WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive behavioral intervention

  1. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  2. Using Concept Mapping to Improve Parent Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Keetam D. F.

    2013-01-01

    Children's challenging behaviors can be addressed with effective interventions that can meet children's emotional needs and support their families. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) value the family involvement in the process of their child treatment. The intention of this study was to use concept mapping as an adjunct to PBIS…

  3. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

  4. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  5. Effectiveness of a positive psychology intervention combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario-Josefa Marrero

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and implement a positive intervention combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy to enhance subjective and psychological well-being and other positive functioning constructs in a convenience sample. Participants analysed were 48 university students (mean age 22.25, 25 assigned nonrandomized to intervention condition and 23 to no-treatment waiting-list control condition. All participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention to test the treatment program effectiveness. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs, controlling baseline differences between the two groups, indicated that the intervention group reported greater social support after the intervention period than the waiting-list control group. Within-group differences were found for happiness, selfacceptance, positive relations with others, optimism, and self-esteem in the intervention group; these differences did not appear in the waiting-list control group. These findings suggest the limited capacity of this intervention program for improving well-being through positive activities combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Future research should analyse what kind of activities could be more effective in promoting well-being depending on the characteristics of participants.

  6. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A

    2016-06-01

    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  8. Positive Family Intervention for Severe Challenging Behavior I: A Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Hieneman, Meme; Clarke, Shelley; Wang, Mo; Rinaldi, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was a multisite randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of adding a cognitive-behavioral intervention to positive behavior support (PBS). Fifty-four families who met the criteria of (a) having a child with a developmental disability, (b) whose child displayed serious challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury,…

  9. Factors Predicting Sustainability of the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Jonathan; May, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    The Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support model (SWPBIS) continues to gain widespread use across schools in the United States and abroad. Despite its widespread implementation, little research has examined factors that influence its sustainability. Informed by Rogers's diffusion theory, this study examined school personnel's…

  10. A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Kroeger, Stephen D.; Altus, Jillian; Trytten, Joyce Brubaker

    2016-01-01

    Struggling with frequent off-task behavior, a teacher in a midwestern inner-city high school requested assistance in her social studies classroom. A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. A…

  11. "It Takes a Village": A Case Study of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Implementation in an Exemplary Urban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Hays, Danica G.; Cholewa, Blaire E.

    2018-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a widely implemented, culturally responsive framework using prevention and intervention activities to promote a safe school climate and positive academic and behavioral student outcomes. Using a qualitative single-case study design, authors provide a rich description of PBIS implementation…

  12. Scale-Up of Safe & Civil Schools' Model for School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa; Ward, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the scale-up of a Safe & Civil Schools "Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies" positive behavioral interventions and supports initiative through 4 years of "real-world" implementation in a large urban school district. The study extends results from a previous randomized controlled trial…

  13. Exploring Barriers to Implementing a School-Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Ronald Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors related to the implementation of a School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (SWPBIS) program at a large middle school in the United States. Parent Teacher Student Association volunteers at the school reported that teacher fidelity to implementation of SWPBIS activities was inconsistent, threatening the…

  14. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  15. The Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the Organizational Health of Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Koth, Christine W.; Bevans, Katherine B.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Leaf, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 7,500 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. PBIS aims to alter school environments…

  16. Positive Behavior Support in Schools (PBSIS): An Administrative Perspective on the Implementation of a Comprehensive School-Wide Intervention in an Urban Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Remi Dabney; Callahan, Kathe

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the implementation of a school-wide intervention program that was designed to foster and instill intrinsic values based on an external reward system. The Positive Behavior Support in Schools (PBSIS) is an intervention intended to improve the climate of schools using system-wide positive behavioral interventions to discourage…

  17. Staff Concerns in Schools Planning for and Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyre, Ashli D.; Feuerborn, Laura L.; Woods, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Understanding staff concerns about a systemic change effort allows leadership teams to better anticipate and address staff needs for professional development and support. In this study, staff concerns in nine schools planning for or implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) were explored using the…

  18. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Scott W.; Horner, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying behaviors are a growing concern in U.S. schools. We present here a behavioral approach to bully prevention utilizing a schoolwide intervention. Bully prevention in positive behavior support (BP-PBS) teaches students to withhold the social rewards hypothesized to maintain bullying. A single-subject multiple baseline design across 6 students and three elementary schools was implemented in an empirical evaluation of the intervention's effectiveness. Results indicated that implementation...

  19. Readiness for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and School Mental Health Interconnection: Preliminary Development of a Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, Vittoria; Weist, Mark; Eber, Lucille; Barrett, Susan; Cashman, Joanne; Rosser, Mariola; Bazyk, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) and school mental health (SMH) are prominent initiatives in the United States to improve student behavior and promote mental health and wellness, led by education and mental health systems, respectively. Unfortunately, PBIS and SMH often operate separately in districts and schools, resulting in…

  20. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills During the Middle School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths’ functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children’s functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children’s hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children’s involvement with deviant peers during this age period. PMID:24319308

  1. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  2. Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

  3. The Effect of Teacher Training on the Knowledge of Positive Behavior Support and the Quality of Behavior Intervention Plans: A Preliminary Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether through a series of teacher training. The participants could acquire better knowledge on Positive Behavior Support (PBS), and develop high quality behavior intervention plans. Thirty-six teachers from three public schools participated in the study. The competency-based training consisted of 12…

  4. Positive Behavior Support: Sustainability and Continuous Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Turri, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its widespread adoption and implementation (in over 13,000 schools in the US; Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2010), there has been increasing attention to how School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems can be sustained. Sustained implementation can be defined as "continued use of an…

  5. The Effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on the Intrinsic Motivation of Third Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…

  6. Effectiveness of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in a Middle School as Measured by Office Discipline Referrals and Explored in Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Student behavior stands out among issues that greatly affect students' success and even teacher job satisfaction. Researchers have created Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) as a system of interventions that can help students improve their behavior and become more successful. This study sought to add to the body of knowledge…

  7. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Prone positioning reduces severe pushing behavior: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuji; Amimoto, Kazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fukata, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahide; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Makita, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Pushing behavior is classically described as a disorder of body orientation in the coronal plane. Most interventions for pushing behavior have focused on correcting the deviation in vertical perception. However, pushing behavior seems to involve erroneous movements associated with excessive motor output by the non-paretic limbs and trunk. The present study aimed to inhibit muscular hyper-activity by placing the non-paretic limbs and trunk in the prone position. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the present study were 3 acute stroke patients with severe pushing behavior. The study consisted of the following 3 phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. In addition to conventional therapy, patients received relaxation therapy in the prone position for 10 minutes a day over 2 days. The severity of pushing behavior was assessed using the scale for contraversive pushing, and truncal balance was evaluated using the trunk control test. These assessments were performed before and after the baseline phase, and after the intervention and follow-up phases. [Results] At the baseline phase, both scores were poor. Both scores improved after the intervention and follow-up phases, and all the patients could sit independently. [Conclusion] Relaxation therapy in the prone position might ameliorate pushing behavior and impaired truncal balance.

  9. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  10. Behavioral economics strategies for promoting adherence to sleep interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea are among the most efficacious sleep interventions. Unfortunately, adherence levels are disappointingly low for these interventions. Behavioral economics offers a promising framework for promoting adherence, often through relatively brief and straightforward strategies. The assumptions, goals, and key strategies of behavioral economics will be introduced. These strategies include providing social norms information, changing defaults, using the compromise effect, utilizing commitment devices, and establishing lottery-based systems. Then, this review will highlight specific behavioral economic approaches to promote patient adherence for three major sleep interventions: 1) behavioral treatment for pediatric insomnia, 2) cognitive-behavioral treatment for adult insomnia, and 3) continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. Next, behavioral economic strategies will be discussed as ways to improve health care provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding appropriate prescribing of hypnotics and ordering sleep-promoting practices for hospitalized inpatients. Finally, possible concerns that readers may have about behavioral economics strategies, including their efficacy, feasibility, and sustainability, will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis intervention on positive and negative affect during breast cancer radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Kangas, Maria; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy can be an emotionally difficult experience. Despite this, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological interventions to reduce negative affect, and none to date have explicitly examined interventions to improve positive affect among breast cancer radiotherapy patients. The present study examined the effectiveness of a multimodal psychotherapeutic approach, combining cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH), to reduce negative affect and incre...

  12. Engaging Upstanders: Class-Wide Approach to Promoting Positive Bystander Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Laura; Smith, Jennifer; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Positive and supportive bystander behaviors have been associated with decreases in the frequency and negative impact of bullying. This article addresses the design, implementation, evaluation, and continuation of a classroom-based intervention that promotes positive bystander behaviors. The Engaging Upstanders curriculum was piloted with two…

  13. Positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program for family caregivers of demented elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Paes Araujo Fialho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was to examine the effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT program administered to family caregivers of dementia patients. METHODS: Forty family caregivers were enrolled in a CBT intervention across eight weekly sessions. Cognitive, functional and behavioral status of patients were evaluated, as well as their own and their family caregivers' perceptions of quality of life. Specific instruments were also applied to evaluate caregiver stress level, coping, anxiety and depression. RESULTS: At the end of the program, family caregivers reported fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms among patients and an improvement in patients' quality of life. In addition, caregivers changed their coping strategies, whereas a significant decrease was observed in their anxiety levels. CONCLUSION: The CBT program employed appears to be a promising and useful tool for clinical practice, displaying positive effects on quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, as well as proving beneficial for alleviating anxiety and stress in family caregivers.

  14. Possible Solutions as a Concept in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Diane E

    2018-04-24

    Nurses are uniquely positioned to implement behavior change interventions. Yet, nursing interventions have traditionally resulted from nurses problem-solving rather than allowing the patient to self-generate possible solutions for attaining specific health outcomes. The purpose of this review is to clarify the meaning of possible solutions in behavior change interventions. Walker and Avant's method on concept analysis serves as the framework for examination of the possible solutions. Possible solutions can be defined as continuous strategies initiated by patients and families to overcome existing health problems. As nurses engage in behavior change interventions, supporting patients and families in problem-solving will optimize health outcomes and transform clinical practice. © 2018 NANDA International, Inc.

  15. Initial Principal Readiness to Interconnect Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and School Mental Health: A Sequential Multivariate Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Andrew Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 20% of youth in the U.S. are experiencing a mental health challenge; a rate that is said to increase by more than 50% by 2020. Schools are the largest provider of mental health services to youth, yet two of schools' most efficacious evidence-based systems, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and school mental health…

  16. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Early Childhood Classrooms in the United States and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.; Noh, Jina; Heo, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the implementation of critical features associated with positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in early childhood classrooms in the United States and South Korea. Each country has a distinct approach to providing early education for young children. There is some evidence that preschool teachers' approaches to…

  17. THE LIMITS OF POSITIVE INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive interventions have been developed extensively in recent years and they have been tested and applied in very diverse settings. Despite the fact that most of the findings regarding their efficacy can be considered from positive to very positive, the possibility that, in some cases, positive interventions may have unexpected or even iatrogenic effects cannot be discarded. In this article, research from several sources is reviewed in order to inform decisions about what interventions might be inadequate for cases with specific characteristics or vulnerability traits. Finally, the importance of using positive interventions with caution and rigor even when working with individuals who do not have overt problems or psychological disorders is discussed.

  18. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, NL; Lyubomirsky, S

    2009-01-01

    Do positive psychology interventions - that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions - enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.2...

  19. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports and Students with Significant Disabilities: Where Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Enyart, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of schools implementing schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) has increased dramatically, the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in these efforts remains negligible. This article describes the evolution of positive behavior intervention and supports into the SWPBS approach used in many schools today,…

  20. A randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis intervention on positive and negative affect during breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel; Kangas, Maria; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Montgomery, Guy H

    2009-04-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy can be an emotionally difficult experience. Despite this, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological interventions to reduce negative affect, and none to date have explicitly examined interventions to improve positive affect among breast cancer radiotherapy patients. The present study examined the effectiveness of a multimodal psychotherapeutic approach, combining cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH), to reduce negative affect and increase positive affect in 40 women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either CBTH or standard care. Participants completed weekly self-report measures of positive and negative affect. Repeated and univariate analyses of variance revealed that the CBTH approach reduced levels of negative affect [F(1, 38)=13.49; p=.0007, omega(2)=.56], and increased levels of positive affect [F(1, 38)=9.67; p=.0035, omega(2)=.48], during the course of radiotherapy. Additionally, relative to the control group, the CBTH group demonstrated significantly more intense positive affect [F(1, 38)=7.09; p=.0113, d=.71] and significantly less intense negative affect [F(1, 38)=10.30; p=.0027, d=.90] during radiotherapy. The CBTH group also had a significantly higher frequency of days where positive affect was greater than negative affect (85% of days assessed for the CBTH group versus 43% of the Control group) [F(1, 38)=18.16; p=.0001, d=1.16]. Therefore, the CBTH intervention has the potential to improve the affective experience of women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy.

  1. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  2. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  3. The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network: Describing Our Scale-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Timothy J.; Longwill, Douglas A.; Staszkiewicz, Mark J.; Palmiero, James; Lawson, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Pennsylvania began scaling up high-fidelity implementation of SchoolWide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) in 2006-2007 due to converging regulatory, legal, ethical, and practical influences. The Pennsylvania Community of Practice on School-Based Behavioral Health adopted Algozzine et al.'s (2010) blueprint to describe and…

  4. Positive Youth Development Interventions Impacting the Sexual Health of Young Minority Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, LaNita W.; Cheney, Marshall K.

    2018-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the utility of Positive Youth Development (PYD) concepts in promoting positive sexual health behaviors in young minority adolescents (n = 12 studies). Interventions reported significant associations between PYD-focused interventions and ever having sex, sexual partners in the last 30 days,…

  5. Factors influencing HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-positive urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.

  6. Classified Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline: Implications for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.; Beaudoin, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Classified staff are important stakeholders in schools and commonly interact with students across grade levels, subject matter areas, and physical locations--making their involvement in the implementation of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) essential. However, their voice, including the intentional and systematic…

  7. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  8. Positive behavioral support planning in the inpatient treatment of severe disruptive behaviors: A description of service features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, Nakia M; Carr, Erika R; Hillbrand, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are increasingly used on inpatient units to assess and treat serious and dangerous behaviors displayed by patients with serious psychiatric impairment. A contemporary extension of traditional applied behavior analytic procedures, PBS plans integrate theories from several domains with perspectives on community psychology, positive psychology, and recovery-oriented care. Because there is little evidence to suggest that more invasive, punitive disciplinary strategies lead to long-term positive behavioral change (Parkes, 1996), PBS plans have emerged as an alternative to the use of seclusion and restraint or other forms of restrictive measures typically used on inpatient psychiatric units (Hammer et al., 2011). Moreover, PBS plans are a preferred method of intervention because more invasive interventions often cause more harm than good to all involved (Elliott et al., 2005). This article seeks to provide an integrated framework for the development of positive behavior support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. In addition to explicating the philosophy and core elements of PBS plans, this work includes discussion of the didactic and pragmatic aspects of training clinical staff in inpatient mental health settings. A case vignette is included for illustration and to highlight the use of PBS plans as a mechanism for helping patients transition to less restrictive settings. This work will add to the scant literature examining the use of positive behavioral support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior.

  10. Using the Intervention Mapping and Behavioral Intervention Technology Frameworks: Development of an mHealth Intervention for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Walsh, Deirdre; Hinbarji, Moohamad; Albatal, Rami; Tooley, Mark; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2018-06-01

    Few interventions to promote physical activity (PA) adapt dynamically to changes in individuals' behavior. Interventions targeting determinants of behavior are linked with increased effectiveness and should reflect changes in behavior over time. This article describes the application of two frameworks to assist the development of an adaptive evidence-based smartphone-delivered intervention aimed at influencing PA and sedentary behaviors (SB). Intervention mapping was used to identify the determinants influencing uptake of PA and optimal behavior change techniques (BCTs). Behavioral intervention technology was used to translate and operationalize the BCTs and its modes of delivery. The intervention was based on the integrated behavior change model, focused on nine determinants, consisted of 33 BCTs, and included three main components: (1) automated capture of daily PA and SB via an existing smartphone application, (2) classification of the individual into an activity profile according to their PA and SB, and (3) behavior change content delivery in a dynamic fashion via a proof-of-concept application. This article illustrates how two complementary frameworks can be used to guide the development of a mobile health behavior change program. This approach can guide the development of future mHealth programs.

  11. A Focus on Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in High Schools: Associations with Bullying and Other Indicators of School Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Pas, Elise T.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of a multi-tiered system of supports framework to address issues related to school climate and bullying. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is one such model that has received considerable attention; however, nearly all of the extant literature has focused on elementary and middle schools,…

  12. Peer-Based Social Media Features in Behavior Change Interventions: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weal, Mark; Morrison, Leanne; Yardley, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Background Incorporating social media features into digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) has the potential to contribute positively to their success. However, the lack of clear design principles to describe and guide the use of these features in behavioral interventions limits cross-study comparisons of their uses and effects. Objective The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of DBCIs targeting modifiable behavioral risk factors that have included social media features as part of their intervention infrastructure. A taxonomy of social media features is presented to inform the development, description, and evaluation of behavioral interventions. Methods Search terms were used in 8 databases to identify DBCIs that incorporated social media features and targeted tobacco smoking, diet and nutrition, physical activities, or alcohol consumption. The screening and review process was performed by 2 independent researchers. Results A total of 5264 articles were screened, and 143 articles describing a total of 134 studies were retained for full review. The majority of studies (70%) reported positive outcomes, followed by 28% finding no effects with regard to their respective objectives and hypothesis, and 2% of the studies found that their interventions had negative outcomes. Few studies reported on the association between the inclusion of social media features and intervention effect. A taxonomy of social media features used in behavioral interventions has been presented with 36 social media features organized under 7 high-level categories. The taxonomy has been used to guide the analysis of this review. Conclusions Although social media features are commonly included in DBCIs, there is an acute lack of information with respect to their effect on outcomes and a lack of clear guidance to inform the selection process based on the features’ suitability for the different behaviors. The proposed taxonomy along with the set of recommendations included

  13. Brief multiple behavior interventions in a college student health care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E Chad; Bian, Hui; Moore, Michele J; Ames, Steve; DiClemente, Carlo C; Weiler, Robert M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effects of brief image-based interventions, including a multiple behavior health contract, a one-on-one tailored consultation, and a combined consultation plus contract intervention, for impacting multiple health behaviors of students in a university health clinic. A total of 155 college students attending a major southern university were recruited to participate in a study evaluating a health promotion program titled Project Fitness during the fall 2005 and spring 2006. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments as they presented at the clinic: 1) a multiple behavior health contract, 2) a one-on-one tailored consultation, or 3) a combined consultation plus contract intervention. Baseline and 1-month post-intervention data were collected using computer-assisted questionnaires in a quiet office within the student health clinic. Omnibus repeated-measures analyses of variance were significant for drinking driving behaviors, F(2,136) = 4.43, p = .01, exercise behaviors, F(5,140) = 6.12, p = .00, nutrition habits, F(3,143) = 5.37, p = .00, sleep habits, F(2,144) = 5.03, p = .01, and health quality of life, F(5,140) = 3.09, p = .01, with improvements on each behavior across time. Analysis of group-by-time interaction effects showed an increase in the use of techniques to manage stress, F(2,144) = 5.48, p = .01, and the number of health behavior goals set in the last 30 days, F(2,143) = 5.35, p = .01, but only among adolescents receiving the consultation, or consultation plus contract. Effect sizes were consistently larger across health behaviors, and medium in size, when both consult and contract were used together. Brief interventions using a positive goal image of fitness, and addressing a number of health habits using a contract and consultation strategy alone, or in combination, have the potential to influence positive changes in multiple health behaviors of college students attending a university primary health care clinic.

  14. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-05-15

    While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior change interventions influence staff

  15. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  16. Behavioral Nutrition Interventions Using e- and m-Health Communication Technologies: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-17

    e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change.

  17. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Positive Psychological Intervention for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Christina M; Millstein, Rachel A; Celano, Christopher M; Wexler, Deborah J; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychological attributes (eg, optimism) have been associated with a healthier lifestyle and superior medical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, there has been minimal study of behavioral interventions that target positive psychological constructs in this population. Accordingly, we developed a novel, telephone-based, 12-week positive psychology intervention and assessed its feasibility and short-term impact in adults with type 2 diabetes and suboptimal health behavior adherence. This was a pilot and feasibility study in adult inpatients and outpatients at an urban academic medical center recruited between December 2013 and December 2014. Adult patients with (1) type 2 diabetes (meeting American Diabetes Association criteria, eg, glycated hemoglobin A 1c [HbA 1c ] > 6.5% or fasting glucose > 126 mg/dL) and (2) suboptimal adherence (score psychology manual, completed exercises (eg, writing a gratitude letter, performing acts of kindness), and reviewed these activities by phone with a study trainer over the 12-week study period. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed via exercise completion rates and postexercise ratings of ease/utility on 0-10 Likert scales. Longer-term efficacy was explored by examining changes in psychological states and health behaviors from baseline to 12 weeks using random-effects regression models and estimates of effect size. A total of 15 participants enrolled; 12 participants provided complete baseline and follow-up data and were included in the analyses. Over 90% of these participants completed at least 2 exercises, and 75% completed a majority of the exercises. Participants rated the exercises as helpful (mean = 7.8/10) and easy to complete (mean = 7.1/10), and they reported improvements in optimism, gratitude, depression, anxiety, physical function, self-care, and health behaviors (Cohen d = 0.28-1.00). A positive psychology intervention for suboptimally adherent patients with type 2 diabetes was feasible

  18. Reducing Youth Risk Behaviors Through Interactive Theater Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.

  19. A Positive Behavioral Approach for Aggression in Forensic Psychiatric Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolisano, Peter; Sondik, Tracey M; Dike, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Aggression toward self and others by complex patients admitted to forensic psychiatric settings is a relatively common yet extremely difficult behavior to treat. Traditional interventions in forensic inpatient settings have historically emphasized control and management over treatment. Research over the past several years has demonstrated the value of behavioral and psychosocial treatment interventions to reduce aggression and to increase prosocial skill development in inpatient forensic population. Positive behavioral support (PBS) offers a comprehensive approach that incorporates the science of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) in support of patients with challenging behaviors, including aggression and violence. In this article, we describe a PBS model to treat aggression in forensic settings. PBS includes a comprehensive functional assessment, along with four basic elements: ecological strategies, positive programming, focused support strategies, and reactive strategies. Other key components are described, including data collection, staff training, fidelity checks to ensure correct implementation of the plan, and ongoing monitoring and revision of PBS strategies, according to treatment outcomes. Finally, a behavioral consultation team approach within the inpatient forensic setting is recommended, led by an assigned doctoral-level psychologist with specialized knowledge and training in behavioral methods. The behavioral consultation team works directly with the unit treatment team and the identified patient to develop, implement, and track a plan that may extend over several weeks to several months including transition into the community. PBS can offer a positive systemic impact in forensic inpatient settings, such as providing a nonpharmacologic means to address aggression, reducing the incidences of restraint and seclusion, enhancing staff proficiency in managing challenging patient presentations, and reducing recidivism when used as part of the bridge to

  20. Treatment Effects of a Primary Care Intervention on Parenting Behaviors: Sometimes It's Relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this brief report is to demonstrate the utility of quantifying parental discipline practices as relative frequencies in measuring changes in parenting behavior and relations to child behavior following intervention. We explored comparisons across methodological approaches of assessing parenting behavior via absolute and relative frequencies in measuring improvements in parent-reported disciplinary practices (increases in positive parenting practices in response to child behavior; decreases in inconsistent discipline and use of corporal punishment) and child behavior problems. The current study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention for behavior problems, ADHD, and anxiety in pediatric primary care practices (Doctor Office Collaborative Care; DOCC). Participants were 321 parent-child dyads (M child age = 8.00, 65 % male children) from eight pediatric practices that were cluster randomized to DOCC or enhanced usual care (EUC). Parents reported on their own discipline behaviors and child behavior problems. While treatment-related decreases in negative parenting were found using both the absolute and relative frequencies of parenting behaviors, results were different for positive parenting behaviors, which showed decreases when measured as absolute frequencies but increases when measured as relative frequencies. In addition, positive parenting was negatively correlated with child behavior problems when using relative frequencies, but not absolute frequencies, and relative frequencies of positive parenting mediated relations between treatment condition and outcomes. Our findings indicate that the methods used to measure treatment-related change warrant careful consideration.

  1. Peer-Based Social Media Features in Behavior Change Interventions: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaheebocus, Sheik Mohammad Roushdat Ally; Weal, Mark; Morrison, Leanne; Yardley, Lucy

    2018-02-22

    Incorporating social media features into digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) has the potential to contribute positively to their success. However, the lack of clear design principles to describe and guide the use of these features in behavioral interventions limits cross-study comparisons of their uses and effects. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of DBCIs targeting modifiable behavioral risk factors that have included social media features as part of their intervention infrastructure. A taxonomy of social media features is presented to inform the development, description, and evaluation of behavioral interventions. Search terms were used in 8 databases to identify DBCIs that incorporated social media features and targeted tobacco smoking, diet and nutrition, physical activities, or alcohol consumption. The screening and review process was performed by 2 independent researchers. A total of 5264 articles were screened, and 143 articles describing a total of 134 studies were retained for full review. The majority of studies (70%) reported positive outcomes, followed by 28% finding no effects with regard to their respective objectives and hypothesis, and 2% of the studies found that their interventions had negative outcomes. Few studies reported on the association between the inclusion of social media features and intervention effect. A taxonomy of social media features used in behavioral interventions has been presented with 36 social media features organized under 7 high-level categories. The taxonomy has been used to guide the analysis of this review. Although social media features are commonly included in DBCIs, there is an acute lack of information with respect to their effect on outcomes and a lack of clear guidance to inform the selection process based on the features' suitability for the different behaviors. The proposed taxonomy along with the set of recommendations included in this review will support future research aimed

  2. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  3. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  4. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  5. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  6. Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in High School Settings: Analysis of Eight High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Frank, Jennifer L.; Kato, Mimi McGrath; Doren, Bonnie; Fenning, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is a systems-level intervention designed to prevent the occurrence of problem behavior and increase social competence. A growing body of research documents that SWPBS reduces problem behavior and improves academics (e.g., McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006), yet documentation of the feasibility…

  7. Evaluation of a Person-Centered, Theory-Based Intervention to Promote Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawong, Chiraporn; Borden, Mary Jo; Cooper, Karen M; Pérez, Oscar A; Lauver, Diane

    Effective promotion of health behaviors requires strong interventions. Applying person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from two motivational theories could strengthen the effects of such interventions. The aim of the study was to report the effect sizes, fidelity, and acceptability of a person-centered, health behavior intervention based on self-regulation and self-determination theories. Using a pre- and postintervention design, with a 4-week follow-up, advanced practice registered nurses made six weekly contacts with 52 volunteer participants. Most participants were educated White women. Advanced practice registered nurses elicited participant motives and particular goals for either healthy diet or physical activity behaviors. Minutes and type of activity and servings of fat and fruit/vegetables were assessed. Effect sizes for engaging in moderate aerobic activity and in fruit/vegetable and fat intake were 0.53, 0.82, and -0.57, respectively. The fidelity of delivery was 80-97% across contacts, and fidelity of participants' receipt of intervention components was supported. Participant acceptance of the intervention was supported by positive ratings on aspects of relevance and usefulness. To advance the science of health behavior change and improve client health status, person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from motivational theories can be applied and tested with a randomized, controlled design and diverse samples to replicate and extend this promising behavioral intervention.

  8. Effects of Interventions Based on Health Behavior Models on Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of Migrant Women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Ayla; Bahar, Zuhal; Gözüm, Sebahat

    2016-01-01

    Antalya is a city receiving internal and external migration in Turkey, including migrant women in need of developing breast cancer screening behaviors. The aim of this study was to develop breast cancer screening behaviors of migrant women through nursing interventions based on the Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model. This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 200 women (100 women in the intervention group, 100 women in the control group) in Antalya. The intervention group received training, consultancy service, and reminders and was followed up at 3 and 6 months after interventions. The rates of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography were higher at months 3 and 6 in women in the intervention group compared with the women in the control group. In the intervention group, perceptions of susceptibility and barriers decreased after the interventions, and benefit, health motivation, and self-efficacy perceptions increased. According to month 6 data, in the intervention group, the decrease of each unit in perception of barriers increased the rate of breast self-examination 0.8 times and the rate of mammography 0.7 times. An increase of each unit in health motivation increased the rate of clinical breast examination 1.3 times and the rate of mammography 1.5 times. Interventions based on health behavior models positively affected breast cancer screening behaviors of migrant women. Health motivations and perceptions of barriers are determinants in performing the screening behaviors. Migrant women should be supported more by healthcare professionals regarding recognition of breast health and disease and in transportation to screening centers in their new location.

  9. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  10. Prosocial attitudes and empathic behavior in emotional positive versus negative situations: brain response (ERPs) and source localization (LORETA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2013-03-01

    The present research firstly investigated the neural correlates (ERPs, event-related potentials) of attitudes to engage in prosocial-helping behaviors, and secondly, it analyzed the relation between these brain-based potentials and personal profile (high vs. low empathic profile). It was considered the subjects' behavior in response to specific emotional situations (positive vs. negative) in case it was required a possible prosocial intervention. Thirty-one subjects were invited to empathize with the emotional contexts (videotapes that reproduced two person's exchanges) and to decide whether to intervene or not to support these persons. BEES questionnaire for empathic behavior was submitted to the subjects after the experimental session. ERP acquisition and LORETA source analysis revealed a negative ongoing deflection (N200 effect) more prefrontally distributed (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) in response to prosocial intervention options mainly for negative and positive contexts. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between high-empathic profiles, intervention behaviors (higher frequency of interventions) and N200 amplitude (higher peak). These results highlight the role of emotions in prosocial behavior, since the N200 effect was considered a marker of the emotional significance of the interpersonal situation. Secondly, the empathic trait may explain the prosocial decisional processes: Higher empathic trait contributes to induce subject's intervention behavior which in turn appears to be directly related to the cortical responsiveness within the prefrontal areas.

  11. Parenting Intervention for Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Elementary School-Age Filipino-American Children: A Pilot Study in Churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Coffey, Dean M; Schrager, Sheree M; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Miranda, Jeanne

    This study aims to test an evidence-based parenting program offered in churches among Filipino-American parents and estimate effect size for a fully powered trial. Twenty-two parents of children aged 6 to 12 years were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waiting-list control group. Parents' perceptions of child behavior, parenting practices, and parenting stress were obtained at baseline. Parents in the experimental group attended The Incredible Years School Age Program, which consisted of 12 weekly 2-hour sessions. A follow-up assessment was performed after the intervention and 12 weeks later. The intervention was subsequently repeated with the control group. Satisfaction was assessed with a 40-item measure. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the intervention group postintervention versus the control group. Paired t-tests compared mean parenting practices, parenting stress, and child behavior outcomes. Satisfaction was assessed descriptively. Twenty-two parents completed all assessments and the intervention. Analysis of variance comparing intervention and control groups with repeated measures (pre- and post-test measures) revealed that the program has a positive impact on parenting stress, parenting practices (physical punishment, positive verbal discipline), and parent's perception of their child's behavior (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and number of problematic behaviors). Analyses of all participants comparing pre- and post intervention revealed improvements in parenting stress, positive verbal discipline, and child externalizing and total problem behaviors. Families reported high satisfaction with the content and format of the intervention. Results support the feasibility of providing an evidence-based parenting program to Filipino parents in churches to prevent future behavioral health problems.

  12. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...

  13. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  14. Positive psychology interventions in breast cancer. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas-Grau, Anna; Font, Antoni; Vives, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is an emerging area of empirical study, not only in clinical, but also in health psychology. The present systematic review aims to synthesize the evidence about the positive psychology interventions utilized in breast cancer. Relevant studies were identified via Pubmed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, Wiley Online Library, TDX, and DIALNET databases (up to April 2013). Only those papers focused on interventions related to positive psychology and carried out on breast cancer patients were included. Of the 7266 articles found through databases, 16 studies were finally included in this review. Five groups of therapies were found: mindfulness-based approaches, expression of positive emotions, spiritual interventions, hope therapy, and meaning-making interventions. These specific interventions promoted positive changes in breast cancer participants, such as enhanced quality of life, well-being, hope, benefit finding, or optimism. However, the disparity of the interventions and some methodological issues limit the outcomes. Some studies provided relevant evidence about the clear development of positive aspects from the breast cancer experience. Positive interventions applied to patients and survivors of breast cancer were found to be able to promote positive aspects. A global consensus of a positive therapies classification is needed to take one more step in structuring positive psychology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  16. Positive attitudes and self-harming behavior of adolescents in a juvenile detention house in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mei-Hua; Fang, Kai-Chi; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Chih-Dao; Hsieh, Chi-Pan; Chen, Tsung-Tai

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the less stigmatizing positivity construct screening measurement and its association with recent self-harming behaviors among adolescents. Participants were 193 detained Taiwanese adolescents. Questionnaires consisted of a deliberate self-harm inventory, a positivity construct measurement, a depression scale, data concerning risky health behaviors and demographics. The prevalence rate of recent self-harming behavior among adolescents in the detention house was 43.5%. The logistic model showed that age, gender and level of positivity demonstrated significant odds ratios for self-harm behavior. Results showed that younger age and female gender increased self-harming behavior. In addition, low score on positivity construct screening measurement increased the probability of self-harming behavior. Furthermore, these adolescents also engaged in risky health behaviors and were more depressed. Parental and school awareness for these risky behaviors should be enhanced and appropriate early interventions implemented to prevent negative health outcomes.

  17. Bidirectional Effects between Parenting and Aggressive Child Behavior in the Context of a Preventive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brinke, Lysanne W; Deković, Maja; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2017-07-01

    Over time, developmental theories and empirical studies have gradually started to adopt a bidirectional viewpoint. The area of intervention research is, however, lagging behind in this respect. This longitudinal study examined whether bidirectional associations between (changes in) parenting and (changes in) aggressive child behavior over time differed in three conditions: a child intervention condition, a child + parent intervention condition and a control condition. Participants were 267 children (74 % boys, 26 % girls) with elevated levels of aggression, their mothers and their teachers. Reactive aggression, proactive aggression and perceived parenting were measured at four measurement times from pretest to one-year after intervention termination. Results showed that associations between aggressive child behavior and perceived parenting are different in an intervention context, compared to a general developmental context. Aggressive behavior and perceived parenting were unrelated over time for children who did not receive an intervention. In an intervention context, however, decreases in aggressive child behavior were related to increases in perceived positive parenting and decreases in perceived overreactivity. These findings underscore the importance of addressing child-driven processes in interventions aimed at children, but also in interventions aimed at both children and their parents.

  18. Positive Parenting and Children’s Prosocial Behavior in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Research supports the beneficial role of prosocial behaviors on children’s adjustment and successful youth development. Empirical studies point to reciprocal relations between negative parenting and children’s maladjustment, but reciprocal relations between positive parenting and children’s prosocial behavior are understudied. In the present study reciprocal relations between two different dimensions of positive parenting (quality of the mother-child relationship and the use of balanced positive discipline) and children’s prosocial behavior were examined in Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Method Mother-child dyads (N = 1105) provided data over 2 years in 2 waves (Mage of child in wave 1 = 9.31 years, SD = .73; 50% female). Results A model of reciprocal relations between parenting dimensions, but not among parenting and children’s prosocial behavior, emerged. In particular, children with higher levels of prosocial behavior at age 9 elicited higher levels of mother-child relationship quality in the following year. Conclusions Findings yielded similar relations across countries, evidencing that being prosocial in late childhood contributes to some degree to the enhancement of a nurturing and involved mother-child relationship in countries that vary widely on sociodemographic profiles and psychological characteristics. Policy and intervention implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26511201

  19. A Positive Psychology Intervention With Emerging Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Leontopoulou

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a positive psychology intervention in a sample of 40 young men (35%) and women (65%) aged 18-30 years. Participants were 1st and 4th year undergraduate University students, postgraduate students and working youths. The study examined the effects of a battery of interventions commonly used in positive psychology interventions, including a video and three exercises (i.e. expressing gratitude, best possible selves, goal setting) on character strengths, hope, gra...

  20. The role of health behavior in preventing dental caries in resource-poor adults: a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew; Switzer-Nadasdi, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a highly prevalent, yet preventable disease that is commonly overlooked in the adult population. It is strongly related to health-related behaviors and knowledge, and therefore, is potentially receptive to a behavioral health intervention. However, prevention strategies that target health behaviors in adults are fundamentally different from those in children, whom most current intervention strategies for dental caries target. This study attempts to pilot design, implement, and assess health behavior intervention tools for adults, in order to improve their oral health. To increase knowledge about dental caries by 80% and increase positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors by 80% in low-income adult participants at Interfaith Dental Clinic by piloting novel interventional and educational tools based on the Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior. A convenience sample of newly registered participants to the Interfaith Dental Clinic between August 2011 and May 2013, were interviewed on each participant's first appointment, exposed to the interventional tools, and subsequently interviewed at their next appointment. A control group, comprised of participants who had completed their caries care as deemed by the clinic and had not been exposed to the interventional tools, were also interviewed on their last appointment before graduating the clinic's program. A total of 112 participants were exposed to the intervention, and forty-two participants comprised the control group. Follow-up for the intervention group was 20.5% (n = 23). Knowledge about the cause of caries increased by 29.9%, and positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors increased by 25.4%. A Wilcoxon rank sum test showed no significance between the interview scores of the post-intervention group and that of the control group (p = 0.18 for knowledge, p = 0.284 for behaviors). Qualitative results show the vast majority of participants blamed diet for cause of caries, that this participant

  1. Improvements in musculoskeletal health and computing behaviors: Effects of a macroergonomics office workplace and training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng Hsiang; Lee, Jin

    2017-07-01

    Computer use and its association with musculoskeletal and visual symptoms is an escalating concern. Organizations are shifting to a more proactive injury prevention perspective. Accordingly, a macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workplace design and office ergonomics training was designed to examine the effects on worker's computing behaviors, postures, and musculoskeletal discomfort, and their relationship to psychosocial factors. Participants were assigned to either group: 1) no-intervention control 2) flexible Workplace-only (WP-only), and 3) flexible Workplace + Training (WP+T). Observational findings indicate both intervention groups experienced positive, significant changes in improved workstation arrangements and computing postures, with the WP+T intervention group exhibiting a higher, significant change of behavioral translation. Also, significant, positive relationships between observed postures and musculoskeletal discomfort/pain were found. The intervention effect was stronger when management was responsive to workers' ergonomics needs. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention can produce beneficial effects for office and computer workers and organizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral Processes in Long-Lag Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dale T; Dannals, Jennifer E; Zlatev, Julian J

    2017-05-01

    We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones. To illustrate the roles that behavioral processes can play in long-lag experiments we examine field experiments motivated by three policy-relevant goals: prejudice reduction, health promotion, and educational achievement. In each of the experiments discussed we identify various behavioral pathways through which the manipulated psychological state could have produced the observed outcome. We argue that if psychologists conducting long-lag interventions posited a theory of change that linked manipulated psychological states to outcomes via behavioral pathways, the result would be richer theory and more practically useful research. Movement in this direction would also permit more opportunities for productive collaborations between psychologists and other social scientists interested in similar social problems.

  3. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Ireen; Speetjens, Paula; Smit, Filip; de Wolff, Marianne; Tavecchio, Louis

    2008-09-01

    The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of behavioral problems in children by pooling the evidence from relevant literature that included Level 4 Triple P interventions. Level 4 intervention is indicated if the child has multiple behavior problems in a variety of settings and there are clear deficits in parenting skills. Results indicate that Level 4 of Triple P interventions reduced disruptive behaviors in children. These improvements were maintained well over time, with further improvements in long-term follow-up. These effects support the widespread adoption and implementation of Triple P that is taking place in an increasing number of countries in quite diverse cultural contexts around the world.

  4. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  5. Behavioral medicine interventions for adult primary care settings: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Shepardson, Robyn L; Wray, Jennifer; Acker, John; Beehler, Gregory P; Possemato, Kyle; Wray, Laura O; Maisto, Stephen A

    2018-06-07

    Health care organizations are embracing integrated primary care (IPC), in which mental health and behavioral health are addressed as part of routine care within primary care settings. Behavioral medicine concerns, which include health behavior change and coping with medical conditions, are common in primary care populations. Although there are evidence-based behavioral interventions that target a variety of behavioral medicine concerns, integrated behavioral health providers need interventions that are sufficiently brief (i.e., ≤6 appointments) to be compatible with IPC. We conducted a literature review of published studies examining behavioral interventions that target prevalent behavioral medicine concerns and can feasibly be employed by IPC providers in adult primary care settings. A total of 67 published articles representing 63 original studies met eligibility criteria. We extracted data on the behavioral interventions employed, results comparing the active intervention to a comparison group, general fit with IPC, and methodological quality. The vast majority of studies examined brief interventions targeting sleep difficulties and physical activity. The most commonly employed interventions were derived from cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing. Outcomes were generally statistically significantly in favor of the active intervention relative to comparison, with highly variable methodological quality ratings (range = 0-5; M = 2.0). Results are discussed in relation to the need for further evidence for brief behavioral interventions targeting other behavioral medicine concerns beyond sleep and physical activity, as well as for more specificity regarding the compatibility of such interventions with IPC practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Electronic behavioral interventions for headache: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minen, Mia Tova; Torous, John; Raynowska, Jenelle; Piazza, Allison; Grudzen, Corita; Powers, Scott; Lipton, Richard; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using electronic behavioral interventions as well as mobile technologies such as smartphones for improving the care of chronic disabling diseases such as migraines. However, less is known about the current clinical evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of such behavioral interventions. To review the published literature of behavioral interventions for primary headache disorders delivered by electronic means suitable for use outside of the clinician's office. An electronic database search of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted through December 11, 2015. All eligible studies were systematically reviewed to examine the modality in which treatment was delivered (computer, smartphone, watch and other), types of behavioral intervention delivered (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT], biofeedback, relaxation, other), the headache type being treated, duration of treatment, adherence, and outcomes obtained by the trials to examine the overall feasibility of electronic behavioral interventions for headache. Our search produced 291 results from which 23 eligible articles were identified. Fourteen studies used the internet via the computer, 2 used Personal Digital Assistants, 2 used CD ROM and 5 used other types of devices. None used smartphones or wearable devices. Four were pilot studies (N ≤ 10) which assessed feasibility. For the behavioral intervention, CBT was used in 11 (48 %) of the studies, relaxation was used in 8 (35 %) of the studies, and biofeedback was used in 5 (22 %) of the studies. The majority of studies (14/23, 61 %) used more than one type of behavioral modality. The duration of therapy ranged from 4-8 weeks for CBT with a mean of 5.9 weeks. The duration of other behavioral interventions ranged from 4 days to 60 months. Outcomes measured varied widely across the individual studies. Despite the move toward individualized medicine and mHealth, the current literature shows that most studies using

  7. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Gerjo; Lo, Siu Hing; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  8. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  9. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention in the Treatment of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Looney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed.

  11. Decreasing Risky Behavior on Social Network Sites: The Impact of Parental Involvement in Secondary Education Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Teenagers face significant risks when using increasingly popular social network sites. Prevention and intervention efforts to raise awareness about these risks and to change risky behavior (so-called "e-safety" interventions) are essential for the wellbeing of these minors. However, several studies have revealed that while school interventions often affect awareness, they have only a limited impact on pupils' unsafe behavior. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories about parental involvement, we hypothesized that involving parents in an e-safety intervention would positively influence pupils' intentions and behavior. In a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-test measures involving 207 pupils in secondary education, we compared the impact of an intervention without parental involvement with one that included active parental involvement by means of a homework task. We found that whereas parental involvement was not necessary to improve the intervention's impact on risk awareness, it did change intentions to engage in certain unsafe behavior, such as posting personal and sexual information on the profile page of a social network site, and in reducing existing problematic behavior. This beneficial impact was particularly evident for boys. These findings suggest that developing prevention campaigns with active parental involvement is well worth the effort. Researchers and developers should therefore focus on other efficient strategies to involve parents.

  12. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  13. The added value of the positive : A literature review of positive psychology interventions in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, M.C.; van Woerkom, M.; Bakker, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews research investigating the effects of positive psychology interventions applied in the organizational context. We characterize a positive psychology intervention as any intentional activity or method that is based on (a) the cultivation of positive subjective

  14. Selection and Evaluation of Media for Behavioral Health Interventions Employing Critical Media Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Cherenack, Emily M; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Harper, Gary W

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing number of psychosocial health promotion interventions use the critical analysis of media to facilitate behavior change, no specific guidelines exist to assist researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of culturally relevant media stimuli for intervention development. Mobilizing Our Voices for Empowerment is a critical consciousness-based health enhancement intervention for HIV-positive Black young gay/bisexual men that employs the critical analysis of popular media. In the process of developing and testing this intervention, feedback on media stimuli was collected from youth advisory board members (n = 8), focus group participants (n = 19), intervention participants (n = 40), and intervention facilitators (n = 6). A thematic analysis of qualitative data resulted in the identification of four key attributes of media stimuli and participants' responses to media stimuli that are important to consider when selecting and evaluating media stimuli for use in behavioral health interventions employing the critical analysis of media: comprehension, relevance, emotionality, and action. These four attributes are defined and presented as a framework for evaluating media, and adaptable tools are provided based on this framework to guide researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of media for similar interventions.

  15. Diagnoses, Intervention Strategies, and Rates of Functional Improvement in Integrated Behavioral Health Care Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J.; Gregus, Samantha J.; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compared with more traditional mental health care, integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) offers greater access to services and earlier identification and intervention of behavioral and mental health difficulties. The current study examined demographic, diagnostic, and intervention factors that predict positive changes for IBHC patients. Method Participants were 1,150 consecutive patients (mean age = 30.10 years, 66.6% female, 60.1% Hispanic, 47.9% uninsured) seen for IBHC services at 2 primary care clinics over a 34-month period. Patients presented with depressive (23.2%), anxiety (18.6%), adjustment (11.3%), and childhood externalizing (7.6%) disorders, with 25.7% of patients receiving no diagnosis. Results The most commonly delivered interventions included behavioral activation (26.1%), behavioral medicine-specific consultation (14.6%), relaxation training (10.3%), and parent-management training (8.5%). There was high concordance between diagnoses and evidence-based intervention selection. We used latent growth curve modeling to explore predictors of baseline global assessment of functioning (GAF) and improvements in GAF across sessions, utilizing data from a subset of 117 patients who attended at least 3 behavioral health visits. Hispanic ethnicity and being insured predicted higher baseline GAF, while patients with an anxiety disorder had lower baseline GAF than patients with other diagnoses. Controlling for primary diagnosis, patients receiving behavioral activation or exposure therapy improved at faster rates than patients receiving other interventions. Demographic variables did not relate to rates of improvement. Conclusion Results suggest even brief IBHC interventions can be focused, targeting specific patient concerns with evidence-based treatment components. PMID:25774786

  16. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Winter, Charlotte E; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents' observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions.

  18. The Relationship Between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Performance on State Accountability Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Marin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.

  19. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  20. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-10-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.

  1. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  2. Intervention for Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J; Walsh, Caitlin E; Mulder, Emile; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Hajcak, Greg; Carr, Edward G; Zarcone, Jennifer R

    2017-12-01

    There is little research on the functional assessment and treatment of anxiety and related problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly those with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). In a recent study, we evaluated a multimethod strategy for assessing anxiety in children with ASD and IDD (Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 118:419-434, 2013). In the present study, we developed treatments for the anxiety and associated problem behavior in these same children. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention package, incorporating individualized strategies from Positive Behavior Support and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. During intervention, all three participants showed substantial decreases in anxiety and problem behavior and significant increases in respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the situations that had previously been identified as anxiety-provoking.

  3. Effectiveness evaluation of the Positive Family Support intervention: A three-tiered public health delivery model for middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkowski, Keith; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeffery M; Dishion, Tom J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Moore, Kevin J; Falkenstein, Corrina A; Fosco, Gregory M; Garbacz, S Andrew

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the results of an evaluation of Positive Family Support, an ecological family intervention and treatment approach to parent supports and family management training developed from a history of basic and translational research. This effectiveness trial, with 41 public middle schools randomly assigned to intervention or control, examined student-, teacher-, and parent-reported outcomes, as well as math and reading scores and school attendance. Multilevel analyses suggested that for students at risk for behavior problems, immediate-intervention schools outperformed control schools on parent-reported negative school contacts for students at risk for behavior problems. Implementation, however, was hampered by several challenges, including school funding cuts, lack of staff time to provide parenting supports, and staff turnover. Given that preventive interventions are generally cost effective, it is critical that researchers continue their efforts to refine these interventions and find ways to support schools' implementation of evidence-based programs that can reduce problem behavior. This article is part of a special issue "Parental Engagement in School-Based Interventions". Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...... development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...

  5. Verbal Bullying Changes Among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-11-01

    Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among grade 10 students in 16 urban and rural schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2013. Baseline and postintervention questionnaires, developed using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change theoretical model, were used to assess changes in verbal bullying. Postintervention there were reduced verbal bullying experiences. Improved social norms and awareness of verbal bullying were associated with reduced verbal bullying experiences and behavior. Although less likely to bully others verbally, girls were more likely to experience verbal bullying. Students with no living father were more likely to bully others verbally. The study findings indicate that a school-based intervention can positively impact on verbal bullying experiences and behavior. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  6. Determining intervention thresholds that change output behavior patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a semi-automated method that can calculate intervention thresholds—that is, the minimum required intervention sizes, over a given time frame, that result in a desired change in a system’s output behavior pattern. The method exploits key differences in atomic behavior profiles that

  7. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...

  8. Associations between positive parenting practices and child externalizing behavior in underserved Latino immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  9. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943

  11. Parent Inclusion in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: The Influence of Parental Stress, Parent Treatment Fidelity and Parent-Mediated Generalization of Behavior Targets on Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kristin; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Fava, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Although early intensive behavior interventions have been efficient in producing positive behavior outcome in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, there is a considerable variety in the children's progress. Research has suggested that parental and treatment factors are likely to affect children's response to treatment. The purpose of the…

  12. Prevention options for positives: the effects of a health communication intervention for men who have sex with men living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Randall, Liisa M; Peterson, Mark; Peterson, Amy; Klein, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    This article reports the results of a small-scale quasi-experiment that tested the efficacy of the Prevention Options for Positives intervention. The experiment tested for the outcomes of group sessions combined with individual-level counseling (ILC) versus ILC-only for men who have sex with men who are HIV positive. Both arms of the intervention were based on behavior change theory and dealt specifically with communication outcomes. The results indicate that the group- and individual-level interventions combined have a greater impact on risk communication behaviors with main partners than did the ILC-only sessions. group-session/ILC participants were more likely to decide not to have sex if they were drunk or high, and more likely to tell their partner and ask their partner about HIV status than were participants in the ILC groups. Knowledge about HIV was relatively high, and there was little change across groups. The Prevention Options for Positives intervention influenced the relative importance of various referent groups, but normative beliefs were not affected. The implications of these findings for communication practice and research with HIV-positive men who have sex with men are addressed.

  13. The Effects of "Positive Action" on Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Competence and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Duncan, Robert J.; Korucu, Irem; Napoli, Amy R.

    2018-01-01

    Children from low-income families are at greater risk for poor social-emotional development and physical health and may be in need of intervention. This study examined the extent to which the "Positive Action" ("PA") preschool lessons improved low-income children's social-emotional competence and health behaviors. Mixed…

  14. Exploring positive hospital ward soundscape interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, J; Jennings, P; Cain, R

    2014-11-01

    Sound is often considered as a negative aspect of an environment that needs mitigating, particularly in hospitals. It is worthwhile however, to consider how subjective responses to hospital sounds can be made more positive. The authors identified natural sound, steady state sound and written sound source information as having the potential to do this. Listening evaluations were conducted with 24 participants who rated their emotional (Relaxation) and cognitive (Interest and Understanding) response to a variety of hospital ward soundscape clips across these three interventions. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the 'Relaxation' response was significantly affected (n(2) = 0.05, p = 0.001) by the interventions with natural sound producing a 10.1% more positive response. Most interestingly, written sound source information produced a 4.7% positive change in response. The authors conclude that exploring different ways to improve the sounds of a hospital offers subjective benefits that move beyond sound level reduction. This is an area for future work to focus upon in an effort to achieve more positively experienced hospital soundscapes and environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program: A Positive Psychology Intervention With Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kim H; Hall, Brittany; Hurst, Mark A; Bikos, Lynette H

    2015-08-01

    Two groups of male inmates (n = 31, n = 31) participated in the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program (PRCP). This positive psychology intervention focused on teaching offenders skills that facilitate re-entry into the community. Offenders participated in weekly lectures, discussions, and homework assignments focused on positive psychology principles. The two groups differed in duration of treatment (8 weeks and 12 weeks). Participants completed pre- and post-intervention measures of gratitude, hope, and life satisfaction. Using a 2 × 2 mixed design ANOVA, we hypothesized that the intervention (with two between-subjects levels of 8 and 12 weeks) and duration (with two repeated measures levels of pre and post) of treatment would moderate pre- to post-intervention change. Results indicated significant differences on pre- and post-intervention scores for both groups of offenders on all measures. The analysis did not yield statistically significant differences between groups, demonstrating no additive benefits from the inclusion of four additional sessions, thus saving time and money for correctional programming and funding. This research supports the use of positive psychology in prison interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Advancing Models and Theories for Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Michie, Susan; Pavel, Misha; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Jimison, Holly B; Garnett, Claire; Parral, Skye; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-11-01

    To be suitable for informing digital behavior change interventions, theories and models of behavior change need to capture individual variation and changes over time. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations for development of models and theories that are informed by, and can inform, digital behavior change interventions based on discussions by international experts, including behavioral, computer, and health scientists and engineers. The proposed framework stipulates the use of a state-space representation to define when, where, for whom, and in what state for that person, an intervention will produce a targeted effect. The "state" is that of the individual based on multiple variables that define the "space" when a mechanism of action may produce the effect. A state-space representation can be used to help guide theorizing and identify crossdisciplinary methodologic strategies for improving measurement, experimental design, and analysis that can feasibly match the complexity of real-world behavior change via digital behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: interventions for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kirk, Shelley; Ritchie, Lorrene; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2013-10-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity require systems-level approaches that include the skills of registered dietitians, as well as consistent and integrated messages and environmental support across all sectors of society to achieve sustained dietary and physical-activity behavior change. This position paper provides guidance and recommendations for levels of intervention targeting overweight and obesity prevention and treatment from preschool age through adolescence. Methods included a review of the literature from 2009 to April 2012, including the Academy's 2009 evidence analysis school-based reviews. Multicomponent interventions show the greatest impact for primary prevention; thus, early childhood and school-based interventions should integrate behavioral and environmental approaches that focus on dietary intake and physical activity using a systems-level approach targeting the multilevel structure of the socioecological model as well as interactions and relationships between levels. Secondary prevention and tertiary prevention/treatment should emphasize sustained family-based, developmentally appropriate approaches that include nutrition education, dietary counseling, parenting skills, behavioral strategies, and physical-activity promotion. For obese youth with concomitant serious comorbidities, structured dietary approaches and pharmacologic agents should be considered, and weight-loss surgery can be considered for severely obese adolescents. Policy and environmental interventions are recommended as feasible and sustainable ways to support healthful lifestyles for children and families. The Academy supports commitment of resources for interventions, policies, and research that promote healthful eating and physical-activity behaviors to ensure that all youth have the opportunity to achieve and maintain a weight that is optimal for health. Copyright © 2013 Academy of

  18. Pilot trial of a parenting and self-care intervention for HIV-positive mothers: the IMAGE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A; Armistead, Lisa; Payne, Diana L; Marelich, William D; Herbeck, Diane M

    2017-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the effects of the IMAGE pilot intervention (Improving Mothers' parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) on mothers living with HIV (MLH). Based on Fisher and Fisher's IMB model [1992. Changing AIDS risk behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 455-474], the intervention focused on self-care and parenting behavior skills of MLH that affect maternal, child, and family outcomes. A randomized pre-test-post-test two-group design with repeated assessments was used. MLH (n = 62) and their children aged 6-14 (n = 62; total N = 124) were recruited for the trial and randomized to the theory-based skills training condition or a standard care control condition. Assessments were conducted at baseline with follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Maternal, child, and family outcomes were assessed. Results show significant effects of the intervention for improving parenting practices for mothers. The intervention also improved family outcomes, and showed improvements in the parent-child relationship. IMAGE had a positive impact on parenting behaviors, and on maternal, child, and family outcomes. Given MLH can be challenged by their illness and also live in under-resourced environments, IMAGE may be viewed as a viable way to improve quality of life and family outcomes.

  19. Behavioral Intervention for Problem Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Carr, Edward G.; Durand, V. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Parents and professionals typically report problem behavior as a significant concern for children with fragile X syndrome. In the present study, the authors explored whether behaviorally based interventions would result in a reduction in problem behavior and an improvement in quality of life for 3 children with fragile X syndrome and their…

  20. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations.

  1. The efficacy of Motivational Intervention and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Caballero, Anna; Torrens-Lluch, Marina; Ramírez-Gendrau, Isabel; Garrido, Gemma; Vallès, Vicenç; Aragay, Núria

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the current study is to determine the effectiveness of an individual psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of pathological gambling. A sample of 18 participants, diagnosed of pathological gambling and without any other associated comorbidity, were assessed, attended at the publicly-funded Gambling and Behavioral Addictions Unit (Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa). Median age was 46 years (SD = 12). All the patients achieved abstinence and completed follow-up. The Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction (Q-LES-Q), Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P), Sheehan Disability Inventory (SDI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered pre- and posttreatment. Results showed that patients significantly reduced the problems related to gambling behavior according to the NODS score (p < .000). Regarding impulsive behavior (UPPS-P), we found significant differences in negative urgency (p < .001), positive urgency (p < .001), (lack of) premeditation (p < .029) and (lack of) perseverance (p < .048). Some relevant aspects of quality of life as assessed by the Q-LES-Q had improved. In conclusion, the study shows that psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy not only significantly reduces gambling-related behavior problems but also leads to improvements in impulsivity and quality of life. .

  2. Group intervention: A way to improve working teams' positive psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Bo; Gustafsson, John-Anders; Björkdahl, Ann; Möller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological capital is reported to have positive effects on people's well-being and attitudes to their working lives. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to increase the level of positive psychological capital by two group intervention programs. The research design was a controlled study with 2 × 2 experimental groups and two control groups. Two of the experimental groups received intervention I (IG I), the other two experimental groups received intervention II (IG II). Assessments were made before and after the intervention programs, with a follow-up at six months post-intervention. Instruments measuring the fundamentals of psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, as well as health and job satisfaction were used. The results show that it is possible to increase the level of positive emotions, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of members of a working team by using group intervention methods. The positive changes observed at the end of the program remained six months after the intervention, with the exception of job satisfaction in IG II. It seems that the intervention had a greater influence on those persons who at the start of the study reported a low level of self-enhancement. The results were more pronounced in intervention group I where reinforcement of the resources and positive aspects of the work place environment were provided. A 10-week group intervention program that focused on learned optimism proved to be successful in increasing levels of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. While improvement was maintained six months post-intervention the small sample size and the attrition rate are limitations. Results are promising and further research is warranted.

  3. Neurological function, information-motivation-behavioral skills factors, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Robert M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Lerner, Brenda G; Attonito, Jennifer; Villalba, Karina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neurological impairment in combination with information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) variables. The study tests the role of IMB variables as mediators of antecedent variables of demographics, life stress, social support, and neurological impairment with outcome measures of HIV preventive and risk behaviors in a sample of HIV-positive, alcohol-using adults (n = 250) with a history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Neurological impairment was measured with the Color Trails Test (CTT). Average performance on the CTT by the sample was substantially worse than established norms. In a directional latent variable model, neurological impairment directly predicted lower transmission knowledge scores and poorer performance on an observational condom skills assessment. Greater neurological impairment was significantly associated with greater age. Future interventions geared toward HIV+ adults who use alcohol should take into consideration HIV-related and age-related neurological functioning which may impede the facilitation of safe sex behaviors.

  4. Behavioral interventions for adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampson, S. E.; Skinner, T. C.; Hart, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for adolescents with type 1 diabetes based on a systematic review of the literature. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The literature was identified by searching 11 electronic databases, hand-searching 3 journals from their start...... dates, and contacting individual researchers. Only articles that reported evaluations of behavioral (including educational and psychosocial) interventions for adolescents (age range 9-21 years) with type 1 diabetes that included a control group were included in the present review. Data summarizing...... were RCTs. Effect sizes could be calculated for 18 interventions. The overall mean effect size calculated across all outcomes was 0.33 (median 0.21), indicating that these interventions have a small- to medium-sized beneficial effect on diabetes management. Interventions that were theoretically based...

  5. Setting Priorities in Behavioral Interventions: An Application to Reducing Phishing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Casey Inez; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2018-04-01

    Phishing risk is a growing area of concern for corporations, governments, and individuals. Given the evidence that users vary widely in their vulnerability to phishing attacks, we demonstrate an approach for assessing the benefits and costs of interventions that target the most vulnerable users. Our approach uses Monte Carlo simulation to (1) identify which users were most vulnerable, in signal detection theory terms; (2) assess the proportion of system-level risk attributable to the most vulnerable users; (3) estimate the monetary benefit and cost of behavioral interventions targeting different vulnerability levels; and (4) evaluate the sensitivity of these results to whether the attacks involve random or spear phishing. Using parameter estimates from previous research, we find that the most vulnerable users were less cautious and less able to distinguish between phishing and legitimate emails (positive response bias and low sensitivity, in signal detection theory terms). They also accounted for a large share of phishing risk for both random and spear phishing attacks. Under these conditions, our analysis estimates much greater net benefit for behavioral interventions that target these vulnerable users. Within the range of the model's assumptions, there was generally net benefit even for the least vulnerable users. However, the differences in the return on investment for interventions with users with different degrees of vulnerability indicate the importance of measuring that performance, and letting it guide interventions. This study suggests that interventions to reduce response bias, rather than to increase sensitivity, have greater net benefit. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. The Association between Positive Parenting and Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Dilalla, Lisabeth F; Mullineaux, Paula Y; Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Corley, Robin P; Young, Susan E; Hewitt, John K

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children's genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children's externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences.

  7. Enhancing reporting of behavior change intervention evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, C.; Johnson, B.T.; de Bruin, M.; Luszczynska, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many behavior change interventions for the prevention and treatment of HIV have been evaluated, but suboptimal reporting of evaluations hinders the accumulation of evidence and the replication of interventions. In this article, we address 4 practices contributing to this problem. First, detailed

  8. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is

  9. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  10. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, L.; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, G.J.; Riper, H.; Smit, H.F.E.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  11. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-04-01

    Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  12. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  13. The Good Behavior Game: A Classroom-Behavior Intervention Effective across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Julene D.; Houlihan, Daniel; Wanzek, Megan; Jenson, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Few classroom behavioral interventions have been thoroughly studied using culturally and linguistically diverse populations, international student populations, or those from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Yet, having such tools for school psychologists and teachers is critical for behavior management in the classroom. One important exception…

  14. Functional Communication Training: A Contemporary Behavior Analytic Intervention for Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Merges, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    This article describes functional communication training (FCT) with students who have autism. FCT involves teaching alternative communication strategies to replace problem behaviors. The article reviews the conditions under which this intervention is successful and compares the method with other behavioral approaches. It concludes that functional…

  15. Pairing attachment theory and social learning theory in video-feedback intervention to promote positive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2017-06-01

    Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) is a social-learning and attachment-based intervention using video feedback to support sensitive parenting and at the same time setting firm limits. Empirical studies and meta-analyses have shown that sensitive parenting is the key determinant to promote secure child-parent attachment relationships and that adequate parental discipline contributes to fewer behavior problems in children. Building on this evidence, VIPP-SD has been tested in various populations of at-risk parents and vulnerable children (in the age range of zero to six years), as well as in the context of child care. In twelve randomized controlled trials including 1116 parents and caregivers, VIPP-SD proved to be effective in promoting sensitive caregiving, while positive social-emotional child outcomes were also found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applied behavior analysis programs for autism: sibling psychosocial adjustment during and following intervention use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither significant drawbacks nor benefits in terms of their behavioral adjustment, sibling relationship quality and self-concept compared to control group siblings, either during or following intervention use. Parents and siblings perceived improvements in sibling interaction since the outset of ABA, with parents somewhat more positive in their views than were siblings. Social support was associated with better sibling outcomes in all groups. Implications for supporting families using ABA are considered.

  17. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J.; McGee, Gail G.; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P.; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-01-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions…

  18. Cognitive-behavioral Intervention for Older Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René García Roche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: aging-associated diseases contribute to morbidity and mortality in the population; therefore, it is necessary to develop intervention strategies to prevent and/or minimize their consequences. Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at older hypertensive patients treated in primary care in Cardenas and Santiago de Cuba municipalities during 2011-2013. Methods: an intervention study of older adults with hypertension was conducted in two municipalities: Santiago de Cuba and Cárdenas. The intervention group was composed of 399 older patients living in the catchment areas of the Carlos Juan Finlay and Héroes del Moncada polyclinics while the control group included 377 older adults served by the Julian Grimau and Jose Antonio Echeverría polyclinics. The intervention consisted of a systematic strategy to increase knowledge of the disease in order to change lifestyles. Results: in the intervention group, there were more patients with sufficient knowledge of the disease (OR: 1.82, greater control of hypertension (OR: 1.51 and better adherence to treatment (OR: 1.70. By modeling the explanatory variables with hypertension control, being in the intervention group (OR: 0.695 and adhering to treatment (OR: 0.543 were found to be health protective factors. Conclusion: the congnitive-behavioral intervention for older adults treated in primary care of the municipalities studied was effective in improving blood pressure control since it contributed to a greater adherence to treatment.

  19. Effects of a Community-Based HIV Risk Reduction Intervention Among HIV-Positive Individuals: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Krishna C; Buchanan, David R; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention utilizing protection motivation and social cognitive theories to address knowledge, threat and coping appraisals, and condom use intentions among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Using a quasi-experimental research design, we assigned 277 participants to intervention (n=146) and control (n=131) groups. The intervention group received six sessions on sexual risk reduction strategies and the control group six sessions on medication adherence, smoking, and mental health. Data were collected at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Results indicate that the sexual risk reduction intervention produced a significant increase in HIV transmission knowledge, perceived threat and coping appraisals, and intentions to use condoms with regular, HIV-positive, and HIV-negative partners. The positive effects of the intervention remained significant after adjusting for baseline scores and other potential confounders. In conclusion, our theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention was effective in improving HIV transmission knowledge, perceived threat and coping appraisals, and condom use intentions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the intervention in increasing protection motivation and maintaining preventive behaviors.

  20. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I.; Speetjens, P.; Smit, F.; de Wolff, M.; Tavecchio, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of

  1. Positive psychology interventions in golf: Mindfulness versus positive self-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: There was a significant multivariate effect of Time on putting test scores, F(1, 21 = 13.9, p = .001, Ƞ2 = .399. Specifically, a mean increase of 1.4 out of 10 putts over the 4-week intervention period was found, but no univariate effect of Time on distance (cm from the hole for putts missed. There was no Group or Time by Group interaction effect for either putting test variable. Furthermore, groups did not differ at baseline or post-intervention on reported handicap, KIMS, technique adherence, or rounds of golf played. Conclusions: These preliminary findings fail to support previously reported findings that mindfulness or positive self-talk have short-term effects on putting accuracy. To maximise access, the current study used a self-guided intervention, which may have accounted for the lack of improvement that may occur with one-on-one coaching.

  2. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  3. Weight Loss Maintenance in African American Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  4. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.

  5. Promoting positive outcomes through strengths interventions : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghielen, S.T.S.; van Woerkom, M.; Meyers, M.C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of strengths interventions published between 2011 and 2016. Strengths interventions aim to promote well-being or other positive outcomes by facilitating strengths identification, and sometimes also strengths use and/or development. The present review provides an overview

  6. An Internet-Based Intervention (Condom-Him) to Increase Condom Use Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Joyal; Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Blais, Martin; Otis, Joanne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Fadel, Ghayas; Barton, Luisa; Fowler, Shawn

    2013-10-16

    In the recent years, the Internet has been used as a medium to find sexual partners and engage in risky sexual behavior. This has changed the way in which men having have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual partners and has increased the number of high-risk sexual encounters. Therefore, developers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-prevention interventions have also started using the Internet as a viable medium to promote safe sexual behaviors. However, much of the efforts thus far have been aimed at HIV-negative rather than HIV-positive MSM. HIV-positive individuals continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors and thus constitute an important group in which HIV prevention strategies need to be addressed. Therefore, HIV prevention in HIV-positive MSM is a critical issue. Condom-Him, an Internet-based intervention tailored to increase condom use among HIV-positive MSM, was developed with the aim of improving condom use, self-efficacy, and intentions to use condoms among these individuals. The acceptability and feasibility of this Internet-based intervention will be examined in a pilot study. We will perform a randomized controlled parallel-group superiority trial. HIV-positive MSM who currently engage in unprotected anal sex will be recruited for the study. Participants will be randomly assigned using a one-to-one allocation ratio generated by the computer program. The researchers will be blinded to participant's group assignment. Participants will be assigned either to use the Condom-Him intervention (experimental arm) or to view a list of websites containing HIV/AIDS related information (control arm). Self-administered questionnaires will be provided online before randomization (baseline) and two weeks after intervention (post-test). The study will include a total of 60 participants with 30 in each group. The results from this pilot study will provide further evidence for a larger study to examine the effectiveness of this intervention and will provide a cost

  7. A Pilot Intervention Designed to Address Behavioral Factors That Place Overweight/Obese Young Children at Risk for Later-Life Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leigh; Thacker, Leroy; Aldrich, Heather; Bonds-McClain, Darya; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to intervene with parents of overweight/obese 4- to 8-year-old children to improve child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent-child dyads ( N = 60) were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Parents attended four intervention sessions at their child's primary health care office over 3 months. Child behaviors were assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Parental beliefs in their skills/abilities increased in the experimental group parents, but there was no statistical difference between groups at any time. Child externalizing behaviors significantly decreased from baseline to postintervention for both groups ( F = 3.26, p = .020). Post hoc model testing suggests that this change was more pronounced in the intervention group ( F = 0.56, p = .692). Child somatic symptoms significantly decreased over time ( F = 4.55, p = .004), and there were group differences in child depressive behaviors ( F = 6.19, p = .020). These findings suggest that a parent-focused intervention program demonstrated positive preliminary effects on children's behaviors.

  8. Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne Ba; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child interaction and reducing the child's individual Autism Spectrum Disorder-related symptomatology in five home visits. VIPP-AUTI, as compared with usual care, demonstrated efficacy in reducing parental intrusiveness. Moreover, parents who received VIPP-AUTI showed increased feelings of self-efficacy in child rearing. No significant group differences were found on other aspects of parent-child interaction or on child play behavior. At 3-months follow-up, intervention effects were found on child-initiated joint attention skills, not mediated by intervention effects on parenting. Implementation of VIPP-AUTI in clinical practice is facilitated by the use of a detailed manual and a relatively brief training of interveners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The Association between Positive Parenting and Externalizing Behavior1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Schulz-Heik, R. Jay; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Hewitt, John. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children’s externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences. PMID:22577341

  10. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a…

  11. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; John, Nicholas H. St.

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  12. Systematic review of behavioral and educational interventions to prevent pressure ulcers in adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Alison M; Blanchard, Jeanine; Garber, Susan L; Vigen, Cheryl Lp; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence A

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcers in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cochrane, Clinical Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched in June 2016. The search combined related terms for pressure ulcers, spinal cord injury, and behavioral intervention. Each database was searched from its inception with no restrictions on year of publication. Inclusion criteria required that articles were (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, (b) evaluated a behavioral or educational intervention for pressure ulcer prevention, (c) included community-dwelling adult participants aged 18 years and older with SCI, (d) measured pressure ulcer occurrence, recurrence, or skin breakdown as an outcome, and (e) had a minimum of 10 participants. All study designs were considered. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Extracted information included study design, sample size, description of the intervention and control condition, pressure ulcer outcome measures, and corresponding results. The search strategy yielded 444 unique articles of which five met inclusion criteria. Three were randomized trials and two were quasi-experimental designs. A total of 513 participants were represented. The method of pressure ulcer or skin breakdown measurement varied widely among studies. Results on pressure ulcer outcomes were null in all studies. Considerable methodological problems with recruitment, intervention fidelity, and participant adherence were reported. At present, there is no positive evidence to support the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcer occurrence in adults with SCI.

  13. Intervention Strategies Based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sun Ju; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Song, Misoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically reviewed research on behavioral interventions based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to investigate specific intervention strategies that focus on information, motivation, and behavioral skills and to evaluate their effectiveness for people with chronic diseases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of both the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and Im and Chang. A lit...

  14. Preventing Sexual Violence Through Bystander Intervention: Attitudes, Behaviors, Missed Opportunities, and Barriers to Intervention Among Australian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Rachel; Cale, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities. Promisingly, students reported high levels of intentions to intervene in situations where there was a risk of sexual violence and reported relatively few missed opportunities to do so when these situations did occur. Intervention behaviors varied by important demographic characteristics such as gender, age, attitudes toward sexual violence, and the nature of the situation. Younger female students, with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, who had previously engaged in bystander intervention behaviors were more likely to report intentions to intervene in future risky situations, and female international students reported fewer missed opportunities for intervention. The most common barrier to intervention for identified missed opportunities was a failure to recognize situations as having a potential risk for sexual violence, and students were most likely to intervene in situations when the opportunity to help a friend in distress arose. This study provides some preliminary empirical evidence about bystander intervention against sexual violence among Australian university students, and identifies unique contexts for intervention and what current barriers to intervention may be.

  15. A Review of Hip Hop-Based Interventions for Health Literacy, Health Behaviors, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia

    2017-07-01

    African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.

  16. Intervention induced changes on parenting practices, youth self-pride and sexual norms to reduce HIV-related behaviors among rural African American youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-Fu; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-09-01

    AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early preventive intervention to reduce HIV-related risk behavior. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program, a preventive intervention for rural African American parents and their 11-year-olds, was specially designed to deter early sexual onset and the initiation and escalation of alcohol and drug use among rural African American preadolescents. A clustered-randomized prevention trial was conducted, contrasting families who took part in SAAF with control families. The trial, which included 332 families, indicated that intervention-induced changes occurred in intervention-targeted parenting, which in turn facilitated changes in youths' internal protective processes and positive sexual norms. Long-term follow up assessments when youth were 17 years old revealed that intervention-induced changes in parenting practices mediated the effect of intervention-group influences on changes in the onset and escalation of risky sexual behaviors over 65 months through its positive influence on adolescents' self-pride and their sexual norms. The findings underscore the powerful effects of parenting practices among rural African American families that over time serve a protective role in reducing youth's risk behavior, including HIV vulnerable behaviors.

  17. Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

  18. Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans: Legal Requirements and Professional Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren W.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) are critical components in the education of students with, or at risk for, emotional disturbance (ED). The purpose of this article is to compare the legal requirements with the professional requirements for FBAs and BIPs. The comparison is first according to the…

  19. Longitudinal Relations among Positivity, Perceived Positive School Climate, and Prosocial Behavior in Colombian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thartori, Eriona; Pastorelli, Concetta; Uribe Tirado, Liliana M.; Gerbino, Maria; Caprara, Gian V.

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional relations among adolescents' positivity, perceived positive school climate, and prosocial behavior were examined in Colombian youth. Also, the role of a positive school climate in mediating the relation of positivity to prosocial behaviors was tested. Adolescents (N = 151; M[subscript age] of child in Wave 1 = 12.68, SD = 1.06; 58.9%…

  20. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  1. Do Sexual Assault Bystander Interventions Change Men's Intentions? Applying the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predicting Bystander Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Amanda; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses has led to the implementation of health communication programs to prevent sexual assault. A few novel programs focus on primary prevention by targeting social norms related to gender and masculinity among men through bystander intervention. Guided by the theory of normative social behavior, this study sought to examine the relative effect of campaigns communicating positive versus negative injunctive norms and the interaction between exposure to such campaign messages and perceived descriptive norms and relevant cognitive moderators (e.g., outcome expectations, injunctive norms, group identity, ego involvement) among men. A 2 (high/low descriptive norms) × 2 (high/low moderator) × 3 (public service announcement) independent groups quasi-experimental design (N = 332) was used. Results indicated that messages communicating positive injunctive norms were most effective among men who were least likely to engage in bystander intervention. Furthermore, descriptive norms played a significant role in behavioral intentions, such that those with stronger norms were more likely to report intentions to engage in bystander behaviors in the future. Similarly, the moderators of aspiration, injunctive norms, social approval, and ego involvement had a significant positive effect on behavioral intentions. These findings have important implications for future message design strategy and audience segmentation.

  2. Evidence-based behavioral interventions to promote diabetes management in children, adolescents, and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Powell, Priscilla W; Anderson, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    As members of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, psychologists are well-suited to support self-management among youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their families. Psychological and behavioral interventions can promote adherence to the complex and demanding diabetes care regimen, with the goals of promoting high quality of life, achieving optimal glycemic control, and ultimately preventing disease-related complications. This article reviews well-researched contemporary behavioral interventions to promote optimal diabetes family- and self-management and health outcomes in youth with T1D, in the context of key behavioral theories. The article summarizes the evidence base for established diabetes skills training programs, family interventions, and multisystemic interventions, and introduces emerging evidence for technology and mobile health interventions and health care delivery system interventions. Next steps in behavioral T1D intervention research include tailoring interventions to meet individuals' and families' unique needs and strengths, and systematically evaluating cost-effectiveness to advocate for dissemination of well-developed interventions. Although in its infancy, this article reviews observational and intervention research for youth with T2D and their families and discusses lessons for future research with this population. Interventions for youth with T2D will need to incorporate family members, consider cultural and family issues related to health behaviors, and take into account competing priorities for resources. As psychologists and behavioral scientists, we must advocate for the integration of behavioral health into routine pediatric diabetes care in order to effectively promote meaningful change in the behavioral and medical well-being of youth and families living with T1D and T2D. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacologic Interventions for Children's Distress during Painful Medical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Susan M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…

  4. Harsh parenting, child behavior problems, and the dynamic coupling of parents' and children's positive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika; Ram, Nilam; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Yin, Peifeng

    2017-09-01

    We examined self-reported maternal and paternal harsh parenting (HP) and its effect on the moment-to-moment dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's positive, autonomous behavior. This positive behavior coupling was measured via hidden Markov models as the likelihood of transitions into specific positive dyadic states in real time. We also examined whether positive behavior coupling, in turn, predicted later HP and child behavior problems. Children (N = 96; age = 3.5 years at Time 1) and mothers completed structured clean-up and puzzle tasks in the laboratory. Mothers' and fathers' HP was associated with children's being less likely to respond positively to maternal autonomy support; mothers' HP was also associated with mothers' being less likely to respond positively to children's autonomous behavior. When mothers responded to children's autonomous behavior with greater autonomy support, children showed fewer externalizing and internalizing problems over time and mothers showed less HP over time. These results were unique to the dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's autonomous behavior: The overall amount of these positive behaviors did not similarly predict reduced problems. Findings suggest that HP in the family system compromises the coregulation of positive behavior between mother and child and that improving mothers' and children's abilities to respond optimally to one another's autonomy-supportive behaviors may reduce HP and child behavior problems over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Attitudinal, behavioral, and biological outcomes of a community popular opinion leader intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou

    2011-10-01

    The effects of a community popular opinion leader (CPOL) intervention were examined among market vendors in a city on the eastern coast of China. Employees of 40 food markets were enrolled in a study that provided HIV-related education and tests, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Twenty markets were randomly assigned to a CPOL intervention (N = 1,695) and 20 markets to a control condition (N = 1,616). Market employees in the intervention condition reported positive attitudes regarding STD/HIV prevention and more frequent discussions about safe sex than those in the control condition. Compared with baseline, the prevalence of unprotected sexual acts and new STDs were significantly lower within each study condition 24 months later. Although the CPOL intervention achieved its goal of shifting attitudes within food markets, the gains did not lead to the expected behavioral and biological outcomes.

  6. Interactive "Video Doctor" counseling reduces drug and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive patients in diverse outpatient settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gilbert

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide "prevention with positives" in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based assessment and counseling for risky behaviors.We conducted a parallel groups randomized controlled trial (December 2003-September 2006 at 5 San Francisco area outpatient HIV clinics. Eligible patients (HIV-positive English-speaking adults completed an in-depth computerized risk assessment. Participants reporting substance use or sexual risks (n = 476 were randomized in stratified blocks. The intervention group received tailored risk-reduction counseling from a "Video Doctor" via laptop computer and a printed Educational Worksheet; providers received a Cueing Sheet on reported risks. Compared with control, fewer intervention participants reported continuing illicit drug use (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.689, 0.957, p = 0.014 at 3 months; and RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.540, 0.785, p<0.001 at 6 months and unprotected sex (RR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.773, 0.993, p = 0.039 at 3 months; and RR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.686, 0.941, p = 0.007 at 6 months. Intervention participants reported fewer mean days of ongoing illicit drug use (-4.0 days vs. -1.3 days, p = 0.346, at 3 months; and -4.7 days vs. -0.7 days, p = 0.130, at 6 months than did controls, and had fewer casual sex partners at (-2.3 vs. -1.4, p = 0.461, at 3 months; and -2.7 vs. -0.6, p = 0.042, at 6 months.The Positive Choice intervention achieved significant cessation of illicit drug use and unprotected sex at the group-level, and modest individual-level reductions in days of ongoing drug use and number of casual sex partners compared with the

  7. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioret Sandrine

    2012-08-01

    supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal dietary intakes positively. Further research needs to assess ways in which we might further enhance those lifestyle behaviors not impacted by the InFANT intervention.

  8. Meta-analyses on behavioral interventions to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-06-01

    Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.

  9. Developing a Behavioral Model for Mobile Phone-Based Diabetes Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nundy, Shantanu; Dick, Jonathan J.; Solomon, Marla C.; Peek, Monica E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Behavioral models for mobile phone-based diabetes interventions are lacking. This study explores the potential mechanisms by which a text message-based diabetes program affected self-management among African-Americans. Methods We conducted in-depth, individual interviews among 18 African-American patients with type 2 diabetes who completed a 4-week text message-based diabetes program. Each interview was audio- taped, transcribed verbatim, and imported into Atlas.ti software. Coding was done iteratively. Emergent themes were mapped onto existing behavioral constructs and then used to develop a novel behavioral model for mobile phone-based diabetes self-management programs. Results The effects of the text message-based program went beyond automated reminders. The constant, daily communications reduced denial of diabetes and reinforced the importance of self-management (Rosenstock Health Belief Model). Responding positively to questions about self-management increased mastery experience (Bandura Self-Efficacy). Most surprisingly, participants perceived the automated program as a “friend” and “support group” that monitored and supported their self-management behaviors (Barrera Social Support). Conclusions A mobile phone-based diabetes program affected self-management through multiple behavioral constructs including health beliefs, self-efficacy, and social support. Practice implications: Disease management programs that utilize mobile technologies should be designed to leverage existing models of behavior change and can address barriers to self-management associated with health disparities. PMID:23063349

  10. Can theoretical intervention improve hand hygiene behavior among nurses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghaei R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rahim Baghaei,1 Elham Sharifian,1 Aziz Kamran2 1Inpatient Safety Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 2Public Health Department, Khalkhal Faculty of Medical Sciences, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IranBackground: Hand washing is the best strategy to prevent known nosocomial infections but the nurses' hand hygiene is estimated to be poor in Iran.Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of BASNEF (Behavior, Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Enabling Factors model on hand hygiene adherence education.Methods: This controlled quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 hemodialysis unit nurses (35 case and 35 control in the health and educational centers of the University of Medical Sciences of Urmia, Iran. To collect the data, a six-part validated and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS version18, using Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. The significance level was considered P<0.05.Results: The mean age was 38.4±8.1 years for the intervention group and 40.2±8.0 years for the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups for any demographic variables. Also, before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups for any components of the BASNEF model. Post-intervention, the attitude, subjective norms, enabling factors, and intention improved significantly in the intervention group (P<0.001, but hand hygiene behavior did not show any significant change in the intervention group (P=0.16.Conclusion: Despite the improving attitudes and intention, the intervention had no significant effect on hand hygiene behavior among the studied nurses.Keywords: hand hygiene, adherence, education nurse, behavior

  11. Developing Interventions to Change Recycling Behaviors: A Case Study of Applying Behavioral Science

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    Gainforth, Heather L.; Sheals, Kate; Atkins, Lou; Jackson, Richard; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and the Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) are frameworks that can be used to develop recycling interventions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of these frameworks for developing recycling interventions. 20 semistructured interviews with university building users were analyzed using the TDF and…

  12. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  13. Behavioral interventions for improving condom use for dual protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Otterness, Conrad; Chen, Mario; Steiner, Markus; Gallo, Maria F

    2013-10-26

    Unprotected sex is a major risk factor for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas of the world due to the prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. The male condom is one of the oldest contraceptive methods and the earliest method for preventing the spread of HIV. When used correctly and consistently, condoms can provide dual protection, i.e., against both pregnancy and HIV/STI. We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use. We were interested in identifying interventions associated with effective condom use as measured with biological assessments, which can provide objective evidence of protection. Through September 2013, we searched computerized databases for comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use: MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, OpenGrey, COPAC, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. We wrote to investigators for missing data. Studies could be either randomized or nonrandomized. They examined a behavioral intervention for improving condom use. The comparison could be another behavioral intervention, usual care, or no intervention. The experimental intervention had an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve condom use. It addressed preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The focus could be on male or female condoms and targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. Potential participants included heterosexual women and heterosexual men.Studies had to provide data from test results or records on a biological outcome: pregnancy, HIV/STI, or presence of semen as assessed with a biological marker, e.g., prostate-specific antigen. We did not include self-reported data on protected or unprotected sex, due to the limitations of recall and social desirability bias. Outcomes were measured at least three months after the behavioral intervention started. Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and

  14. An information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model-based intervention for CABG patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarani, Fariba; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Sarami, Gholamreza; Sadeghian, Saeed

    2012-12-01

    In order to benefit from a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, patients must adhere to medical recommendations and health advices. Despite the importance of adherence in CABG patients, adherence rates are disappointingly low. Despite the low adherence rates, very few articles regarding adherence-enhancing intervention among heart patients have been published. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model-based intervention on the IMB model constructs among patients undergoing CABG and to evaluate the relationship of information, motivation, and behavioral skills with adherence. A total of 152 CABG patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or to a standard care control group. Participants completed pretest measures and were reassessed 1 month later. Findings showed mixed support for the effectiveness of the intervention. There was a significant effect of IMB intervention on information and motivation of patients, but no significant effect on behavioral skills. Furthermore, the results revealed that intervention constructs (information, motivation, and behavioral skills) were significantly related to patients' adherence. Findings provided initial evidence for the effectiveness of IMB-based interventions on the IMB constructs and supported the importance of these constructs to improve adherence; however, there are additional factors that need to be identified in order to improve behavioral skills more effectively.

  15. Intervention Integrity in the Low Countries: Interventions Targeting Social-Emotional Behaviors in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Margot; Ekels, Elles; van der Valk, Cindel; van der Molen, Maurits

    2017-01-01

    The current study presents a review of intervention studies conducted in the Low Countries (i.e., The Netherlands and Flanders) focusing on social-emotional behaviors in the school. The primary purpose of this review was to assess whether studies included an operational definition of the intervention under study and reported data on the…

  16. Positive Psychology Interventions for Patients With Heart Disease: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Suarez, Laura; Asgari, Karim; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Abbas, Rezaei; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychologic characteristics have been linked to superior cardiac outcomes. Accordingly, in this exploratory study, we assessed positive psychology interventions in patients who had recently undergone a procedure to treat cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 different 6-week face-to-face interventions or a wait-list control condition. We assessed intervention feasibility and compared changes in psychologic outcome measures postintervention (7wk) and at follow-up (15wk) between intervention and control participants. Across the interventions, 74% of assigned sessions were completed. When comparing outcomes between interventions and control participants (N = 55 total), there were no between-group differences post-intervention, but at follow-up intervention participants had greater improvements in happiness (β = 14.43, 95% CI: 8.66-20.2, p psychology intervention for cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206

  18. AMPLITION IN THE WORKPLACE: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE WORKFORCE THROUGH INDIVIDUAL POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M. Le Blanc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Workforce sustainability is of vital utmost importance for the viability and competitive advantage of contemporary organizations. Therefore, and in parallel with the rise of positive organizational psychology, organizations have become increasingly interested in how to enhance their employees’ positive psychological well being. In this paper, amplition interventions – i.e. interventions aimed at enhancing positive work-related well being - are presented as a valuable tool to increase workforce sustainability. In the past decade, some work-related interventions focused on amplition have been developed and tested for their effectiveness. In this paper, we will first outline some important preconditions for successful interventions and briefly discuss the intervention process itself. Next, we will give an overview of empirical work on amplition interventions, focusing on interventions that are aimed at enhancing employee work engagement. Future research should focus on testing the effects of these type of interventions on outcomes at the team and organizational level.

  19. The Optimal Ordering Strategy of Outsourcing Procurement of Health Education and Behavior Intervention Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Fan; Sun, Xiao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Health communication and behavior intervention are main measures adopted in health education. Behavior intervention among these measures is the direct one to affect individual and group behaviors. Patients demand more than health information communication, but rely on health intervention service and related products. This essay starts from…

  20. Breast cancer survivors' beliefs and preferences regarding technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gillian R; Oza, Sonal; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Pellegrini, Christine A; Conroy, David E; Penedo, Frank J; Spring, Bonnie J; Phillips, Siobhan M

    2016-01-01

    Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors' interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors' interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Breast cancer survivors [n=279; M age =60.7 ( SD =9.7)] completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors' interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. On average, survivors spent 10.1 ( SD =4.3) hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0%) and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%). Survivors believed they should move around after 30-60 (56.7%) or ≥60 (29.9%) minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1%) or walking in place (73.4%). The majority of survivors (79.9%) was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3%) 2-3 times/day (48.0%), 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%). Most survivors (73.5%) believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5%) via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3%) or text messages (54.4%). Technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions may be feasible and

  1. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Spring

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  2. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  3. Behavioral, neurophysiological, and descriptive changes after occupation-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubik-Peplaski, Camille; Carrico, Cheryl; Nichols, Laurel; Chelette, Kenneth; Sawaki, Lumy

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of occupation-based intervention on poststroke upper-extremity (UE) motor recovery, neuroplastic change, and occupational performance in 1 research participant. A 55-yr-old man with chronic stroke and moderately impaired UE motor function participated in 15 sessions of occupation-based intervention in a hospital setting designed to simulate a home environment. We tested behavioral motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and neuroplasticity (transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) at baseline and at completion of intervention. We collected descriptive data on occupational participation throughout the study. All behavioral outcomes indicated clinically relevant improvement. TMS revealed bihemispheric corticomotor reorganization. Descriptive data revealed enhanced occupational performance. Occupation-based intervention delivered in a hospital-based, homelike environment can lead to poststroke neuroplastic change, increased functional use of the affected UE, and improved occupational performance. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Behavioral interventions for improving dual-method contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Stockton, Laurie L; Chen, Mario; Steiner, Markus J; Gallo, Maria F

    2014-03-30

    Dual-method contraception refers to using condoms as well as another modern method of contraception. The latter (usually non-barrier) method is commonly hormonal (e.g., oral contraceptives) or a non-hormonal intrauterine device. Use of two methods can better prevent pregnancy and the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to single-method use. Unprotected sex increases risk for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas due to the prevalence and incidence of HIV/STI. Millions of women, especially in lower-resource areas, also have an unmet need for protection against unintended pregnancy. We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving use of dual methods of contraception. Dual-method use refers to using condoms as well as another modern contraceptive method. Our intent was to identify effective interventions for preventing pregnancy as well as HIV/STI transmission. Through January 2014, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, COPAC, and Open Grey. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP for current trials and trials with relevant data or reports. We examined reference lists of pertinent papers, including review articles, for additional reports. Studies could be either randomized or non-randomized. They examined a behavioral intervention with an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve the use of dual methods, i.e., condoms and another modern contraceptive. The intervention had to address preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The program or service could be targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. The comparison condition could be another behavioral intervention to improve contraceptive use, usual care, other health education, or no intervention.Studies had to report use of dual methods, i.e., condoms plus another modern contraceptive method. We focused on the investigator's assessment of consistent dual-method use or use at

  5. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  6. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  7. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  8. Moving beyond a limited follow-up in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Christenhusz, Lieke C.A.; Seydel, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions typically use a dichotomous outcome criterion. However, achieving behavioral change is a complex process involving several steps towards a change in behavior. Delayed effects may occur after an intervention period ends, which can

  9. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  10. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin

    2013-04-30

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE+MI, and CE+MI+RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n=690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE+MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE+MI+RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting

  11. Functional Analysis of Precursors for Serious Problem Behavior and Related Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Nancy A.; Carr, Edward G.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2008-01-01

    Precursor behaviors are innocuous behaviors that reliably precede the occurrence of problem behavior. Intervention efforts applied to precursors might prevent the occurrence of severe problem behavior. We examined the relationship between precursor behavior and problem behavior in three individuals with developmental disabilities. First, a…

  12. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne inFANT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2012-08-28

    dietary intakes positively. Further research needs to assess ways in which we might further enhance those lifestyle behaviors not impacted by the InFANT intervention.

  13. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  14. From Positive Reinforcement to Positive Behaviors: An Everyday Guide for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Ellen A.; Aamidor, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    There are various opinions concerning the value of positive reinforcement when discussing modifying behaviors of young children. In some cases, individuals considered positive reinforcement difficult to implement and, in extreme cases, even felt it to be detrimental. Educators often use praise interchangeably with positive reinforcement when…

  15. Comparing strategies to assess multiple behavior change in behavioral intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bettina F; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Sapp, Amy L; Li, Yi; Harley, Amy E; Emmons, Karen M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-03-01

    Alternatives to individual behavior change methods have been proposed, however, little has been done to investigate how these methods compare. To explore four methods that quantify change in multiple risk behaviors targeting four common behaviors. We utilized data from two cluster-randomized, multiple behavior change trials conducted in two settings: small businesses and health centers. Methods used were: (1) summative; (2) z-score; (3) optimal linear combination; and (4) impact score. In the Small Business study, methods 2 and 3 revealed similar outcomes. However, physical activity did not contribute to method 3. In the Health Centers study, similar results were found with each of the methods. Multivitamin intake contributed significantly more to each of the summary measures than other behaviors. Selection of methods to assess multiple behavior change in intervention trials must consider study design, and the targeted population when determining the appropriate method/s to use.

  16. Automated dialogue generation for behavior intervention on mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Griffioen-Both, F.; Spruit, S.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Communication in the form of dialogues between a virtual coach and a human patient (coachee) is one of the pillars in an intervention app for smartphones. The virtual coach is considered as a cooperative partner that supports the individual with various exercises for a behavior intervention therapy.

  17. Effects of peer education intervention on HIV/AIDS related sexual behaviors of secondary school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-09-07

    intervention period compared to students of the control group [AOR = 4.73 (95% CI (1.40-16.0)]. Despite short follow up period, students in the intervention group demonstrated positive changes in HIV related comprehensive knowledge and showed better interest to go for HIV testing in the near future. Furthermore, positive changes on risky sexual behaviors were reported from the intervention group. Implementing secondary school targeted peer education by allocating appropriate amounts of resources (money, man power, materials and time) could play significant role to prevent and control HIV/AIDS among school youth.

  18. Intervention strategy to stimulate energy-saving behavior of local residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Q.; Nieuwenhijsen, I.; Vries, B. de; Blokhuis, E.; Schaefer, W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions

  19. The Effect of Educational Intervention on Promoting Healthy Eating Behaviors among Primary School Students in Kermanshah City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Ebrahimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutrition is important during childhood for growth and to help prevent infections and other diseases and educational interventions will be effective. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of educational intervention on promoting healthy eating behaviors among primary school students of Kermanshah City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 135 primary school students were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. Data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire before and after the intervention in the areas of knowledge, attitude, practice and demographic variables. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, and paired t test with the SPSS-13 software. Results: Results showed that after the educational intervention the mean scores of knowledge, attitudes and practice were increased significantly in the experimental group (P0.05. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the educational intervention was effective in creating positive changes in knowledge, attitude and especially behaviors of the students about healthy eating. According to the appropriate education in schools and low-cost and effective nutritional education, the need to extend this type of training programs seems necessary.

  20. Behavioral Interventions Targeting Chronic Pain, Depression, and Substance Use Disorder in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kathleen; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Patients with chronic pain, depression, and substance use disorder (SUD) are often treated in primary care settings. An estimated 52% of patients have a diagnosis of chronic pain, 5% to 13% have depression, and 19% have SUD. These estimates are likely low when considering the fact that 50% of primary care patients with depression and 65% with SUD are undiagnosed or do not seek help. These three conditions have overlapping neurophysiological processes, which complicate the treatment outcomes of a primary physical illness. Behavioral interventions have been widely utilized as adjunctive treatments, yet little is known about what types of behavioral interventions were effective to treat these comorbidities. This systematic review aimed to identify behavioral interventions targeting chronic pain, depression, and SUD in primary care settings. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, using a behavioral intervention, involving adults with at least two of the three conditions. This search yielded 1,862 relevant records, and six articles met final selection criteria. A total of 696 participants were studied. Behavioral interventions varied in content, format, and duration. Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Interpersonal Psychotherapy adapted for pain (IPT-P), and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) showed promising improvements across all studies, albeit with small to moderate effects. MORE, ACT, and CBT combined with mindfulness and Motivational Interviewing had the most promising results for treating chronic pain, depression, and SUD in various combinations in primary care settings. The evidence is mounting that behavioral interventions such as mindfulness-based or cognitive-behavioral interventions are effective strategies for managing patients with comorbidities of chronic pain, depression

  1. MAP-IT: A Practical Tool for Planning Complex Behavior Modification Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sylvia; Kanning, Martina; Lauer, Romy; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Health research often aims to prevent noncommunicable diseases and to improve individual and public health by discovering intervention strategies that are effective in changing behavior and/or environments that are detrimental to one's health. Ideally, findings from original research support practitioners in planning and implementing effective interventions. Unfortunately, interventions often fail to overcome the translational block between science and practice. They often ignore theoretical knowledge, overlook empirical evidence, and underrate the impact of the environment. Accordingly, sustainable changes in individual behavior and/or the environment are difficult to achieve. Developing theory-driven and evidence-based interventions in the real world is a complex task. Existing implementation frameworks and theories often do not meet the needs of health practitioners. The purpose of this article is to synthesize existing frameworks and to provide a tool, the Matrix Assisting Practitioner's Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT), that links research to practice and helps practitioners to design multicomponent interventions. In this article, we use physical activity of older adults as an example to explain the rationale of MAP-IT. In MAP-IT, individual as well as environmental mechanisms are listed and behavior change techniques are linked to these mechanisms and to intervention components. MAP-IT is theory-driven and evidence-based. It is time-saving and helpful for practitioners when planning complex interventions.

  2. System dynamics-based evaluation of interventions to promote appropriate waste disposal behaviors in low-income urban areas: A Baltimore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaqing; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Lasater, Molly E; Parker, Cindy L; Winch, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Inappropriate waste disposal is a serious issue in many urban neighborhoods, exacerbating environmental, rodent, and public health problems. Governments all over the world have been developing interventions to reduce inappropriate waste disposal. A system dynamics model is proposed to quantify the impacts of interventions on residential waste related behavior. In contrast to other models of municipal solid waste management, the structure of our model is based on sociological and economic studies on how incentives and social norms interactively affect waste disposal behavior, and its parameterization is informed by field work. A case study of low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD, USA is presented. The simulation results show the effects of individual interventions, and also identify positive interactions among some potential interventions, especially information and incentive-based policies, as well as their limitations. The model can help policy analysts identify the most promising intervention packages, and then field test those few, rather than having to pilot test all combinations. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate large uncertainties about behavioral responses to some interventions, showing where information from survey research and social experiments would improve policy making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Obesity prevention and obesogenic behavior interventions in child care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri

    2016-06-01

    Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory-Based Intervention for Children with Behavioral Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Yunus, Farahiyah; Liu, Karen P.; Bissett, Michelle; Penkala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Sensory-based intervention is a common approach used to address behavioral problems in children. Types of sensory-based intervention for children and details of the intervention effectiveness have not been systematically examined. This review examined the effectiveness and ideal types of sensory-based interventions for children with behavioral…

  5. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F.; McKay, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children?s problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills ...

  6. A Positive Psychological Intervention to Promote Well-Being in a Multicultural School Setting in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dimitropoulou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the effectiveness of a Positive Psychology Intervention in enhancing well-being in a multicultural school setting. 121 5th and 6th grade primary school male and female students participated in the study. 57.9% were native Greeks and 42.1% were migrant children. 81 students were allocated to the positive intervention group, while 40 students partook in a control group with no positive orientation. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire battery a day prior to the interventions and also fifteen days later. Results indicated that only the positive intervention was effective in enhancing positive emotional experiences, optimism and self-efficacy in peer interactions two weeks after its implementation. The results were mostly undifferentiated for gender, migrant and socioeconomic status as far as positive emotions are concerned, while the patterns of influence of demographic variables on the efficacy of the intervention concerning the participants’ benefits in optimism and self-efficacy are discussed. The PPI group, as opposed to the control group, evaluated the intervention as particularly helpful with respect to all well-being variables, an effect maintained two weeks after the intervention. This positive intervention appears appropriate as a universal mental health promotion vehicle, especially within a demanding multicultural classroom context.

  7. Moderators of wellbeing interventions: Why do some people respond more positively than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Coffey, S. Katherine; Layous, Kristin; Jacobs Bao, Katherine; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Haworth, Claire M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions rarely have a universal effect on all individuals. Reasons ranging from participant characteristics, context and fidelity of intervention completion could cause some people to respond more positively than others. Understanding these individual differences in intervention response may provide clues to the mechanisms behind the intervention, as well as inform future designs to make interventions maximally beneficial for all. Here we focus on an intervention designed to improve adolescent wellbeing, and explore potential moderators using a representative and well-powered sample. 16-year old participants (N = 932) in the Twins Wellbeing Intervention Study logged online once a week to complete control and wellbeing-enhancing activities consecutively. Throughout the study participants also provided information about a range of potential moderators of intervention response including demographics, seasonality, personality, baseline characteristics, activity fit, and effort. As expected, some individuals gained more from the intervention than others; we used multi-level modelling to test for moderation effects that could explain these individual differences. Of the 15 moderators tested, none significantly explained individual differences in intervention response in the intervention and follow-up phases. Self-reported effort and baseline positive affect had a notable effect in moderating response in the control phase, during which there was no overall improvement in wellbeing and mental health. Our results did not replicate the moderation effects that have been suggested by previous literature and future work needs to reconcile these differences. They also show that factors that have previously been shown to influence baseline wellbeing do not also influence an individual’s ability to benefit from a wellbeing intervention. Although future research should continue to explore potential moderators of intervention efficacy, our results suggest that the beneficial

  8. Moderators of wellbeing interventions: Why do some people respond more positively than others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Adele H Wang

    Full Text Available Interventions rarely have a universal effect on all individuals. Reasons ranging from participant characteristics, context and fidelity of intervention completion could cause some people to respond more positively than others. Understanding these individual differences in intervention response may provide clues to the mechanisms behind the intervention, as well as inform future designs to make interventions maximally beneficial for all. Here we focus on an intervention designed to improve adolescent wellbeing, and explore potential moderators using a representative and well-powered sample. 16-year old participants (N = 932 in the Twins Wellbeing Intervention Study logged online once a week to complete control and wellbeing-enhancing activities consecutively. Throughout the study participants also provided information about a range of potential moderators of intervention response including demographics, seasonality, personality, baseline characteristics, activity fit, and effort. As expected, some individuals gained more from the intervention than others; we used multi-level modelling to test for moderation effects that could explain these individual differences. Of the 15 moderators tested, none significantly explained individual differences in intervention response in the intervention and follow-up phases. Self-reported effort and baseline positive affect had a notable effect in moderating response in the control phase, during which there was no overall improvement in wellbeing and mental health. Our results did not replicate the moderation effects that have been suggested by previous literature and future work needs to reconcile these differences. They also show that factors that have previously been shown to influence baseline wellbeing do not also influence an individual's ability to benefit from a wellbeing intervention. Although future research should continue to explore potential moderators of intervention efficacy, our results suggest

  9. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenger Rilana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.

  10. Testing the Efficacy of Combined Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Skills Training to Reduce Methamphetamine Use and Improve HIV Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; John, Steven A; Millar, Brett M; Starks, Tyrel J

    2018-03-13

    Prior research has identified subgroups of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (GBM) based upon information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB) profiles related to HIV medication adherence and methamphetamine use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a combined motivational interview (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention tailored specifically to the unique context of HIV-positive GBM, and tested whether IMB profiles moderated treatment effects. HIV-positive GBM (N = 210) were randomized to MI + CBT or an attention-matched education control. Both conditions resulted in reduced methamphetamine use, improved medication adherence (and higher CD4 and lower viral loads), and fewer acts of condomless anal sex at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. Furthermore, the MI + CBT condition achieved greater improvements in medication adherence for men who had greater barriers to change compared to similarly-classified men in the control condition, suggesting the importance of pre-intervention profiles for tailoring future interventions.

  11. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    inappropriate weight control behaviors (P =.11). More than 90% of students in the HW arm opened the electronic newsletters each week, and the average number of Facebook interactions (comments and likes) per student each week was 3.3+1.4. Each self-monitoring device was initialized by 90% of HW students. On average, they used their physical activity tracker for 23.7+15.2 days and their Wi-Fi scale for 14.1+13.1 days over the 9 weeks. HW students rated the intervention favorably. The short-term effect of this technology-based weight gain prevention intervention for college students is promising and merits evaluation over a longer duration to determine whether engagement and behavioral improvements positively affect weight outcomes and can be maintained.

  12. Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C

    2013-09-01

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.

  13. The contribution of parents' driving behavior, family climate for road safety, and parent-targeted intervention to young male driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Musicant, Oren; Lotan, Tsippy; Farah, Haneen

    2014-11-01

    One of the prominent issues in contemporary research on young drivers deals with the mechanisms underlying parents' influences on their offspring's driving behavior. The present study combines two sets of data: the first gathered from in-vehicle data recorders tracking the driving of parents and their teenage sons, and the second derived from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of parents' driving behavior, participation in a parent-targeted intervention, and the teen drivers' perception of the family climate for road safety, to the driving behavior of young drivers during solo driving. The data was collected over the course of 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver, and examined a sample of 166 families who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups (receiving different forms of feedback) or a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that young male drivers' risky driving events rate was positively associated with that of their parents. In addition, any type of intervention led to a lower rate of risky driving events among young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, a higher perception of parents as not committed to safety and lower perceived parental monitoring were related to a higher risky driving events rate among young drivers. The results highlight the need to consider a complex set of antecedents in parents' attitudes and behavior, as well as the family's safety atmosphere, in order to better understand young drivers' risky driving. The practical implications refer to the effective use of the family as a lever in the attempt to promote safety awareness among young drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blended Interventions to Change Behavior in Patients With Chronic Somatic Disorders: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloek, Corelien; Bossen, Daniël; de Bakker, Dinny H; Veenhof, Cindy; Dekker, Joost

    2017-12-21

    Blended behavior change interventions combine therapeutic guidance with online care. This new way of delivering health care is supposed to stimulate patients with chronic somatic disorders in taking an active role in their disease management. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of blended behavior change interventions and how they should be composed is scattered. This comprehensive systematic review aimed to provide an overview of characteristics and effectiveness of blended behavior change interventions for patients with chronic somatic disorders. We searched for randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to April 2017 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Study characteristics, intervention characteristics, and outcome data were extracted. Studies were sorted based on their comparison group. A best-evidence synthesis was conducted to summarize the effectiveness. A total of 25 out of the 29 included studies were of high quality. Most studies (n=21; 72%) compared a blended intervention with no intervention. The majority of interventions focused on changing pain behavior (n=17; 59%), and the other interventions focused on lifestyle change (n=12; 41%). In addition, 26 studies (90%) focused on one type of behavior, whereas 3 studies (10%) focused on multiple behaviors. A total of 23 studies (79%) mentioned a theory as basis for the intervention. The therapeutic guidance in most studies (n=18; 62%) was non face-to-face by using email, phone, or videoconferencing, and in the other studies (partly), it was face-to-face (n=11; 38%). In 26 studies (90%), the online care was provided via a website, and in 3 studies (10%) via an app. In 22 studies (76%), the therapeutic guidance and online care were integrated instead of two separate aspects. A total of 26 outcome measures were included in the evidence synthesis comparing blended interventions with no

  15. Systematic development of a self-help and motivational enhancement intervention to promote sexual health in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Kok, Gerjo; Hospers, Harm J; Schippers, Jan; De Wildt, Wencke

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the application of a systematic process-Intervention Mapping-to developing a theory- and evidence-based intervention to promote sexual health in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Intervention Mapping provides a framework that gives program planners a systematic method for decision-making in each phase of intervention development. In Step 1, we focused on the improvement of two health-promoting behaviors: satisfactory sexual functioning and safer sexual behavior. These behaviors were then linked with selected personal and external determinants, such as attitudes and social support, to produce a set of proximal program objectives. In Step 2, theoretical methods were identified to influence the proximal program objectives and were translated into practical strategies. Although theoretical methods were derived from various theories, self-regulation theory and a cognitive model of behavior change provided the main framework for selecting the intervention methods. The main strategies chosen were bibliotherapy (i.e., the use of written material to help people solve problems or change behavior) and motivational interviewing. In Step 3, the theoretical methods and practical strategies were applied in a program that comprised a self-help guide, a motivational interviewing session and a motivational interviewing telephone call, both delivered by specialist nurses in HIV treatment centers. In Step 4, implementation was anticipated by developing a linkage group to ensure involvement of program users in the planning process and conducting additional research to understand how to implement our program better. In Step 5, program evaluation was anticipated based on the planning process from the previous Intervention Mapping steps.

  16. A topographical map approach to representing treatment efficacy: a focus on positive psychology interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Lee, Josephine; Otto, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis by Bolier et al. indicated that positive psychology interventions have overall small to moderate effects on well-being, but results were quite heterogeneous across intervention trials. Such meta-analytic research helps condense information on the efficacy of a broad psychosocial intervention by averaging across many effects; however, such global averages may provide limited navigational guidance for selecting among specific interventions. Here, we introduce a novel method for displaying qualitative and quantitative information on the efficacy of interventions using a topographical map approach. As an initial prototype for demonstrating this method, we mapped 50 positive psychology interventions targeting well-being (as captured in the Bolier et al. [2013] meta-analysis, [Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 83]). Each intervention domain/subdomain was mapped according to its average effect size (indexed by vertical elevation), number of studies providing effect sizes (indexed by horizontal area), and therapist/client burden (indexed by shading). The geographical placement of intervention domains/subdomains was determined by their conceptual proximity, allowing viewers to gauge the general conceptual "direction" in which promising intervention effects can be found. The resulting graphical displays revealed several prominent features of the well-being intervention "landscape," such as more strongly and uniformly positive effects of future-focused interventions (including, goal-pursuit and optimism training) compared to past/present-focused ones.

  17. Behavioral Interventions for Anger, Irritability, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Smith, Stephanie D; McCauley, Spencer A; Ibrahim, Karim; Piasecka, Justyna B

    2016-02-01

    Anger, irritability, and aggression are among the most common reasons for child mental health referrals. This review is focused on two forms of behavioral interventions for these behavioral problems: Parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). First, we provide an overview of anger/irritability and aggression as the treatment targets of behavioral interventions, followed by a discussion of the general principles and techniques of these treatment modalities. Then we discuss our current work concerning the transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger, irritability, and aggression. PMT is aimed at improving aversive patterns of family interactions that engender children's disruptive behavior. CBT targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving that are associated with aggressive behavior. Both forms of treatment have received extensive support in randomized controlled trials. Given that anger/irritability and aggressive behavior are common in children with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger and aggression is described in detail. PMT and CBT have been well studied in randomized controlled trials in children with disruptive behavior disorders, and studies of transdiagnostic approaches to CBT for anger and aggression are currently underway. More work is needed to develop treatments for other types of aggressive behavior (e.g., relational aggression) that have been relatively neglected in clinical research. The role of callous-unemotional traits in response to behavioral interventions and treatment of irritability in children with anxiety and mood disorders also warrants further investigation.

  18. Behavior change is not one size fits all: psychosocial phenotypes of childhood obesity prevention intervention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Mamykina, Lena

    2018-01-17

    Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention. Descriptive coding, summary, and case-ordered descriptive meta-matrices were used to group participants by their psychosocial responses to the intervention and associated behavior changes. Four psychosocial phenotypes of responses emerged: (a) Activated-successful behavior-changers with strong internal supports; (b) Inspired-motivated, but not fully successful behavior-changers with some internal supports, whose taste preferences and food environment overwhelmed their motivation; (c) Reinforced-already practiced target behaviors, were motivated, and had strong family support; and (d) Indifferent-uninterested in behavior change and only did target behaviors if family insisted. Our findings contribute to the field of behavioral medicine by suggesting the presence of specific subgroups of participants who respond differently to behavior change interventions and salient psychosocial characteristics that differentiate among these phenotypes. Future research should examine the utility of prospectively identifying psychosocial phenotypes for improving the tailoring of nutrition behavior change interventions. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  19. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2017-06-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English from 2000 to April 2015 and evaluating eHealth interventions aiming to change one or multiple SNAPO outcomes, and including young adult (18-35years) participants. Of 2,159 articles identified, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions targeted alcohol (n=26), followed by smoking (n=7), physical activity (n=4), obesity (n=4) and nutrition (n=1). Three interventions targeted multiple behaviors. The eHealth interventions were most often delivered via websites (79.5%). Most studies (n=32) compared eHealth interventions to a control group (e.g. waiting list control, minimal intervention), with the majority (n=23) showing a positive effect on a SNAPO outcome at follow-up. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significantly lower mean number of drinks consumed/week in brief web or computer-based interventions compared to controls (Mean Difference -2.43 [-3.54, -1.32], PeHealth delivery modes, with inconsistent results across target behaviors and technology types. Nine studies compared eHealth to other modes of delivery (e.g. in person) with all finding no difference in SNAPO outcomes between groups at follow-up. This review provides some evidence for the efficacy of eHealth SNAPO interventions for young adults, particularly in the short-term and for alcohol interventions. But there is insufficient evidence for their efficacy in the longer-term, as well as which mode of delivery is most effective. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mediators of the effect of the JUMP-in intervention on physical activity and sedentary behavior in Dutch primary schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Stralen Maartje M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important health benefits can be achieved when physical activity in children from low socio-economic status is promoted and sedentariness is limited. By specifying the mediating mechanisms of existing interventions one can improve future physical activity interventions. This study explored potential mediators of the long-term effect of the school-based multicomponent JUMP-in intervention on sport participation, outdoor play and screen time in Dutch primary schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighborhoods. Methods In total, 600 primary schoolchildren (aged 9.8 ± 0.7, 51% girls, 13% Dutch ethnicity, 35% overweight from 9 intervention and 10 control schools were included in the analyses. JUMP-in was developed using Intervention Mapping, and targeted psychological and environmental determinants of physical activity. Outcome behaviors were self-reported sport participation, outdoor play, TV-viewing behavior and computer use. Potential mediators were self-reported psychological, social and physical environmental factors. Results JUMP-in was effective in improving sport participation after 20 months, but not in improving outdoor play, or reducing TV-viewing or computer time. JUMP-in was not effective in changing hypothesized mediators so no significant mediated effects could be identified. However, changes in self-efficacy, social support and habit strength were positively associated with changes in sport participation, and changes in social support, self-efficacy, perceived planning skills, enjoyment and habit strength were positively associated with changes in outdoor play. Changes in enjoyment was positively associated with changes in TV-viewing while parental rules were negatively associated. Having a computer in the bedroom and enjoyment were positively associated with changes in computer use, while changes in parental rules were negatively associated. Conclusions Besides a significant positive effect on sports participation

  1. Improving Inappropriate Social Behavior of Autistic Students Using the LISTEN Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Daniel, Cathy; Faulkner, Paula; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    A case study was conducted on the development of the LISTEN intervention strategy for use with autistic students to improve inappropriate social behaviors. The study was conducted in a special education classroom in an autism school in Kuwait. Examination of LISTEN Intervention Strategy applications included: duration of targeted behavior; methods…

  2. What is the benefit of the biomedical and behavioral interventions in preventing HIV transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kuchenbecker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.

  3. Preventing skin cancer through behavior change. Implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, J S; Blais, L M; Redding, C A; Weinstock, M A

    1995-07-01

    Sun exposure is the only major causative factor for skin cancer for which prevention is feasible. Both individual and community-based interventions have been effective in changing sun exposure knowledge and attitudes but generally have not been effective in changing behaviors. An integrative model of behavior change is described that has been successful in changing behavior across a wide range of health conditions. This model holds promise for developing a rational public health approach to skin cancer prevention based on sound behavioral science.

  4. Managing Student Behavior in Dual Immersion Classrooms: A Study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D; Caldarella, Paul; Williams, Leslie; Wills, Howard P

    2017-09-01

    Classroom management in dual immersion classrooms includes unique challenges. The teacher must instruct and correct in the L2 language, in which students are beginning learners, and effective classroom management strategies appropriate to the L2 context. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a positive classroom management program that teaches social skills and uses group contingencies to improve behavior. The present study examined the ability of French immersion teachers to implement CW-FIT in the L2, including the effects of CW-FIT on teacher praise and reprimand rates and as well as on students' classroom behavior. Social validity was also assessed. A single-subject multiple baseline design with embedded reversals was used to evaluate impact in second-, third-, and fourth-grade dual immersion classrooms. Results indicated that dual immersion teachers were able to implement CW-FIT in L2 with fidelity. The intervention significantly increased teacher praise and improved classroom on-task behavior. Changes in teacher reprimand rates were inconsistent. Students and teachers reported CW-FIT to be socially valid.

  5. In Sync and in Control: A Meta-Analysis of Parent-Child Positive Behavioral Synchrony and Youth Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the connection between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation; however, this association has yet to be the focus of a meta-analytic review. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aimed to estimate the magnitude of the relation between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation and to identify moderator variables that can explain the variability in the degree of this association across the extant literature. A thorough literature search of two major databases, in addition to scanning the reference sections of relevant articles, yielded a total of 10 peer-reviewed articles (24 effect sizes, 658 children) that were eligible for inclusion in the current meta-analysis. Results from the overall mean effect size calculation using a random-effects model indicated that parent-child positive behavioral synchrony was significantly, positively correlated with youth self-regulation and the effect size was medium. Children's ages at the time of synchrony and self-regulation measurements, as well as parent gender, served as significant moderator variables. Findings from the present meta-analysis can help to refine existing theoretical models on the role of the parent-child relationship in youth adjustment. Prevention and intervention efforts may benefit from an increased emphasis on building parent-child positive behavioral synchrony to promote youth self-regulation and thus children's overall well-being. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  6. The Information and Motivation and Behavioral Skills Model of ART Adherence among HIV-Positive Adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán Torres Torija, Carolina; Villagrán Vázquez, Gabina; Robles Montijo, Silvia Susana; de Lourdes Eguiluz Romo, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Middle-income countries are in need of research that uses theoretical-based models to assess factors that predict adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and help in the design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions for nonadherent populations. In Mexico, the Information and Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of ART Adherence constructs is useful in describing and predicting adherence behaviors in various samples but has not been articulated to people living with HIV (PLWH) on ART. The aim of this was to characterize the IMB core constructs and identify correlates of ART adherence in an HIV-positive clinic sample in Mexico. A convenience sample of 109 HIV-positive patients attending their monthly visits at a local public hospital were interviewed with the Spanish version of the LifeWindows IMB ART Adherence Questionnaire (LW-IMB-AAQ) as well as a sociodemographic questionnaire. All participants were recruited from a hospital-based outpatient clinical care site. Partial confirmation of the relationships proposed by the IMB Model of ART Adherence was found. As predicted by the model, only behavioral skills had direct association with all measures of self-reported adherence, and motivation was associated with behavioral skills. Information did not demonstrate significant relations to either motivation or behavioral skills, nor did it directly associate with adherence. Self-reported adherence did not associate with CD4 counts, nor did any of the IMB model core constructs. Applicability of the IMB Model of ART Adherence in this setting is discussed. The IMB Model of ART Adherence offered promise in this population and could help tailor population-specific interventions to promote high rates of ART adherence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The Post-Intervention Persistence of Energy Conservation Behaviors: An Evaluation of the ‘Start Green’ Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barnett Burns

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than four decades, behavioral intervention programs informed by psychology have been employed to increase pro-environmental behaviors. However, there has been little evidence for the post-intervention durability of target behaviors. The few studies that have conducted such evaluations have found that improvements often return to baseline levels post-intervention. This study evaluated the durability of home energy conservation behaviors before, during, and after a community based multi-technique intervention program, and examined the relationship between behavioral durability and the perceived importance, convenience and family norms of each behavior, as well as generalized pro-conservation decision making. The results show increased frequency in target behaviors that remain elevated seven months post-intervention. While the reported generalization of pro-conservation decision-making consistently increased during the study, perceived importance, convenience, and family norms of target conservation behaviors were largely unaffected. In addition, the few significant alterations in these perceptions were found to be due to increases during the post-intervention period only, indicating that they are not necessary pre-requisites for durable behavior change. These results show that a well designed community based intervention can have direct impacts on target behaviors that persist beyond its termination.

  8. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  9. Intervention Strategies Based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

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    Sun Ju Chang, RN, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This review indicates the potential strength of the IMB model as a theoretical framework to develop behavioral interventions. The specific integration strategies delineated for each construct of the model can be utilized to design model-based interventions.

  10. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-05-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence-favorably evaluated in the West-for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources.

  11. The Prediction of Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate from Their School's Utilization of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    School climate is an aspect of school life that has been examined closely in recent literature as it related to student interactions, behavior, and student achievement. Problem behaviors can affect students' academic learning as well as teachers' instructional time. Research has emphasized how a healthy school climate can yield positive effects on…

  12. [Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Song-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-10-01

    In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

  13. Amplifying Health Through Community Gardens: A Framework for Advancing Multicomponent, Behaviorally Based Neighborhood Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of a multi-dimensional measure of satisfaction with behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Epstein, Dana R; Fox, Mary

    2017-10-01

    Treatment satisfaction is recognized as an essential aspect in the evaluation of an intervention's effectiveness, but there is no measure that provides for its comprehensive assessment with regard to behavioral interventions. Informed by a conceptualization generated from a literature review, we developed a measure that covers several domains of satisfaction with behavioral interventions. In this paper, we briefly review its conceptualization and describe the Multi-Dimensional Treatment Satisfaction Measure (MDTSM) subscales. Satisfaction refers to the appraisal of the treatment's process and outcome attributes. The MDTSM has 11 subscales assessing treatment process and outcome attributes: treatment components' suitability and utility, attitude toward treatment, desire for continued treatment use, therapist competence and interpersonal style, format and dose, perceived benefits of the health problem and everyday functioning, discomfort, and attribution of outcomes to treatment. The MDTSM was completed by persons (N = 213) in the intervention group in a large trial of a multi-component behavioral intervention for insomnia within 1 week following treatment completion. The MDTSM's subscales demonstrated internal consistency reliability (α: .65 - .93) and validity (correlated with self-reported adherence and perceived insomnia severity at post-test). The MDTSM subscales can be used to assess satisfaction with behavioral interventions and point to aspects of treatments that are viewed favorably or unfavorably. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Use of intervention mapping to adapt a health behavior change intervention for endometrial cancer survivors: the shape-up following cancer treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoukidis, Dimitrios A; Lopes, Sonia; Atkins, Lou; Croker, Helen; Knobf, M Tish; Lanceley, Anne; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2018-03-27

    About 80% of endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) are overweight or obese and have sedentary behaviors. Lifestyle behavior interventions are promising for improving dietary and physical activity behaviors, but the constructs associated with their effectiveness are often inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to systematically adapt an evidence-based behavior change program to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in ECS. Following a review of the literature, focus groups and interviews were conducted with ECS (n = 16). An intervention mapping protocol was used for the program adaptation, which consisted of six steps: a needs assessment, formulation of matrices of change objectives, selection of theoretical methods and practical applications, program production, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning. Social Cognitive Theory and Control Theory guided the adaptation of the intervention. The process consisted of eight 90-min group sessions focusing on shaping outcome expectations, knowledge, self-efficacy, and goals about healthy eating and physical activity. The adapted performance objectives included establishment of regular eating, balanced diet, and portion sizes, reduction in sedentary behaviors, increase in lifestyle and organized activities, formulation of a discrepancy-reducing feedback loop for all above behaviors, and trigger management. Information on managing fatigue and bowel issues unique to ECS were added. Systematic intervention mapping provided a framework to design a cancer survivor-centered lifestyle intervention. ECS welcomed the intervention and provided essential feedback for its adaptation. The program has been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.

  16. Behavior change interventions: the potential of ontologies for advancing science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kai R; Michie, Susan; Hekler, Eric B; Gibson, Bryan; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Ahern, David; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Hesse, Bradford; Moser, Richard P; Yi, Jean

    2017-02-01

    A central goal of behavioral medicine is the creation of evidence-based interventions for promoting behavior change. Scientific knowledge about behavior change could be more effectively accumulated using "ontologies." In information science, an ontology is a systematic method for articulating a "controlled vocabulary" of agreed-upon terms and their inter-relationships. It involves three core elements: (1) a controlled vocabulary specifying and defining existing classes; (2) specification of the inter-relationships between classes; and (3) codification in a computer-readable format to enable knowledge generation, organization, reuse, integration, and analysis. This paper introduces ontologies, provides a review of current efforts to create ontologies related to behavior change interventions and suggests future work. This paper was written by behavioral medicine and information science experts and was developed in partnership between the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Technology Special Interest Group (SIG) and the Theories and Techniques of Behavior Change Interventions SIG. In recent years significant progress has been made in the foundational work needed to develop ontologies of behavior change. Ontologies of behavior change could facilitate a transformation of behavioral science from a field in which data from different experiments are siloed into one in which data across experiments could be compared and/or integrated. This could facilitate new approaches to hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery in behavioral science.

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions to improve child pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Barton, Benjamin K; Shen, Jiabin; Wells, Hayley L; Bogar, Ashley; Heath, Gretchen; McCullough, David

    2014-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries represent a pediatric public health challenge. This systematic review/meta-analysis evaluated behavioral interventions to teach children pedestrian safety. Multiple strategies derived eligible manuscripts (published before April 1, 2013, randomized design, evaluated behavioral child pedestrian safety interventions). Screening 1,951 abstracts yielded 125 full-text retrievals. 25 were retained for data extraction, and 6 were later omitted due to insufficient data. In all, 19 articles reporting 25 studies were included. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Behavioral interventions generally improve children's pedestrian safety, both immediately after training and at follow-up several months later. Quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Available evidence suggested interventions targeting dash-out prevention, crossing at parked cars, and selecting safe routes across intersections were effective. Individualized/small-group training for children was the most effective training strategy based on available evidence. Behaviorally based interventions improve children's pedestrian safety. Efforts should continue to develop creative, cost-efficient, and effective interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Packaged Intervention To Reduce Disruptive Behaviors in General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini-Scully, Diane; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of a packaged intervention designed to reduce disruptive behaviors in two 8-year-old female students. The intervention was delivered through a contingency contract and was comprised of precision requests, antecedent strategies, and the reductive technique of response costs. The intervention resulted in reduction of disruptive…

  19. The Use of a Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Self Management Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil, III; Jones, Arthur; Smith, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The research literature on the use of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) to develop Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, who present problem classroom behaviors for use in the schools, is well documented. There are school-wide, district-wide, and state-wide plans that are currently being…

  20. Effects of harsh parenting and positive parenting practices on youth aggressive behavior: The moderating role of early pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Prior research indicates that early pubertal timing is associated with aggressive behavior, particularly in the context of adversity as postulated in the contextual amplification hypothesis. However, few studies have examined harsh parenting as the context for the effect of early pubertal timing. Even fewer studies have tested the interactive effect of early pubertal timing and positive parenting on aggressive behavior. In this study, we tested the proposition that early pubertal timing, contrary to the general conception of it as a vulnerability, indexed susceptibility, and thus early maturing individuals were affected more by their environment in a "for better and for worse" manner. The sample consisted of 411 community-recruited youth aged 11-12 years (51% boys, 80% African Americans). Participants reported Tanner Stages of pubertal development, aggressive behavior and harsh parenting practice of their parents. Puberty scores were standardized with groups of the same age, sex, and ethnicity, and those that scored the top one-third were defined as early maturing individuals. Parents reported youth's aggressive behavior and their parenting practices towards the youth, including harsh parenting and positive parenting. Early pubertal timing significantly moderated the relationship between harsh/positive parenting and aggressive behavior. Specifically, harsh parenting was positively associated with aggressive behavior to a larger degree among early maturing individuals than among on-time/late-maturing individuals. Positive parenting was inversely associated with aggressive behavior but only among early maturing individuals. This study is the first to document support for early pubertal timing as susceptibility to the environmental influences in relation to aggressive behavior. Theoretical and intervention implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Recent mobile health interventions to support medication adherence among HIV-positive MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E; LeGrand, Sara; Horvath, Keith J; Bauermeister, José A; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2017-09-01

    We describe recent mobile health (mHealth) interventions supporting antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication adherence among HIV-positive MSM. Keyword searches (1 January 2016-13 May 2017) identified 721 citations. Seven publications reporting on six studies met inclusion criteria. Five studies focused on MSM. Interventions primarily employed text messaging (n = 4), whereas two focused on smartphone apps and one on social media. Three studies measured intervention impact on adherence and found increased ART use intentions (n = 1), self-reported adherence (n = 1), and viral suppression (n = 1, no control group). Other mHealth interventions for HIV-positive MSM focused on status disclosure and reducing sexual risk. mHealth interventions to support ART adherence among MSM show acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy. No recent mHealth interventions for MSM measured impact on viral suppression compared with a control condition despite earlier (pre-2015) evidence for efficacy. Studies are underway that include multiple features designed to improve adherence within complex smartphone or internet-based platforms. Areas for future growth include overcoming measurement and engagement challenges, developing tools for coordinating patient and provider adherence data, testing combination interventions, and adapting efficacious interventions for new languages and geographic settings.

  2. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  3. Design, Intervention Fidelity, and Behavioral Outcomes of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Cluster-Randomized Trial in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Chard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH in schools (WinS interventions on pupil absence and health is mixed. Few WinS evaluations rigorously report on output and outcome measures that allow for comparisons of effectiveness between interventions to be made, or for an understanding of why programs succeed. The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Health and Education in Laotian Primary Schools (WASH HELPS study was a randomized controlled trial designed to measure the impact of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF Laos WinS project on child health and education. We also measured the sustainability of intervention outputs and outcomes, and analyzed the effectiveness of group hygiene activities on behavior change and habit formation. Here, we present the design and intermediate results from this study. We found the WinS project improved the WASH environment in intervention schools; 87.8% of schools received the intervention per design. School-level adherence to outputs was lower; on average, schools met 61.4% of adherence-related criteria. The WinS project produced positive changes in pupils’ school WASH behaviors, specifically increasing toilet use and daily group handwashing. Daily group hygiene activities are effective strategies to improve school WASH behaviors, but a complementary strategy needs to be concurrently promoted for effective and sustained individual handwashing practice at critical times.

  4. Exploring the use of positive psychology interventions in brain injury survivors with challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewes, H E; Walker, V; O'Neill, B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of conducting two positive psychology interventions to improve mood and self-concept with survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), within a neuro-rehabilitation hospital. Ten patients with brain injury were randomly allocated to an intervention and control group. The efficacy of the first intervention, 'three positive things in life' was measured via Seligman's Authentic Happiness Index (AHI), at base-line, directly following the intervention and at the end of the 12-week group programme. The second intervention, the 'Value in Action (VIA) signature strengths intervention' was measured by the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISDS) at baseline and at the end of the group. Compared to baseline and control group scores, the AHI index showed an increase in the intervention group's happiness following the intervention and at the end of the 12-week programme, albeit the latter increase was non-significant. The HISDS showed non-significant improvement in self-concept and reduction in polarization of the self in the present, future and past in the second intervention. Anecdotal evidence revealed a clear improved mood following the interventions. This study shows promising results for the effectiveness of Positive Psychology interventions and methods to improve feasibility when applying this treatment within a hospital setting.

  5. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Pieterse, Marcel E.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Seydel, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered

  6. Using an Analysis of Behavior Change to Inform Effective Digital Intervention Design: How Did the PRIMIT Website Change Hand Hygiene Behavior Across 8993 Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, B; Steele, M; Stuart, B; Joseph, J; Miller, S; Morrison, L; Little, P; Yardley, L

    2017-06-01

    In designing digital interventions for healthcare, it is important to understand not just whether interventions work but also how and for whom-including whether individual intervention components have different effects, whether a certain usage threshold is required to change behavior in each intervention and whether usage differs across population subgroups. We investigated these questions using data from a large trial of the digital PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection Transmission) (PRIMIT) intervention, which aimed to reduce respiratory tract infections (RTIs) by increasing hand hygiene behavior. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires measured behaviors, intentions and attitudes in hand hygiene. In conjunction with objective measures of usage of the four PRIMIT sessions, we analysed these observational data to examine mechanisms of behavior change in 8993 intervention users. We found that the PRIMIT intervention changed behavior, intentions and attitudes, and this change was associated with reduced RTIs. The largest hand hygiene change occurred after the first session, with incrementally smaller changes after each subsequent session, suggesting that engagement with the core behavior change techniques included in the first session was necessary and sufficient for behavior change. The intervention was equally effective for men and women, older and younger people and was particularly effective for those with lower levels of education. Our well-powered analysis has implications for intervention development. We were able to determine a 'minimum threshold' of intervention engagement that is required for hand hygiene change, and we discuss the potential implications this (and other analyses of this type) may have for further intervention development. We also discuss the application of similar analyses to other interventions.

  7. Behavioral observation differentiates the effects of an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Linda; Casper, Tammy; Dixon, Melodie; Harmeyer, Joann; Haberman, Beth; Alberts, Jeffrey R; Simakajornboon, Narong; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-02-01

    Sleep and ongoing cycling of sleep states are required for neurosensory processing, learning, and brain plasticity. Many aspects of neonatal intensive care environments such as handling for routine and invasive procedures, bright lighting, and noise can create stress, disrupt behavior, and interfere with sleep in prematurely born infants. The study empirically investigated whether a 30-minute observation of infant sleep states and behavior could differentiate an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants with feeding difficulties relative to conventional care (standard positioning, standard crib mattress [SP]). We included an intervention to determine the ability of the method to discriminate treatments and generate a benchmark for future improvements. The intervention, a conformational positioner (CP), is contoured around the infant to provide customized containment and boundaries. To more fully verify the 30-minute observational sleep results, standard polysomnography was conducted simultaneously and sleep outcomes for the 2 modalities were compared. In a randomized crossover clinical trial, 25 infants, 31.5 ± 0.6 weeks' gestational age and 38.4 ± 0.6 weeks at the study, with gastrointestinal conditions or general feeding difficulties used each intervention during an overnight neonatal intensive care unit sleep study. Infant sleep states and behaviors were observed during two 30-minute periods--that is, on the positioner and mattress--using the naturalistic observation of newborn behavior. Two certified developmental care nurses assessed sleep state, self-regulatory, and stress behaviors during 2-minute intervals and summed over 30 minutes. Sleep characteristics from standard polysomnography were measured at the time of behavior observations. Infants on CP spent significantly less time in alert, active awake, or crying states by observation compared with SP. Surgical subjects spent more time awake, active awake, or crying and displayed a higher number

  8. Video-Based Grocery Shopping Intervention Effect on Purchasing Behaviors Among Latina Shoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E.; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. Methods. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Results. Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home. PMID:28323473

  9. Video-Based Grocery Shopping Intervention Effect on Purchasing Behaviors Among Latina Shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Cortés, Dharma E; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S

    2017-05-01

    To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P shopping list (both P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home.

  10. Five-year follow-up of harms and benefits of behavioral infant sleep intervention: randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna M H; Wake, Melissa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Hiscock, Harriet

    2012-10-01

    Randomized trials have demonstrated the short- to medium-term effectiveness of behavioral infant sleep interventions. However, concerns persist that they may harm children's emotional development and subsequent mental health. This study aimed to determine long-term harms and/or benefits of an infant behavioral sleep program at age 6 years on (1) child, (2) child-parent, and (3) maternal outcomes. Three hundred twenty-six children (173 intervention) with parent-reported sleep problems at age 7 months were selected from a population sample of 692 infants recruited from well-child centers. The study was a 5-year follow-up of a population-based cluster-randomized trial. Allocation was concealed and researchers (but not parents) were blinded to group allocation. Behavioral techniques were delivered over 1 to 3 individual nurse consultations at infant age 8 to 10 months, versus usual care. The main outcomes measured were (1) child mental health, sleep, psychosocial functioning, stress regulation; (2) child-parent relationship; and (3) maternal mental health and parenting styles. Two hundred twenty-five families (69%) participated. There was no evidence of differences between intervention and control families for any outcome, including (1) children's emotional (P = .8) and conduct behavior scores (P = .6), sleep problems (9% vs 7%, P = .2), sleep habits score (P = .4), parent- (P = .7) and child-reported (P = .8) psychosocial functioning, chronic stress (29% vs 22%, P = .4); (2) child-parent closeness (P = .1) and conflict (P = .4), global relationship (P = .9), disinhibited attachment (P = .3); and (3) parent depression, anxiety, and stress scores (P = .9) or authoritative parenting (63% vs 59%, P = .5). Behavioral sleep techniques have no marked long-lasting effects (positive or negative). Parents and health professionals can confidently use these techniques to reduce the short- to medium-term burden of infant sleep problems and maternal depression.

  11. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  12. Designing a coaching intervention to support leaders promoted into senior positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. (Nicky H.D. Terblanche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Coaching is sometimes used in organisations to assist and support people when they are promoted into senior leadership positions. These coaching interventions are not optimally designed. Research purpose: The objective of this research was to investigate how a transition coaching intervention should be designed to cater specifically for people promoted into senior leadership positions. Motivation for the study: Leaders face daunting challenges when promoted into a senior position. Coaching could offer powerful support, but very little research exists on how to design a transition coaching intervention specifically aimed at supporting recently promoted senior leaders. Research design, approach and method: A constructivist, grounded theory approach using purposeful, theoretical sampling was used to identify 16 participants (recently promoted senior leaders, coaches, Human Resource [HR] partners and a line manager from various organisations with whom open-ended interviews were conducted on their experiences of coaching during a transition. Main findings: Transition coaching is used reactively, started too late and was not continued for long enough. Transition coaching design should take cognisance of coach–coachee matching; goal setting that includes the organisation’s goals; location of coaching session (away from the office; should include reflection and active experimentation; and use assessments and involving the line manager, mentors and the new leader’s team in the process. Practical and managerial implications: The findings of this research provide practical recommendations for applying coaching during transitions into senior leadership positions and may be useful to human resource practitioners when designing leadership support and succession planning interventions. Contribution and value added: To address the serious and real possibility of failure once leaders are promoted, and to optimise the time and money spent on

  13. Treatment Fidelity: Special Educators' Perceptions of Measures Used to Monitor the Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires empirically based interventions to be used when treating chronic problem behaviors. The fundamental part of behavior modification is the ability to demonstrate that behavior change occurred due to the intervention. This can only be accomplished when the intervention is…

  14. Efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline in Twin Families (VIPP-Twins): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van den Bulk, Bianca G; Linting, Mariëlle; Damsteegt, Rani C; Vrijhof, Claudia I; van Wijk, Ilse C; Crone, Eveline A; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-06-06

    Intervention programs with the aim of enhancing parenting quality have been found to be differentially effective in decreasing negative child outcomes such as externalizing behavioral problems, resulting in modest overall effect sizes. Here we present the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline for Twin Families (VIPP-Twins) on parenting quality and children's behavioral control and social competence. In addition, we aim to test the differential susceptibility theory; we examine differential efficacy of the intervention based on genetic make-up or temperament for both parents and children. Lastly, we explore neurobiological mechanisms underlying intervention effects on children's developmental outcomes. The original VIPP-SD was adapted for use in families with twins. The VIPP-Twins consists of five biweekly sessions in which the families are visited at home, parent-child interactions are videotaped and parents receive positive feedback on selected video fragments. Families (N = 225) with a same sex twin (mean age = 3.6 years) were recruited to participate in the study. The study consists of four assessments. After two baseline assessments in year 1 and year 2, a random 40 % of the sample will receive the VIPP-Twins program. The first post-test assessment will be carried out one month after the intervention and there will be a long term follow-up assessment two years after the intervention. Measures include observational assessments of parenting and children's social competence and behavioral control, and neurobiological assessments (i.e., hormonal functioning and neural (re-)activity). Results of the study will provide insights in the efficacy of the VIPP-Twins and reveal moderators and mediators of program efficacy. Overall the randomized controlled trial is an experimental test of the differential susceptibility theory. Dutch Trial

  15. Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne D; Diaz, Rafael M; Flanders, William D; Goodman, Michael; Hill, Andrew N; Holtgrave, David; Malow, Robert; McClellan, William M

    2008-07-16

    35% decreases) were observed among studies with count outcomes, those with shorter intervention spans (management indicates that such content merits strong consideration in development and delivery of new interventions for MSM. And the finding that interventions were most effective for majority white populations underscores the critical need for effective interventions for MSM of African and Latino descent. Further research measuring the incidence of HIV and other STDs is needed. Because most studies were conducted among mostly white men in the US and Europe, more evaluations of interventions are needed for African American and Hispanic MSM as well as MSM in the developing world. More research is also needed to further clarify which behavioral strategies (e.g., reducing unprotected anal sex, having oral sex instead of anal sex, reducing number of partners, avoiding serodiscordant partners, strategic positioning, or reducing anal sex even with condom use) are most effective in reducing transmission among MSM, the messages most effective in promoting these behaviors, and the methods and settings in which these messages can be most effectively delivered.

  16. Test Review for Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET) Manual: Assessing Universal Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo

    2013-01-01

    The Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET; Steed & Pomerleau, 2012) is published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company in Baltimore, MD. The PreSET purports to measure universal and program-wide features of early childhood programs' implementation fidelity of program-wide positive behavior intervention and support (PW-PBIS) and is,…

  17. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Empowering Role of Mobile Apps in Behavior Change Interventions: The Gray Matters Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Phillip J; Nugent, Chris D; McClean, Sally I; Cleland, Ian; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Clark, Christine J; Norton, Maria C

    2016-08-02

    (mean 56.21 SD 30.4%) than those who increased their BMI (mean 40.12 SD 29.1%), t80 = -2.449, P=.017. In total, 69.2% (n=18) of those who achieved a mean performance percentage of 60% or higher, across all domains, reduced their BMI during the study, whereas 60.7% (n=34) who did not, increased their BMI. One-way analysis of variance of systolic blood pressure category changes showed a significant correlation between reported efforts to reduce stress and category change as a whole, P=.035. An exit survey highlighted that respondents (n=83) reported that the app motivated them to perform physical activity (85.4%) and make healthier food choices (87.5%). In this study, the ubiquitous nature of the mobile phone excelled as a delivery platform for the intervention, enabling the dissemination of educational intervention material while simultaneously monitoring and encouraging positive behavior change, resulting in desirable clinical effects. Sustained effort to maintain the achieved behaviors is expected to mitigate future AD risk. ClinicalTrails.gov NCT02290912; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02290912 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ictUEwnm).

  19. [The effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; An, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-A; Woo, Hae-Young

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children. Thirty-two participants (BMI>or=85 percentile or relative obesity>or=10) were allocated to the PABM-intervention group and behavior modification only intervention group. The PABM-intervention was composed of exercise intervention consisting of 50 minutes of physical activity(Hip-hop dance & gym-based exercises) twice a week and the behavior modification intervention consisted of 50 minutes of instruction for modifying lifestyle habits(diet & exercise) once a week. Effectiveness of intervention was based on waist circumference, BP, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and fasting glucose before and after the intervention. The proportion of subjects with 1, 2, 3 or more metabolic risk factors were 28.1, 43.8, and 15.6%, respectively. After the 8-week intervention, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly(p<.01) in the PABM group. This provides evidence that a PABM-intervention is effective in changing metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese elementary school children.

  20. Promoting Positive Learning in Australian Students Aged 10- to 12-Years-Old Using Attribution Retraining and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Alicia R; Boyle, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study piloted an intervention using attribution retraining and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to promote positive learning experiences and outcomes for students. This research is an important step to revitalise the dwindling field of attribution retraining research by assessing whether these techniques effectively improve student…

  1. A systematic review of information and communication technology-based interventions for promoting physical activity behavior change in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick W C; Lau, Erica Y; Wong, Del P; Ransdell, Lynda

    2011-07-13

    A growing body of research has employed information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet and mobile phones for disseminating physical activity (PA) interventions with young populations. Although several systematic reviews have documented the effects of ICT-based interventions on PA behavior, very few have focused on children and adolescents specifically. The present review aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and methodological quality of ICT-based PA interventions for children and adolescents based on evidence from randomized controlled trials. Electronic databases Medline, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched to retrieve English language articles published in international academic peer-reviewed journals from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2009. Included were articles that provided descriptions of interventions designed to improve PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes and that used randomized controlled trial design, included only children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old) in both intervention and control groups, and employed Internet, email, and/or short message services (SMS, also known as text messaging) as one or more major or assistive modes to deliver the intervention. In total, 9 studies were analyzed in the present review. All studies were published after 2000 and conducted in Western countries. Of the 9 studies, 7 demonstrated positive and significant within-group differences in at least one psychosocial or behavioral PA outcome. In all, 3 studies reported positive and significant between-group differences favoring the ICT group. When between-group differences were compared across studies, effect sizes were small in 6 studies and large in 3 studies. With respect to methodological quality, 7 of the 9 studies had good methodological quality. Failure to report allocation concealment, blinding to outcome assessment, and lack of long-term follow-up were the criteria met

  2. A Brief Social Skills Intervention to Reduce Challenging Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Troughton, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Social skills instruction has been recommended as a way of improving behavioral and social outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A brief social skills intervention ("Stop and Think" (Knoff in "The stop & think social skills program," Sopris West, Longmont, CO, 2001) was used to extend the…

  3. Sustainable Change Sequence: a framework for developing behavior change interventions for patients with long-term conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn, Glyn; Marrin, Katy; Frosch, Dominick; White, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective\\ud \\ud Interactive interventions are increasingly advocated to support behavior change for patients who have long-term conditions. Such interventions are most likely to achieve behavior change when they are based on appropriate theoretical frameworks. Developers of interventions are faced with a diverse set of behavioral theories that do not specifically address intervention development. The aim of our work was to develop a framework to guide the developers of interactive healthcare...

  4. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  5. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  8. Stay Cool Kids?! Effectiveness, Moderation and Mediation of a Preventive Intervention for Externalizing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Stable externalizing behavior in childhood places children at risk for the development of a chronic and persistent pattern of externalizing behavior problems. Preventive interventions that aim to interrupt this developmental trajectory are crucial. Until now, no evidence-based intervention for

  9. [The relationship of empathic-affective responses toward others' positive affect with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shigeo; Hayama, Daichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kurazumi, Tomoe; Hagiwara, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Miyuki; Ohuchi, Akiko; Chizuko, Oikawa

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses involved three factors: (a) sharing and good feeling toward others' positive affect, (b) sharing of negative affect and (c) sympathy toward others' negative affect. Correlations with other empathy-related scales and internal consistency suggested that this scale has satisfactory validity and reliability. Cluster analysis revealed that participants were clustered into four groups: high-empathic group, low-empathic group, insufficient positive affective response group and insufficient negative affective response group. Additional analysis showed the frequency of prosocial behaviors in high-empathic group was highest in all groups. On the other hand, the frequency of aggressive behaviors in both insufficient positive affective response group and low-empathic group were higher than others' groups. The results indicated that empathic-affective responses toward positive affect are also very important to predict prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors.

  10. Effect of Financial Stress and Positive Financial Behaviors on Cost-Related Nonadherence to Health Regimens Among Adults in a Community-Based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Kruger, Daniel J; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-04-07

    Little is known about the role of positive financial behaviors (behaviors that allow maintenance of financial stability with financial resources) in mitigating cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to health regimens. This study examined the relationships between positive financial behaviors, financial stress, and CRN. Data came from the 2011 Speak to Your Health! Community Survey (n = 1,234). Descriptive statistics were computed to examine financial stress and CRN, by chronic condition and health insurance status. We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between positive financial behaviors and financial stress and their interaction on a composite score of CRN, controlling for health insurance status, educational level, age, marital status, number of chronic conditions, and employment status. Thirty percent of the sample engaged in CRN. Participants reported moderate financial stress (mean, 13.85; standard deviation [SD] = 6.97), and moderate positive financial behavior (mean, 8.84; SD = 3.24). Participants with employer-sponsored insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, the Genesee Health Plan, high blood pressure, asthma, and diabetes had the highest proportion of CRN. The relationship between financial stress and CRN was not significantly different between those who reported lower versus higher levels of positive financial behavior (P = .32). Greater financial stress was associated with a greater likelihood of CRN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-2.99). Higher level of positive financial behavior was associated with a lower likelihood of CRN (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94). Financial literacy as a means of promoting positive financial behavior may help reduce CRN. An intervention strategy focused on improving financial literacy may be relevant for high-risk groups who report high levels of financial stress.

  11. A Community-Based Positive Deviance/Hearth Infant and Young Child Nutrition Intervention in Ecuador Improved Diet and Reduced Underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marion L; Marquis, Grace S; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Blouin, Brittany; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2017-03-01

    Underweight and stunting are serious problems in Ecuador that require interventions in the first 2 years of life. The researchers assessed the effectiveness of a Positive Deviance (PD)/Hearth community-based intervention using local foods to improve infant and young children's nutrition. A quasi-experimental nonrandomized study was conducted between March and October, 2009. The intervention and study were implemented in the Ecuadorian highlands provinces of Chimborazo and Tungurahua. Eighty mother-child pairs in 6 intervention communities and 184 mother-child pairs in 9 comparison communities. Mothers met in participatory peer-led PD/Hearth cooking and nutrition education sessions for 12 days. Dietary intake and nutritional status were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Multiple linear and logistic regression were used for growth outcomes, and ANCOVA for mean dietary intakes. Mothers in the intervention were 1.3-5.7 times more likely to feed their children the promoted foods (P Hearth interventions support mothers to improve infant and young children's nutrition practices and reduce underweight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brawley Lawrence R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

  13. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children's problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills learned during treatment by parents, often referred to as between-session homework. The multiple family group (MFG) model is an evidence-based, skills-based intervention model for the treatment of DBDs in school-age youth residing in urban, socio-economically disadvantaged communities. While data suggest benefits of MFG on DBD behaviors, similar to other skill-based interventions, the effects of MFG are mitigated by the poor homework implementation, despite considerable efforts to support parents in homework implementation. This paper focuses on the study protocol for the development and preliminary evaluation of a theory-based, smartphone mobile health (mHealth) application (My MFG) to support homework implementation by parents participating in MFG. This paper describes a study design proposal that begins with a theoretical model, uses iterative design processes to develop My MFG to support homework implementation in MFG through a series of pilot studies, and a small-scale pilot randomised controlled trial to determine if the intervention can demonstrate change (preliminary efficacy) of My MFG in outpatient mental health settings in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. This preliminary study aims to understand the implementation of mHealth methods to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in routine outpatient mental health care settings for youth with disruptive behavior and their families. Developing methods to augment the benefits of evidence

  14. Intervention Effects on Safety Compliance and Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Johnson, Ryan C.; Crain, Tori L.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly; Kelly, Erin L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L. Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 healthcare facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and the Work-Home Resources Model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family and employee control over work time would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline, 6-month and 12-month post-intervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors, compared to employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. PMID:26348479

  15. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  16. Craving Behavior Intervention in Ameliorating College Students' Internet Game Disorder: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Craving, as a central feature of addiction and a precursor of relapse, is targeted recently in addiction intervention. While Internet gaming disorder (IGD), conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, is lack of effective treatment practice and exploration of its mechanism. This research aims to test the effectiveness and detect the active ingredients of craving behavior intervention (CBI) in mitigation of IGD among young adults. A total of 63 male college students with IGD were assigned into the intervention group (six-session CBI intervention) or the waiting-list control group. Structured questionnaires were administered at pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3), and 6-month follow-up (T4). Compared to the control group, a significant decrease in the severity of IGD in intervention group was found at post-intervention and lasting to 6 months after intervention. The value changes of craving could partially mediate the relationship between intervention and changes of IGD among all effects tests (immediate, T2-T1; short-term, T3-T1; and long-term effects, T4-T1). Further, explorations of the active ingredients of intervention found depression relief and shift of psychological needs from Internet to real life significantly predict craving amelioration at both post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of craving-aimed intervention practice in IGD treatment and identifies two potential active ingredients for mitigation of craving, and the long-term therapeutic benefits are further conferred. Registry name: The behavioral and brain mechanism of IGD; URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02550405; Registration number: NCT02550405.

  17. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  18. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  19. Peer Positive Social Control and Men's Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Mercerat, Coralie; Gaboury, Isabelle; Tremblay, Gilles; de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Roy, Bernard; Auger, Nathalie; Lavoie, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Men are generally thought to be less inclined to take care of their health. To date, most studies about men's health have focused on deficits in self-care and difficulties in dealing with this sphere of their life. The present study reframes this perspective, using a salutogenic strengths-based approach and seeking to identify variables that influence men to take care of their health, rather than neglect it. This study focuses on the association between peer positive social control and men's health behaviors, while controlling for other important individual and social determinants (sociodemographic characteristics, health self-efficacy, home neighborhood, spousal positive social control, and the restrictive emotionality norm). In a mixed-method study, 669 men answered a self-reported questionnaire, and interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of 31 men. Quantitative results indicated that, even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and other important factors, peer positive social control was significantly associated with the six health behaviors measured in the study (health responsibility, nutrition, physical activity, interpersonal relations, stress management, and spirituality). Interview results revealed that peer positive social control influenced men's health behaviors through three different mechanisms: shared activity, being inspired, and serving as a positive role model for others. In summary, friends and coworkers could play a significant role in promoting various health behaviors among adult men in their daily life. Encouraging men to socialize and discuss health, and capitalizing on healthy men as role models appear to be effective ways to influence health behavior adoption among this specific population.

  20. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50-79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., early memories). A total of 163 females aged 50-79 tried the assigned interventions or the placebo control exercise for one week and completed measures on happiness and depressive symptoms at five times (pre- and post-test, 1, 3, and 6 months). Three out of the four interventions (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, and using signature strengths in a new way) increased happiness, whereas two interventions (three funny things and using signature strengths in a new way) led to a reduction of depressive symptoms on at one post-measure. Positive psychology interventions yield similar results for people aged 50 and above as for younger people. The dissemination of such interventions via the Internet offers a valuable opportunity for older age groups as well.

  1. The Influence of Ethical Ideologies on Promotive Extra Role Behaviors and Positive Work Behavior of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Mendeş Pekdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the previous studies on ‘extra-role behavior’, this study focuses especially on ‘promotive extra-role behavior’ as well as ‘positive work behavior’, and explores of ethical ideologies on them. On that framework, this paper aims to achieve the effect of ‘ethical ideologies’ (idealism and relativism on promotive extra-role behaviors (helping and voice and positive work behavior. Moreover, we examine the impact of being high and low idealist personality as well as high and low relativist personality on level of ‘helping extra-role behavior’, ‘voice behavior’, ‘extra-role behavior’, and ‘positive work behaviors’ that individuals exhibit. This paper also aims to explore the influence of demographic variables on helping, voice, and positive work behavior. In order to achieve the goals mentioned, we collected data from 356 MBA students, and used the ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that idealism significantly correlates to helping, voice, and positive work behavior.

  2. Optimization of behavioral, biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST)

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Linda M

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a framework for development, optimization, and evaluation of behavioral,  biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions.  Behavioral, biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions are programs with the objective of improving and maintaining human health and well-being, broadly defined, in individuals, families, schools, organizations, or communities.  These interventions may be aimed at, for example, preventing or treating disease, promoting physical and mental health, preventing violence, or improving academic achievement.   This volume introduces the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST), pioneered at The Methodology Center at the Pennsylvania State University, as an alternative to the classical approach of relying solely on the randomized controlled trial (RCT).  MOST borrows heavily from perspectives taken and approaches used in engineering, and also integrates concepts from statistics and behavioral science, including the RCT.  As described in detail in this book, MOST consists of ...

  3. A behavioral weight-loss intervention in persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumit, Gail L; Dickerson, Faith B; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Young, Deborah R; Frick, Kevin D; Yu, Airong; Gennusa, Joseph V; Oefinger, Meghan; Crum, Rosa M; Charleston, Jeanne; Casagrande, Sarah S; Guallar, Eliseo; Goldberg, Richard W; Campbell, Leslie M; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-04-25

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness. We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Of 291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was -3.2 kg (-7.0 lb, P=0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P=0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among persons with serious mental illness, our findings

  4. Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans in Rural Schools: An Exploration of the Need, Barriers, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Lindsay; Owens, Sarah; Maras, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research highlights negative outcomes associated with mental and behavioral health problems in children and adolescents. Prevention-based frameworks have been developed to provide prevention and early intervention in the school setting. Tertiary behavioral supports often include the use of functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and…

  5. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  6. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g. diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and young adults who have dropped out of school and those with lower perceived relative social position within their community are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors than those with higher relative social position. We conclude that youth-specific measures may be important in identifying the most at

  7. Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 Classroom Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…

  8. Are health behavior change interventions that use online social networks effective? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol A; Lewis, Lucy K; Ferrar, Katia; Marshall, Simon; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-02-14

    The dramatic growth of Web 2.0 technologies and online social networks offers immense potential for the delivery of health behavior change campaigns. However, it is currently unclear how online social networks may best be harnessed to achieve health behavior change. The intent of the study was to systematically review the current level of evidence regarding the effectiveness of online social network health behavior interventions. Eight databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science and Communication & Mass Media Complete) were searched from 2000 to present using a comprehensive search strategy. Study eligibility criteria were based on the PICOS format, where "population" included child or adult populations, including healthy and disease populations; "intervention" involved behavior change interventions targeting key modifiable health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) delivered either wholly or in part using online social networks; "comparator" was either a control group or within subject in the case of pre-post study designs; "outcomes" included health behavior change and closely related variables (such as theorized mediators of health behavior change, eg, self-efficacy); and "study design" included experimental studies reported in full-length peer-reviewed sources. Reports of intervention effectiveness were summarized and effect sizes (Cohen's d and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated wherever possible. Attrition (percentage of people who completed the study), engagement (actual usage), and fidelity (actual usage/intended usage) with the social networking component of the interventions were scrutinized. A total of 2040 studies were identified from the database searches following removal of duplicates, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 113,988 participants (ranging from n=10 to n=107,907). Interventions included

  9. Effect of Theory of Planned Behavior-based Educational Intervention on Breastfeeding Behavior in Pregnant Women in Fasa City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Marjan Arshad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Breastfeeding is a matter of significant importance. Given the role of such factors as attitude and subjective norms on the behavior of mothers and the low level of exclusive breastfeeding, the present study aimed to determine the effect of educational program based on the theory of planned behavior on breastfeeding behavior among the pregnant women in Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with the gestational age of 30-35 weeks who referred to the health care centers of Fasa, Iran, in 2017. The study population was selected using random sampling technique, and then assigned into two groups of control (n=50 and intervention (n=50. The data were collected using a demographic form, components of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire, and a breastfeeding checklist. The intervention group received three 55-to-60-minute training sessions. The mothers' breastfeeding behavior was evaluated before the training sessions and 40 days post-delivery in both groups. The data were analyzed in SPSS software, version 22, using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired sample t-test. Results: According to the results, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the components of the theory of planned behavior before the educational intervention (P=0.208. However, after the training sessions, the intervention group showed a significant improvement in all components of the theory of planned behavior, including intention and breastfeeding behavior, compared to the control group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, appropriate training programs, social network support, and suitable conditions for breastfeeding in the community are among the effective factors that can change the mothers’ attitudes towards lactation and result in successful breastfeeding in the first three months after childbirth.

  10. The use and utility of specific nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin

    2015-02-01

    This study compares different nonpharmacological interventions for persons with behavioral symptoms and dementia on frequency of use and perceived efficacy in terms of change in behavior and interest. Participants were 89 nursing home residents from six Maryland nursing homes with a mean age of 85.9 years (SD: 8.6 years). Research assistants presented interventions tailored to the participants' needs and preferences in a pre-intervention trial phase and in an intervention phase. The impact of each intervention on behavioral symptoms and on the person's interest was rated immediately after the intervention by a research assistant. The most utilized interventions in both trial and treatment phases were the social intervention of one-on-one interaction, simulated social interventions such as a lifelike doll and respite video, the theme intervention of magazine, and the sensory stimulation intervention of music. In contrast, the least utilized interventions in both phases were sewing, fabric book, and flower arrangement. Interventions with the highest impact on behavioral symptoms included one-on-one social interaction, hand massage, music, video, care, and folding towels. Other high impact interventions included walking, going outside, flower arranging, food or drink, sewing, group activity, book presentation, ball toss, coloring or painting, walking, and family video. The results provide initial directions for choosing specific interventions for persons with dementia and also demonstrate a methodology for increasing knowledge through ongoing monitoring of practice. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Mangelsdorf, S.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.

  12. Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, Mariska; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Zevalkink, D.J.

    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.

  13. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators in Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Don; Childs, Karen; Blase, Karen A.; Wallace, Frances

    2007-01-01

    As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used…

  14. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Crutzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy, we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  15. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Noijen, Judith

    2017-01-01

    When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention) in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy), we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  16. Behavior change in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of

  17. Domestic violence in the pregnant patient: obstetric and behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Liebschutz, J

    1998-10-01

    Every day, obstetric providers treat patients experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence can have both dramatic and subtle impacts on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This article enumerates patient risk factors for and obstetric consequences of domestic violence. It describes adaptations to the assessment and treatment of pregnancy complications occurring in the context of domestic violence and presents behavioral interventions that can be performed within existing obstetric care delivery systems. Behavioral interventions include assessments of a patient's readiness for change and her emotional responses to the violence. Obstetric interventions include an assessment of risk of physical harm to a pregnant woman and her fetus from domestic violence. Interviewing techniques include educating the patient about the effects of abuse and, over time, validating a patient's efforts to change. Reliance on a team approach and use of community resources are emphasized. All of these mechanisms enable obstetric providers to assist pregnant women in taking steps to end the abuse.

  18. Behavioral Competence as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral competence is delineated in terms of four parameters: (a Moral and Social Knowledge, (b Social Skills, (c Positive Characters and Positive Attributes, and (d Behavioral Decision Process and Action Taking. Since Ma’s other papers in this special issue have already discussed the moral and social knowledge as well as the social skills associated in detail, this paper focuses on the last two parameters. It is hypothesized that the following twelve positive characters are highly related to behavioral competence: humanity, intelligence, courage, conscience, autonomy, respect, responsibility, naturalness, loyalty, humility, assertiveness, and perseverance. Large-scale empirical future studies should be conducted to substantiate the predictive validity of the complete set of these positive characters. The whole judgment and behavioral decision process is constructed based on the information processing approach. The direction of future studies should focus more on the complex input, central control, and output subprocesses and the interactions among these sub-processes. The understanding of the formation of behavior is crucial to whole-person education and positive youth development.

  19. Positive and Negative Impacts of a Continuing Professional Development Intervention on Pharmacist Practice: A Balanced Measure Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Sukhjinder; Gorman, Sean K; Slavik, Richard S; Ramsey, Tasha; Bruchet, Nicole; Murray, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of behavior change interventions aimed at improving professional practice are increasingly focused on impacts at the practice and patient outcome levels. Many of these evaluations assume that if the intended changes occur, the result represents an improvement. However, given the systemic nature of clinical practice, a change in one area can produce changes in other areas as well, some of which may adversely affect the patient. Balancing measures are used to determine whether unintended consequences of an intervention have been introduced into other areas of the system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of behavior change intervention-based continuing professional development (CPD) on pharmacist interventions (resolution of drug therapy problems-DTPs) and resolution of quality indicator DTPs and knowledge change for urinary tract infections (UTI) and pneumonia. As a balancing measure, we aimed to determine whether delivery of behavior change interventions targeting pneumonia and UTI practice results in a negative impact on other important pharmacist interventions, specifically the resolution of heart failure DTPs. A quasiexperimental study was conducted at a Canadian health authority that evaluated the impacts of an 8-week multifaceted behavior change intervention delivered to 58 ward-based pharmacists. The primary outcome was change in proportion of UTI and pneumonia DTPs resolved from the 6-month preintervention to 6-month postintervention phase. Secondary outcomes were changes in proportion of UTI and pneumonia quality indicator DTPs resolved, knowledge quiz scores, and proportion of quality indicator DTPs resolved for heart failure as a balancing measure. A total of 58 pharmacists were targets of the intervention. The proportion of resolved UTI and pneumonia DTPs increased from 17.8 to 27.2% (relative risk increase 52.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42.8-63.6%; P UTI and pneumonia quality indicator DTPs increased from 12.2% to 18

  20. Increasing the public health impact of evidence-based interventions in behavioral medicine: new approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Janke, E Amy; Kugler, Kari C; Duffecy, Jenna; Mielenz, Thelma J; St George, Sara M; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri N

    2017-02-01

    The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based behavioral medicine interventions into real world practice has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific limitations of current behavioral medicine research within the context of the RE-AIM framework, and potential opportunities to increase public health impact by applying novel intervention designs and data collection approaches. The MOST framework has recently emerged as an alternative approach to development and evaluation that aims to optimize multicomponent behavioral and bio-behavioral interventions. SMART designs, imbedded within the MOST framework, are an approach to optimize adaptive interventions. In addition to innovative design strategies, novel data collection approaches that have the potential to improve the public-health dissemination include mHealth approaches and considering environment as a potential data source. Finally, becoming involved in advocacy via policy related work may help to improve the impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions. Innovative methods, if increasingly implemented, may have the ability to increase the public health impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions to prevent disease.

  1. Behavioral-Progress Monitoring Using the Electronic Daily Behavioral Report Card (e-DBRC) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mack D.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an overview of a Web-based electronic system for behavioral-progress monitoring. Behavioral-progress monitoring is necessary to evaluate responsiveness to behavioral interventions, the effects of positive behavioral support, and the attainment of individualized education program goals and objectives. The…

  2. Effects of a Mail and Telephone Intervention on Breast Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J.; Powers, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a mail and telephone intervention to improve breast health behaviors while maintaining quality of life. Women recruited from the general public were randomized to a stepped-intensity intervention consisting of mailings, telephone calls, and counseling (if requested or appropriate given a woman's genetic risk for breast cancer)…

  3. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  4. Evaluating guilt and shame in an expressive writing alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Neighbors, Clayton; Campbell, Michelle T; Lu, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Expressive writing interventions have shown positive physical and psychological health benefits over time, with the presumed mechanism being emotional disclosure. However, work utilizing expressive writing in behavior change has been minimal. The current research applied the expressive writing paradigm to reduce drinking intentions among college students, and evaluated the role of event-related guilt and shame in intervention effects. College students (N=429) completed a baseline survey and were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Negative (write about a heavy drinking event that was negative); Positive (write about a heavy drinking event that was positive); or Neutral (write about their first day of college). After writing, readiness to change and future drinking intentions were assessed. Results revealed intervention effects on intended drinks per week and intended number of drinks during peak and typical drinking occasions. Participants in the negative condition also displayed higher levels of event-related guilt and shame. Results showed that guilt mediated intervention effects on readiness to change, which also mediated the association between guilt-reparative behavior and drinking intentions. Results provide initial support for an expressive writing intervention on alcohol use and underscore the importance of eliciting emotions associated with reparative behavior when considering negative past experiences and future behavior change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of educational intervention program for parents on adolescents'nutritional behaviors in Isfahan in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.

  6. Responses to Students Exhibiting Challenging Behavior: A Social-Cognitive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and academic interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities have been based primarily on behavior theory and principles of applied behavior analysis, with a recent emphasis on positive behavioral supports and the use of nonaversive interventions. Despite the wide acceptance of applied behavior analysis technology within…

  7. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Umesh C.; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed. PMID:27212813

  9. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Umesh C; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H R

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed.

  10. Innovative Behavior and Psychological Capital: Does Positivity Make any Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomna M. Sameer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Despite increasing importance of fostering innovation among employees, and the growing interest in Positive Organizational Behaviour (POB constructs, little empirical research has been conducted on the topic of innovation with POB. Moreover, though research proved significant relationship between positive psychological capital (PsyCap and creative performance, no studies examined PsyCap with innovative behavior. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the link between positive psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as the link between innovative behavior and job satisfaction as well as engagement. Design/methodology/approach - Using regression analyses, data were obtained from Egyptian professionals (N = 250. The survey included measures of psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as job satisfaction and engagement. Findings - Regression analyses reveal that PsyCap, with its four components of hope, optimism, resilience and efficacy, predict innovative behavior, which in turn affects satisfaction and engagement. Research implications/limitations - Limitations, contributions and recommendations for future research are noted. Results contribute to a better understanding of how psychological capital enhances Innovative behavior in the workplace, which in turns, enhances job satisfaction and engagement. Originality/value/contribution - The study is the first to examine the relationship between psychological capital and innovative behavior.(original abstract

  11. Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs: Application to Child Behavior Research in a Community Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…

  12. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Maryann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%; 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were fully completed (where all required risk content was covered. Ninety-three percent of the subsample of intervention women had a positive view of their

  13. Life skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.

  14. Using a social story intervention to decrease inappropriate behavior of preschool children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkhana Khantreejitranon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the inappropriate behavior of preschool children with autism in a classroom and examined the effectiveness of the use of social stories to decrease inappropriate autistic behavior. An A-B-A-B single subject design was used across the five participants selected for the study. Investigating the problematic social skills and developing a social story intervention for the preschool autistic children was completed, followed by an examination of the effectiveness of the social story intervention. Ten common problematic social skills among the autistic children in preschool were identified—walking around, making loud noises, not sharing their toys with others, showing frustration when feeling unsatisfied, having no patience, not putting toys away when finished, taking other people's belongings without permission, not knowing how to greet others, destroying things when feeling frustrated, and giving a hug to other people at inappropriate times. It was found that the social story intervention helped to decrease inappropriate behavior in children with autism. The social story intervention consisted of five social story books and five e-books (one story per child using a single subject design with an A-B-A-B pattern. The autistic children preferred social stories from the hardcopy books compared with stories from the e-books. A fourth stage time trial was used over 6 weeks, five times per week, for a total of 30 times. The findings suggested that the use of properly constructed social stories can be effective in decreasing the inappropriate behavior of children with autism. However, each story intervention should be applied with caution because of individual differences between children. The social story intervention should be designed only for autistic children who exhibit specific inappropriate social behavior. Keywords: autistic child, inappropriate behavior, social skills, social story

  15. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S; Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a 1-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem, respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. There were 657 adolescents who completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, gender, and weight status at baseline, whereas self-esteem differences were demonstrated for gender, ethnicity, and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12 months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p = .02) over time compared with subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self-esteem were not

  16. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  17. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  18. Intervention effects on safety compliance and citizenship behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B; Johnson, Ryan C; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly D; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A different perspective: introducing positive criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Elisha, Ety

    2011-04-01

    Positive criminology is a new conceptual perspective of criminology, encompassing several theories and models. Positive criminology refers to a focus on individuals' encounters with forces and influences that are experienced as positive, which distance them from deviance and crime, whether by means of formal and informal therapy programs and interventions, such as self-help groups; through emphasis of positive social elements, such as exposure to goodness, social acceptance, and reintegrative shaming; or based on positive personal traits, such as resilience and coherence. The perspective of positive criminology broadens that of traditional criminology, which focuses mainly on understanding the factors and processes that lead individuals and groups to what is defined as deviant and criminal behavior. Positive criminology is implemented in treatment and rehabilitation of individuals and groups that have demonstrated deviant and criminal behavior, by emphasizing positive experiences that may potentially prevent or discourage continued criminal behavior. Positive criminology is also expressed in prevention based on a positive approach.

  20. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully used for a range of health behaviors, including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests the relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrates a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and to adjust analytically for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas.

  1. Reorganization of brain function after a short-term behavioral intervention for stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunming; Zheng, Lifen; Long, Yuhang; Yan, Qian; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling; Howell, Peter

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups. Across the 7-day period of the intervention, AWS+ alone showed a significant increase of brain activation in the left ventral IFC/insula. There were no changes in brain function for the other two groups. Further analysis revealed that the change did not correlate with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) that AWS showed in the cerebellum (Lu et al., 2012). However, both changes in task-related brain function and RSFC correlated with changes in speech fluency level. Together, these findings suggest that functional reorganization in a brain region close to the left IFC that shows anomalous function in AWS, occurs after a short-term behavioral intervention for stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  3. Behavioral functionality of mobile apps in health interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-02-26

    Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices.

  4. The reciprocity of prosocial behavior and positive affect in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Aan Het Rot, Marije; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter; Wichers, Marieke

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether prosocial behaviors help sustain a positive mood, we tested the dynamic reciprocal associations between prosocial behavior and positive affect (PA) in daily life. A second aim was to examine whether the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion moderate these

  5. Ensuring treatment fidelity in a multi-site behavioral intervention study: implementing NIH Behavior Change Consortium recommendations in the SMART trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Burns, Debra S; Docherty, Sharron L; Haase, Joan E

    2011-11-01

    The Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART) study (R01NR008583; U10CA098543; U10CA095861) is an ongoing multi-site Children's Oncology Group randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a therapeutic music video intervention for adolescents/young adults (11-24 years of age) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplant. Treatment fidelity strategies from our trial are consistent with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Behavior Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup (BCC) recommendations and provide a successful working model for treatment fidelity implementation in a large, multi-site behavioral intervention study. In this paper, we summarize 20 specific treatment fidelity strategies used in the SMART trial and how these strategies correspond with NIH BCC recommendations in five specific areas: (1) study design, (2) training providers, (3) delivery of treatment, (4) receipt of treatment, and (5) enactment of treatment skills. Increased use and reporting of treatment fidelity procedures is essential in advancing the reliability and validity of behavioral intervention research. The SMART trial provides a strong model for the application of fidelity strategies to improve scientific findings and addresses the absence of published literature, illustrating the application of BCC recommendations in behavioral intervention studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Extending the Minority Stress Model to Incorporate HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences: a Longitudinal Examination of Mental Health and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pachankis, John E; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors-maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations.

  7. A cognitive/behavioral group intervention for weight loss in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary; Wyne, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Obesity and diabetes have caused problems for individuals with schizophrenia long before atypical antipsychotic agents. The prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and the Metabolic Syndrome has increased in people with schizophrenia as compared to the general population. Risk reduction studies for persons with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease indicate that cognitive/behavioral interventions that promote motivation and provide strategies to overcome the barriers in adherence to diet and activity modification are effective interventions for weight management and risk reduction. In the landmark multi-center randomized-controlled trial study, the Diabetes Prevention Project (DPP), a cognitive/behavioral intervention, was more successful in producing weight loss and preventing diabetes than the drugs metformin, troglitazone or placebo. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive/behavioral group intervention, modified after the DPP program, in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder taking atypical antipsychotics in a large urban public mental health system. Outcome measures included body weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratios, and fasting glucose levels. Both groups demonstrated elevated fasting glucose levels and were obese with a mean BMI of 33. The group that received the cognitive/behavioral group intervention lost more weight than the treatment as usual group. The CB group participants lost an average of 5.4 lb or 2.9% of body weight, and those in the control group lost 1.3 lb or 0.6% body weight. The range of weight loss for the treatment group was from 1 to 20 lb. This pilot study has demonstrated that weight loss is possible with cognitive/behavioral interventions in a population with a psychotic disorder.

  8. ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

  9. The Social Validity of "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms": Inferences from Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective commentary on "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms: The Influence of Amount of Teacher Time, Severity of Behavior Problem, and Type of Intervention," I first examine the concept of social validity and related measurement challenges per Wolf's concerns about consumers' subjective reactions to…

  10. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  11. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  12. Positive Affect: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Prosocial Behaviors and Internalizing Problems in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996, the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997, and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991, respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared. In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  13. Positive psychological interventions for people with epilepsy: An assessment on factors related to intervention participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Siew-Tim; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tang, Venus; Low, Wah-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Positive psychological interventions (PPI) are increasingly employed as a coping strategy with physical and mental conditions, including neurological diseases. Its effectiveness on improving wellbeing in people with epilepsy (PWE) has been shown in a few studies. This study aimed to explore factors related to participants' willingness to engage in psychological interventions from the perspective of patients with epilepsy. Participants answered a needs assessment questionnaire eliciting information about their illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ)), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), willingness to participate in psychological interventions, preferences in types of PPI and intervention designs, as well as barriers in seeking mental health services. A total of 154 patients with epilepsy participated, with a mean age of 37.3years (range 16-86years). Most patients had focal epilepsy (68.2%), and drug-resistant (59.1%). Majority (71.4%) of them indicated a strong willingness to participate in PPI. Out of nine types of PPI, character strengths, mindfulness-based and expressive-based interventions were highly preferred. Those with negative illness perception (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.004), and being unemployed (p=0.048) were more willing to participate in PPI. Most participants preferred group rather than individual session, and a shorter duration (30min) was favored by most. This study captured the self-report willingness to participate in psychological interventions. Findings suggested that psychological interventions delivered in short-group session were highly preferred. Future study is required to determine the feasibility of such design for patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of an Educational Text Message Intervention on Adolescents' Knowledge and High-Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Nichole Erin; Schaar, Gina

    2018-03-01

    Health care providers need to develop improved methods of educating adolescents. This study was developed to evaluate adolescents' responses to and satisfaction with an educational text message intervention to promote healthy behaviors, reduce the incidence of unhealthy behaviors, and prevent high-risk behaviors. Adolescent participants received weekly text messages regarding high-risk sexual behaviors, healthy dietary habits, exercise, drug, or alcohol use, and social issues. Results indicate adolescents learned something new, made a behavioral change, and overall liked the delivery of educational information via text message. This indicates long-term continuation of a text message intervention is a viable means to deliver adolescent health information, thereby improving an adolescent's current and future health status.

  15. Dealing with missing behavioral endpoints in health promotion research by modeling cognitive parameters in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions : a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M.A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M.A.A.; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  16. DEALING WITH MISSING BEHAVIORAL ENDPOINTS IN HEALTH PROMOTION RESEARCH BY MODELING COGNITIVE PARAMETERS IN COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSES OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS : A VALIDATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; van der Palen, Job

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  17. DEALING WITH MISSING BEHAVIORAL ENDPOINTS IN HEALTH PROMOTION RESEARCH BY MODELING COGNITIVE PARAMETERS IN COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSES OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS : A VALIDATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  18. Dealing with missing behavioral endpoints in health promotion research by modeling cognitive parameters in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, R.; Pieterse, M.E.; Braakman-Jansen, L.M.A.; Feenstra, T.L.; Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; de Vries, H.; van Ommeren, J.K.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; van der Palen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  19. Sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive persons in Jamaica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    positive status potentially place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. The study findings highlight the need to promote safe sexual behaviors and a positive social environment for people living with ...

  20. [The positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Juliana Costa; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Silva, Luciana Saraiva da

    2014-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature describing the use of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior in order to identify the potentials of this method for health and nutrition education. Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed, and Scopus were searched. The following search terms were used: positive deviance, desvio positivo, positive deviance inquiry and positive deviants. Inclusion criteria were: reporting primary data, clearly defined methods, and availability of full text. The main results of the studies selected for inclusion were described and examined based on psychosocial (socioeconomic and health status, hygiene and nutrition habits), anthropometric (weight, height), and biochemical and clinical (presence of morbidity and biochemical tests) criteria to determine the potential and limitations of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior. Of the 47 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria. The positive deviance method was used for prevention and rehabilitation of child and maternal malnutrition in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability and for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. An improvement in maternal and child nutrition and the maintenance of beneficial behaviors over time were underscored as positive impacts of the method. The positive deviance approach may help change nutrition behaviors with the aim of reversing child malnutrition and overweight and obesity in adults. This approach seems effective to promote health education in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability.

  1. A program of positive intervention in the elderly: memories, gratitude and forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Encarnación; Ortega, Ana Raquel; Chamorro, Alberto; Colmenero, José María

    2014-05-01

    The main goal of this study has been to increase the quality of life in people of over 60 years through a positive psychology intervention. We employed a program which consists of training based on autobiographical memory, forgiveness and gratitude. The sample consisted of 46 participants aged 60-93 years. State and trait anxiety, depression, general memory, specific memories, life satisfaction and subjective happiness were measured. The results revealed that participants who followed the program (experimental group) showed a significant decrease in state anxiety and depression as well as an increase in specific memories, life satisfaction and subjective happiness, compared with the placebo group. Our program offers promising results and provides new evidence for the effectiveness of positive interventions in the field of psychogerontology, helping increase subjective well-being and quality of life in older adults by focusing interventions on the enhancement of personal and social resources for being happy.

  2. Efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E; Moore, Michele J; Bian, Hui; DiClemente, Carlo C; Ames, Steven C; Weiler, Robert M; Thombs, Dennis; Pokorny, Steven B; Huang, I-Chan

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologic data indicate most adolescents and adults experience multiple, simultaneous risk behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention (MBI) for college students. A total of 303 college students were randomly assigned to: (1) a brief MBI or (2) a standard care control, with a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Omnibus treatment by time multivariate analysis of variance interactions were significant for three of six behavior groupings, with improvements for college students receiving the brief MBI on alcohol consumption behaviors, F(6, 261) = 2.73, p = 0.01, marijuana-use behaviors, F(4, 278) = 3.18, p = 0.01, and health-related quality of life, F(5, 277) = 2.80, p = 0.02, but not cigarette use, exercise, and nutrition behaviors. Participants receiving the brief MBI also got more sleep, F(1, 281) = 9.49, p = 0.00, than those in the standard care control. A brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention may be useful in influencing a number of critical health habits and health-related quality-of-life indicators of college students.

  3. Increasing Teachers' Use of Praise with a Response-to-Intervention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Diane M.; Simonsen, Brandi; Sugai, George

    2011-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across teachers was used to evaluate the effects of a systematic, response-to-intervention (RTI) approach on rates of desired teacher behavior. Specifically, teachers whose rates of specific, contingent praise were nonresponsive to typical schoolwide positive behavior support training (primary intervention tier) were…

  4. Using Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scales to Assess Student Behavior within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Faith G.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased emphasis on collecting and using data in schools has occurred, in part, because of the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). Commonly referred to as response to intervention in the academic domain and school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports in the behavioral domain, these initiatives have a…

  5. Tablet-Aided BehavioraL intervention EffecT on Self-management skills (TABLETS) for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Cheryl P; Williams, Joni S; J Ruggiero, Kenneth; G Knapp, Rebecca; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-03-22

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show that behavioral lifestyle interventions are effective in improving diabetes management and that comprehensive risk factor management improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The role of technology has been gaining strong support as evidence builds of its potential to improve diabetes management; however, evaluation of its impact in minority populations is limited. This study intends to provide early evidence of a theory-driven intervention, Tablet-Aided BehavioraL intervention EffecT on Self-management skills (TABLETS), using real-time videoconferencing for education and skills training. We examine the potential for TABLETS to improve health risk behaviors and reduce CVD risk outcomes among a low-income African American (AA) population with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. The study is a two-arm, pilot controlled trial that randomizes 30 participants to the TABLETS intervention and 30 participants to a usual care group. Blinded outcome assessments will be completed at baseline, 2.5 months (immediate post-intervention), and 6.5 months (follow-up). The TABLETS intervention consists of culturally tailored telephone-delivered diabetes education and skills training delivered via videoconferencing on tablet devices, with two booster sessions delivered via tablet-based videoconferencing at 3 months and 5 months to stimulate ongoing use of the tablet device with access to intervention materials via videoconferencing slides and a manual of supplementary materials. The primary outcomes are physical activity, diet, medication adherence, and self-monitoring behavior, whereas the secondary outcomes are HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), BP, CVD risk, and quality of life. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven, tablet-aided behavioral intervention that utilizes real-time videoconferencing technology for education and skills training on self

  6. Strengths-Based Behavioral Intervention for Parents of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Using an mHealth App (Type 1 Doing Well): Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Eshtehardi, Sahar S; Minard, Charles G; Saber, Rana; Thompson, Debbe; Karaviti, Lefkothea P; Rojas, Yuliana; Anderson, Barbara J

    2018-03-13

    Supportive parent involvement for adolescents' type 1 diabetes (T1D) self-management promotes optimal diabetes outcomes. However, family conflict is common and can interfere with collaborative family teamwork. Few interventions have used explicitly strengths-based approaches to help reinforce desired management behaviors and promote positive family interactions around diabetes care. The aim of this protocol was to describe the development of a new, strengths-based behavioral intervention for parents of adolescents with T1D delivered via a mobile-friendly Web app called Type 1 Doing Well. Ten adolescent-parent dyads and 5 diabetes care providers participated in a series of qualitative interviews to inform the design of the app. The 3- to 4-month pilot intervention will involve 82 parents receiving daily prompts to use the app, in which they will mark the diabetes-related strength behaviors (ie, positive attitudes or behaviors related to living with or managing T1D) their teen engaged in that day. Parents will also receive training on how to observe diabetes strengths and how to offer teen-friendly praise via the app. Each week, the app will generate a summary of the teen's most frequent strengths from the previous week based on parent reports, and parents will be encouraged to praise their teen either in person or from a library of reinforcing text messages (short message service, SMS). The major outcomes of this pilot study will include intervention feasibility and satisfaction data. Clinical and behavioral outcomes will include glycemic control, regimen adherence, family relationships and conflict, diabetes burden, and health-related quality of life. This strengths-based, mobile health (mHealth) intervention aims to help parents increase their awareness of and efforts to support their adolescents' engagement in positive diabetes-related behaviors. If efficacious, this intervention has the potential to reduce the risk of family conflict, enhance collaborative

  7. Mobile Phone Apps for Behavioral Interventions for At-Risk Drinkers in Australia: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Carol C; Burton, André A D

    2018-02-13

    The mobile technology era has ushered in the use of mobile phone apps for behavioral intervention for at-risk drinkers. Our objective was to review recent research relevant to mobile phone apps that can be used for behavioral intervention for at-risk drinkers in Australia. The inclusion criteria for this review were articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2001 to 2017 with use of the search terms "smartphone application," "alcohol," "substance," "behavioural intervention," "electronic health," and "mobile health." In total, we identified 103 abstracts, screened 90 articles, and assessed 50 full-text articles that fit the inclusion criteria for eligibility. We included 19 articles in this review. This review highlighted the paucity of evidence-based and empirically validated research into effective mobile phone apps that can be used for behavioral interventions with at-risk drinkers in Australia. ©Carol C Choo, André A D Burton. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 13.02.2018.

  8. Impact of a Mobile Phone Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Shuval, Kerem; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Businelle, Michael S; Ma, Ping; High, Robin R; Cuate, Erica L; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Rios, Debra M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Swartz, Michael D; Wetter, David W

    2016-01-25

    Greater time spent sedentary is linked with increased risk of breast, colorectal, ovarian, endometrial, and prostate cancers. Given steadily increasing rates of mobile phone ownership, mobile phone interventions may have the potential to broadly influence sedentary behavior across settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term impact of a mobile phone intervention that targeted sedentary time in a diverse community sample. Adults participated in a quasi-experimental evaluation of a mobile phone intervention designed to reduce sedentary time through prompts to interrupt periods of sitting. Participants carried mobile phones and wore accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Intervention participants additionally received mobile phone prompts during self-reported sitting and information about the negative health impact of prolonged sedentariness. The study was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in Dallas, Texas. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of the intervention on daily accelerometer-determined estimates of sedentary and active time. Participants (N=215) were predominantly female (67.9%, 146/215) and nonwhite (black: 50.7%, 109/215; Latino: 12.1%, 26/215; other: 5.6%, 12/215). Analyses revealed that participants who received the mobile phone intervention had significantly fewer daily minutes of sedentary time (B=-22.09, P=.045) and more daily active minutes (B=23.01, P=.04) than control participants. A simple mobile phone intervention was associated with engaging in less sedentary time and more physical activity. Findings underscore the potential impact of mobile phone interventions to positively influence sedentary behavior and physical activity.

  9. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventions to Mitigate the Psychological Effects of Media Violence on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes and evaluates attempts to mitigate effect that watching television violence has on young children. Most relevant studies have been laboratory experiments, and there is no reported evidence that any intervention has been effective over long-term. Concludes that interventions combining cognitive and behavioral approaches have most promise,…

  11. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  12. A profile of U.S.-based trials of behavioral and social interventions for HIV risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Salaam; Kay, Linda; Strouse, Darcy; Sogolow, Ellen; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Neumann, Mary Spink; Flores, Stephen A; Peersman, Greet; Johnson, Wayne D; Lipman, Paula Darby; Eke, Agatha; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2002-07-01

    We describe 99 (experimental and certain quasi-experimental) U.S.-based trials, reported or published since 1988, of behavioral and social interventions that measured prespecified behavioral and biologic outcomes and aimed to reduce risk for HIV infection. Studies identified through June 1998 by the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis project were grouped into 4 risk behavior areas: drug-related (k [number of studies] = 48), heterosexual youth (k = 24), heterosexual adult (k = 17), and same-sex (k = 10). We compared the studies in the 4 areas by variables key to the development, evaluation, and transfer of interventions. Participants comprised injection drug users (43% of studies), drug users out of treatment (29%), African Americans (18%), clinic patients (18%), youth in schools (10%), and drug users in treatment (10%). Most studies were randomized (85%), provided another intervention to the control or comparison groups (71%), and evaluated behavioral interventions (92%). On average, interventions were conducted in 5 sessions (total, 8 hours) during 3 months. The theoretical basis of the intervention was not noted in 57% of the reports. At least one variable from each of the 3 outcome classifications was measured in 8% of the studies: behavioral, biologic, and psychosocial. Distinct profiles exist for the 4 risk areas. Addressing gaps in research and reporting would be helpful for analytical and program activities. This sizable portfolio of evaluated interventions contributes to effectiveness reviews and to considerations of transfer to program practice.

  13. A Systematic Review of Electronic Mindfulness-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Weight, Weight-Related Behaviors, and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2018-03-01

    Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.

  14. BodySense: an evaluation of a positive body image intervention on sport climate for female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Annick; Mack, Heidi; McVey, Gail; Feder, Stephen; Barrowman, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective prevention program designed to reduce pressures to be thin in sport, and to promote positive body image and eating behaviors in young female athletes. Participants were competitive female gymnasts (aged 11 to 18 years), parents, and coaches from 7 gymnastic clubs across Ontario, Canada. Four of the seven clubs were randomized to receive the 3-month intervention program (IG) aimed at increasing awareness and positive climate change of body image pressures for athletes in their clubs. Three clubs were randomized to the control group (CG). A total of 62 female gymnasts (IG n = 31; CG n = 31) completed self-report questionnaires examining perceptions of pressure to be thin within their sports clubs, self-efficacy over dieting pressures, awareness and internalization of societal pressure to be thin, body esteem, and eating attitudes and behaviours before and following the intervention. A total of 32 mothers (IG n = 24; CG n = 8) completed measures examining their perceptions of their daughter's pressure to be thin, awareness and internalization of societal pressures to be thin, daughter's self-efficacy over dieting pressures, in addition to mothers' beliefs regarding thinness and success for women in society, before and following the intervention. The findings revealed that participation in the BodySense program resulted in athletes perceiving a reduction in pressure from their sports clubs to be thin, though no changes were found in body esteem, the EAT, or the SATAQ. No significant change was observed over time on mothers' measures. The role of climate change for prevention of eating disorders in athletes is discussed.

  15. The Marketing & Positive Impacts of Behavioral Control System on Societies & Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adel Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral control systems are one of the most prominent tools used by managers and marketers for different internal and external purposes. One of the most important external purposes they have been used for is influencing consumer behavior. This paper explores the positive effects of implementing such systems on societies. It discusses consumer perception of the systems, their influence on their financial behavior in different contexts, how can they create order and how as well as to what extent should it be implemented and finally how can minimize negative consumer behavior. A judgment based sample of typical consumers was surveyed using questionnaires for collecting primary data on these aspects. Secondary data from Egypt, Singapore and Malaysia was also used as an example of using behavioral control systems. Results show that consumers in general have a positive attitude towards imposing such systems. However, there were worries about misuse, abuse and overuse of theses systems’ policies. Consequently, data shows that behavioral control systems can positively enhance and influence consumer behavior as long as it is used to balance both consumer and retailer interests in a moderate, risk free manner.

  16. A computer-assisted motivational social network intervention to reduce alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors among Housing First residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Chan Osilla, Karen; Maksabedian, Ervant; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S

    2016-03-15

    Individuals transitioning from homelessness to housing face challenges to reducing alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors. To aid in this transition, this study developed and will test a computer-assisted intervention that delivers personalized social network feedback by an intervention facilitator trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The intervention goal is to enhance motivation to reduce high risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and reduce HIV risk behaviors. In this Stage 1b pilot trial, 60 individuals that are transitioning from homelessness to housing will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention condition consists of four biweekly social network sessions conducted using MI. AOD use and HIV risk behaviors will be monitored prior to and immediately following the intervention and compared to control participants' behaviors to explore whether the intervention was associated with any systematic changes in AOD use or HIV risk behaviors. Social network health interventions are an innovative approach for reducing future AOD use and HIV risk problems, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. The current study develops and pilot-tests a computer-assisted intervention that incorporates social network visualizations and MI techniques to reduce high risk AOD use and HIV behaviors among the formerly homeless. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02140359.

  17. Toward Improved Parenting Interventions for Disruptive Child Behavior : Engaging Disadvantaged Families and Searching for Effective Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.H.O.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk

  18. Leadership Is Positively Related to Athletic Training Students' Clinical Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Leadership development by health professionals positively affects patient outcomes. Objective: To 1) determine if there is any relationship between demonstrated leadership behaviors and clinical behaviors among entry-level AT students (ATS); 2) to explore if the level of leadership behavior changes between ATS level; and 3) to determine…

  19. Borderline personality disorder: nursing interventions using dialectical behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Unda L; McComish, Judith Fry

    2006-06-01

    Psychotherapeutic treatment of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the greatest challenges confronting mental health professionals today. Clients with BPD are often difficult for nurses to work with, perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the underlying dynamics of the disorder. This article describes effective treatment strategies for BPD with a central focus on dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). In typical mental health settings, nurses can effectively implement interventions using the concepts of DBT to help people with BPD build effective coping strategies and skillful behavioral responses for improved quality of life.

  20. Are Social Networking Sites Making Health Behavior Change Interventions More Effective? A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua

    2017-03-01

    The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

  1. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Counterproductive work behavior (CWB has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed.

  2. Psychological and behavioral intervention improves the quality of life and mental health of patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu HX

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Xia Wu,1,* Hua Zhong,2,3,* Yue-Dong Xu,1 Cui-Ping Xu,4 Ying Zhang,5 Wei Zhang1 1Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 2Department of Oncology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 4Department of Nursing, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 5Department of Nursing, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: We examined the effects of psychological and behavioral intervention on health-related quality of life and mental health among patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131 (RAI.Methods: Sixty patients with DTC, undergoing RAI, were randomly assigned to receive either conventional nursing (n=30 or a 1-year psychological and behavioral intervention based on conventional nursing (n=30. Health-related quality of life and mental health issues, depression, and anxiety were measured using the Quality of Life Core Questionnaire, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Self-rating Anxiety Score, respectively.Results: After RAI treatment, patients in both groups showed improved functional capacities (ie, physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social and global quality of life, along with reduced depression and anxiety (P<0.05. At 1-year follow-up, compared with patients in the routine nursing group, those in the psychological and behavioral intervention group demonstrated greater improvements in functional capacities, global quality of life, and depression and anxiety symptoms (P<0.05.Conclusion: Psychological and behavioral interventions for patients with DTC undergoing RAI facilitated positive outcomes, suggesting that nursing care models that include psychological and behavioral interventions

  3. Envisioning the Next Generation of Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Huening, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes. PMID:24666731

  4. Development and pilot evaluation of an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral intervention for maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Seeley, John R; Feil, Edward G; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2012-10-01

    Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or delayed intervention/facilitated treatment-as-usual (DI/TAU). Outcomes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996); the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), Behavioral Observations of Parent-Child Interactions using the Living in Family Environments coding system (LIFE; Hops, Davis, & Longoria, 1995); the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding Systems (DPICS; Eyberg, Nelson, Duke, & Boggs, 2005); the Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI; Lovejoy, Weis, O'Hare, & Rubin, 1999); and the Parenting Sense of Competence scale (PSOC; Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Mom-Net demonstrated high levels of feasibility as indicated by low attrition and high program usage and satisfaction ratings. Participants in the Mom-Net condition demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression, the primary outcome, at the level of both symptoms and estimates of criteria-based diagnoses over the course of the intervention. They also demonstrated significantly greater improvement on a questionnaire measure of parent satisfaction and efficacy as well as on both questionnaire and observational indices of harsh parenting behavior. Initial results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is feasible and efficacious as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A pilot study to examine the effects of a nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and efficacy expectations in middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.

  6. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  7. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  8. Correlates of Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs and Behaviors in Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children Before and After a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention With Text Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p behaviors (rs = 0.545, p cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened, warranting additional research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Responsive Social Positioning Behaviors for Semi-Autonomous Telepresence Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction with a mobile robot requires the establishment of appropriate social positioning behaviors. Previous work has focused mostly on general and static rules that can be applied to robotics, such as proxemics. How can we deal effectively and efficiently with the dynamic positioning

  10. Assessment-Based Intervention for Severe Behavior Problems in a Natural Family Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Bobbie J.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    1997-01-01

    Functional assessments and assessment-based interventions were conducted with an 8-year-old boy with disabilities and severe problem behavior in the context of two family routines: using the home bathroom and dining in a fast-food restaurant. A multiple baseline design demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention package as implemented by…

  11. Raising a Red Flag on Dating Violence: Evaluation of a Low-Resource, College-Based Bystander Behavior Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsky, Amanda E; McDonnell, Karen; Turner, Monique Mitchell; Rimal, Rajiv

    2016-03-09

    Encouraging bystanders to intervene safely and effectively in situations that could escalate to violence-known as bystander behavior programs-is a growing yet largely untested strategy to prevent dating violence. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluate a low-resource, low-intensity intervention aimed at preventing dating violence among college students. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used to guide the evaluation. We also assess which IBM variables were most strongly associated with bystander behaviors. Participants were drawn from two Virginia colleges that predominantly train females in the health profession sciences. The intervention group (n = 329) participated in a university-wide bystander behavior intervention consisting of a 30-min presentation on dating violence at new-student orientation and a week-long "red flag" social marketing campaign on campus to raise awareness of dating violence. Controlling for changes at the comparison university, results showed an increase in bystander behaviors, such as encouraging a friend who may be in an abusive relationship to get help, after the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders (increase of 1.41 bystander behaviors, p = .04). However, no significant changes were found for bystander intentions, self-efficacy, social norms, or attitudes related to dating violence from pre- to post-intervention. Self-efficacy had a direct relationship with bystander behaviors. Results suggest that low-resource interventions have a modest effect on increasing bystander behaviors. However, higher resource interventions likely are needed for a larger impact, especially among students who already demonstrate strong baseline intentions to intervene and prevent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Effects of a Behavior Analytic Intervention With Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the marital relationship and of the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions with couples can promote communication skills, affection and problem solving. Researches with dating couples are incipient on the literature, and it is believed that extending such behaviors can help those couples. The present case study evaluates an intervention (four evaluation sessions and ten sessions of group with dating couples, in the design of a single subject, considering measures baseline, pretest, posttest and follow-up, combined with procedural measures of expectation and satisfaction with the procedure conducted. The results show satisfaction with treatment, generalization to other relationships and improvement of the relationship as communication, affection and problem solving. Implications are discussed for future prevention and researches.

  13. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  14. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Behavioral interventions to reduce nickel exposure in a nickel processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.

  16. Positioning the arts for intervention design research in the human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, David P; Calligan, Holly Feen

    2015-12-01

    The arts have been integral to the human experience fostering innovation in social arrangements, strengthening group cohesion, and merging esthetics with the utilitarian properties of technology. For intervention design research in the human services the arts can harness innovation and creativity in meeting human needs and addressing social issues. Given their capacities to stimulate expression of first person experience through interpretative strategies, the arts can equip people and groups, including researchers, with opportunities to express primary experiential knowledge through creative means, portray useful ways of meeting human needs, educate others about the social issues people experience, and formulate intervention strategies or even models to address the causes and consequences of those issues. In this paper, the authors discuss how the arts can inform and deepen human service intervention design and development and, as a result, advance innovation in the human services. They offer a rationale supporting the inclusion of the arts in the design of human service interventions, examine the contributions of the arts to the formulation of intervention concept and developmental research to further improve interventions, and consider how the arts can advance the reflexivity of intervention designers. The authors draw implications for how researchers can position the arts in the nine steps of intervention design and development the authors offer in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Systematic Review of Digital Interventions for Improving the Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Taylor; Barker, Mary; Maria Jacob, Chandni; Morrison, Leanne; Lawrence, Wendy; Strömmer, Sofia; Vogel, Christina; Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Farrell, David; Inskip, Hazel; Baird, Janis

    2017-12-01

    Many adolescents have poor diet and physical activity behaviors, which can lead to the development of noncommunicable diseases in later life. Digital platforms offer inexpensive means of delivering health interventions, but little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of digital interventions to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in adolescents, to effective intervention components and to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Following a systematic search, abstracts were assessed against inclusion criteria, and data extraction and quality assessment were performed for included studies. Data were analyzed to identify key features that are associated with significant improvement in behavior. A total of 27 studies met inclusion criteria. Most (n = 15) were Web site interventions. Other delivery methods were text messages, games, multicomponent interventions, emails, and social media. Significant behavior change was often seen when interventions included education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. None of the publications reported cost-effectiveness. Due to heterogeneity of studies, meta-analysis was not feasible.It is possible to effect significant health behavior change in adolescents through digital interventions that incorporate education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. Most of the evidence relates to Web sites and further research into alternate media is needed, and longer term outcomes should be evaluated. There is a paucity of data on the cost-effectiveness of digital health interventions, and future trials should report these data. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Employee wellness coaching as an interpersonal communication intervention: exploring intervention effects on healthcare costs, risks, and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2015-01-01

    In order to address the rise in healthcare expenditures, employers are turning to wellness programs as a means to potentially curtail costs. One newly implemented program is wellness coaching, which takes a communicative and holistic approach to helping others make improvements to their health. Wellness coaching is a behavioral health intervention whereby coaches work with clients to help them attain wellness-promoting goals in order to change lifestyle-related behaviors across a range of are...

  19. The integration of behavioral health interventions in children's health care: services, science, and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J; Perrin, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Because the integration of mental or behavioral health services in pediatric primary care is a national priority, a description and evaluation of the interventions applied in the healthcare setting is warranted. This article examines several intervention research studies based on alternative models for delivering behavioral health care in conjunction with comprehensive pediatric care. This review describes the diverse methods applied to different clinical problems, such as brief mental health skills, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices, and the empirical outcomes of this research literature. Next, several key treatment considerations are discussed to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these interventions. Some practical suggestions for overcoming key service barriers are provided to enhance the capacity of the practice to deliver behavioral health care. There is moderate empirical support for the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of these interventions for treating internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Practical strategies to extend this work and address methodological limitations are provided that draw upon recent frameworks designed to simplify the treatment enterprise (e.g., common elements). Pediatric primary care has become an important venue for providing mental health services to children and adolescents due, in part, to its many desirable features (e.g., no stigma, local setting, familiar providers). Further adaptation of existing delivery models may promote the delivery of effective integrated interventions with primary care providers as partners designed to address mental health problems in pediatric healthcare.

  20. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  1. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  2. Behavioral interventions for dual-diagnosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Garlapati, Vamsi

    2004-12-01

    Dual diagnosis patients come to treatment with a variety of deficits,talents, and motivations. A biopsychosocial treatment plan involves multiple interventions, including medications, medical treatment, psychotherapy, family therapy, housing, and vocational rehabilitation. Treatment must be individualized and integrated, and this requires collaboration among a variety of health caregivers. There is empirical evidence that dual-diagnosis patients can be helped to stabilize, to remain in the community,and even to enter the workforce. Behavioral interventions are key ingredients to integrated and comprehensive treatment planning. There is no single model for dual disorders that explains why substance use and psychiatric illness co-occur so frequently. Mueser et al described four theoretical models accounting for the increased rates of comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. They suggested that there could be a common factor that accounts for both, primary psychiatric disorder causing secondary substance abuse, primary substance abuse causing secondary psychiatric disorder, or a bidirectional problem, where each contributes to the other. There is evidence for each, although some are more compelling than others, and none is so compelling that it stands alone. Although family studies and genetic research could explain the common factor, no common gene has appeared. Antisocial personality disorder has been associated with very high rates of substance use disorders and mental illness; however, its prevalence is too low to explain most of the co-occurring phenomena. Common neurobiology, specifically the dopamine-releasing neurons in the mesolimbic system, also may be involved in mental illness, but this is not compelling at the moment. The Self-medication model is very appealing to mental health professionals, as an explanation for the secondary substance abuse model. Mueser et al suggest that three lines of evidence would be present to

  3. Effects of Group Counseling Programs, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Sports Intervention on Internet Addiction in East Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Nie, Jing; Wang, Yafeng

    2017-11-28

    To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA), a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD), -1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.89 to -0.85; CBT: SMD, -1.88; 95% CI, -2.53 to -1.23; sports intervention: SMD, -1.70; 95% CI, -2.14 to -1.26). For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.

  4. Types of Motivating Operations in Interventions with Problem Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent

    2013-01-01

    A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…

  5. Improving Behavior by Using Multicomponent Self-Monitoring within a Targeted Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; Watt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have documented the interrelatedness of reading and behavior (McIntosh, Sadler, & Brown, 2012). Thus, research examining the best way to intervene with students who exhibit problems in both skill sets is merited. Recently, taking an integrated approach to reading and behavioral intervention has been suggested (Mooney, Ryan, Uhing,…

  6. 'Accepting where I'm at' - a qualitative study of the mechanisms, benefits, and impact of a behavioral memory intervention for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermorris, Susan; Davidson, Sylvia; Au, April; Sue, Joanna; Fallah, Shafagh; Troyer, Angela K

    2017-09-01

    Gain novel, in-depth insight into therapeutic mechanisms, benefits, and impact of a multi-modal behavioral memory intervention for older adults with concerns about memory. Participants were11 community-dwelling older adults (aged 63-88) who completed the Memory and Aging Program, an evidence-based multi-modal group intervention for normal age-related memory change. Semi-structured interviews were administered post-intervention. Responses were analyzed using qualitative content analysis until meaningful themes were agreed upon. Analyses revealed a main theme of normalization as the overarching benefit of participation. The mechanism for this comprised both specific intervention content and the process of participating with others. A positive impact of the intervention was demonstrated at emotional (feelings of reassurance, hope, and confidence) and functional (increasing motivation for lifestyle change) levels; for some, there was a direct link between emotion and function. This study highlighted a single, prominent therapeutic benefit of normalization, illustrated a dual mechanism for achieving this, and characterized a nuanced inter-relationship of the emotional and functional impact of the intervention for participants. Results support the notion that group behavioral interventions can educate, empower, and promote psychological well-being in older adults and may be an effective avenue to reduce risk of disease and promote sustained functional independence.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial Examination of a Remote Parenting Intervention: Engagement and Effects on Parenting Behavior and Child Abuse Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Kathleen; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward; Sheeber, Lisa; Landry, Susan; Leve, Craig; Johnson, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    Technology advances increasingly allow for access to remotely delivered interventions designed to promote early parenting practices that protect against child maltreatment. Among low-income families, at somewhat elevated risk for child maltreatment, there is some evidence that parents do engage in and benefit from remote-coaching interventions. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such programs to engage and benefit families at high risk for child maltreatment due to multiple stressors associated with poverty. To address this limitation, we examined engagement and outcomes among mothers at heightened risk for child abuse, who were enrolled in a randomized controlled, intent-to-treat trial of an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based infant parenting intervention. We found that engagement patterns were similar between higher and lower risk groups. Moreover, an intervention dose by condition effect was found for increased positive parent behavior and reduced child abuse potential.

  8. Interest in Health Behavior Intervention Delivery Modalities Among Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Emily C; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Cox, Matthew G; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Carmack, Cindy L; Blalock, Janice A; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective, broad-reaching channels are important for the delivery of health behavior interventions in order to meet the needs of the growing population of cancer survivors in the United States. New technology presents opportunities to increase the reach of health behavior change interventions and therefore their overall impact. However, evidence suggests that older adults may be slower in their adoption of these technologies than the general population. Survivors? interest for more...

  9. Using the theory of planned behavior to explore attitudes and beliefs about dietary supplements among HIV-positive Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Stephanie; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Herring, R Patti; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hilliard, Charles; Campbell, Danielle; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to intention of dietary supplements use among African-American women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A closed-ended questionnaire based on the TPB was utilized to explore the use of dietary supplements among a cohort of 153 HIV-positive African-American women. Overall, 45% of the respondents used dietary supplements to manage/control their HIV. Combined, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention toward dietary supplement use (69% of the variance explained, pbehavioral control (β=0.45, pBehavioral intention and proximal TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), as well as their underlying beliefs about dietary supplements use, were all found to be significantly more positive in users of dietary supplements compared to non-users (pbehavioral control are important predictors in the intention to use dietary supplements for control of HIV among African-American women. Implications from this study suggest that the TPB can be used to better identify and understand salient beliefs that surround intentions to use alternative therapies for management of disease. These beliefs can be used to develop interventions surrounding HIV treatment and care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Meaningful Roles Intervention: An Evolutionary Approach to Reducing Bullying and Increasing Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Volk, Anthony A; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael; Embry, Dennis D

    2016-12-01

    Bullying is a problem that affects adolescents worldwide. Efforts to prevent bullying have been moderately successful at best, or iatrogenic at worst. We offer an explanation for this limited success by employing an evolutionary-psychological perspective to analyze antibullying interventions. We argue that bullying is a goal-directed behavior that is sensitive to benefits as well as costs, and that interventions must address these benefits. This perspective led us to develop a novel antibullying intervention, Meaningful Roles, which offers bullies prosocial alternatives-meaningful roles and responsibilities implemented through a school jobs program and reinforced through peer-to-peer praise notes-that effectively meet the same status goals as bullying behavior. We describe this new intervention and how its theoretical evolutionary roots may be applicable to other intervention programs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  11. A Web-Based Data Collection Platform for Multisite Randomized Behavioral Intervention Trials: Development, Key Software Features, and Results of a User Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Riddhi A; Mugavero, Michael J; Amico, Rivet K; Keruly, Jeanne; Quinlivan, Evelyn Byrd; Crane, Heidi M; Guzman, Alfredo; Zinski, Anne; Montue, Solange; Roytburd, Katya; Church, Anna; Willig, James H

    2017-06-16

    Meticulous tracking of study data must begin early in the study recruitment phase and must account for regulatory compliance, minimize missing data, and provide high information integrity and/or reduction of errors. In behavioral intervention trials, participants typically complete several study procedures at different time points. Among HIV-infected patients, behavioral interventions can favorably affect health outcomes. In order to empower newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals to learn skills to enhance retention in HIV care, we developed the behavioral health intervention Integrating ENGagement and Adherence Goals upon Entry (iENGAGE) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), where we deployed an in-clinic behavioral health intervention in 4 urban HIV outpatient clinics in the United States. To scale our intervention strategy homogenously across sites, we developed software that would function as a behavioral sciences research platform. This manuscript aimed to: (1) describe the design and implementation of a Web-based software application to facilitate deployment of a multisite behavioral science intervention; and (2) report on results of a survey to capture end-user perspectives of the impact of this platform on the conduct of a behavioral intervention trial. In order to support the implementation of the NIAID-funded trial iENGAGE, we developed software to deploy a 4-site behavioral intervention for new clinic patients with HIV/AIDS. We integrated the study coordinator into the informatics team to participate in the software development process. Here, we report the key software features and the results of the 25-item survey to evaluate user perspectives on research and intervention activities specific to the iENGAGE trial (N=13). The key features addressed are study enrollment, participant randomization, real-time data collection, facilitation of longitudinal workflow, reporting, and reusability. We found 100% user

  12. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  13. Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Stress Incontinence: Rates, Barriers, and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Ye, Wen; Weidner, Alison C.; Lukacz, Emily S.; Jelovsek, John-Eric; Bradley, Catherine S.; Schaffer, Joseph; Hsu, Yvonne; Kenton, Kimberly; Spino, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Background First-line conservative treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women is behavioral intervention, including pelvic-floor muscle (PFM) exercise and bladder control strategies. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe adherence and barriers to exercise and bladder control strategy adherence and (2) to identify predictors of exercise adherence. Design This study was a planned secondary analysis of data from a multisite, randomized trial comparing intravaginal continence pessary, multicomponent behavioral therapy, and combined therapy in women with stress-predominant urinary incontinence (UI). Methods Data were analyzed from the groups who received behavioral intervention alone (n=146) or combined with continence pessary therapy (n=150). Adherence was measured during supervised treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomization. Barriers to adherence were surveyed during treatment and at the 3-month time point. Regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of exercise adherence during supervised treatment and at the 3- and 12-month time points. Results During supervised treatment, ≥86% of the women exercised ≥5 days a week, and ≥80% performed at least 30 contractions on days they exercised. At 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomization, 95%, 88%, and 80% of women, respectively, indicated they were still performing PFM exercises. During supervised treatment and at 3 months post-randomization, ≥87% of the women reported using learned bladder control strategies to prevent SUI. In addition, the majority endorsed at least one barrier to PFM exercise, most commonly “trouble remembering to do exercises.” Predictors of exercise adherence changed over time. During supervised intervention, less frequent baseline UI and higher baseline 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) mental scores predicted exercise adherence. At 3 months post-randomization, women who dropped out of the study had weaker PFMs at baseline. At

  14. PREVIEW behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT: a study protocol for a psychological element of a multicenter project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kahlert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counselling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1 Summing-up the intervention goal(s, target group and the setting, (2 uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3 identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4 preparing for evaluation and (5 implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major ‘product’ of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participant’s behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and train-the-trainer workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre

  15. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT): A Study Protocol for a Psychological Element of a Multicenter Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participants' behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and "train-the-trainer" workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre-diabetic people.

  16. A behavioral intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Brennan, Robert T; Weisz, John R; Hansen, Nathan B

    2014-12-01

    Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15-24 years) in Sierra Leone. War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT

  17. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors in Office Workers Using Sit-Stand Tables With and Without Semiautomated Position Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dechristian França; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    We compared usage patterns of two different electronically controlled sit-stand tables during a 2-month intervention period among office workers. Office workers spend most of their working time sitting, which is likely detrimental to health. Although the introduction of sit-stand tables has been suggested as an effective intervention to decrease sitting time, limited evidence is available on usage patterns of sit-stand tables and whether patterns are influenced by table configuration. Twelve workers were provided with standard sit-stand tables (nonautomated table group) and 12 with semiautomated sit-stand tables programmed to change table position according to a preset pattern, if the user agreed to the system-generated prompt (semiautomated table group). Table position was monitored continuously for 2 months after introducing the tables, as a proxy for sit-stand behavior. On average, the table was in a "sit" position for 85% of the workday in both groups; this percentage did not change significantly during the 2-month period. Switches in table position from sit to stand were, however, more frequent in the semiautomated table group than in the nonautomated table group (0.65 vs. 0.29 hr -1 ; p = .001). Introducing a semiautomated sit-stand table appeared to be an attractive alternative to a standard sit-stand table, because it led to more posture variation. A semiautomated sit-stand table may effectively contribute to making postures more variable among office workers and thus aid in alleviating negative health effects of extensive sitting.

  18. Comparison of substance use and risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of urban, HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Laura A.; Horvath, Keith J.; Jacoby, Scott M.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Aims To measure substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), model associations between drug use and unsafe sex, and characterize users of the substances most strongly associated with risky sexual behavior. Design Cross-sectional survey at the pre-intervention time point of the Positive Connections behavioral intervention trial. Setting HIV-positive men of color who have sex with men living in six US cities. Participants 675 trial participants. Measurements Self-reported drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviors. Findings We found high prevalence of substance use in this sample, with differences across racial and ethnic groups. Compared to Hispanic, African America, and men of other or mixed races/ethnicities, Caucasian men were most likely to report use of stimulants (30%), methamphetamines (27%), and amyl nitrite inhalants (“poppers”, 46%) with anal sex. African American men reported crack/cocaine use in the highest proportion (38%) among the four groups. While many drugs were individually associated with serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI), only alcohol quantity and poppers with sex were retained in a multivariate model. More frequent poppers use was associated with more reported instances of SDUAI, adjusted for increased anal sex. Men who used poppers were more likely to be white, have completed more education, and have slightly higher income than non-users. Poppers users also reported lower peer norms and self-efficacy for condom use. In a multiple logistic regression model including these psychosocial factors, only poppers use (vs non-use OR = 2.46, CI: 1.55, 3.94) and condom self-efficacy (1 sd increase on scale OR = .58, CI: .46, .73) were significantly associated with SDUAI. Conclusion These results, from a large sample of HIV-positive MSM of color, highlight the HIV transmission importance of drugs used specifically in conjunction with sex. PMID:20155589

  19. Effects of Video Modeling on Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teri, Linda; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1991-01-01

    Presents two strategies for treating depression in Alzheimer's patients: cognitive therapy for mildly demented adults which challenges patient's negative cognitions to reduce distortions and enable patient to generate more adaptive ways of viewing specific events; and behavioral intervention for moderately or severely demented adults which…

  1. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  2. Theoretical approaches of online social network interventions and implications for behavioral change: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A brief behavioral feedback intervention in hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, Maria J.; Peters, Ellen; Elving, Lammy D.; Bredie, Sebastian J. H.; Wollersheim, Hub; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle

  4. A brief behavioral feedback intervention in hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, M.J.; Peters, E.; Elving, L.D.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schippers, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle

  5. A brief behavioral feedback intervention in hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, M.J.; Peters, E.; Elving, L.D.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schippers, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle

  6. Sexual health behavior interventions for U.S. Latino adolescents: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Vicky J; Documét, Patricia I; Fryer, Craig S; Gold, Melanie A; Butler, James

    2012-04-01

    To identify sexual health behavior interventions targeting U.S. Latino adolescents. A systematic literature review. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2011, conducted in any type of setting. Male and female Latino adolescents ages 11-21 years. Interventions promoting sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and/or HIV/AIDS prevention. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, engagement in risky sexual behaviors, rates of STIs, and/or pregnancy. Sixty-eight articles were identified. Fifteen were included in this review that specifically addressed Latino adolescent sexual health behavior. Among the reviewed interventions, most aimed to prevent or reduce STI and HIV/AIDS incidence by focusing on behavior change at two levels of the social ecological model: individual and interpersonal. Major strengths of the articles included addressing the most critical issues of sexual health; using social ecological approaches; employing different strategies to deliver sexual health messages; and employing different intervention designs in diverse geographical locations with the largest population of Latino communities. Most of the interventions targeted female adolescents, stressing the need for additional interventions that target Latino adolescent males. Latino adolescent sexual health is a new research field with gaps that need to be addressed in reducing negative sexual health outcomes among this population. More research is needed to produce new or validate existing, age-specific, and culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions for Latino male and female adolescents. Further, this research should also be conducted in areas of the U.S. with the newest Latino migration (e.g., North Carolina). Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50–79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Proyer, Rene T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. Method: We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., ear...

  8. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Self-Help Intervention: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossaert, Constance HC; Pieterse, Marcel E; Walburg, Jan A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2015-01-01

    Background Positive psychology interventions have been found to enhance well-being and decrease clinical symptomatology. However, it is still unknown how flourishing can also be increased. Although multicomponent interventions seem to be necessary for this purpose, different formats can be used. A cost-effective approach could be a positive psychology-based self-help book with tailored email support to reach large target groups and to prevent dropout. Objective This study will evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive multicomponent self-help intervention with or without email support on well-being and flourishing, and will seek to determine the working mechanisms underlying the intervention. Methods In this 3-armed, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 396 participants with low or moderate levels of well-being and without clinical symptomatology will be randomly assigned to (1) a self-help book condition with weekly email support, (2) a self-help book condition without email support but with a weekly information email, or (3) a waiting list control condition. Online measurements will be assessed at baseline, at post-test (3 months after baseline), and at 6 and 12 months after baseline. Results The primary outcomes are well-being and flourishing (ie, high levels of well-being). Secondary outcomes are the well-being components included in the intervention: positive emotion, use of strengths, optimism, self-compassion, resilience, and positive relations. Other measures include depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, direct medical and non-medical costs, life-events, and client satisfaction. Conclusions This study will add knowledge to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention. We will also explore who can benefit most from this intervention. If the intervention is found to be effective, our results will be especially relevant for public mental health services, governments, and primary care. Trial

  10. The importance of cholesterol medication adherence: the need for behavioral change intervention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosworth HB

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hayden B Bosworth,1–5 Barbara Ngouyombo,6 Jan Liska,7 Leah L Zullig,1,2 Caroline Atlani,8 Anne C Beal7 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Population Health Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 5Department of Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6Value & Access Team, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France; 7Center of Excellence for Patient Centricity, Sanofi, Paris, France; 8Patient Strategy, Diabetes & Cardiovascular Unit, Sanofi, Paris, France Abstract: Lipid-lowering medications have been shown to be efficacious, but adherence is suboptimal. This is a narrative, perspective review of recently published literature in the field of medication adherence research for lipid-lowering medications. We provide an overview of the impact of suboptimal adherence and use a World Health Organization framework (patient, condition, therapy, socioeconomic, and health system-related systems to discuss factors that influence hyperlipidemia treatment adherence. Further, the review involves an evaluation of intervention strategies to increase hyperlipidemia treatment adherence with a special focus on mHealth interventions, patient reminders on packaging labels, nurse- and pharmacist-led interventions, and health teams. It also highlights opportunities for pharmaceutical companies to support and scale such behavioral interventions. Medication adherence remains a challenge for the long-term management of chronic conditions, especially those involving asymptomatic disease such as hyperlipidemia. To engage patients and enhance motivation over time, hyperlipidemia interventions must be targeted to individual patients’ needs, with sequencing and frequency of contact tailored to the various stages of behavioral change. Keywords: cardiovascular

  11. Game playbooks: tools to guide multidisciplinary teams in developing videogame-based behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Culyba, Sabrina; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-03-01

    As mobile technologies and videogaming platforms are becoming increasingly prevalent in the realm of health and healthcare, so are the opportunities to use these resources to conduct behavioral interventions. The creation and empirical testing of game style interventions, however, is challenged by the requisite collaboration of multidisciplinary teams, including researchers and game developers who have different cultures, terminologies, and standards of evidence. Thus, traditional intervention development tools such as logic models and intervention manuals may need to be augmented by creating what we have termed "Game Playbooks" which are intervention guidebooks that are created by, understood by, and acceptable to all members of the multidisciplinary game development team. The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance and content of a Game Playbook created to aide in the development of a videogame intervention designed specifically for health behavior change in young teens as well as the process for creating such a tool. We draw on the experience of our research and game design team to describe the critical components of the Game Playbook and the necessity of creating such a tool.

  12. A Psychometric Approach to Theory-Based Behavior Change Intervention Development: Example From the Colorado Meaning-Activity Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Kevin S; Ross, Kaile M; Hooker, Stephanie A; Wooldridge, Jennalee L

    2018-05-18

    There has been a notable disconnect between theories of behavior change and behavior change interventions. Because few interventions are both explicitly and adequately theory-based, investigators cannot assess the impact of theory on intervention effectiveness. Theory-based interventions, designed to deliberately engage the theory's proposed mechanisms of change, are needed to adequately test theories. Thus, systematic approaches to theory-based intervention development are needed. This article will introduce and discuss the psychometric method of developing theory-based interventions. The psychometric approach to intervention development utilizes basic psychometric principles at each step of the intervention development process in order to build a theoretically driven intervention to, subsequently, be tested in process (mechanism) and outcome studies. Five stages of intervention development are presented as follows: (i) Choice of theory; (ii) Identification and characterization of key concepts and expected relations; (iii) Intervention construction; (iv) Initial testing and revision; and (v) Empirical testing of the intervention. Examples of this approach from the Colorado Meaning-Activity Project (COMAP) are presented. Based on self-determination theory integrated with meaning or purpose, and utilizing a motivational interviewing approach, the COMAP intervention is individually based with an initial interview followed by smart phone-delivered interventions for increasing daily activity. The psychometric approach to intervention development is one method to ensure careful consideration of theory in all steps of intervention development. This structured approach supports developing a research culture that endorses deliberate and systematic operationalization of theory into behavior change intervention from the outset of intervention development.

  13. Integration of Technology-based Behavioral Health Interventions in Substance Abuse and Addiction Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed revolutionary changes to the delivery of health services, ushered in to a great extent by the introduction of electronic health record systems. More recently, a new class of technological advancements-technology-based behavioral health interventions, which involve the delivery of evidence-informed practices via computers, web-based applications, mobile phones, wearable sensors, or other technological platforms-has emerged and is primed to once again radically shift current models for behavioral healthcare. Despite the promise and potential of these new therapeutic approaches, a greater understanding of the impact of technology-based interventions on cornerstone issues of mental health and addiction services-namely access, quality, and cost -is needed. The current review highlights 1) relevant conceptual frameworks that guide this area of research, 2) key studies that inform the relevance of technology-based interventions for behavioral healthcare access, quality, and cost, 3) pressing methodological issues that require attention, 4) unresolved questions that warrant further investigation, and 5) practical implications that underscore important new directions for this emerging area of research.

  14. Coaching Teachers' Use of Social Behavior Interventions to Improve Children's Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.; Newcomer, Lori; Marchese, Dana; Lewis, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Children with social behavior problems need teachers who are prepared to use evidence-based interventions to increase their likelihood of success. However, it is clear that teachers do not feel prepared to support children in this area. One approach for supporting teachers in using more effective interventions for children with behavior needs is…

  15. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent W.; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by…

  17. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Health risks, correlates, and interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare

    2011-08-01

    Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell phone intervention for you (CITY): A randomized, controlled trial of behavioral weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetkey, Laura P; Batch, Bryan C; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen S; Corsino, Leonor; Tyson, Crystal C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Grambow, Steven C; Voils, Corrine; Loria, Catherine; Gallis, John A; Schwager, Jenifer; Bennett, Gary G; Bennett, Gary B

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect on weight of two mobile technology-based (mHealth) behavioral weight loss interventions in young adults. Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial in 18- to 35-year-olds with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese), with participants randomized to 24 months of mHealth intervention delivered by interactive smartphone application on a cell phone (CP); personal coaching enhanced by smartphone self-monitoring (PC); or Control. The 365 randomized participants had mean baseline BMI of 35 kg/m(2) . Final weight was measured in 86% of participants. CP was not superior to Control at any measurement point. PC participants lost significantly more weight than Controls at 6 months (net effect -1.92 kg [CI -3.17, -0.67], P = 0.003), but not at 12 and 24 months. Despite high intervention engagement and study retention, the inclusion of behavioral principles and tools in both interventions, and weight loss in all treatment groups, CP did not lead to weight loss, and PC did not lead to sustained weight loss relative to Control. Although mHealth solutions offer broad dissemination and scalability, the CITY results sound a cautionary note concerning intervention delivery by mobile applications. Effective intervention may require the efficiency of mobile technology, the social support and human interaction of personal coaching, and an adaptive approach to intervention design. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Comparative efficacy of simultaneous versus sequential multiple health behavior change interventions among adults: A systematic review of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica; Freund, Megan; Booth, Angela; Duncan, Mitch J; Johnson, Natalie; Short, Camille E; Wolfenden, Luke; Stacey, Fiona G; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-08-01

    Growing evidence points to the benefits of addressing multiple health behaviors rather than single behaviors. This review evaluates the relative effectiveness of simultaneous and sequentially delivered multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions. Secondary aims were to identify: a) the most effective spacing of sequentially delivered components; b) differences in efficacy of MHBC interventions for adoption/cessation behaviors and lifestyle/addictive behaviors, and; c) differences in trial retention between simultaneously and sequentially delivered interventions. MHBC intervention trials published up to October 2015 were identified through a systematic search. Eligible trials were randomised controlled trials that directly compared simultaneous and sequential delivery of a MHBC intervention. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Six trials met the inclusion criteria and across these trials the behaviors targeted were smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Three trials reported a difference in intervention effect between a sequential and simultaneous approach in at least one behavioral outcome. Of these, two trials favoured a sequential approach on smoking. One trial favoured a simultaneous approach on fat intake. There was no difference in retention between sequential and simultaneous approaches. There is limited evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of sequential and simultaneous approaches. Given only three of the six trials observed a difference in intervention effectiveness for one health behavior outcome, and the relatively consistent finding that the sequential and simultaneous approaches were more effective than a usual/minimal care control condition, it appears that both approaches should be considered equally efficacious. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015027876. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. One or many? Which and how many parenting variables should be targeted in interventions to reduce children's externalizing behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Laurie; Mouton, Bénédicte; Stievenart, Marie; Roskam, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    This research compared the efficacy of two parenting interventions that vary according to the number and the nature of variables in reducing preschoolers' externalizing behavior (EB). The goal was to identify which parenting intervention format (one-variable versus two-variable) caused higher behavioral adjustment in children. The first was a one-variable intervention manipulating parental self-efficacy beliefs. The second was a two-variable intervention manipulating both parents' self-efficacy beliefs and emotion coaching practices. The two interventions shared exactly the same design, consisting of eight parent group sessions. Effect on children's EB and observed behaviors were evaluated through a multi-method assessment at three points (pre-test, post-test and follow-up). The results highlighted that compared to the waitlist condition, the two intervention formats tended to cause a significant reduction in children's EB reported by their parent. However, the one-variable intervention was found to lead to a greater decrease in children's EB at follow-up. The opposite was reported for children's observed behavior, which was improved to a greater extent in the two-variable intervention at post-test and follow-up. The results illustrated that interventions' format cannot be considered as purely interchangeable since their impact on children's behavior modification is different. The results are discussed for their research and clinical implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. A policy-oriented field experimental study on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions promoting residential energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)

  3. Health behaviors of mandated and voluntary students in a motivational intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.

  4. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  5. The Evaluation of Effects of Educational Intervention Based on Planned Behavior Theory on Reduction of Unhealthy Snack Consumption among Kermanshah Elementary School Students, 2015- 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Nazari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and great advertising of high calorie junk foodstuffs cause the change of the nutritional pattern of children and adolescents. This study has been carried out with this objective: determining the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in the elementary students in Kermanshah City in 2015-2016. This research is a quasi-experimental study. Research setting was the primary schools in Kermanshah city. Sampling was conducted in multi-stage random method. Three hundred and fourteen female and male students were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups of Case and Control. The data collection tool in this study was a questionnaire. Status of snacks consumption among students in both study groups was examined after four weeks. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used in order to analyze data. Before intervention, there were no significant differences between two groups of case and control. The average grades of the theory of planned behavior structures have increased in case group after intervention and it shows a significant difference (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in each structure in control group after intervention. The results indicate the positive effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior on reducing consumption of unhealthy snacks in elementary students. Theory-based educational intervention has also increased students’ willingness to consume healthy snacks.

  6. A Responsive Parenting Intervention: The Optimal Timing Across Early Childhood For Impacting Maternal Behaviors And Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Guttentag, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler–preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective–emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants’ development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention do...

  7. Positive Psychological Interventions for Children: A Comparison of Gratitude and Best Possible Selves Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhea L.; Patterson, Meagan M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have found benefits of positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude promotion or thinking about best possible selves, for adolescents and adults. Almost no research, however, has been conducted on the efficacy of such interventions for children. The authors' primary goal was to compare the outcomes of gratitude promotion…

  8. The Examination of the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention based on the Planned Behavior Theory on Improving Pubertal Health Behavior in Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Eslamimehr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is a period of psychological, physical, mental, emotional and social growth that stability and development of personality occurs in this period. This study aimed to determine the effect of planned behavior theory on improving pubertal health behavior in female first grade high school students. Materials and Methods:  A quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in female high school in Khamir city, Iran in 2015. One of the schools were randomly assigned to the control group and other to the experimental group. Using the formula sample, 60 students were selected from each school. Samples were evaluated in two stages through pre-test and two months later via post-test by administered questionnaire including questions about demographic characteristics and structures of planned behavior theory. The content of training was presented through lecture group discussion with teaching aids such as booklet and pamphlet. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The intervention group mean age at first menstrual period was 12.30 ± 0.84 years old and for control group was 12.25 ± 0.79 years old. The results showed that two months after the intervention, health behaviors, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude, were significantly higher than pre- intervention (P

  9. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...

  10. Online interventions for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: a meta-analysis of psychological architectures and adherence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil

    2011-02-14

    Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet's reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence and behavioral outcomes. The

  11. Behavioral Intervention to Treat Selective Mutism across Multiple Social Situations and Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Regester, April; Mulloy, Austin; Rispoli, Mandy; Botout, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a behavioral intervention for a 9-year-old girl with selective mutism. The intervention consisted of role play and video self-modeling. The frequency of spoken initiations, responses to questions, and communication breakdowns was measured during three social situations (i.e., ordering in a restaurant, meeting new adults, and playing…

  12. Mediation of effects of a theory-based behavioral intervention on self-reported physical activity in South African men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-03-01

    Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A racket-sport intervention improves behavioral and cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Chu, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Lo, Shen-Yu; Cheng, Yun-Wen; Liu, Yu-Jen

    2016-10-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a 12-week table tennis exercise on motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the first 12-week phase, 16 children (group I) received the intervention, whereas 16 children (group II) did not. A second 12-week phase immediately followed with the treatments reversed. Improvements were observed in executive functions in both groups after the intervention. After the first 12-week phase, some motor and behavioral functions improved in group I. After the second 12-week phase, similar improvements were noted for group II, and the intervention effects achieved in the first phase were persisted in group I. The racket-sport intervention is valuable in promoting motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Group Counseling Programs, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Sports Intervention on Internet Addiction in East Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA, a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD, −1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI, −1.89 to −0.85; CBT: SMD, −1.88; 95% CI, −2.53 to −1.23; sports intervention: SMD, −1.70; 95% CI, −2.14 to −1.26. For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.

  15. Factors Influencing Team Behaviors in Surgery: A Qualitative Study to Inform Teamwork Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Stone, Juliana; Sundt, Thoralf; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Singer, Sara

    2018-02-07

    Surgical excellence demands teamwork. Poor team behaviors negatively affect team performance and are associated with adverse events and worse outcomes. Interventions to improve surgical teamwork focusing on frontline team members' nontechnical skills have proliferated but shown mixed results. Literature on teamwork in organizations suggests that team behaviors are also contingent on psycho-social, cultural and organizational factors. This study examines factors influencing surgical team behaviors in order to inform more contextually sensitive and effective approaches to optimizing surgical teamwork. Qualitative study of cardiac surgical teams in a large US teaching hospital included 34 semi-structured interviews. Thematic network analysis was used to examine perceptions of ideal teamwork and factors influencing team behaviors in the OR. Perceptions of ideal teamwork were largely shared, but team members held discrepant views of which team and leadership behaviors enhanced or undermined teamwork. Other factors impacting team behaviors related to: local organizational culture, including management of staff behavior; variable case demands and team members' technical competence; fitness of organizational structures and processes to support teamwork. These factors affected perceptions of what constituted optimal interpersonal and team behaviors in the OR. Team behaviors are contextually contingent and organizationally determined, and beliefs about optimal behaviors are not necessarily shared. Interventions to optimize surgical teamwork requires establishing consensus regarding best practice, ability to adapt as circumstances require, and organizational commitment to addressing contextual factors that impact teams. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple health behavior change in adults with or at risk for cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amanda C; Hayman, Laura L; Cooley, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    To identify components of efficacious interventions for multiple health behavior change (MHBC) in adult cancer survivors or adults at high risk for cancer. A systematic review of MHBC interventions was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies changed at least 2 health behaviors. Diet, exercise, and smoking cessation were consistently changed with in-person interventions. Longer duration interventions using phone or mail contact had a positive association with changing diet and exercise. MHBC interventions positively influenced behavior change in adults with cancer and those at high risk for cancer. Future studies should focus on increasing dissemination and implementation of efficacious interventions.

  17. Identifying configurations of behavior change techniques in effective medication adherence interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara

    2016-05-04

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.

  18. Improving safety climate and behavior through a multifaceted intervention : Results from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, B.A.C.; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274; Steijn, B.

    Interventions aimed at increasing priority for employee safety could lead to better safety climate and safety behavior of employees. However, current studies reporting on safety climate interventions lack diversity in contexts and settings, they focus mainly on supervisors and do not take into

  19. Improving safety climate and behavior through a multifaceted intervention: Results from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette); L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractInterventions aimed at increasing priority for employee safety could lead to better safety climate and safety behavior of employees. However, current studies reporting on safety climate interventions lack diversity in contexts and settings, they focus mainly on supervisors and do not

  20. Goal setting for health behavior change: evidence from an obesity intervention for rural low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, A V; Blackman, L T; Page, R A; Gizlice, Z; Benedict, S; Barnes, K; Kelsey, K; Carter-Edwards, L

    2014-01-01

    Rural, minority populations are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity and may benefit from lifestyle modification programs that are tailored to meet their unique needs. Obesity interventions commonly use goal setting as a behavior change strategy; however, few have investigated the specific contribution of goal setting to behavior change and/or identified the mechanisms by which goal setting may have an impact on behavior change. Furthermore, studies have not examined goal setting processes among racial/ethnic minorities. Using data from an obesity intervention for predominately minority women in rural North Carolina, this study sought to examine whether intervention participation resulted in working on goals and using goal setting strategies which in turn affected health behavior outcomes. It also examined racial/ethnic group differences in working on goals and use of goal setting strategies. Data came from a community-based participatory research project to address obesity among low-income, predominately minority women in rural North Carolina. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used. Participants included 485 women aged 18 years and over. Intervention participants (n=208) received health information and goal setting support through group meetings and tailored newsletters. Comparison participants (n = 277) received newsletters on topics unrelated to obesity. Surveys assessed physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, goal-related stage of change, and use of goal setting strategies. Chi squared statistics were used to assess intervention group differences in changes in goal-related stage of change and use of goal setting strategies as well as racial/ethnic group differences in stage of change and use of goal setting strategies at baseline. The causal steps approach of Baron and Kenny was used to assess mediation. Intervention compared to comparison participants were more likely to move from contemplation to action/maintenance for the

  1. Promising Behavior Change Techniques in a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Concerns about Falls in Old Age: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt

    2015-01-01

    Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…

  2. Toward a better understanding of what makes positive psychology interventions work: predicting happiness and depression from the person × intervention fit in a follow-up after 3.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Wellenzohn, Sara; Gander, Fabian; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-03-01

    Robust evidence exists that positive psychology interventions are effective in enhancing well-being and ameliorating depression. Comparatively little is known about the conditions under which they work best. Models describing characteristics that impact the effectiveness of positive interventions typically contain features of the person, of the activity, and the fit between the two. This study focuses on indicators of the person × intervention fit in predicting happiness and depressive symptoms 3.5 years after completion of the intervention. A sample of 165 women completed measures for happiness and depressive symptoms before and about 3.5 years after completion of a positive intervention (random assignment to one out of nine interventions, which were aggregated for the analyses). Four fit indicators were assessed: Preference; continued practice; effort; and early reactivity. Three out of four person × intervention fit indicators were positively related to happiness or negatively related to depression when controlled for the pretest scores. Together, they explained 6 per cent of the variance in happiness, and 10 per cent of the variance of depressive symptoms. Most tested indicators of a person × intervention fit are robust predictors of happiness and depressive symptoms-even after 3.5 years. They might serve for an early estimation of the effectiveness of a positive intervention. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  5. A Hybrid Online Intervention for Reducing Sedentary Behavior in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB has emerged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. While exercise is known to reduce these risks, reducing SB through increases in non-structured PA and breaks from sitting may appeal to obese women who have lower self-efficacy for PA. This study examined effects of a combined face-to-face and online intervention to reduce SB in overweight and obese women. A two-group quasi-experimental study was used with measures taken pre and post. Female volunteers (M age=58.5, SD=12.5 yrs were enrolled in the intervention (n=40 or waitlisted (n=24. The intervention, based on the Social Cognitive Theory, combined group sessions with email messages over 6 weeks. Individualized feedback to support mastery and peer models of active behaviors were included in the emails. Participants self-monitored PA with a pedometer. Baseline and post measures of PA and SB were assessed by accelerometer and self-report. Standard measures of height, weight and waist circumference were conducted. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for analyses. Self-reported SB and light PA in the intervention group (I changed significantly over time [SB, F(1,2= 3.81, p=.03, light PA, F(1,2=3.39, p=.04]. Significant Group x Time interactions were found for light PA, F(1,63=5.22, p=.03, moderate PA, F(1, 63=3.90, p=.05, and for waist circumference, F(1,63=16.0, p=.001. The I group decreased significantly while the comparison group was unchanged. Hybrid computer interventions to reduce SB may provide a non-exercise alternative for increasing daily PA and potentially reduce waist circumference, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Consumer-grade accelerometers may aide improvements to PA and SB and should be tested as part of future interventions.

  6. Effects of the KEEP Foster Parent Intervention on Child and Sibling Behavior Problems and Parental Stress During a Randomized Implementation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph M; Roesch, Scott; Walsh, Natalia E; Landsverk, John

    2015-07-01

    Children in foster care are at risk for externalizing behavior problems, which can in turn increase the risk of changes in foster care placement. The KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) foster parent training intervention was designed to equip foster parents with strategies for managing externalizing behavior problems. The primary goals of this investigation were to (a) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing child behavior problems, as delivered by a community agency; (b) determine if the effects of the KEEP intervention generalize to more than one child in the same home; and (c) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing parental stress associated with child behavior problems. The data from 335 foster and kinship families with children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were analyzed to address these objectives. Families were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The results indicated that the KEEP intervention was effective in reducing child behavior problems when delivered by a community agency. These results expanded prior research on the KEEP intervention, revealing that the intervention was effective in reducing the behavior problems of more than one child in the same household and in reducing parental stress levels associated with the behavioral issues of the focal child. Thus, the KEEP intervention model holds promise for reducing the behavior problems of children in foster care and reducing stress levels of foster and kinship caregivers as it is disseminated and implemented within similar child welfare settings.

  7. Effect of Environmental and Behavioral Interventions on Pain Intensity in Preterm Infants for Heel Prick Blood Sampling in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharlooei, Fatemeh; Marofi, Maryam; Abdeyazdan, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Recent researches suggest that preterm infants understand pain and stress. Because of the wide range of effects of pain on infants, the present study was conducted on the effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain due to heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants. A clinical trial was conducted among 32 infants with gestational age of 32-37 weeks in the intervention and control groups. The effects of noise reduction by earplugs, light reduction by blindfolds, reduction of nursing manipulation, and creation of intrauterine position for neonates, 30 minutes before taking blood samples until 30 minutes after it, were measured during the intervention stage. Data were collected using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) in 5 stages (before intervention, 2 minutes before sampling, during the sampling, and 5 minutes and 30 minutes after the sampling). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t -test in SPSS software. The paired t -test results showed no significant differences between the control and intervention stages in terms of pain scores at base time ( P = 0.42) and 2 minutes before sampling ( P = 0.12). However, at the sampling time ( P = 0.0), and 5 minutes ( P = 0.001) and 30 minutes after the sampling ( P = 0.001), mean pain score in the intervention stage was significantly less than that in the control stage. Based on the findings, environmental and behavioral interventions reduced pain and facilitated heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants.

  8. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  9. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-02-19

    High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers' sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The

  10. Response expectancies, treatment credibility, and hypnotic suggestibility: mediator and moderator effects in hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S; Shores, Jessica S; Coursen, Elizabeth L; Menario, Deanna J; Farris, Catherine D

    2007-04-01

    Several studies have shown that response expectancies are an important mechanism of popular psychological interventions for pain. However, there has been no research on whether response expectancies and treatment credibility independently mediate hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions and whether the pattern of mediation is affected by experience with the interventions. Also, past research has indicated that hypnotic pain interventions may be moderated by hypnotic suggestibility. However, these studies have typically failed to measure the full range of suggestibility and have assessed pain reduction and suggestibility in the same experimental context, possibly inflating the association between these variables. To clarify the mediator role of response expectancies and treatment credibility, and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility in the hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral reduction of pain. Approximately 300 participants were assessed for suggestibility. Then, as part of an apparently unrelated experiment, 124 of these individuals received analogue cognitive-behavioral, hypnotic, or placebo control pain interventions. Response expectancies and credibility independently mediated treatment. The extent of mediation increased as participants gained more experience with the interventions. Suggestibility moderated treatment and was associated with relief only from the hypnotic intervention. Response expectancies and treatment credibility are unique mechanisms of hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts relief from hypnotic pain interventions and this association is not simply an artifact of measuring suggestibility and pain reduction in the same experimental context. The relationship between suggestibility and hypnotic pain reduction appears to be linear in nature.

  11. Exploring Public Self-Consciousness as an Unconsidered Behavioral Change Pathway to Video Self-Modeling: Implications for School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Bray, Melissa; Howell, Meiko

    2017-01-01

    Self-modeling is a robust behavioral intervention whose therapeutic outcomes have a positive impact on a host of clinical behaviors as well as diverse student populations. To date, only two theoretical positions have emerged in the literature that attempt to account for the mechanism of this efficacious behavioral intervention. The first…

  12. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  13. A Brief Prenatal Intervention of Behavioral Change to Reduce the Risk of Maternal Cytomegalovirus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brenna L; Gans, Kim M; Raker, Christina; Hipolito, Evelyn R; Rouse, Dwight J

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the effects of a brief prenatal behavioral intervention on risk behaviors for maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Women were screened with CMV serology during prenatal care before 20 weeks of gestation and followed for at least 10 weeks. Women without serologic evidence of primary CMV infection were approached. Participants were apprised of serostatus and then randomized 2:1 to either a brief behavioral intervention during their prenatal care visit or to standard care (a brochure). The 7- to 10-minute in-office intervention included a video and hygiene education using motivational interviewing. Participants were then given a reminder calendar to take home and weekly text message reminders. The primary outcome was change in behavioral compliance score on a scale of 0-100. Secondary outcomes included process evaluation and domains of behavior change. A sample size of 180 participants was planned to compare the behavioral compliance score change of at least 15% between intervention and control groups with 80% power and 2.5% two-sided α. From April 2013 to October 2014, 197 women were randomized. One hundred eighty-seven (96%) had outcome data available. Mean gestational age at screening and randomization was 9 4/7 and 13 6/7 weeks of gestation, respectively. Primary outcome assessment occurred at a mean of 28 4/7 weeks of gestation. Baseline behavioral compliance scores increased modestly in the intervention group (mean: 7-point increase from 80.7 to 87.7, 95% CI 2.4-5.9) compared with the comparison group (mean: 4-point increase from 79.7 to 84.1, 95% CI 5.9-8.4; mean difference in change score: 3.0, 95% CI, 0.8-5.2; P=.007). Those in the intervention group reported change in risk perception related to perceived severity and susceptibility, self-efficacy, and perceived norms (Pbehavioral intervention delivered in the prenatal care setting was modestly effective at changing behaviors related to CMV infection risk. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01819519.

  14. A community-engaged randomized controlled trial of an integrative intervention with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W. Carrico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contingency management (CM is an evidence-based intervention providing tangible rewards as positive reinforcement for abstinence from stimulants such as methamphetamine. Integrative approaches targeting affect regulation could boost the effectiveness of CM in community-based settings and optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM is examining the efficacy of a 5-session, individually delivered positive affect regulation intervention – Affect Regulation Treatment to Enhance Methamphetamine Intervention Success (ARTEMIS. ARTEMIS is designed to sensitize individuals to non-drug-related sources of reward as well as assist with managing depression and other symptoms of stimulant withdrawal during CM. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM who are enrolled in a community-based, 12-week CM program are randomized to receive ARTEMIS or an attention-matched control condition. Follow-up assessments are conducted at 3, 6, 12, and 15 months after enrollment in CM. Four peripheral venous blood samples are collected over the 15-month follow-up with specimen banking for planned biomarker sub-studies. The primary outcome is mean HIV viral load. Secondary outcomes include: sustained HIV viral suppression, T-helper cell count, psychological adjustment, stimulant use, and potentially amplified transmission risk behavior. Discussion Implementation of this randomized controlled trial highlights the importance of delineating boundaries between research activities and community-based service provision. It also provides insights into best practices for integrating the distinct agendas of academic and community partners in clinical research. This trial is currently enrolling and data collection is anticipated to be completed in September of 2018. Trial registration This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01926184 on

  15. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  16. The Impact of a Student-Led Pedometer Intervention Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies on Step Count and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D.; Focht, Brian C.; King, Jenna S.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a student-led physical activity intervention that incorporated pedometers and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Undergraduate students (N = 117) enrolled in upper division exercise and sport science courses recruited participants. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention condition received…

  17. Translating models of antisocial behavioral development into efficacious intervention policy to prevent adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Using the Clear Communication Index to Improve Materials for a Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathleen J; Alexander, Ramine; Perzynski, Katelynn M; Kruzliakova, Natalie; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2018-02-08

    Ensuring that written materials used in behavioral interventions are clear is important to support behavior change. This study used the Clear Communication Index (CCI) to assess the original and revised versions of three types of written participant materials from the SIPsmartER intervention. Materials were revised based on original scoring. Scores for the entire index were significantly higher among revised versions than originals (57% versus 41%, p < 0.001); however, few revised materials (n = 2 of 53) achieved the benchmark of ≥90%. Handouts scored higher than worksheets and slide sets for both versions. The proportion of materials scored as having "a single main message" significantly increased between versions for worksheets (7% to 57%, p = 0.003) and slide sets (33% to 67%, p = 0.004). Across individual items, most significant improvements were in Core, with four-items related to the material having a single main message. Findings demonstrate that SIPsmartER's revised materials improved after CCI-informed edits. They advance the evidence and application of the CCI, suggesting it can be effectively used to support improvement in clarity of different types of written materials used in behavioral interventions. Implications for practical considerations of using the tool and suggestions for modifications for specific types of materials are presented.

  19. An early social engagement intervention for young children with autism and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W; Koegel, Robert L; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors.

  20. Appropriate Social Behavior: Teaching Expectations to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Pool, Juli Lull

    2012-01-01

    Young children's challenging behavior can impact all aspects of the classroom environment, including relationships (peer-peer, student-teacher), learning, and safety. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a program that focuses on supporting pro-social behaviors and preventing challenging behavior. PBIS begins with building a…

  1. Impact of a Family Empowerment Intervention on Delinquent Behavior: A Latent Growth Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Wothke, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Analysis indicated that reported frequency of involvement in delinquency declined more over time for families receiving Family Empowerment Intervention (FEI) as opposed to those receiving Extended Services Intervention (ESI). Results provide support for the impact of FEI services on reported frequency of delinquent behavior over a 36-month…

  2. Behavior Bingo: The Effects of a Culturally Relevant Group Contingency Intervention for Students with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.

    2018-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…

  3. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article

  4. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. "Positive technology" thereby takes the responsible role of a "digital coach," supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the "therapeutic interaction" mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the discussion

  5. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the

  6. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  7. Why culture matters in health interventions: lessons from HIV/AIDS stigma and NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Ford, Chandra L; Iwelunmor, Juliet I

    2014-02-01

    Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies to reduce the global disease burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes requires a reassessment of individual-based approaches to behavior change. We argue that public health and health behavior intervention should focus more on culture than behavior to achieve meaningful and sustainable change resulting in positive health outcomes. To change negative health behaviors, one must first identify and promote positive health behaviors within the cultural logic of its contexts. To illustrate these points, we discuss stigma associated with obesity and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We conclude that focusing on positive behaviors and sustaining cultural and personal transformations requires a culturally grounded approach to public health interventions, such as that provided by the PEN-3 model.

  8. Impact of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention on New School Entrants' Social Emotional Functioning and Sleep: A Translational Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Harriet; Quach, Jon; Paton, Kate; Peat, Rebecca; Gold, Lisa; Arnup, Sarah; Sia, Kah-Ling; Nicolaou, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa

    2018-05-14

    Determine the effects and costs of a brief behavioral sleep intervention, previously shown to improve child social-emotional functioning, sleep, and parent mental health, in a translational trial. Three hundred thirty-four school entrant children from 47 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, with parent-reported moderate to severe behavioral sleep problems. intervention group received sleep hygiene practices and standardized behavioral strategies delivered by trained school nurses in 2013 and 2014. Control group children could receive usual community care. Outcome measures: child social-emotional functioning (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 psychosocial health summary score-primary outcome), sleep problems (parent-reported severity, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire), behavior, academic function, working memory, child and parent quality of life, and parent mental health. At six months post randomization, 145 (of 168) intervention and 155 (of 166) control families completed the primary outcome for which there was no difference. Intervention compared with control children had fewer sleep problems (35.2% vs. 52.7% respectively, OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8, p = 0.002) and better sleep patterns (e.g., longer sleep duration). Their parents reported fewer symptoms of depression. All differences attenuated by 12 months. There was no difference in other outcomes at either time point. Intervention costs: $AUS 182/child. A brief behavioral sleep intervention, delivered by school nurses to children with behavioral sleep problems, does not improve social emotional functioning. Benefits to child sleep and parent mental health are evident at 6 but not 12 months. Approaches that increase intervention dosage may improve outcomes.

  9. Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Obesity and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Linda W.; Agras, W. Stewart

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes data pertaining to separate and combined effects of cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments for obesity and bulimia nervosa. Anorexiant medication appears to enhance restraint and facilitates weight loss with behavioral interventions in the treatment of obesity, but relapse occurs once medication is withdrawn.…

  10. Effect of Behavioral Intervention on Dilated Fundus Examination Rates in Older African American Individuals With Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David M; Casten, Robin J; Leiby, Benjamin E; Hark, Lisa A; Murchison, Ann P; Johnson, Deiana; Stratford, Shayla; Henderer, Jeffrey; Rovner, Barry W; Haller, Julia A

    2015-09-01

    prevention significantly increased rates of DFEs in older African American individuals with diabetes mellitus. Behavioral interventions may have the potential to positively affect screening for diabetic retinopathy in at-risk populations. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01179555.

  11. Interventions to Address Medical Conditions and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Baller, Julia; Azrin, Susan T.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Daumit, Gail L.

    2016-01-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than the overall US population, largely due to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and other conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, is heightened in this group. Based on the recommendations of a National Institute of Mental Health stakeholder meeting, we conducted a comprehensive review examining the strength of the evidence surrounding interventions to address major medical conditions and health-risk behaviors among persons with SMI. Peer-reviewed studies were identified using 4 major research databases. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies testing interventions to address medical conditions and risk behaviors among persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Information was abstracted from each study by 2 trained reviewers, who also rated study quality using a standard tool. Following individual study review, the quality of the evidence (high, medium, low) and the effectiveness of various interventions were synthesized. 108 studies were included. The majority of studies examined interventions to address overweight/obesity (n = 80). The strength of the evidence was high for 4 interventions: metformin and behavioral interventions had beneficial effects on weight loss; and bupropion and varenicline reduced tobacco smoking. The strength of the evidence was low for most other interventions reviewed. Future studies should test long-term interventions to cardiovascular risk factors and health-risk behaviors. In addition, future research should study implementation strategies to effectively translate efficacious interventions into real-world settings. PMID:26221050

  12. Systematic review of interventions to promote social-emotional development in young children with or at risk for disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case-Smith, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review synthesized the research on interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to promote social-emotional development in young children (birth-5 yr) with or at risk for disabilities. After a comprehensive search of the research literature, 23 studies were reviewed and then synthesized into five themes: (1) touch-based interventions to enhance calming and parent-infant bonding, (2) relationship-based interventions to promote positive caregiver-child interactions, (3) joint attention interventions, (4) naturalistic preschool interventions to promote peer-to-peer engagement, and (5) instruction-based interventions to teach children appropriate social behaviors. The interventions for infants primarily involved coaching parents in specific strategies to promote positive interactions; interventions for preschool-age children typically involved encouraging peer support, instructing children, and applying naturalistic behavioral techniques to develop higher-level social competence. The studies demonstrated low to moderate positive effects for interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to improve social-emotional development across ages, diagnoses, and settings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. Supported Decision-Making: Implications from Positive Psychology for Assessment and Intervention in Rehabilitation and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.

  14. POSITIVE CLINICAL INTERVENTIONS: WHY ARE THEY IMPORTANT AND HOW DO THEY WORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bohlmeijer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss positive clinical psychology as an emerging field within clinical psychology. Positive clinical psychology is based on research demonstrating that mental health is more than the absence of mental illness, on research showing that wellbeing has buffering effects on the incidence of psychopathology and mental illnesses and on studies demonstrating that positive characteristics, such as positive emotions and gratitude, can predict pathology beyond the predictive power of negative characteristics. In this paper we present three distinct forms of well-being: emotional, psychological and social. In addition we review three types of positive clinical interventions: well-being therapy, positive psychotherapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. The paper ends with a call for a transformation of mental health care in which illness oriented treatments are complemented with well-being oriented treatments.

  15. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-09-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with an adult-directed ABA approach on disruptive behavior during language intervention in the public schools. A randomized clinical trial design was used with two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance. The data showed that the children demonstrated significantly lower levels of disruptive behavior during the PRT condition. The results are discussed with respect to antecedent manipulations that may be helpful in reducing disruptive behavior.

  16. Families Matter! Presexual Risk Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Sarah M.; Riley, Drewallyn B.; Poulsen, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Parent-based HIV prevention programming may play an important role in reaching youths early to help establish lifelong patterns of safe and healthy sexual behaviors. Families Matter! is a 5-session, evidence-based behavioral intervention designed for primary caregivers of children aged 9 to 12 years to promote positive parenting and effective parent–child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. The program’s 5-step capacity-building model was implemented with local government, community, and faith-based partners in 8 sub-Saharan African countries with good intervention fidelity and high levels of participant retention. Families Matter! may be useful in other resource-constrained settings. PMID:24028229

  17. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Text Messaging Intervention for Methamphetamine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keoleian, Victoria; Stalcup, S. Alex; Polcin, Douglas L.; Brown, Michelle; Galloway, Gantt

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial treatments for methamphetamine dependence are of limited effectiveness. Thus, a significant need exists for add-on therapy for this substance user disorder. The aim of this study was to develop and test a novel text