbicides. Environmental benefits have been achieved with a reduction in chemical insecticide applications and the subsequent decrease in primary pest populations, so that the inclusion of other technologies—e.g., use of non-Bt cotton- can be explored. Nevertheless, control measures need to be implemented during transport of the bolls and fiber to prevent dispersal of volunteer plants and subsequent gene flow to wild relatives distributed outside the GM cotton growing areas. It is still necessary to

  12. Effect of intrauterine position on the radiosensitivity of rat embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Aceto, H. Jr.; Karp, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were exposed to gamma rays or helium ions on one of days 4 to 9 of gestation. Embryonic survival was recorded as a function of intrauterine position at autopsy on day 20 of gestation. Embryos located at the ovarian and cervical ends of the uterus experienced higher rates of mortality than did their littermates located at the middle of the uterine horn. This effect was observed in litters exposed to both radiation modalities on all days studied. The influence of intrauterine position on embryonic survival was directly proportional to radiation dose and to the number of fetuses occupying the uterus horn. Under the least advantageous conditions (i.e., a crowded uterine horn exposed to a moderately high radiation dose), the cervical embryo's probability of survival was less than half that of the litter as a whole. A disproportionately high rate of embryonic mortality at the cervical position was also observed in litters irradiated under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that the non-random distribution of radiation effect was not the result of variations in oxygen concentration within the uterus. In contrast, there was no indication that intrauterine position influenced the distribution of gross morphologic abnormalities in irradiated litters

  13. [Effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching on the net primary productivity, soil heterotrophic respiration, and net CO2 exchange flux of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Run-Hua; Lai, Dong-Mei; Yan, Zheng-Yue; Jiang, Li; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2012-04-01

    In April-October, 2009, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching (MD) on the net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) , and net CO2 exchange flux (NEF(CO2)) of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, taking the traditional flood irrigation with no mulching (NF) as the control. With the increasing time, the NPP, Rh, and NEF(CO2) in treatments MD and NF all presented a trend of increasing first and decreased then. As compared with NF, MD increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP of cotton, and decreased the Rh. Over the whole growth period, the Rh in treatment MD (214 g C x m(-2)) was smaller than that in treatment NF (317 g C x m(-2)), but the NEF(CO2) in treatment MD (1030 g C x m(-2)) was higher than that in treatment NF (649 g C x m(-2)). Treatment MD could fix the atmospheric CO2 approximately 479 g C x m(-2) higher than treatment NF. Drip irrigation with plastic mulching could promote crop productivity while decreasing soil CO2 emission, being an important agricultural measure for the carbon sequestration and emission reduction of cropland ecosystems in arid area.

  14. A Faraday effect position sensor for interventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, M; Umathum, R; Sikora, J; Brenner, S; Aguor, E N; Semmler, W

    2006-02-21

    An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m(-1) gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved.

  15. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.

  16. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnberg, P O; de Villota, E D; Eklund, J; Granberg, P O

    1978-01-01

    The effects were studied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on renal function in eight patients with acute respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. On application of PEEP + 10 cm H2O, central venous pressure increased, systolic blood pressure decreased, urine flow and PAH-clearance were reduced, while inulin clearance remained stable. There was a marked increase in fractional sodium reabsorption and a concurrent decrease in fractional osmolal excretion. Fractional free-water clearance and the ratio UOsm/POsm did change.

  17. THE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING STYLES IN ELT CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Yagcioglu

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted. Games on cognitive learning styles will be explained. Sample classroom activities will be shared. Useful books, videos and websites on cognitive learni...

  18. Assessment of Bollgard II cotton pollen mediated transgenes flow to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Bollgard II cotton pollen mediated transgenes flow to conventional cotton in the farming conditions of Burkina ... This has led to experiment on Bt cotton from 2003 to 2007. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. EFFECT OF BODY POSITIONS ON INTRA OCULAR PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP can be altered by changing body position. Very few studies are available in the Indian subjects. AIM: To study the effect of changes in the body position from upright posture to supine to head down tilt of - 60 0 . MATERIALS AND M ETHODS: The study group consisted of 60 subjects, 35 boys and 25 girls in the age group of 18 to 24 years, with no ocular pathology were chosen. Independent measurements of the IOP of each eye were obtained. Keelar Pulsair air impulse tonometer was used in all the subjects for IOP measurement. IOP was measured in the department of Ophthalmology, Teaching Hospital between 10AM to 12 Noon. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : were done using Student’s paired ‘t’ test. RESULTS: The change of IOP (Increased induced by the change of position between the means of IOP’s for the sitting and supine positions was 2.789±1.03 mm Hg of all subjects, 2.825±0.226 mm Hg in males and 2.739±0.089 mm Hg in females and between the supine and in clined - 60 ⁰ position was 4.971±0.914 mm Hg of all subjects, 4.703±0.816mm Hg in males and 5.346±1.098 mm Hg in females. CONCLUSION: It is apparent that, the IOP is significantly higher in the supine than in the sitting and in the inclined than in the supin e positions. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001.

  20. Patient position alters attenuation effects in multipinhole cardiac SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Rachel; Ruddy, Terrence D; Wells, R Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Dedicated cardiac cameras offer improved sensitivity over conventional SPECT cameras. Sensitivity gains are obtained by large numbers of detectors and novel collimator arrangements such as an array of multiple pinholes that focus on the heart. Pinholes lead to variable amounts of attenuation as a source is moved within the camera field of view. This study evaluated the effects of this variable attenuation on myocardial SPECT images. Computer simulations were performed for a set of nine point sources distributed in the left ventricular wall (LV). Sources were placed at the location of the heart in both an anthropomorphic and a water-cylinder computer phantom. Sources were translated in x, y, and z by up to 5 cm from the center. Projections were simulated with and without attenuation and the changes in attenuation were compared. A LV with an inferior wall defect was also simulated in both phantoms over the same range of positions. Real camera data were acquired on a Discovery NM530c camera (GE Healthcare, Haifa, Israel) for five min in list-mode using an anthropomorphic phantom (DataSpectrum, Durham, NC) with 100 MBq of Tc-99m in the LV. Images were taken over the same range of positions as the simulations and were compared based on the summed perfusion score (SPS), defect width, and apparent defect uptake for each position. Point sources in the water phantom showed absolute changes in attenuation of ≤8% over the range of positions and relative changes of ≤5% compared to the apex. In the anthropomorphic computer simulations, absolute change increased to 20%. The changes in relative attenuation caused a change in SPS of position-dependent changes were removed with attenuation correction. Translation of a source relative to a multipinhole camera caused only small changes in homogeneous phantoms with SPS changing position-dependent changes in attenuation.

  1. Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susca, T.; Gaffin, S.R.; Dell'Osso, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 deg. C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO 2 equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role. - Highlights: → The local morphology and the scarcity of vegetation in NYC core determines its UHI. → We introduce the evaluation of the effects of the surface albedo on climate change. → We use it to compare a black roof with a white and a green one. → Surface albedo has a crucial role in the evaluation of the environmental loads of the roofs. → Vegetation has positive effects on both the urban and the building scale. - Vegetation has positive effects both on an urban scale, mitigating the urban heat island effect; and on a building scale, where albedo, thermal insulation and biological activity of plants play a crucial role.

  2. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  3. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Idsart; Bosch, Tim; Bruins, Louis; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2004-10-22

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from a 0.05 m height with the feet behind the box, squat lifting resulted in 19.9% (SD 8.7%) higher net moments (p squat and stoop lifts, as well as the interaction with lifting height, could to a large extent be explained by changes in the horizontal L5/S1 intervertebral joint position relative to the load, the upper body acceleration, and lumbar flexion. Rotating the knees outward during squat lifts resulted in moments and compression forces that were smaller than in squat lifting but larger than in stoop lifting. Shear forces were small ( < 300 N) at the L4/L5 joint and substantial (1100 - 1400 N) but unaffected by lifting technique at the L5/S1 joint. The present results show that the effects of lifting technique on low back loading depend on the task context.

  4. A case to study population dynamics of bemisia tabaci and thrips tabaci on bt and non-bt cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, M.; Hussain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Hafeez, F.; Farooq, M.; Arshad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the performance of eight bt and five non-bt cotton genotypes against whitefly and thrips and impact of abiotic factors on the population fluctuation of these sucking pests, at cotton research station, multan, during 2010 and 2011. The results exhibited that bt genotypes found more susceptible host for the whitefly and thirps than non-bt genotypes, during the course of years of study. Among bt genotypes, maximum and minimum temperature showed significant and positive effect on whitefly population whereas relative humidity exerted negative effect during 2010. During 2011, the effect of all the factors was non significant. On cumulative basis, there was positive correlation between population of whitefly and minimum temperature. But in case of non-bt, it has negative with maximum temperature whereas relative humidity had a positive effect on whitefly population. similar trend was observed for thrips population on bt varieties during both years but on non-bt varieties only minimum temperature exerted strong positive impact on thrips population. Hierarchical regression models for whitefly and thrips revealed that minimum temperature was the most important factor (Bt and non-Bt varieties). Maximum temperature was the major contributing factor for whitefly fluctuation on bt varieties during 2010. (author)

  5. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  6. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  7. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; La Mantia, Fabio; Hu, Liangbing; Deshazer, Heather Dawn; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Spectral discrimination of two pigweeds from cotton with different leaf colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To implement strategies to control Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) infestations in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, managers need effective techniques to identify the weeds. Leaf light reflectance measurements have shown...

  10. Investigation of antibacterial activity of cotton fabric incorporating nano silver colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles were prepared by polyol process with microwave heating and incorporated on cotton fabric surfaces. The antibacterial performance of the antibacterial cotton fabric was tested for different concentration of nano-sized silver colloid, contact time germs, and washing times. It was found that antibacterial activity increased with the increasing concentration of nano-sized silver colloid. The antibacterial fabric with 758 mg/kg of silver nanoparticles on surface cotton was highly effective in killing test bacteria and had excellent water resisting property.

  11. Cotton transformation via pollen tube pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Although many gene transfer methods have been employed for successfully obtaining transgenic cotton, the major constraint in cotton improvement is the limitation of genotype because the majority of transgenic methods require plant regeneration from a single transformed cell which is limited by cotton tissue culture. Comparing with other plant species, it is difficult to induce plant regeneration from cotton; currently, only a limited number of cotton cultivars can be cultured for obtaining regenerated plants. Thus, development of a simple and genotype-independent genetic transformation method is particularly important for cotton community. In this chapter, we present a simple, cost-efficient, and genotype-independent cotton transformation method-pollen tube pathway-mediated transformation. This method uses pollen tube pathway to deliver transgene into cotton embryo sacs and then insert foreign genes into cotton genome. There are three major steps for pollen tube pathway-mediated genetic transformation, which include injection of -foreign genes into pollen tube, integration of foreign genes into plant genome, and selection of transgenic plants.

  12. Invisible Support: Effects on the Provider's Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia; Stadler, Gertraud; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2016-07-01

    Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well-being. The providers' well-being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well-being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. Overall, 97 non-smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined. Invisible support was assessed dyadically: partners' reports on smoking-specific provided social support together with smokers' reports on received support were assessed at baseline. Partners' relationship satisfaction was also assessed at baseline. Partners' positive and negative affect were measured at baseline and six-week follow-up. No main effects of invisible instrumental or emotional support occurred. However, partners' relationship satisfaction moderated the association between invisible instrumental support and change in partners' negative and positive affect: For partners with lower relationship satisfaction more invisible instrumental support was related to increased negative affect and decreased positive affect, whereas for partners with higher relationship satisfaction the inverse effects occurred. The study's results emphasise that invisible instrumental support might have emotional costs for the providers. Relationship satisfaction seems to serve as a protective factor. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis of Verticillium wilt-stressed cotton (Gossypium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Zhang, M; Chen, H D; Cai, X X; Xu, M L; Lei, K Y; Niu, J H; Deng, L; Liu, J; Ge, Z J; Yu, S X; Wang, B H

    2016-10-06

    In this study, a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis system was used to analyze DNA methylation level in three cotton accessions. Two disease-sensitive near-isogenic lines, PD94042 and IL41, and one disease-resistant Gossypium mustelinum accession were exposed to Verticillium wilt, to investigate molecular disease resistance mechanisms in cotton. We observed multiple different DNA methylation types across the three accessions following Verticillium wilt exposure. These included hypomethylation, hypermethylation, and other patterns. In general, the global DNA methylation level was significantly increased in the disease-resistant accession G. mustelinum following disease exposure. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the disease-sensitive accession PD94042, and a significant decrease was observed in IL41. Our results suggest that disease-resistant cotton might employ a mechanism to increase methylation level in response to disease stress. The differing methylation patterns, together with the increase in global DNA methylation level, might play important roles in tolerance to Verticillium wilt in cotton. Through cloning and analysis of differently methylated DNA sequences, we were also able to identify several genes that may contribute to disease resistance in cotton. Our results revealed the effect of DNA methylation on cotton disease resistance, and also identified genes that played important roles, which may shed light on the future cotton disease-resistant molecular breeding.

  14. Developing Cotton IPM by Conserving Parasitoids and Predators of The Main Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On early development of intensive cotton program, insect pests were considered as an important aspect in cotton cultivation, so that it needed to be scheduled sprays. The frequency of sprays was 7 times used 12L of chemical insecticides per hectare per season. Development of cotton IPM was emphasized on non-chemical control methods through optimally utilize natural enemies of the cotton main pests (Amrasca biguttulla (IshidaHelicoverpa armigera (Hübner. Conservation of parasitoids and predators by providing the environment that support their population development is an act of supporting the natural enemies as an effective biotic mortality factor of the insect pests. The conservation could be done by improving the plant matter and cultivation techniques that include the use of resistant variety to leafhopper, intercropping cotton with secondary food plants, mulch utilization, using action threshold that considered the presence of natural enemies, and application of botanical insecticides, if needed. Conservation of parasitoids and predators in cotton IPM could control the insect pests without any insecticide spray in obtaining the production of cotton seed. As such, the use of IPM method would increase farmers’ income.

  15. Research on detecting heterogeneous fibre from cotton based on linear CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-bin; Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xin-peng; Shi, Wei

    2009-07-01

    The heterogeneous fibre in cotton make a great impact on production of cotton textile, it will have a bad effect on the quality of product, thereby affect economic benefits and market competitive ability of corporation. So the detecting and eliminating of heterogeneous fibre is particular important to improve machining technics of cotton, advance the quality of cotton textile and reduce production cost. There are favorable market value and future development for this technology. An optical detecting system obtains the widespread application. In this system, we use a linear CCD camera to scan the running cotton, then the video signals are put into computer and processed according to the difference of grayscale, if there is heterogeneous fibre in cotton, the computer will send an order to drive the gas nozzle to eliminate the heterogeneous fibre. In the paper, we adopt monochrome LED array as the new detecting light source, it's lamp flicker, stability of luminous intensity, lumens depreciation and useful life are all superior to fluorescence light. We analyse the reflection spectrum of cotton and various heterogeneous fibre first, then select appropriate frequency of the light source, we finally adopt violet LED array as the new detecting light source. The whole hardware structure and software design are introduced in this paper.

  16. Positive emotional change: mediating effects of forgiveness and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Michael R; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Yancura, Loriena

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an emotional education program that seeks to reduce the intergenerational transmission of negative interaction patterns by increasing forgiveness and spirituality. We examined both reduction of psychological symptoms and increase in positive psychological outcomes over the course of a year, as well as the mediators of this change. At baseline, the sample consisted of 99 participants and 47 waiting list controls. Comparisons of scores from baseline (Time 1) to one week after the Hoffman Quadrinity Process (Time 2) showed large declines in negative affect (depressive symptoms) and increases in both positive outcomes (mastery, empathy, emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, forgiveness, and spiritual experience) and health and well-being. Over the course of a year, most of these gains were sustained, in comparison with the control group. Further, increases in forgiveness and spirituality mediated the effect of program participation on depressive symptoms.

  17. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: Effects of sociocultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Snyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae, Heller, John, & Gross, 2011. In this sociocultural context, as compared to home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes, and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy associated with adaptive outcomes. What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we not only replicated our previous findings, but also found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the reported increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we report are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects.

  18. Evaluation of cotton stalk hydrolysate for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcı, Burcu; Akpinar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-07-03

    Cotton stalk is a widely distributed and abundant lignocellulosic waste found in Turkey. Because of its rich xylose content, it can be a promising source for the production of xylitol. Xylitol can be produced by chemical or biotechnological methods. Because the biotechnological method is a simple process with great substrate specificity and low energy requirements, it is more of an economic alternative for the xylitol production. This study aimed to use cotton stalk for the production of xylitol with Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022. For this purpose, the combined effects of different oxygen concentration, inoculum level and substrate concentration were investigated to obtain high xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate. Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022 afforded different concentrations of xylitol depending on xylose concentration, inoculum level, and oxygen concentration. The optimum xylose, yeast concentration, and airflow rate for cotton stalk hydrolysate were found as 10.41 g L(-1), 0.99 g L(-1), and 1.02 vvm, respectively, and under these conditions, xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate were obtained as 36% and 0.06 g L(-1) hr(-1), respectively. The results of this study show that cotton stalk can serve as a potential renewable source for the production of xylitol.

  19. Influence of precursor ratios on the properties of cotton coated with a sol-gel flame retardant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chapple, Stephen A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton has many desirable properties, but is flammable. The flame retardant treatment of cotton is an important textile process. To study the effect of a sol-gel phosphate-based flame-retardant coating on fabric properties (flammability, stiffness...

  20. Allelopathic influence of a wheat or rye cover crop on growth and yield of no-till cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT No-till planting cotton into small grain cover crops has many benefits including reducing soil erosion and allelopathic suppression of weeds. It is suggested that the potentials of allelopathy on cotton plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of alleloche...

  1. Developmental and hormonal regulation of fiber quality in two natural-colored cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; HU Da-peng; LI Yuan; CHEN Yuan; Eltayib H.M.A.Abidallha; DONG Zhao-di; CHEN De-hua; ZHANG Lei

    2017-01-01

    Cotton cultivars with brown (Xiangcaimian 2),green (Wanmian 39) and white (Sumian 9) fiber were investigated to study fiber developmental characteristics of natural-colored cotton and the effect of hormones on fiber quality at different stages after anthesis.Fiber lengths of both natural-colored cottons were lower than the white-fibered control,with brown-flbered cotton longer than green.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natural-colored cotton were also lower than the control.The shorter fiber of the green cultivar was due to slower growth during 10 to 30 days post-anthesis (DPA).Likewise,the lower fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natured-colored cotton were also due to slower growth during this pivotal stage.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content at 10 DPA,and abscisic acid (ABA) content at 30 to 40 DPA were lower in the fibers of the natural-colored than that of the white-flbered cotton.After applying 20 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3),the IAA content at 20 DPA in the brown and green-fibered cottons increased by 51.07 and 64.33%,fiber ABA content increased by 38.96 and 24.40%,and fiber length increased by 8.13 and 13.96%,respectively.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation were also enhanced at boll opening stage.Those results suggest that the level of endogenous hormones affect fiber quality.Application of external hormones can increase hormone content in natural-colored cotton fiber,improving its quality.

  2. The Prevalence of Byssinosis among Cotton Workers in the North of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Hinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cotton is the main agricultural export product in Benin. Cotton dust is thus present in the air during the handling and processing of cotton. This dust contains a mixture of substances including ground up plant matter, fibres, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton matter, and other contaminants. While cotton processing is decreasing in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries. Cotton processing, particularly in the early processes of spinning, can cause byssinosis. Objective: To determine the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure among cotton mill workers in Benin. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 109 workers exposed to cotton dust and 107 unexposed workers were studied. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH questionnaire was used for data collection on respiratory symptoms. For each worker, crossshift pulmonary function was performed with a dry spirometer. Based on the severity of respiratory symptoms and spirometry byssinosis was defined and classified according to the criteria of Schilling, et al. Results: The mean±SD age of the exposed and unexposed workers was 46.3±7.8 and 37.0±8.3 years, respectively (p<0.001. The mean FEV1 predicted value for the exposed and unexposed workers was 76.3% and 77.3%, respectively. The prevalence of grade 3 byssinosis was 21.1% (95% CI: 13.4–28.9 in exposed workers and 8.4% (95% CI: 3.1–13.7 in unexposed workers (p=0.006. On Mondays, the exposed workers had more respiratory symptoms than unexposed workers; for grade 3 byssinosis, the prevalence was 13.8% in exposed and 4.7% in unexposed workers (p=0.011. Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis among cotton mill workers in Benin is high and needs prompt attention of health care workers and policymakers.

  3. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2018-01-01

    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  4. Patient position alters attenuation effects in multipinhole cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, Rachel; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated cardiac cameras offer improved sensitivity over conventional SPECT cameras. Sensitivity gains are obtained by large numbers of detectors and novel collimator arrangements such as an array of multiple pinholes that focus on the heart. Pinholes lead to variable amounts of attenuation as a source is moved within the camera field of view. This study evaluated the effects of this variable attenuation on myocardial SPECT images. Methods: Computer simulations were performed for a set of nine point sources distributed in the left ventricular wall (LV). Sources were placed at the location of the heart in both an anthropomorphic and a water-cylinder computer phantom. Sources were translated in x, y, and z by up to 5 cm from the center. Projections were simulated with and without attenuation and the changes in attenuation were compared. A LV with an inferior wall defect was also simulated in both phantoms over the same range of positions. Real camera data were acquired on a Discovery NM530c camera (GE Healthcare, Haifa, Israel) for five min in list-mode using an anthropomorphic phantom (DataSpectrum, Durham, NC) with 100 MBq of Tc-99m in the LV. Images were taken over the same range of positions as the simulations and were compared based on the summed perfusion score (SPS), defect width, and apparent defect uptake for each position. Results: Point sources in the water phantom showed absolute changes in attenuation of ≤8% over the range of positions and relative changes of ≤5% compared to the apex. In the anthropomorphic computer simulations, absolute change increased to 20%. The changes in relative attenuation caused a change in SPS of <1.5 for the water phantom but up to 4.2 in the anthropomorphic phantom. Changes were larger for axial than for transverse translations. These results were supported by SPS changes of up to six seen in the physical anthropomorphic phantom for axial translations. Defect width was also seen to significantly increase. The

  5. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L

    2008-11-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  6. Effect of soil-water tension on herbaceous cotton yield Efeito de tensões de água no solo sobre o rendimento do algodoeiro herbáceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Assis de Oliveira

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during two years, 1990/91, in an alluvial soil, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, to study the effect of the levels of soil-water tension, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 kPa, at 20 cm depth, on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch, cv. CNPA-6H yield. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with six treatments and four repetitions. There was an effect of the treatments on plant height, leaf area index and cotton yield, but the precocity index was not modified. Water should be applied when the soil-water tension, measured at 20 cm depth, reaches values around 200 kPa. There was a quadratic (R² = 0.893** response of cotton yields to soil water tension, with the maximum when water was applied at 52% of soil water depletion.Durante dois anos, 1990/91, em solo aluvial, no município de Sousa, PB, estudou-se, em condições de irrigação por sulco, o efeito das tensões de água no solo a 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 600 kPa, na profundidade de 20 cm, sobre o rendimento do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch, cv. CNPA-6H. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a altura da planta, índice de área foliar e rendimento de algodão em rama, mas não houve efeito sobre os dados de precocidade. A tensão de 200 kPa mostrou-se como o melhor nível de água no solo para se efetuar as irrigações, uma vez que para as tensões superiores o rendimento foi significativamente reduzido.O efeito sobre o rendimento foi de natureza quadrática (R² = 0,893**, o que indica que o rendimento máximo seria atingido irrigando-se a cultura com 52% de esgotamento da água disponível no solo.

  7. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology; Efeitos da adubacao nitrogenada em algodoeiro sobre a biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: rbarrosufms@yahoo.com.br, degrande@ufgd.edu.br

    2007-09-15

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  9. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  10. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  11. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  12. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana,

    Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation

    Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest

    control

  13. Effect of gamma rays on nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (BOISD). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Shall, S.A.; Sobeiha, A.K.; El-Bamby, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were exposed to exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy gamma radiation. The changes in nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of irradiated pupae, after 24 hours from irradiation, and also in 3 days old adults resulting from irradiated pupae were investigated. The total nucleic acids content in either pupae or adults was progressively reduced as the dose was increased. The reduction of both RNA and DNA in females was greater than in males. DNA was more radiosensitive than RNA. The destructive action of irradiation on nucleic acids was more pronounced in adult stage. Irradiation increased the RNA/DNA ratio than control at all treatments for female pupae at 200 Gy. 2 tabs

  14. Efeito da tenacidade da fibra sobre propriedades tecnológicas do fio de algodão Effect of the cotton fiber strength on yarn properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideraram-se três variedades de algodão com valores de tenacidade da fibra variando de 20,5 a 22,2 g/Tex: IAC 16, IAC 13-1 e IAC 17, classificadas, respectivamente, como de alta, média e baixa tenacidade. Tais variedades apresentaram características tecnológicas semelhantes quanto a comprimento, uniformidade de comprimento, índice de finura Micronaire e maturidade. As amostras foram processadas em estabelecimentos industriais, da maneira convencional, produzindo, cada uma, fios de títulos Ne20, Ne30 e Ne40. Para cada título, empregaram-se sete coeficientes de torção, representados pelas constantes 3,4, 3,6, 3,8, 4,0, 4,2, 4,5 e 4,7. Efetuaram-se as análises da variância dos resultados, de acordo com o delineamento fatorial 3 x 3 x 7, representado pelas três variedades, pelos três títulos e pelos sete níveis de coeficientes de torção. Mediante os resultados, conclui-se que fibras de algodão com alta tenacidade produzem fios mais resistentes e elásticos do que aquelas de baixa tenacidade, para qualquer título ou torção. A quantidade de torções requeridas para a obtenção de máxima resistência dos fios de algodão é pouco afetada pela tenacidade da fibra. Os fios de títulos mais altos têm os menores valores de tenacidade e elongação. A variedade IAC 16 apresentou fios com os maiores valores de tenacidade, seguida da 'IAC 13-1' e da 'IAC 17', e fios mais elásticos, acompanhada da 'IAC 17' e da 'IAC 13-1'.Three cottons with fiber strength of 20.5, 20.9 and 22.2 g/Tex and having other important fiber properties approximately equal were selected. The cottons were processed on conventional processing equipment into 20/1, 30/1 and 40/1 yarn counts, using a range of twist multipliers of 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0, 4.2, 4.5 and 4.7. Yarn strength and elongation determinations were made on a pendulum-type tester of 150-300 lbs capacity. It was found that: 1 - High strength cotton produced stronger yarns than low strength for any

  15. Effect of gamma rays on nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (BOISD). Vol. 4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; El-Shall, S A [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Sobeiha, A K; El-Bamby, M A [Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Full grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were exposed to exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy gamma radiation. The changes in nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of irradiated pupae, after 24 hours from irradiation, and also in 3 days old adults resulting from irradiated pupae were investigated. The total nucleic acids content in either pupae or adults was progressively reduced as the dose was increased. The reduction of both RNA and DNA in females was greater than in males. DNA was more radiosensitive than RNA. The destructive action of irradiation on nucleic acids was more pronounced in adult stage. Irradiation increased the RNA/DNA ratio than control at all treatments for female pupae at 200 Gy. 2 tabs.

  16. Measuring efficiency of cotton cultivation in Pakistan: a restricted production frontier study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watto, Muhammad Arif; Mugera, Amin

    2014-11-01

    Massive groundwater pumping for irrigation has started lowering water tables rapidly in different regions of Pakistan. Declining water tables have thus prompted research efforts to improve agricultural productivity and efficiency to make efficient use of scarce water resources. This study employs a restricted stochastic production frontier to estimate the level of, and factors affecting, technical efficiency of groundwater-irrigated cotton farms in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The mean technical efficiency estimates indicate substantial technical inefficiencies among cotton growers. On average, tube-well owners and water buyers can potentially increase cotton production by 19% and 28%, respectively, without increasing the existing input level. The most influential factors affecting technical efficiency positively are the use of improved quality seed, consultation with extension field staff and farmers' perceptions concerning the availability of groundwater resources for irrigation in the future. This study proposes that adopting improved seed for new cotton varieties and providing better extension services regarding cotton production technology would help to achieve higher efficiency in cotton farming. Within the context of falling water tables, educating farmers about the actual crop water requirements and guiding them about groundwater resource availability may also help to achieve higher efficiencies. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Changes in activities of both photosystems and the regulatory effect of cyclic electron flow in field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yao, He-Sheng; Han, Ji-Mei; Chow, Wah Soon; Fan, Da-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the influence of water deficit on the functionality of the photosynthetic apparatus of cotton plants, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and P700 redox state were examined in field-grown cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xinluzao 45. In addition, we measured changes in the P515 signal and analyzed the activity of ATP synthase and the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH). With increasing water deficit, the net CO 2 assimilation rate (A N ) and stomatal conductance (g s ) significantly decreased, but the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F v /F m ) did not change. The photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII) was reflected by the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), quantum efficiency of photosystem II [Y(II)], and electron transport rate through PSII [ETR(II)], while the activity of photosystem I (PSI) was reflected by the quantum efficiency of photosystem I [Y(I)] and the electron transport rate through PSI [ETR(I)]. Both activities were maintained under mild water deficit, but were slightly decreased under moderate water deficit. Under moderate water deficit, cyclic electron flow (CEF), the fraction of absorbed light dissipated thermally via the ΔpH- and xanthophyll-regulated process [Y(NPQ)], and the fraction of P700 oxidized under a given set of conditions [Y(ND)] increased. Our results suggest that the activities of both photosystems are stable under mild water deficit and decrease only slightly under moderate water deficit. Moderate water deficit stimulates CEF, and the stimulation of CEF is essential for protecting PSI and PSII against photoinhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Physical Properties of Nano-Silica Coated Cotton Textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sidra Saleemi; Farooq Ahmed; Samandar Malik

    2015-01-01

    This research was aimed to investigate the effect of silica sol-gel coating on air permeability, stiffness and tensile properties of dyed cotton fabric. Various concentrations of silica nanoparticles were applied on dyed cotton substrate using two different cross-linkers through sol-gel method. The homogenous sol-gel coating dispersions were prepared by using an ultrasonicator. Coated samples were tested for mechanical and comfort properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, crease recover...

  19. Survey Probability and Factors affecting Farmers Participation in Future and Option Markets Case Study: Cotton product in Gonbad kavos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. sakhi

    2016-03-01

    .5 respectively. Multinomial Logit model estimation results for the probability of participation in the future and option markets showed that variables of the level of education, farm ownership, cotton acreage, and non-farm income, work experience in agriculture, the index of willing to use new technologies, the index of risk perception cotton market and risk aversion index are statistically significant. The variables of farm ownership, non-farm income and work experience in agriculture, showed negative effects and the other variables showed positive effects on the probability of participation in these markets. The results are in line with previous studies. Conclusion: The purpose of the current study was to look at the possibility of farmers participations in the future and option markets that presented as a means to reduce the cotton prices volatility. The dependent variable for this purpose, have four categories: participation in both market, and future market, participation in option market and participation in both future and option markets. Multinomial Legit Regression Model was used for data analysis. Results indicated that during the period of 2014 -2015 and the sample under study 35% of cotton growers unwilling to participate in the future and option markets. Farmers willingness to participate in the future and option market was 19% and %21.5, respectively. Multinomial Legit model estimation results for the probability of participation in the future and option markets showed that the variables of the level of education, farm ownership, cotton acreage, and non-farm income, work experience in agriculture, the index of willing to use new technologies, the index of risk perception cotton market and risk aversion index were statistically significant. The variables of farm ownership, non-farm income and work experience in agriculture, showed negative effects and the other variables positive effects on the probability of participation in these markets. The results are in line

  20. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  1. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.W.; Fedler, C.B.; Heintz, C.E.; Nash, P.T.; Carr, D.L.; Lu, M.

    1992-01-01

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  2. Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiping; Goebel, Mark; Kim, Hee Jin; Triplett, Barbara A; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2013-03-28

    Cotton, one of the world's leading crops, is important to the world's textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250 kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G

  3. Effective orbital volume and eyeball position: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni; Papadaki, Efrosini; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have examined factors affecting the position of the eyeball to the orbit. This study examined the role of effective orbital volume (EOV), defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume, as a determinant of eyeball position, using MRI scans. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete Greece. Patients with a history of orbital disease were excluded. Distances between eyeball poles and orbital landmarks were measured in T1 weighted transverse, sagittal and coronal orbital images. The protrusion of the eyeball in the sagittal and transverse planes was recorded. The volume of the eyeball and bony orbit, the EOV, the volume of the extraocular muscles as well as clinical information (age, gender, Hertel exophthalmometry) were also recorded. EOV was significantly associated with orbital volume but not with eyeball volume. EOV was also significantly associated with transverse and sagittal globe protrusions. Females displayed significantly lower orbital and eyeball volumes as well as EOV than males but higher transverse globe protrusion than males. Variations in EOV are associated with orbital volume rather than with eyeball volume. EOV is associated with globe protrusion and may be taken into account in the planning of various procedures, including orbital decompression, treatment of enophthalmos or the size of orbital implants following enucleation.

  4. Suppression of cotton leaf curl disease symptoms in Gossypium hirsutum through over expression of host-encoded miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Mohd; Baig, Mirza S; Khan, Jawaid A

    2017-12-10

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a major factor resulting in the enormous yield losses in cotton crop, is caused by a distinct monopartite begomovirus in association with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Micro(mi)RNAs are known to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes, including antiviral defense in plants. In a previous study, we had computationally identified a set of cotton miRNAs, which were shown to have potential targets in the genomes of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and CLCuMB at multiple loci. In the current study, effect of Gossypium arboreum-encoded miRNAs on the genome of CLCuMuV and CLCuMB was investigated in planta. Two computationally predicted cotton-encoded miRNAs (miR398 and miR2950) that showed potential to bind multiple Open Reading Frames (ORFs; C1, C4, V1, and non- coding intergenic region) of CLCuMuV, and (βC1) of CLCuMB were selected. Functional validation of miR398 and miR2950 was done by overexpression approach in G. hirsutum var. HS6. A total of ten in vitro cotton plants were generated from independent events and subjected to biological and molecular analyses. Presence of the respective Precursor (pre)-miRNA was confirmed through PCR and Southern blotting, and their expression level was assessed by semi quantitative RT-PCR, Real Time quantitative PCR and northern hybridization in the PCR-positive lines. Southern hybridization revealed 2-4 copy integration of T-DNA in the genome of the transformed lines. Remarkably, expression of pre-miRNAs was shown up to 5.8-fold higher in the transgenic (T 0 ) lines as revealed by Real Time PCR. The virus resistance was monitored following inoculation of the transgenic cotton lines with viruliferous whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) insect vector. After inoculation, four of the transgenic lines remained apparently symptom free. While a very low titre of viral DNA could be detected by Rolling circle amplification, betasatellite responsible for symptom induction could not be detected

  5. Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics with enhanced stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bi, E-mail: xubi@dhu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Yinyan; Qu, Shaobo [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cai, Zaisheng, E-mail: zshcai@dhu.edu [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared. • Water and hexadecane contact angels reach to 164.4° and 156.3°, respectively. • Nanoporous organically modified silica alcogel particles were synthesized. • The superamphiphobic cotton fabrics exhibit enhanced stability against abrasion, laundering and acid. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared by alternately depositing organically modified silica alcogel (ormosil) particles onto chitosan precoated cotton fabrics and subsequent 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (PFOTMS) modification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the ormosil particles display a fluffy, sponge-like nanoporous structure, and the entire cotton fiber surface is covered with highly porous networks. PFOTMS acts as not only a modifier to lower the surface energy of the cotton fabric but also a binder to enhance the coating stability against abrasion and washing. The treated cotton fabrics show highly liquid repellency with the water, cooking oil and hexadecane contact angels reaching to 164.4°, 160.1° and 156.3°, respectively. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics exhibit good abrasion resistance and high laundering durability, which can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion and 30 cycles of machine wash without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. The superamphiphobic cotton fabric also shows high acid stability, and can withstand 98% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Moreover, the superamphiphobic coating has almost no influence on the other physical properties of the cotton fabrics including tensile strength, whiteness and air permeability. This durable non-wetting surface may provide a wide range of new applications in the future.

  6. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  7. Parasitoids of boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and resident predators in kaolin-treated cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leme Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous use of control methods is essential to reach success in managing arthropod pests. The current study investigated the effect of kaolin application on resident predators in the cotton plant canopy and parasitism of boll weevil on abscised squares in the field, and parasitism of boll weevil in the laboratory. Predators Araneae, Formicidae, Chrysopidae, and Coccinellidae showed similar seasonal densities for kaolin-treated and untreated cotton fields as well as the emergence rate of the parasitoids Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Catolaccus grandis Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae from abscised field-collected structures. Under laboratory conditions, the parasitism of boll weevil larvae infesting squares was similar when treated and untreated squares with kaolin were offered to the parasitoid under free choice test. Therefore, the results show that spraying cotton fields with kaolin does not affect the natural biological control by parasitoids of boll weevil and pink bollworm and resident predators naturally occurring in cotton fields.

  8. Available Interventions for Prevention of Cotton Dust-Associated Lung Diseases Among Textile Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2016-08-01

    The authors reviewed literature on interventions for cotton dust-associated lung diseases among textile workers. Internet sources (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google and Google Scholar) were accessed and interventions were categorized into: Engineering or administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE). Ten relevant articles were shortlisted, five related to engineering controls (pre-processing, bactericidal treatment of cotton, improved workplace design, machinery and dust control measures). Administrative controls may involve setting standards, environmental surveillance, periodic medical examinations, and workers training. Although specific guidelines are available regarding the use of PPEs, but there was little literature on their effectiveness. It was concluded that there is a dearth of literature regarding field-based assessment of interventions for control of cotton dust associated respiratory diseases and the available studies primarily focus on pre-processing of cotton. This review highlights the uncertainties that remain; and recommends several areas for future research on respiratory health of textile workers.

  9. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on vocal fold position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Poletto, Christopher J; Saxon, Keith G; Kearney, Pamela R; Ludlow, Christy L

    2008-01-01

    Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and may benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Prospective single effects study. The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using 10 different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (P vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (P = .03). Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing, and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening.

  10. Positive effects of massage therapy on a patient with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robyn; Baskwill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to investigate the effects of massage therapy on the sleep patterns of a woman with narcolepsy. The 23-year-old woman's primary symptoms included excessive daytime sleepiness and periodic leg movements (PLM), which were associated with her diagnoses of both narcolepsy and cataplexy. Five 45-minute massage therapy treatments were administered over a five-week period. The patient's sleep patterns were recorded each week before the treatment. A final measurement was recorded in the sixth week. The sleep patterns were monitored using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire, which included ten visual analogue scales. The results of this case report included an improvement in getting to sleep by 148%, an improvement in quality of sleep by 1100%, an improvement in awake following sleep by 121%, and an improvement in behaviour following wakening by 28% using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. This case report suggests that massage therapy had a positive effect on this patient with narcolepsy. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of massage therapy on narcolepsy and sleep patterns.

  11. Ozone impacts on cotton: towards an integrated mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantz, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation removes tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) mainly through uptake by stomata. O 3 reduces growth, photosynthesis, and carbohydrate allocation. Effects on mesophyll photosynthesis, may reducing carbohydrate source strength and, indirectly, carbohydrate translocation. Alternatively direct translocation, itself, could explain all of these observations. O 3 -reduced root proliferation inhibits exploitation of soil resources and interferes with underground carbon sequestration. Simulations with cotton suggest O 3 -disrupted root development could indirectly reduce shoot photosynthesis. Strong evidence for O 3 impacts on both carbon assimilation and carbon translocation exists, but data determining the primacy of direct or indirect O 3 effects on either or both processes remain inconclusive. Pholoem loading may be particularly sensitive to O 3 . Further research on metabolic feedback control of carbon assimilation and phloem loading activity as affected by O 3 exposure is required. - Ozone impacts on Pima cotton are reviewed to evaluate the possibility that a direct effect on carbohydrate translocation could mediate the suite of symptoms observed

  12. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this section...

  13. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  14. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three transgenic cotton varieties (lines) were chosen for the study of inheritance and segregation of foreign Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) and tfdA genes in cotton. The transformed cotton varieties CCRI 30 and NewCott 33B expressing the Bt cryIA gene, and cotton line TFD expressing the tfdA gene were crossed with ...

  15. Increasing cotton stand establishment in soils prone to soil crusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors can contribute to poor cotton stand establishment, and cotton is notorious for its weak seedling vigor. Soil crusting can be a major factor hindering cotton seedling emergence in many of the cotton production regions of the US and the world. Crusting is mainly an issue in silty soils ...

  16. (Pleurotus pulmonarius) grown on cotton waste and cassava peel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work evaluated the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius on different mixtures of cotton waste and cassava peel. P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly higher colonization rate on cotton waste substrate (100 g cotton waste) 3 weeks after inoculation of spawn than any other substrate mixtures. Cotton waste had the ...

  17. Combining ability analysis in intraspecific f/sub 1/ diallel cross of upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Khan, N.U.; Mohammad, F.

    2011-01-01

    The research work comprised of combining ability and genetic variability in a 6 X 6 F1 diallel cross which was carried out during crop seasons 2008 and 2009 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The parental genotypes (CIM-446, CIM-496, CIM-499, CIM-506, CIM-554 and CIM-707) were crossed in a complete diallel fashion during 2008. The 30 F1 hybrids and their parents were grown in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replications during 2009. Genotypes manifested significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) differences for days to first flowering, locules boll/sup -1/, seeds locule/sup -1/, lint % and seed cotton yield plant/sup -1/. The F1 hybrids showed significant increase over parents in mean values for all the traits. The correlation of seed cotton yield was significantly positive with majority of yield traits and negative with days to first flowering and lint %. Mean squares due to general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for all the traits, except locules for GCA. Mean squares due to GCA were higher in magnitude than SCA for majority of the traits and their inheritance was mainly governed by additive type of gene action and partially by non-additive. Selection in such promising hybrids could be used in segregating generations, and also some specific cross combinations can be used for hybrid cotton production to increase the seed cotton yield. The best general combiners (CIM-446 and CIM-554) followed by CIM-496 and their utilization as one of the parents produced best specific F1 hybrids (CIM-446 X CIM-499, CIM-446 X CIM-554, CIM-496 X CIM-707 and CIM-506 X CIM-554) having valuable SCA determination and remarkable mean performance for most of the traits. Reciprocal crosses having prominent maternal effects also involved one of the general combiners for majority of the traits. The promising hybrids also exhibited earliness through which the crop can escape from pests attack and soil can

  18. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  19. Positioning the Co-op Program for Maximum Marketing Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ronald R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the concept of positioning, which is the way that individuals perceive and are made aware of a program and believe in its benefit to them and its application to cooperative education programs. Includes a five-step plan for assessing the position of cooperative programs and six ways to implement a positioning strategy. (JOW)

  20. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Tian

    Full Text Available Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N, and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  1. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  2. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0–100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0–15.8%, 9.3–13.9%, and 9.2–21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0–20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. PMID:29324750

  3. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Li, Chengliang; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  4. The impact of some environmental factors on the fecundity of phenacoccus solenopsis tinsley (hemiptera: pseudococcidae): a serious pest of cotton and other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Arif, M.J.; Aslam, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) was first recorded on cultivated cotton from Texas, USA in 1991. Since 2005, this New World species has emerged as serious pest of cotton in Pakistan and India, and is now a serious threat to cotton in China and other cotton-growing countries worldwide. The species is polyphagous and invasive, and can attack many other economic crops. So far, it has been reported from 173 species in 54 plant families, and from 26 countries in different ecological zones. The study found that host plant species and meteorological conditions had significant effects, whereas locality had no significant effect on the fecundity of the mealybug. (author)

  5. Peptide-Mediated Liposome Fusion: The Effect of Anchor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek S. A. Crone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A minimal model system for membrane fusion, comprising two complementary peptides dubbed “E” and “K” joined to a cholesterol anchor via a polyethyleneglycol spacer, has previously been developed in our group. This system promotes the fusion of large unilamellar vesicles and facilitates liposome-cell fusion both in vitro and in vivo. Whilst several aspects of the system have previously been investigated to provide an insight as to how fusion is facilitated, anchor positioning has not yet been considered. In this study, the effects of placing the anchor at either the N-terminus or in the center of the peptide are investigated using a combination of circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence assays. It was discovered that anchoring the “K” peptide in the center of the sequence had no effect on its structure, its ability to interact with membranes, or its ability to promote fusion, whereas anchoring the ‘E’ peptide in the middle of the sequence dramatically decreases fusion efficiency. We postulate that anchoring the ‘E’ peptide in the middle of the sequence disrupts its ability to form homodimers with peptides on the same membrane, leading to aggregation and content leakage.

  6. Separation and recycling of cotton from cotton/PET blends by depolymerization of PET catalyzed by bases and ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Groeneveld, R.A.J. (Richard); Oelerich, J. (Jens)

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of post consumer cotton textile waste is highly requested, due to the high environmental impact of cotton production. Often cotton is mixed in blends with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the generation of high value products from recycled cotton, it essential that PET is

  7. Prioritizing Positivity: An Effective Approach to Pursuing Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I.; Algoe, Sara B.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2017-01-01

    A decade of research reveals the benefits of positive emotions for mental and physical health; however, recent empirical work suggests the explicit pursuit of happiness may backfire. The present study hypothesized that the pursuit of happiness is not inherently self-defeating; in particular, individuals who seek positivity, as exemplified by how they make decisions about how to organize their day-to-day lives, may be happier. This individual difference is labeled prioritizing positivity. In a community sample of young to older adults (N = 233), prioritizing positivity predicted a host of well-being outcomes (positive emotions, depressive symptomology). In addition, people high in prioritizing positivity have greater resources, and these links are explained by more frequent experiences of positive emotions. In sum, the present study suggests that seeking happiness, although a delicate art, may be a worthwhile pursuit. PMID:25401290

  8. Weed flora, yield losses and weed control in cotton crop

    OpenAIRE

    Jabran, Khawar

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important fiber crop of world and provides fiber, oil, and animals meals. Weeds interfere with the growth activities of cotton plants and compete with it for resources. All kinds of weeds (grasses, sedges, and broadleaves) have been noted to infest cotton crop. Weeds can cause more than 30% decrease in cotton productivity. Several methods are available for weed control in cotton. Cultural control carries significance for weed control up to a certain extent....

  9. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  10. Efeito de inseticidas em insetos predadores em culturas de algodão Effect of insecticides on predator insects associated with cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ JANDUI SOARES

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de inseticidas em insetos predadores em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L., instalaram-se, em 1993-1994, dois experimentos, um no campo, e outro, em laboratório. No experimento realizado no campo, os tratamentos foram: Fipronil 200 SC (75 g/ha de i.a.; Fipronil 800 WDG (64, 80 e 100 g/ha de i.a.; Endosulfan 350 CE (700 g/ha de i.a.; e testemunha. Em laboratório, além das formulações à base de Fipronil foi utilizado o Paration metílico 600 CE (480 g/ha de i.a.. Fipronil foi seletivo para os artrópodes predadores (Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis, Cycloneda sanguinea e Doru lineare no campo, e a Cycloneda sanguinea (L., em laboratório, e pode ser recomendado em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do algodoeiro para o controle de Alabama argillacea (Rueb., e Anthonomus grandis Boh. Endosulfan foi seletivo em relação a Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis Thomazini e Doru lineare (Eschs no campo, com uma redução dos insetos inferior a 30%, e o Paration metílico não foi seletivo para C. sanguinea em laboratório.To assess the selectivity of insecticides to predator insects in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. crops two, trials, 1993-1994, under field and laboratory conditions were conducted. Under field conditions, the following treatments were compared: Fipronil 200 CS (75 g/ha of a.i.; Fipronil 800 WDG (64, 80 and 100 g/ha of a.i.; Endosulfan 350 EC (700 g/ha of a.i.; and control. Under laboratory conditions, in addition to Friponil, Methyl parathion 600 EC 480 g/ha of a.i. was also tested. Fipronil was selective to predators (Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis, Cycloneda sanguinea and Doru lineare under field condition and to Cycloneda sanguinea (L. under laboratory conditions. This product can be used in integrated pest management programs in cotton crops to control Alabama argillacea (Rueb., and Anthonomus grandis Boh. Endosulfan was selective to Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis

  11. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  12. Phosphorus application to cotton enhances growth, yield, and quality characteristics on a sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ranjha, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the second most limiting nutrient in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production after nitrogen. Under wheat-cotton cropping system of Pakistan most of the farmers apply P fertilizer only to wheat crop. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer P on the growth, yield and fibre quality of cotton on a sandy loam calcareous soil at farmer's field in cotton growing area of district Khanewal, Punjab. Five levels of P (0, 17, 26, 34 and 43 kg P ha /sup -1/) along with 120 kg N and 53 kg K ha/sup -1/ were applied. The response of cotton growth parameters was greater than quality components to P addition in calcareous soil. There was significant increase in the growth and yield parameters with each additional rate of P. The response of number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield was to the tune of 88.23, 16.82 and 42%, respectively at P application rate of 34 kg ha/sup -1/. Cotton quality components (lint %age, fiber length and fiber strength) improved from 2 to 5% where 43 kg P ha/sup -1/ was added. The lint and seed P concentration was little affected by P application as compared to stem and leaves showing its essentiality for cell division and development of meristematic tissue. Phosphorus use, thus not only valuable for wheat crop but also its application to cotton crop is of vital importance in improving both lint yield and quality. (author)

  13. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  14. Sample positioning effects in x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.

    Instrument error due to variation in sample position in a crystal x-ray spectrometer can easily exceed the total instrumental error. Lack of reproducibility in sample position in the x-ray optics is the single largest source of system error. The factors that account for sample positioning error are described, and many of the details of flat crystal x-ray optics are discussed

  15. U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isengildina-Massa, Olga; MacDonald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze structural changes that took place in the cotton industry in recent years and develop a statistical model that reflects the current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in 79 years. In addition, systematic problems have become apparent in the forecasting models used by USDA and elsewhere, highlighting the need for an updated review...

  16. Association of Dermatological Conditions of External Ear with the Use of Cotton Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The habit of cleaning the external auditory canal with cotton buds is a common practice of the masses. It has strong association with neurodermatitis and contact dermatitis of the external ear. It is also associated with acute otitis externa, rupture of tympanic membrane causing bleeding and temporary hearing loss in some cases. In many cases the injury will heal but damage to minuscule bones deep inside the ear can cause permanent deafness. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of dermatological condition of external ear with the use of cotton buds. Materials and Methods: This case control study was done from January to October 2012 in the Ear Nose Throat Department of Pakistan Level III Hospital, Darfur, Sudan. Sixty seven patients with dermatological diseases of external ear were cases and 83 subjects without dermatological diseases of external ear were selected as controls. Results: Among 67 cases, 58 were cotton bud users and among 83 controls only 29 were cotton bud users. Different types of dermatological diseases were neurodermatitis (34.32%, otitis externa (28.36%, contact dermatitis (26.87% and wax impaction (8.95%. Ninety three percent of cotton bud users were ignorant of harmful effects of this bad habit. Conclusion: There is a strong association of dermatological diseases of external ear with the use of cotton bud which should be discouraged by fortifying the warning by manufacturers and health education at various educational levels.

  17. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-01-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties. - Highlights: ► Optimum absorbed dose for cotton is 500 Gy using un-irradiated Reactive Black-5. ► Optimum dyeing conditions: 60 °C, 30 min and dyeing pH is10. ► At optimum conditions colour strength and fastness properties are enhanced. ► Gamma irradiation can improve dyeing characters of other dyed fabrics.

  18. Social anxiety and the ironic effects of positive interviewer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, Christopher J; Kowal, Marta; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-01-01

    Positive interviewer feedback should encourage positive experiences and outcomes for interviewees. Yet, positive feedback is inconsistent with socially anxious interviewees' negative self-views. Socially anxious interviewees might experience increased self-focus while attempting to reconcile the inconsistency between their self-perceptions and that feedback. This could interfere with successful interview performance. This study used a 3 (feedback: positive, negative, no) × 2 (social anxiety: high, low) between-subjects design. Undergraduate students (N = 88) completed a measure of dispositional social anxiety. They then engaged in a simulated interview with a White confederate trained to adhere to a standardized script. Interviewees received positive, negative, or no interviewer feedback. Each interview was video recorded to code anxiety displays, impression management tactics, and interview success. Following positive feedback, socially anxious interviewees displayed more anxiety, less assertiveness, and received lower success ratings. Among anxious interviewees, increased self-focus provided an indirect path between positive feedback and lower success. Consistent with self-verification theory, anxious interviewees had poorer interview performance following positive feedback that contradicted their negative self-views. Thus, socially anxious interviewees might be at a disadvantage when interviewing, especially following positive feedback. Implications for interviewees and interviewers are discussed.

  19. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  20. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  1. Conductive Cotton Filters for Affordable and Efficient Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated by gravity feed. The conductive cotton filter anodes were fabricated by a facile dying method to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs as fillers. The CNTs could serve as adsorbents for pollutants adsorption, as electrocatalysts for pollutants electrooxidation, and as conductive additives to render the cotton filters highly conductive. Cellulose-based cotton could serve as low-cost support to ‘host’ these CNTs. Upon application of external potential, the developed filtration device could not only achieve physically adsorption of organic compounds, but also chemically oxide these compounds on site. Three model organic compounds were employed to evaluate the oxidative capability of the device, i.e., ferrocyanide (a model single-electron-transfer electron donor, methyl orange (MO, a common recalcitrant azo-dye found in aqueous environments, and antibiotic tetracycline (TC, a common antibiotic released from the wastewater treatment plants. The devices exhibited a maximum electrooxidation flux of 0.37 mol/h/m2 for 5.0 mmol/L ferrocyanide, of 0.26 mol/h/m2 for 0.06 mmol/L MO, and of 0.9 mol/h/m2 for 0.2 mmol/L TC under given experimental conditions. The effects of several key operational parameters (e.g., total cell potential, CNT amount, and compound concentration on the device performance were also studied. This study could shed some light on the good design of effective and affordable water purification devices for point-of-use applications.

  2. Effect of position of blades in the treatment of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Azorin, J. F.; Ramos Garcia, L. I.; Ortiz de Zarate Vivanco, R.; Trueba Garayo, I.; Cacicedo, J.; Hoyo, O. del

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method of calculation of the positions of each blade measures during treatment for all segments and the subsequent reconstruction of these positions in the planning system on the patient's physical and anatomical data. (Author)

  3. Radiation flame proofing of polyester/cotton blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepins, R.; Surles, J.R.; Morosoff, N.; Stannett, V.T.; Barker, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Methodology has been developed for the grafting of vinyl functional organobromide and organophosphorus compounds on polyester fibers and 50/50 PET/cotton fabric. Procedures were developed for localized grafting of vinyl bromide (VBr) and diethylvinylphosphonate (DEVP) upon PET fibers. Oxygen index was used to evaluate the effect of the location of VBr and DEVP within the filament upon their flame retardance efficiencies. For the various bromine homopolymer grafts the apparent thermal stability of the graft and its flame retardance efficiency may be related to the alpha aliphatic hydrogen to bromine ratio. Using results from the polyester studies, techniques were devised for the treatment of 50/50 polyester/ cotton fabrics. Both homopolymer and copolymer grafts were evaluated but the greatest degree of success was attained using mixtures of phosphorus and bromine containing monomers. The results of these studies will be reviewed and their implications for development as commercial textile treatments discussed. (author)

  4. Conductive cotton prepared by polyaniline in situ polymerization using laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Dong, Aixue; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Zhang, Ying

    2014-09-01

    The high-redox-potential catalyst laccase, isolated from Aspergillus, was first used as a biocatalyst in the oxidative polymerization of water-soluble conductive polyaniline, and then conductive cotton was prepared by in situ polymerization under the same conditions. The polymerization of aniline was performed in a water dispersion of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) micellar solution with atmospheric oxygen serving as the oxidizing agent. This method is ecologically clean and permits a greater degree of control over the kinetics of the reaction. The conditions for polyaniline synthesis were optimized. Characterizations of the conducting polyaniline and cotton were carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, the fabric induction electrostatic tester, and the far-field EMC shielding effectiveness test fixture.

  5. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined

  6. Strategies for soil-based precision agriculture in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Haly L.; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Stanislav, Scott; Rouze, Gregory; Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The goal of precision agriculture is to increase crop yield while maximizing the use efficiency of farm resources. In this application, UAV-based systems are presenting agricultural researchers with an opportunity to study crop response to environmental and management factors in real-time without disturbing the crop. The spatial variability soil properties, which drive crop yield and quality, cannot be changed and thus keen agronomic choices with soil variability in mind have the potential to increase profits. Additionally, measuring crop stress over time and in response to management and environmental conditions may enable agronomists and plant breeders to make more informed decisions about variety selection than the traditional end-of-season yield and quality measurements. In a previous study, seed-cotton yield was measured over 4 years and compared with soil variability as mapped by a proximal soil sensor. It was found that soil properties had a significant effect on seed-cotton yield and the effect was not consistent across years due to different precipitation conditions. However, when seed-cotton yield was compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as measured using a multispectral camera from a UAV, predictions improved. Further improvement was seen when soil-only pixels were removed from the analysis. On-going studies are using UAV-based data to uncover the thresholds for stress and yield potential. Long-term goals of this research include detecting stress before yield is reduced and selecting better adapted varieties.

  7. Resposta do algodoeiro à aplicação de calcário e de cloreto de potássio Effect of liming and potassium fertilization on cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Machado da Silva

    1984-01-01

    ção da estreita correlação da produtividade com o Cl das folhas, aventou-se a hipótese de toxicidade do nutriente na dose máxima de cloreto de potássio.Am inadequate potassium fertilization for the cotton crop may limit, eventually, the effect of liming in the correction of the acidity of certain soils, due to the unbalance of bases. With the purpose of clearing up this problem, a field experiment with lime and potassium applications was conducted on a Dystrophic Dusky Red Latosol. During five following years, a linear effect of dolomitic limestone (2, 4 and 6t/ha upon cotton yield was noted, in the presence of adequate potassium fertilization; without potassium, liming effect was quadratic. At the highest liming, the level of soil pH increased from 5.1 to 5.8-6.0 and soil calcium plus magnesium content from 1.1 to 3.0-3.2meq/100cm³ soil. Cotton yield was highly correlated with pH as well as with soil Ca2+ + Mg2+ content. Ca and Mg concentrations in the leaf blade increased with liming, while those of K and Mm decreased. The effect of potassium fertilization (50, 100 and 150kg/ha of K2O on cotton yield was quadratic and maximum at the highest liming level. It was observed that leaf Ca and Mg concentrations decreased with fertilization, while leaf K, Mm and Cl concentrations increased. Cotton yield was significantly correlated with leaf Cl concentration. It seems possible that, at high potassium chloride levels, chlorine toxicity may occur in the plants.

  8. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    OpenAIRE

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from...

  9. Effect of socioeconomic position on patient outcome after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Cesaroni, Giulia; Ottesen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socioeconomic position (assessed by education, employment and income) and complications following hysterectomy and assess the role of lifestyle, co-morbidity and clinical conditions on the relationship. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING...... significantly higher odds of complications following hysterectomy compared with women with a high socioeconomic position. Unhealthy lifestyle and presence of co-morbidity in women with low socioeconomic position partially explains the differences in complications.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socioeconomic position (assessed by education, employment and income) and complications following hysterectomy and assess the role of lifestyle, co-morbidity and clinical conditions on the relationship. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING...... and employed women. Furthermore, unemployed women had higher odds of hospitalization >4 days than women in employment. Lifestyle factors (smoking and body mass index) and co-morbidity status seemed to explain most of the social differences. However, an association between women with less than high school...

  10. Effects of nursing position on transformational leadership practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Susan; Gish, Mary; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to identify significant differences in nursing leadership strengths by position title. Recent reports show aspects of transformational leadership (TL) related to position, age, and educational level. This study focuses on differentiating the strength of leadership practices across the range of nursing management positions. The Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-assessment survey, and a variety of demographic questions, were used to anonymously poll voluntary members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders. Nursing positions of director level and above were strongest in leadership practices. Those at manager and below were identified as needing additional leadership development. LPI-S subscales Enable Others to Act and Model the Way were strongest. Those at the manager level and below will benefit most from additional education and training. Even upper levels of management would gain from enhancing the LPI practices of Challenge the Process and Inspire a Shared Vision.

  11. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered.

  12. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  13. Various rates of k and Na influence growth, seed cotton yield and ionic ratio of two cotton varieties in soil culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Maqsood, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton is generally grown on alkaline calcareous soils in arid and semi-arid areas of the country. Sodium can interact with other earth cations like K, Ca and Mg. Therefore, a pot study was conducted to investigate the growth, yield and ionic response of two cotton varieties. Four levels of K and Na were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in mg/kg were adjusted as, 105+37.5, 135+30 135+37.5 and 105+30 (control). Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Application of K and Na increased seed cotton yield and boll weight significantly (p<0.01). Both varieties varied non-significantly with respect to K:Na ratio in leaf. The beneficial effects of Na with K application over control on seed cotton yield and boll weight were greater in NIBGE-2 than in MNH-786. Increase in seed cotton yield was attributed to maximum boll weight of both varieties. Significant negative correlation (r= -0.89, - 0.76, n= 4) was found between K:Na ratio and K use efficiency in shoot of NIBGE-2 and MNH-786, respectively. (author)

  14. Correlation of Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxin Level in Cotton Dust with the Increase of TNFα Level and the Decline of Lung Function in Cotton Spinning Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilatus Sukma Ika Noviarmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS endotoxin contained in cotton dust may cause airway inflammation and decline of lung function when inhaled, which eventually leads to respiratory symptoms. The objective of this research is to analyze the correlation of the exposure of LPS endotoxin in cotton dust with the increase of TNFα level and the decline of lung function after one day’s work. This study applies analytical observation method and prospective cohort approach. Main participants of this study were the workers of a cotton spinning factory located in Tulangan District, Sidoarjo Regency, East Java Province. Sixteen samples from cotton factory were taken as study group, and twenty three samples from village administrators were taken as control group. Data collection involves several techniques: spirometry, laboratory test, and interview. Results showed that concentration of personal dust has a significant relationship with the decline of FVC, %FVC, FEV1, and %FEV1, with Pearson correlation test showing p0.05. The research concludes that the level of LPS endotoxin was strongly related to the increase of blood serum TNFα and the decline of lung function. Development of more effective preventive measures such as stronger enforcement of worker’s health maintenance regulations and use of personal protective equipment is needed to ensure the best protection of cotton workers’ health.

  15. Cotton Transportation and Logistics: A Dynamic System

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John R.; Park, John L.; Fuller, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the evolution of U.S. cotton transportation and logistics patterns over the last three decades. There have been many forces of change over this time period, with the largest change being a shift from primarily domestic market destinations to the international market. We describe the pre-1999 system and flow patterns when domestic consumption of U.S. cotton was dominant. We contrast this with current flow patterns as measured by available secondary export data and a sample of...

  16. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  17. Effect of Different Lignocellulosic Diets on Bacterial Microbiota and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in the Gut of the Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Soria, Marcelo; Salvador, Ricardo; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Campos, Eleonora; Brodie, Eoin L; Talia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis , are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the gut microbiota followed by Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and a small number of unclassified phyla in CM and NG microbiomes. In the CS feeding group, members of Spirochaetes were the most prevalent, followed by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bray-Curtis distances showed that the samples from the CS community were clearly separated from those samples of the CM and NG diets. Gut extracts from all three diets exhibited endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and pectinase activities. These activities were significantly affected by pH and temperature across different diets. We observed that the larvae reared on a CM showed significantly higher activities than larvae reared on NG and CS. We demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial community structure varies depending on diet composition. Diets with more variable and complex compositions, such as CS, showed higher bacterial diversity and richness than the two other diets. In spite of the detected changes in composition and diversity, we identified a core microbiome shared between the three different lignocellulosic diets. These results suggest that feeding with diets of different lignocellulosic composition could be a viable strategy to discover variants of hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems.

  18. Uso de misturas de adubos contendo ou não enxofre na adubação do cultivar IAC 16 de algodoeiro The effect of sulfur on 'IAC 16' cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson M. Silva

    1981-01-01

    permanent field trial conducted with 'IAC 16' cotton, during four years, on Latosolic B "Terra Roxa", acid and of low fertility. Through the combination of various fertilizers, as ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate (Chilean product, ordinary superphosphate, concentrated superphosphate and potassium chloride, N and K were supplied in constant doses, and P and S in variable doses. Sulfur was used always in the presence of phosphorous. Lime was applied in a small dose, before the first and the last years' planting. The experimental design was a Latin square, 6x6. The risk of unsuccess in cotton culture conducted immediately after liming of acid soils, was confirmed by the low levels of productivity observed in the first year, even at higher dosages of fertilizers. In this year, the effect of P on cotton yield was not significant and it was quadratic in the successive years. Sulfur effect was appreciable already in the first year, and it increased with time. Ordinary superphosphate behaved as a mixed fertilizer, since it increased the calcium level of soil analysis and the level of Ca and S of the leaf blade of cotton. No correlation between cotton yield and leaf blade nutrient concentration was observed, except for sulfur.

  19. Influence of irrigation water types and stress levels on cotton fibre and yarn quality for different varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazar, A.; Ishaq, W.

    2012-01-01

    Cotton fibre quality is being deteriorated day by day due to various reasons and shortage/ poor quality of irrigation water is one of the reasons for the low quality of cotton fibre. The effect of the stress of water can be seen on the fibre length, strength and elongation. All these properties of fibre have also a significant influence on yarn characteristics and thus the yarn quality is also dependent on agronomic practices including irrigation. When new varieties are evolved it becomes necessary to examine such cotton varieties keenly, so that one which reflects maximum agricultural as well as industrial benefits can be recommended. The present study was planned to explore the spinning performance of various cotton varieties under different water quality treatments and water stress levels. Cotton of four varieties (CIM-501, CIM-496, CIM-499, and NIAB-111) under different types of irrigation water (canal water and tube well water) and different water stress levels (75ET, 100ET and 125ET) were selected for this research. The effect of these treatments was investigated on cotton fibre span length, strength and fibre elongation as well as on yarn quality. The study revealed that effect of different cotton varieties, water types and water stress levels on fibre and yarn quality was highly significant. Yarn characteristics showed greater values for the canal water similarly fibre length and elongations were better for canal water. Yarn tensile properties were decreased with increase in the water stress. The overall results indicated that the cotton variety NIAB-111 performed better as compared to other varieties. It is suggested that the cotton farmers may be trained by the agri. extension staff regarding maintenance of fibre quality through cultural practices and better irrigation techniques. (author)

  20. Orthodontic informed consent considering information load and serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Caroline E; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that current methods of informed consent are relatively ineffective as shown by poor recall and comprehension by adolescent patients and their parents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding a short videotape presentation reiterating the issues related to informed consent to a modified informed consent document that emphasizes a limited number of core and patient-specific custom "chunks" at the beginning of an informed consent presentation improved the recall and comprehension of the risks, benefits, and alternatives of orthodontic treatment. A second objective was to evaluate the current related data for recommendable practices. Seventy patient-parent pairs were randomly divided into 2 groups. The intervention group (group A) patients and parents together reviewed a customized slide show and a short videotape presentation describing the key risks of orthodontic treatment. Group B followed the same protocol without viewing the videotape. All patients and parents were interviewed independently by research assistants using an established measurement tool with open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed and scored for the appropriateness of responses using a previously established codebook. Lastly, the patients and parents were given 2 reading literacy tests, 1 related to health and 1 with general content followed by the self-administered demographic and psychological state questionnaires. There were no significant differences between the groups for sociodemographic variables. There were no significant differences between the groups for overall recall and comprehension; recall and comprehension for the domains of treatment, risk, and responsibility; and recall and comprehension for core, general, and custom items. The positional effects were limited in impact. When compared with previous studies, these data further demonstrate the benefit of improved readability and audiovisual supplementation with the

  1. The Effect of Positive Affect on the Memory of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the memory of experimentally induced pain and the affect that accompanies experimentally induced pain. Sixty-two healthy female volunteers participated in the study. In the first phase of the study, the participants received three pain stimuli and rated pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, state anxiety, and their positive and negative affect. About a month later, in the second phase of the study, the participants were asked to rate the pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, state anxiety, and the emotions they had felt during the first phase of the study. Both recalled pain intensity and recalled pain unpleasantness were found to be underestimated. Although the positive affect that accompanied pain was remembered accurately, recalled negative affect was overestimated and recalled state anxiety was underestimated. Experienced pain, recalled state anxiety, and recalled positive affect accounted for 44% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain intensity and 61% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain unpleasantness. Together with recent research findings on the memory of other types of pain, the present study supports the idea that pain is accompanied by positive as well as negative emotions, and that positive affect influences the memory of pain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal diversity associated with verticillium wilt of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.I.; Sun, J.L.; Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    The association of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt is rarely known, which is important to know for the control of this detrimental disease. Our study is the preliminary attempt to find the associations of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt and provides the baseline information for biological control. About 30 different fungi from soil and 23 from cotton plants were isolated and confirmed through molecular characterization. The colony forming unit (CFU)/g dry soil of fungi before and after planting cotton showed significant variation among all the fungi. The overall frequency of all fungi for soil after sowing was significantly higher than before sowing. A. alternata, F. equiseti, F. concentricum, A. flavus, F. proliferatum, and Chaetomium sp. associated with high resistance (Arcot-1) to Verticillium wilt, whereas, V. dahliae, A.niger and Paecilomyces sp., with high susceptible (Arcot-438) germplasm. However, T. basicola, C. ramotenellum and G. intermedia were isolated from both. Soil plating was comparatively easiest than soil dilution method for the determination of frequency percentage, however, later method is useful for the screening of single spore isolation. Most of the antagonistic species were screened from soil; nevertheless, Paecilomyces and Chaetomium spp. were screened from plant and soil. In vitro test of T. longibrachiatum. T. atroviride, Paecilomyces and T. viride showed the strongest efficacy against V. dahliae. These efficient bio-agents can be used as an effective tool for other future studies regarding to Verticillium wilt of cotton. (author)

  3. Enhancement of Cotton Stalks Composting with Certain Microbial Inoculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel-Twab Seoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Azotobacter chrococcum microbes on cotton stalks composting was studied in an attempt to achieve rapid maturity and desirable characteristics of produced compost. Composting process was maintained for 16 weeks under aerobic conditions with proper moisture content and turning piles. The C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to about 30:1 before composting using chicken manure. Temperature evolution and its profile were monitored throughout the composting period. Mineralization rates of organic matter and changes in nitrogen content during composting stages were evaluated. Total plate count of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, cellulose decomposers and Azotobacter were determined during composting periods. The treatment of cotton stalks inoculated with both P. chrysosporium and Azotobacter gave the most desirable characteristics of the final product with respect to the narrow C/N ratio, high nitrogen content and high numbers of Azotobacter. The phytotoxicity test of compost extracts was evaluated. The use of P. chrysosporium in composting accelerated markedly decomposition process, so that 16 weeks composting enough to produce a stable and mature compost suitable for use as fertilizer while the fertilizer obtained by composting cotton stalks mixed with chicken manure and inoculated with microorganisms is highest quality Compost.

  4. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  5. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators′ response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinós, Gema P.; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed. PMID:29351549

  6. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators' response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Esteban; Loureiro, Íñigo; Farinós, Gema P; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed.

  7. Development and validation of SUCROS-Cotton : A potential crop growth simulation model for cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Werf, van der W.; Cao, W.; Li, B.; Pan, X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A model for the development, growth and potential production of cotton (SUCROS-Cotton) was developed. Particular attention was given to the phenological development of the plant and the plasticity of fruit growth in response to temperature, radiation, daylength, variety traits, and management. The

  8. Positive Effekte eines Kuraufenthaltes auf menopausale Beschwerden // Positive Effects of Health Cure on Menopausal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foisner W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients in menopause were recruited in an open duo-centre study during a health cure for musculoskeletal system to investigate if health cure is able to achieve additive effects on menopausal afflictions. Patients were differentiated in pre-, periand postmenopausal stadium due to their hormonal state (TSH, estradiol, LH, FSH. Survey dates were admission, discharge, 3, 6, 9, 12 months. MRS (Menopause Rating Scale and HADS-D (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – German version were used as main outcome parameters.brThe analysis revealed that beside the total score also the subscale of both questionnaires improved during the cure. This “success of cure” lasted over a period of 6 months. Afterwards the values approached to the initial situation. Indeed all subscales stayed beyond baseline during the whole study.brThe results of the present investigation may be concluded as a temporary improvement of discomforts, life quality and psyche of peri- and postmenopausal women due to inpatient health cure. p bKurzfassung/b: Während eines Kurheilverfahrens zu Beschwerden des Stütz- und Bewegungsapparates wurden in einer offenen Duo-Center-Studie 100 Patientinnen in der Menopause rekrutiert, um zu untersuchen, ob der Kuraufenthalt additive Effekte auf menopausale Beschwerden besitzt. Anhand eines Hormonstatus (TSH, Estradiol, LH, FSH wurden die Patientinnen in die Menopause-Stadien prä-, peri- und postmenopausal eingeteilt. Erhebungszeitpunkte: Aufnahme, Entlassung, 3, 6, 9 und 12 Monate. Die „Menopause Rating Scale“ (MRS und die „Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – deutsche Version“ (HADS-D wurden als Haupt-Outcomeparameter herangezogen.brDie Auswertung ergab, dass sich neben dem Gesamtscore auch die Teilskalen der beiden Fragebögen während des Kuraufenthaltes verbesserten. Dieser „Kurerfolg“ hielt über einen Zeitraum von 6 Monaten an, danach näherten sich die Werte wieder der Ausgangssituation. Alle Teilscores blieben über dem

  9. Electrical Properties of Conductive Cotton Yarn Coated with Eosin Y Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Arul, Narayanasamy Sabari; Han, Jeong In

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication and investigation of the electrical properties of two types of conductive cotton yarns coated with eosin Y or eosin B functionalized reduced graphene (RGO) and bare graphene oxide (GO) using dip-coating method. The surface morphology of the conductive cotton yarn coated with reduced graphene oxide was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Due to the strong electrostatic attractive forces, the negatively charged surface such as the eosin Y functionalized reduced graphene oxide or bare GO can be easily coated to the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated cotton yarn. The maximum current for the conductive cotton yarn coated with eosin Y functionalized RGO and bare GO with 20 cycles repetition of (5D + R) process was found to be 793.8 μA and 3482.8 μA. Our results showed that the electrical conductivity of bare GO coated conductive cotton yarn increased by approximately four orders of magnitude with the increase in the dipping cycle of (5D+R) process.

  10. 76 FR 32067 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... ``Any AUP cotton'' and replacing it with the phrase ``Mature AUP cotton'' to clarify the AUP cotton must be mature in order to calculate a conversion factor between AUP cotton and ELS cotton. List of... dividing Price A by 85 percent of Price B. * * * * * (f) Mature AUP cotton harvested or appraised from...

  11. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  12. Influence of mutagens on enzymes of germinating seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Jayabalan, N.; Juliana, B.

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the enzymes amylases, protease and phosphatases were studied in cotton during germination. The seeds were treated with 100-500 Gy of gamma rays, 10-50 mM of EMS, CA and SA in two cultivated varieties viz.. MCU 5 and MCU 11. Activity pattern of amylases, protease and phosphatases in treated seeds were significantly altered from controls. The alteration were positively correlated with increasing dose/concentration of mutagens up to 300 Gy of gamma rays and 30 mM of EMS, CA and SA. The present study pave the ways to discuss the importance of the enzymes and mutagens in germination of cotton seeds. (author)

  13. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls characterized by boll age, size, and damage ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J

    2013-02-01

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint and seed loss over 2 yr and four studies cotton bolls should be protected up to approximately 300 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.5 cm. This equilibrates to bolls that are 12-14 d of age dependent upon daily maximum

  14. Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

  15. Effects of micronutrients on oxidative stress in HIV positive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrient supplementation was therefore shown to reduce oxidative stress in HIV positive patients on HAART and could possibly be very helpful as an adjunct in the treatment of this disease. Key Words: Antiretroviral, micronutrients, malondialdehyde, ART naïve, reactive oxygen species, supplementation.

  16. Endocarditis : Effects of routine echocardiography during Gram-positive bacteraemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, F J; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; Sturm, P D; Krabbe, P F M; van Dijk, A P J; Oyen, W J G; Kullberg, B J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite firm recommendations to perform echocardiography in high-risk patients with Gram-positive bacteraemia, routine echocardiography is not embedded in daily practice in many settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a regime including routine echocardiography results in

  17. Lack of immunomodulating effect of disulfiram on HIV positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørding, M; Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1990-01-01

    Disulfiram (Antabuse (R)) is metabolized to two molecules of diethyldithiocarbamate, which has been reported to be an immunomodulating agent. In a double blind trial, 15 HIV antibody positive homosexual men were given daily doses of 100 mg or 400 mg of disulfiram or placebo, for 4 weeks. All had...

  18. Microbiologic Evaluation of Cotton and Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Tape as Endodontic Spacer Materials in Primary Molars An in Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe Ramasetty; Dixit, Kratika; Raju, O S

    PTFE tape, which is commonly used as plumber's tape is an inorganic, non-fibrous, ribbon like material. The aim of this study was to evaluate PTFE tape as endodontic spacer material and to compare it with commonly used spacer material that is cotton, in primary teeth. Seventeen children undergoing pulpectomy of lower second primary molar bilaterally were included in the study. Cotton and PTFE tape were placed as spacers on each side randomly. Samples were taken from the access cavity at baseline and after seven days to check for microbial leakage. Spacer materials were also checked for microbial contamination. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the bacterial colony count after seven days in cotton group. The access cavities were also positive for microbial leakage in the cotton group where the spacers showed positive growth. In PTFE group only two samples showed microbial contamination of spacer and out of two only one sample showed contamination of access cavity along with spacer. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that PTFE tape performed better than cotton as endodontic spacer material. Thus, PTFE tape can be recommended as an endodontic spacer material as an alternative to cotton in primary teeth.

  19. Design, building and test of one prototype and four final position sensor assemblies: Hall effect position sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the development of a three channel Hall effect position sensing system for the commutation of a three phase dc torquer motor. The effort consisted of the evaluation, modification and re-packaging of a commercial position sensor and the design of a target configuration unique to this application. The resulting design meets the contract requirements and, furthermore, the test results indicate not only the practicality and versatility of the design, but also that there may be higher limits of resolution and accuracy achievable.

  20. Cotton responses to simulated insect damage: radiation-use efficiency, canopy architecture and leaf nitrogen content as affected by loss of reproductive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadras, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Key cotton pests feed preferentially on reproductive organs which are normally shed after injury. Loss of reproductive organs in cotton may decrease the rate of leaf nitrogen depletion associated with fruit growth and increase nitrogen uptake and reduction by extending the period of root and leaf growth compared with undamaged plants. Higher levels of leaf nitrogen resulting from more assimilation and less depletion could increase the photosynthetic capacity of damaged crops in relation to undamaged controls. To test this hypothesis, radiation-use efficiency (RUE = g dry matter per MJ of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the canopy) of crops in which flowerbuds and young fruits were manually removed was compared with that of undamaged controls. Removal of fruiting structures did not affect RUE when cotton was grown at low nitrogen supply and high plant density. In contrast, under high nitrogen supply and low plant density, fruit removal increased seasonal RUE by 20–27% compared to controls. Whole canopy measurements, however, failed to detect the expected variations in foliar nitrogen due to damage. Differences in RUE between damaged and undamaged canopies were in part associated with changes in plant and canopy structure (viz. internode number and length, canopy height, branch angle) that modified light distribution within the canopy. These structural responses and their influence on canopy light penetration and photosynthesis are synthetised in coefficients of light extinction (k) that were 10 to 30% smaller in damaged crops than in controls and in a positive correlation between RUE−1 and k for crops grown under favourable conditions (i.e. high nitrogen, low density). Changes in plant structure and their effects on canopy architecture and RUE should be considered in the analysis of cotton growth after damage by insects that induce abscission of reproductive organs. (author)

  1. Biological aspects and predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae fed on Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae reared on cotton genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Terezinha Monteiro dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Host plants may influence indirectly biological characteristics of predators, on a positive or negative way, poiting out the importance of studies evaluating the effect of cultivars on the third trophic level. This study evaluates the biological aspects and predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus adults fed Alabama argillacea larvae reared on cotton genotypes. The predator was fed daily with fourth instar larvae reared on leaves of the following genotypes CNPA Precoce 1 (hirsute, CNPA 9211-31 (high gossypol level, CNPA 9211-41 (medium gossypol level and GL2 GL3 (gossypol glandless. The pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods and the oviposition capacity of P. nigripinus were not affected when preyed on cotton leafworms reared on the listed cotton genotypes. Mean weight of predator females was higher (126.2 mg when they fed on A. argillacea reared on GL2 GL3 cotton leaves, in comparison to the observed weight (96.2mg of P. nigripinus females fed on larvae reared on CNPA 9211-41. Longevity of P. nigrispinus ranged 30.7 to 31.5 days for females and 38.0 to 66.3 days for males. P. nigrispinus females preyed 125.2 to 184.0 A. argillacea larvae during its adult stage, while adult males preyed 135.7 to 205.0 leafworms. Using plant resistance in association with P. nigrispinus is viable to control A. argillacea, because resistant genotypes do not influence negatively the biological characteristics of the predator.

  2. Thermogravimetric Studies of Deposited Potash Impregnated for Flame-Retardancy into a Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSTASHARI, S.M.; NIA, Y.K.; BAIE, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of potash as a nondurable finish on the flammability of 100% cotton fabric (plain 180 g/m2) was investigated. The bone-dried weighed fabrics were dipped into suitable concentrations of potash, with a volume of 100 mL at 20-2 ℃. The impregnation was followed by means of squeeze rolls and drying at 110 C. The samples were then reweighed with analytical precision. After conditioning overnight by using our "vertical flame tester" the optimum add-on values to impart flame-retardancy to cotton fabric was determined and expressed by 0.80 g of potash per 100 g fabric to be an efficient addition. Thermogravimetric analysis of pure cotton, treated cotton with potash at its optimum efficiency for donation of flame-retardancy into cotton fabric was fulfilled and the thermograms were compared and commented. The effectiveness of this hydroxide was attributed to the heat dissipation by the remaining consumed material during the combustion. The results obtained are in favor of "Dust or Wall Effect Theory".

  3. [Effect of mineral N fertilizer reduction and organic fertilizer substitution on soil biological properties and aggregate characteristics in drip-irrigated cotton field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Tai, Rui; Wang, Dan; Chu, Gui-Xin

    2017-10-01

    A four year field study was conducted to determine how soil biological properties and soil aggregate stability changed when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were used to reduce chemical fertilizer application to a drip irrigated cotton field. The study consisted of six fertilization treatments: unfertilized (CK); chemical fertilizer (CF, 300 kg N·hm -2 ; 90 kg P2O5 · hm -2 , 60 kg K2 O·hm -2 ); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (80%CF+OF); 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 organic fertilizer (60%CF+OF); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (80%CF+BF); and 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm -2 biofertilizer (60%CF+BF). The relationships among soil organic C, soil biological properties, and soil aggregate size distribution were determined. The results showed that organic fertilizer and biofertilizer both significantly increased soil enzyme activities. Compared with CF, the biofertilizer treatments increased urease activity by 55.6%-84.0%, alkaline phosphatise activity by 53.1%-74.0%, invertase activity by 15.1%-38.0%, β-glucosidase activity by 38.2%-68.0%, polyphenoloxidase activity by 29.6%-52.0%, and arylsulfatase activity by 35.4%-58.9%. Soil enzyme activity increased as the amount of organic fertilizer and biofertilizer increased (i.e., 60%CF+OF > 80%CF+OF, 60%CF+BF > 80%CF+BF). Soil basal respiration decreased significantly in the order BF > OF > CF > CK. Soil microbial biomass C and N were 22.3% and 43.5% greater, respectively, in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The microbial biomass C:N was significantly lower in 60%CF+BF than in CF. The organic fertilizer and the biofertilizer both improved soil aggregate structure. Soil mass in the >0.25 mm fraction was 7.1% greater in 80%CF+OF and 8.0% greater in (60%CF+OF) than in CF. The geometric mean diameter was 9.2% greater in 80%CF+BF than in 80%CF+OF. Redundancy analysis and cluster analysis both demonstrated that soil aggregate structure and biological activities increased when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were

  4. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  5. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  6. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Distance From Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-12-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) has been eradicated from much of the United States, but remains an important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in other parts of the Americas. Where the weevil occurs, the pheromone trap is a key tool for population monitoring or detection. Traditional monitoring programs have placed traps in or near the outermost cotton rows where damage by farm equipment can cause loss of trapping data. Recently, some programs have adopted a trap placement adjacent to but outside monitored fields. The effects of these changes have not been previously reported. Captures of early-season boll weevils by traps near (≤1 m) or far (7-10 m) from the outermost cotton row were evaluated. In 2005, during renewed efforts to eradicate the boll weevil from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, far traps consistently captured more weevils than traps near cotton. Traps at both placements indicated similar patterns of early-season weevil captures, which were consistent with those previously reported. In 2006, no distinction between trap placements was detected. Early-season patterns of captures in 2006 were again similar for both trap placements, but captures were much lower and less regular compared with those observed in 2005. These results suggest magnitude and likelihood of weevil capture in traps placed away from cotton are at least as high as for traps adjacent to cotton. Therefore, relocation of traps away from the outer rows of cotton should not negatively impact ability to monitor or detect the boll weevil. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  8. Non-enzymatic depolymerization of cotton cellulose by fungal mimicking metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Howell, Caitlin; Jensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    peroxide, iron, and oxalic acid. The former two are involved in the Fenton reaction in which they react to form hydroxyl radicals, which cause an accelerated depolymerization in cotton cellulose. We found the same reaction to be caused by both iron Fe3+ and Fe2+. A 10 mM oxalic acid solution showed...... significant depolymerization effect on cotton cellulose. An oxalic acid/sodium oxalate buffered pH gradient had an inhibitory effect on the reduction of cellulose polymers at increased pH values. The organic iron chelator, EDTA, was found to promote depolymerization of cellulose in combination with Fenton......’s reagents, but inhibited the effect of oxalic acid in the absence of iron and hydrogen peroxide. Manganese was tested to see if metals other than iron could generate a significant impact on the degree of polymerization (DP) in cotton cellulose. Depolymerizing properties comparable to iron were seen...

  9. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Key Laboratory of Cotton Genetic Improvement of the Ministry of Agriculture, Cotton Research Institute, Chinese. Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang Henan 455 112, People's Republic of China. 2Institute ..... Athens, Greece. Xie D. X. ...

  10. Effects of positive and negative delusional ideation on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between levels of delusional ideation (whether positive or negative delusions) and the activation and distortion of memory by using pairs of positive and negative adjectives describing personality traits where those adjectives had similar meanings. We presented one of each pair of adjectives in the learning phase. Immediately after the learning phase in Experiment 1, we asked whether each adjective had been presented. Participants with high (positive or negative) delusional ideation were more likely to indicate that they had learned adjectives that they had not actually learned. This finding suggested that non-learned positive (or negative) adjectives that were associated with learned negative (or positive) adjectives were more likely to be activated in participants prone to positive (or negative) delusional ideation. However, in Experiment 2, two forced-choice tests were conducted immediately after the learning phase. In this context, participants, regardless of their proneness to delusional ideation, could almost always correctly distinguish what had and had not been presented, suggesting that the activation of learned items was still stronger than that for non-learned items in the immediate test. As time passed, the proportion of false alarms for positive or negative adjectives was higher in the two forced-choice tests among those with high proneness to (positive or negative) delusional ideation, suggesting that participants with delusional ideation were increasingly likely to depend on internal conditions for retrieval over time. Nous avons examiné la relation entre les niveaux d'idéation illusoire (qu'elle soit positive ou négative) et l'activation et la distorsion de la mémoire, en utilisant des paires d'adjectifs positifs et négatifs à significations similaires décrivant des traits de personnalité. Nous avons présenté un membre de chaque paire d'adjectifs lors d'une phase d'apprentissage. Dans une première exp

  11. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  12. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  13. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  14. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  15. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  16. PREDICTING DEMAND FOR COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAS-MOLINA Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting demand for fashion products is crucial for textile manufacturers. In an attempt to both avoid out-of-stocks and minimize holding costs, different forecasting techniques are used by production managers. Both linear and non-linear time-series analysis techniques are suitable options for forecasting purposes. However, demand for fashion products presents a number of particular characteristics such as short life-cycles, short selling seasons, high impulse purchasing, high volatility, low predictability, tremendous product variety and a high number of stock-keeping-units. In this paper, we focus on predicting demand for cotton yarns using a non-linear forecasting technique that has been fruitfully used in many areas, namely, random forests. To this end, we first identify a number of explanatory variables to be used as a key input to forecasting using random forests. We consider explanatory variables usually labeled either as causal variables, when some correlation is expected between them and the forecasted variable, or as time-series features, when extracted from time-related attributes such as seasonality. Next, we evaluate the predictive power of each variable by means of out-of-sample accuracy measurement. We experiment on a real data set from a textile company in Spain. The numerical results show that simple time-series features present more predictive ability than other more sophisticated explanatory variables.

  17. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of haemoglobin (erythrogen): for improved somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2004-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is accelerated when the plant regeneration medium is supplemented with haemoglobin (erythrogen). In cotton SVPR 2 lines, a higher frequency of embryoid formation was observed when the medium contained 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Fresh weight of the callus, rate of embryoid induction, number of embryoids formed and the percentage of plant regeneration from somatic embryos were increased. Among the two different cultivars tested, MCU 11 showed no response to the presence of haemoglobin when compared to SVPR 2, and embryogenic callus formation was completely absent in the former. Medium containing MS salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol , 0.3 mg/l thiamine-HCL, 0.3 mg/l Picloram (PIC), 0.1 mg/l kinetin and 400 mg/l haemoglobin effected a better response with respect to embryogenic callus induction. After 8 weeks of culture, a high frequency of embryoid induction was observed on medium containing MS basal salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol, 0.3 mg/l PIC , 0.1 mg/l isopentenyl adenine, 1.0 g/l NH4NO3 and 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Plant regeneration was observed in 75.8% of the mature somatic embryos, and whole plant regeneration was achieved within 6-7 months of culture. The regenerated plantlets were fertile and similar to in vivo-grown, seed-derived plants except that they were phenotypically smaller. A positive influence of haemoglobin was observed at concentrations up to 400 mg/l at all stages of somatic embryogenesis. The increase in the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities, for example superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicated the presence of excess oxygen uptake and the stressed condition of the plant tissues that arose from haemoglobin supplementation. This increased oxygen uptake and haemoglobin-mediated stress appeared to accelerate somatic embryogenesis in cotton.

  19. Biocompatible antimicrobial cotton fibres for healthcare industries: a biogenic approach for synthesis of bio-organic-coated silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashid, Sahebrao B; Lakkakula, Jaya R; Chauhan, Deepak S; Srivastava, Rohit; Raut, Rajesh W

    2017-12-01

    Cotton fibres coated with biogenically fabricated silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are most sought material because of their enhanced activity and biocompatibility. After successful synthesis of SNPs on cotton fibres using leaf extract of Vitex negundo Linn, the fibres were studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The characterisation revealed uniformly distributed spherical agglomerates of SNPs having individual particle size around 50 nm with the deposition load of 423 μg of silver per gram of cotton. Antimicrobial assay of cotton-SNPs fibres showed effective performance against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The method is biogenic, environmentally benign, rapid, and cost-effective, producing highly biocompatible antimicrobial coating required for the healthcare industry.

  20. 30. effects of anxiety on neurocognitive performance in hiv positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    poor treatment compliance, disease progression leading. 1 ... deficits associated with HIV related anxiety and determine effects of ..... And Boys With And Without Attention Deficit. Hyperactivity Disorder Differ Neuropsychologically. In Preteen ...