WorldWideScience

Sample records for position resolution linearity

  1. Stanford Linear Collider magnet positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, B.T.

    1991-08-01

    For the installation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) the positioning and alignment of the beam line components was performed in several individual steps. In the following the general procedures for each step are outlined. The calculation of ideal coordinates for the magnets in the entire SLC will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis was given to the mathematical algorithms and geometry used in the programs to calculate these ideal positions. 35 refs., 21 figs

  2. Linear positivity and virtual probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the quantum theory of closed systems based on the linear positivity decoherence condition of Goldstein and Page. The objective of any quantum theory of a closed system, most generally the universe, is the prediction of probabilities for the individual members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system. Quantum interference between members of a set of alternative histories is an obstacle to assigning probabilities that are consistent with the rules of probability theory. A quantum theory of closed systems therefore requires two elements: (1) a condition specifying which sets of histories may be assigned probabilities and (2) a rule for those probabilities. The linear positivity condition of Goldstein and Page is the weakest of the general conditions proposed so far. Its general properties relating to exact probability sum rules, time neutrality, and conservation laws are explored. Its inconsistency with the usual notion of independent subsystems in quantum mechanics is reviewed. Its relation to the stronger condition of medium decoherence necessary for classicality is discussed. The linear positivity of histories in a number of simple model systems is investigated with the aim of exhibiting linearly positive sets of histories that are not decoherent. The utility of extending the notion of probability to include values outside the range of 0-1 is described. Alternatives with such virtual probabilities cannot be measured or recorded, but can be used in the intermediate steps of calculations of real probabilities. Extended probabilities give a simple and general way of formulating quantum theory. The various decoherence conditions are compared in terms of their utility for characterizing classicality and the role they might play in further generalizations of quantum mechanics

  3. Positive Quasi Linear Operator Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expressions for the RF quasi-linear operator are biquadratic sums over the Fourier modes (or FLR equivalent) that describe the RF electric field with a kernel that is a function of the two wave vectors, k-vector L and k-vector R , in the sum. As a result of either an implicit or explicit average over field lines or flux surfaces, this kernel only depends on one parallel wave vector, conventionally k R -vector. When k-vector is an independent component of the representation for E, the sums are demonstrably positive. However, except for closed field line systems, k-vector is dependent on the local direction of the equilibrium magnetic field, and, empirically, the absorbed energy and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are observed to have negative features. We have formally introduced an independent k-vector sum by Fourier transforming the RF electric field (assuming straight field lines) using a field-line-length coordinate. The resulting expression is positive. We have modeled this approach by calculating the quasi linear operator for 'modes' with fixed k-vector. We form these modes by discretizing k-vector and then assigning all of the Fourier components with k-vectorthat fall within a given k-vector bin to that k-vector mode. Results will be shown as a function of the number of bins. Future work will involve implementing the expressions derived from the Fourier transform and evaluating the dependence on field line length

  4. USI A-43 resolution positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    NUREG-0869 is comprised of the following documents: Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.82, Revision 1, Sump for Emergency Core Cooling and Containment Spray Systems; The Value-Impact Statement for USI A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance; and Background and Summary of Minutes of Meetings of the Committee to Review Generic Requirements Regarding Unresolved Safety Issue A-43 Resolution. The report has been assembled to facilitate obtaining for comment feedback on the position developed for resolution of USI A-43. There are no licensing requirements contained in NUREG-0869, and it should be clearly noted that this for comment report will not be used as interim requirements

  5. Linear quadratic optimization for positive LTI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhafzan, Yenti, Syafrida Wirma; Zulakmal

    2017-05-01

    Nowaday the linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system constitute an interesting study considering it can become a mathematical model of variety of real problem whose variables have to nonnegative and trajectories generated by these variables must be nonnegative. In this paper we propose a method to generate an optimal control of linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system. A sufficient condition that guarantee the existence of such optimal control is discussed.

  6. a Continuous-Time Positive Linear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsup Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a computational method to construct positive realizations with sparse matrices for continuous-time positive linear systems with multiple complex poles. To construct a positive realization of a continuous-time system, we use a Markov sequence similar to the impulse response sequence that is used in the discrete-time case. The existence of the proposed positive realization can be analyzed with the concept of a polyhedral convex cone. We provide a constructive algorithm to compute positive realizations with sparse matrices of some positive systems under certain conditions. A sufficient condition for the existence of a positive realization, under which the proposed constructive algorithm works well, is analyzed.

  7. 2 DOF resolution adjustment laser position sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaik, A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available means. [19, 20] Other - Displacement measuring instruments utilizing eddy currents, capacitive and inductive properties exist, but are not as widely spread as the technologies mentioned. Accelerometers and Gyroscopes are used to determine... resolution. The current accuracy of the IRB 340 Flex Picker, a rapid pick and place machine, is 0.1 mm. The lower limit on screen resolution for absolute 2D positioning would then be 400 phototransistors per square mm, a screen with twice the resolution...

  8. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander, E-mail: muellerh@ma.tum.de; Wolf, Michael M., E-mail: m.wolf@tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reeb, David, E-mail: reeb.qit@gmail.com [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task.

  9. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Wolf, Michael M.; Reeb, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task

  10. Prospects of linear reconstruction in atomic resolution electron holographic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehl, Jonas; Lubk, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Tomography commonly requires a linear relation between the measured signal and the underlying specimen property; for Electron Holographic Tomography this is given by the Phase Grating Approximation (PGA). While largely valid at medium resolution, discrepancies arise at high resolution imaging conditions. We set out to investigate the artefacts that are produced if the reconstruction still assumes the PGA even with an atomic resolution tilt series. To forego experimental difficulties the holographic tilt series was simulated. The reconstructed electric potential clearly shows peaks at the positions of the atoms. These peaks have characterisitic deformations, which can be traced back to the defocus a particular atom has in the holograms of the tilt series. Exchanging an atom for one of a different atomic number results in a significant change in the reconstructed potential that is well contained within the atom's peak. - Highlights: • We simulate a holographic tilt series of a nanocrystal with atomic resolution. • Using PGA-based Holographic Tomography we reconstruct the atomic structure. • The reconstruction shows characteristic artefacts, chiefly caused by defocus. • Changing one atom's Z produces a well localised in the reconstruction

  11. Prospects of linear reconstruction in atomic resolution electron holographic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krehl, Jonas, E-mail: Jonas.Krehl@triebenberg.de; Lubk, Axel

    2015-03-15

    Tomography commonly requires a linear relation between the measured signal and the underlying specimen property; for Electron Holographic Tomography this is given by the Phase Grating Approximation (PGA). While largely valid at medium resolution, discrepancies arise at high resolution imaging conditions. We set out to investigate the artefacts that are produced if the reconstruction still assumes the PGA even with an atomic resolution tilt series. To forego experimental difficulties the holographic tilt series was simulated. The reconstructed electric potential clearly shows peaks at the positions of the atoms. These peaks have characterisitic deformations, which can be traced back to the defocus a particular atom has in the holograms of the tilt series. Exchanging an atom for one of a different atomic number results in a significant change in the reconstructed potential that is well contained within the atom's peak. - Highlights: • We simulate a holographic tilt series of a nanocrystal with atomic resolution. • Using PGA-based Holographic Tomography we reconstruct the atomic structure. • The reconstruction shows characteristic artefacts, chiefly caused by defocus. • Changing one atom's Z produces a well localised in the reconstruction.

  12. Position resolution of MSGCs with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, N.; Cremaldi, L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Gobbi, B.; Ng, K.K.; Manzella, V.; Peskov, V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rubinov, P.; Schamberger, D.; Sellberg, G.; Steffens, J.; Tilden, R.; Wang, P.; Yu, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a telescope of micro-strip gas chambers (MSGC) has been studied in a beam of pions. Detectors with different anode pitch and with different substrates have been operated using several gas mixtures. The position resolutions obtained by reading out the cathodes for the 200 μm pitch is 42 μm. For the 400 μm pitch detectors the resolution is 42 μm after correcting the centroid positions with a function derived from the data. (orig.)

  13. Linear position sensitive neutron detector using fiber optic encoded scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.L.; Wroe, H.

    1983-01-01

    A linear position sensitive slow neutron detector with 3 mm resolution is described. It uses the fiber optic coding principle in which the resolution elements are separate pieces of lithium loaded glass scintillator each coupled by means of flexible polymer optical fibers to a unique combination of 3 photo multipliers (PM's) out of a bank of 12. A decoder circuit repsponds to a triple coincidence between PM outputs and generates a 12 bit work which identifies the scintillator element which stopped the incident neutron. Some details of the construction and decoding electronics are given together with test results obtained using a laboratory isotope neutron source and a monochomated, collimated neutron beam from a reactor. The count rate in the absence of neutron sources is 2 to 3 c min - 1 per element; the element to element variation in response to a uniform flux is a few percent for 95% of the elements; the resolution as measured by a 1 mm wide prode neutron beam is 3 mm; the relative long term stability is about 0.1% over 3 days and the detection efficiency measured by comparison with an end windowed, high pressure gas counter is about 65% at a neutron wavelength of 0.9A 0

  14. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy: Spectral, temporal and spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1997-01-01

    Selected linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies are being described with special emphasis on the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. The potential of various experimental techniques is being demonstrated by specific examples mostly taken from inve...... investigations of the electronic, and opto-electronic, properties of semiconductor nanostructures....

  15. Optimized multiple linear mappings for single image super-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaibing; Li, Jie; Xiong, Zenggang; Liu, Xiuping; Gao, Xinbo

    2017-12-01

    Learning piecewise linear regression has been recognized as an effective way for example learning-based single image super-resolution (SR) in literature. In this paper, we employ an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to further improve the SR performance of our previous multiple linear mappings (MLM) based SR method. In the training stage, the proposed method starts with a set of linear regressors obtained by the MLM-based method, and then jointly optimizes the clustering results and the low- and high-resolution subdictionary pairs for regression functions by using the metric of the reconstruction errors. In the test stage, we select the optimal regressor for SR reconstruction by accumulating the reconstruction errors of m-nearest neighbors in the training set. Thorough experimental results carried on six publicly available datasets demonstrate that the proposed SR method can yield high-quality images with finer details and sharper edges in terms of both quantitative and perceptual image quality assessments.

  16. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Ross, M.; Khainovski, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Loscutoff, P.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Vogel, V.; Meller, R.; Lyapin, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.; Frisch, J.; Hinton, S.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.; White, G.; Orimoto, T.; Hayano, H.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2005-01-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns

  17. Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentiero, P.; Marini, J.

    1979-01-01

    The implementation of satellite-based Doppler positioning systems frequently requires the recovery of transmitter position from a single pass of Doppler data. The least-squares approach to the problem yields conjugate solutions on either side of the satellite subtrack. It is important to develop a procedure for choosing the proper solution which is correct in a high percentage of cases. A test for ambiguity resolution which is the most powerful in the sense that it maximizes the probability of a correct decision is derived. When systematic error sources are properly included in the least-squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution the test reduces to choosing the solution which provides the smaller valuation of the least-squares loss function. When systematic error sources are ignored in the least-squares reduction, the most powerful test is a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudoinverse of a reduced-rank square matrix. A formula for computing the power of the most powerful test is provided. Numerical examples are included in which the power of the test is computed for situations that are relevant to the design of a satellite-aided search and rescue system.

  18. A linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yuxin; Cao, Jie; Guo, Zhao; Yu, Haoyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects is proposed based on a double friction drive principle using a single piezoelectric element (PZT). The linear actuator consists of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, which are connected by the PZT. The electromagnet serves as an object 1, and another object (object 2) is attached on the permanent magnet by the magnetic force. For positioning the dual objects independently, two different friction drive modes can be alternated by an on–off control of the electromagnet. When the electromagnet releases from the guide way, it can be driven by impact friction force generated by the PZT. Otherwise, when the electromagnet clamps on the guide way and remains stationary, the object 2 can be driven based on the principle of smooth impact friction drive. A prototype was designed and constructed and experiments were carried out to test the basic performance of the actuator. It has been verified that with a compact size of 31 mm (L) × 12 mm (W) × 8 mm (H), the two objects can achieve long strokes on the order of several millimeters and high resolutions of several tens of nanometers. Since the proposed actuator allows independent movement of two objects by a single PZT, the actuator has the potential to be constructed compactly. (paper)

  19. Linear mixing model applied to coarse resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, Brent N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    1992-01-01

    A linear mixing model typically applied to high resolution data such as Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, Thematic Mapper, and Multispectral Scanner System is applied to the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer coarse resolution satellite data. The reflective portion extracted from the middle IR channel 3 (3.55 - 3.93 microns) is used with channels 1 (0.58 - 0.68 microns) and 2 (0.725 - 1.1 microns) to run the Constrained Least Squares model to generate fraction images for an area in the west central region of Brazil. The derived fraction images are compared with an unsupervised classification and the fraction images derived from Landsat TM data acquired in the same day. In addition, the relationship betweeen these fraction images and the well known NDVI images are presented. The results show the great potential of the unmixing techniques for applying to coarse resolution data for global studies.

  20. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Seismic exploration utilizes controlled sources, which emit seismic waves that propagate through the earth subsurface and get reflected off subsurface interfaces and scatterers. The reflected and scattered waves are recorded by recording stations installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single-scattering assumption, where only energy that bounces once off a subsurface scatterer and recorded by a receiver is projected back to its subsurface position. The internally multiply scattered seismic energy is considered as unwanted noise and is usually suppressed or removed from the recorded data. Conventional seismic imaging techniques yield subsurface images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and acquisition fingerprint due to the limited acquisition aperture, number of sources and receivers, and bandwidth of the source wavelet. Hydrocarbon traps are becoming more challenging and considerable reserves are trapped in stratigraphic and pinch-out traps, which require highly resolved seismic images to delineate them. This thesis focuses on developing and implementing new advanced cost-effective seismic imaging techniques aiming at enhancing the resolution of the migrated images by exploiting the sparseness of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and utilizing the multiples that are usually neglected when imaging seismic data. I first formulate the seismic imaging problem as a Basis pursuit denoise problem, which I solve using an L1-minimization algorithm to obtain the sparsest migrated image corresponding to the recorded data. Imaging multiples may illuminate subsurface zones, which are not easily illuminated by conventional seismic imaging using primary reflections only. I then develop an L2-norm (i.e. least-squares) inversion technique to image

  1. Linear versus non-linear structural information limit in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aert, S.; Chen, J.H.; Van Dyck, D.

    2010-01-01

    A widely used performance criterion in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is the information limit. It corresponds to the inverse of the maximum spatial object frequency that is linearly transmitted with sufficient intensity from the exit plane of the object to the image plane and is limited due to partial temporal coherence. In practice, the information limit is often measured from a diffractogram or from Young's fringes assuming a weak phase object scattering beyond the inverse of the information limit. However, for an aberration corrected electron microscope, with an information limit in the sub-angstrom range, weak phase objects are no longer applicable since they do not scatter sufficiently in this range. Therefore, one relies on more strongly scattering objects such as crystals of heavy atoms observed along a low index zone axis. In that case, dynamical scattering becomes important such that the non-linear and linear interaction may be equally important. The non-linear interaction may then set the experimental cut-off frequency observed in a diffractogram. The goal of this paper is to quantify both the linear and the non-linear information transfer in terms of closed form analytical expressions. Whereas the cut-off frequency set by the linear transfer can be directly related with the attainable resolution, information from the non-linear transfer can only be extracted using quantitative, model-based methods. In contrast to the historic definition of the information limit depending on microscope parameters only, the expressions derived in this paper explicitly incorporate their dependence on the structure parameters as well. In order to emphasize this dependence and to distinguish from the usual information limit, the expressions derived for the inverse cut-off frequencies will be referred to as the linear and non-linear structural information limit. The present findings confirm the well-known result that partial temporal coherence has

  2. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessing temporomandibular joint disc position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaceanu, Daniel; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Bolog, Nicolae; Popa Stanila, Roxana; Buduru, Smaranda; Leucuta, Daniel Corneliu; Rotar, Horatiu; Baciut, Mihaela; Baciut, Grigore

    2018-02-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacements. A number of 74 patients (148 TMJs) with signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, were included in this study. All patients received US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both TMJs 1 to 5 days after the clinical examination. MRI examinations were performed using 1.5 T MRI equipment (Siemens Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen). Ultrasonographic examination was performed on a Hitachi EUB 8500 (Hitachi Medical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) scanner with L 54 M6.5-13 MHz linear transducer. MRI depicted 68 (45.95%) normal joints, 47 (31.76%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 34 (22.97%) with degenerative changes. US detected 78 (52.7%) normal joints, 37 (25%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 21 (14.19%) with degenerative changes. Compared to MRI, US showed a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 87.88%, accuracy of 90.32%, a positive predictive value of 87.1% and a negative predictive value of 93.55% for overall diagnosis of disc displacement. The Youden index was 0.81. Based on our results, high-resolution ultrasonography showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. It could be a valuable imaging technique in assessing TMJ disc position. The diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography depends strictly on the examiner's skills and on the equipment used.

  3. Development of a sub-nanometer positioning device: combining a new linear motor with linear motion ball guide ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, J; Tanaka, T; Masuda, I

    2010-01-01

    A new type of linear motor described in this note has some advantages compared with conventional motors. The attractive magnetic force between the stator (permanent magnets) and mover (armature) is diminished almost to zero. The efficiency is better because the magnetic flux leakage is very small, the size of motor is smaller and detent (force ripple) is smaller than for conventional motors. Therefore, we think that this motor is greatly suitable for ultra-precision positioning as an actuator. An ultra-precision positioning device using this motor and linear motion ball guide ways is newly developed by making the device very rigid and using a suitable control method. Moreover, the positioning performance is evaluated by a positioning resolution, and deviation and dispersion errors. As a result of repeated step response tests, the positioning resolution is 0.3 nm, with the deviation error and dispersion error (3σ) being sub-nanometer. Consequently, the positioning device achieves sub-nanometer positioning. (technical design note)

  4. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, R.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  5. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, R.A., E-mail: riedelra@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  6. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  7. Sensitivity of GRETINA position resolution to hole mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasher, V.S. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Cromaz, M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Merchan, E.; Chowdhury, P. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Crawford, H.L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lister, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Campbell, C.M.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Radford, D.C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wiens, A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The sensitivity of the position resolution of the gamma-ray tracking array GRETINA to the hole charge-carrier mobility parameter is investigated. The χ{sup 2} results from a fit of averaged signal (“superpulse”) data exhibit a shallow minimum for hole mobilities 15% lower than the currently adopted values. Calibration data on position resolution is analyzed, together with simulations that isolate the hole mobility dependence of signal decomposition from other effects such as electronics cross-talk. The results effectively exclude hole mobility as a dominant parameter for improving the position resolution for reconstruction of gamma-ray interaction points in GRETINA.

  8. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  9. Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2014-12-23

    A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.

  10. Ideal Convergence of k-Positive Linear Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Gadjiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some ideal convergence results of k-positive linear operators defined on an appropriate subspace of the space of all analytic functions on a bounded simply connected domain in the complex plane. We also show that our approximation results with respect to ideal convergence are more general than the classical ones.

  11. A Cost-effective Method for Resolution Increase of the Twostage Piecewise Linear ADC Used for Sensor Linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective method for resolution increase of a two-stage piecewise linear analog-to-digital converter used for sensor linearization is proposed in this paper. In both conversion stages flash analog-to-digital converters are employed. Resolution increase by one bit per conversion stage is performed by introducing one additional comparator in front of each of two flash analog-to-digital converters, while the converters’ resolutions remain the same. As a result, the number of employed comparators, as well as the circuit complexity and the power consumption originating from employed comparators are for almost 50 % lower in comparison to the same parameters referring to the linearization circuit of the conventional design and of the same resolution. Since the number of employed comparators is significantly reduced according to the proposed method, special modifications of the linearization circuit are needed in order to properly adjust reference voltages of employed comparators.

  12. Linear micromechanical stepping drive for pinhole array positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Hoffmann, Martin; Grewe, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A compact linear micromechanical stepping drive for positioning a 7 × 5.5 mm 2 optical pinhole array is presented. The system features a step size of 13.2 µm and a full displacement range of 200 µm. The electrostatic inch-worm stepping mechanism shows a compact design capable of positioning a payload 50% of its own weight. The stepping drive movement, step sizes and position accuracy are characterized. The actuated pinhole array is integrated in a confocal chromatic hyperspectral imaging system, where coverage of the object plane, and therefore the useful picture data, can be multiplied by 14 in contrast to a non-actuated array. (paper)

  13. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, E.P.; Strathman, M.D.; Reed, D.A.; Odom, R.W.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10 10 ), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 μm for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 μm) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 μm has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  14. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, E P [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Strathman, M D [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Reed, D A [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Odom, R W [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Morse, D H [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Pontau, A E [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10[sup 10]), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 [mu]m for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 [mu]m) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 [mu]m has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  15. Reference Resolution in Multi-modal Interaction: Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, T.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2002-01-01

    In this position paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can

  16. GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaminpardaz, Safoora; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Nadarajah, Nandakumaran

    2016-01-01

    A first assessment of GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning performance is provided. Our analyses are based on GLONASS L3 data from the satellite pair SVNs 755-801, received by two JAVAD receivers at Curtin University, Perth, Australia. In our analyses, four different versions of

  17. Pressure effect in the X-ray intrinsic position resolution in noble gases and mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, C.D.R.

    2016-12-13

    A study of the gas pressure effect in the position resolution of an interacting X- or gamma-ray photon in a gas medium is performed. The intrinsic position resolution for pure noble gases (Argon and Xenon) and their mixtures with CO2 and CH4 were calculated for several gas pressures (1-10bar) and for photon energies between 5.4 and 60.0 keV, being possible to establish a linear match between the intrinsic position resolution and the inverse of the gas pressure in that energy range. In order to evaluate the quality of the method here described, a comparison between the available experimental data and the calculated one in this work, is done and discussed. In the majority of the cases, a strong agreement is observed.

  18. Maximum likelihood positioning algorithm for high-resolution PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Weege, Nicolas; Schug, David; Hallen, Patrick; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), lightsharing elements are incorporated into typical detector stacks to read out scintillator arrays in which one scintillator element (crystal) is smaller than the size of the readout channel. In order to identify the hit crystal by means of the measured light distribution, a positioning algorithm is required. One commonly applied positioning algorithm uses the center of gravity (COG) of the measured light distribution. The COG algorithm is limited in spatial resolution by noise and intercrystal Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to develop a positioning algorithm which overcomes this limitation. Methods: The authors present a maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm which compares a set of expected light distributions given by probability density functions (PDFs) with the measured light distribution. Instead of modeling the PDFs by using an analytical model, the PDFs of the proposed ML algorithm are generated assuming a single-gamma-interaction model from measured data. The algorithm was evaluated with a hot-rod phantom measurement acquired with the preclinical HYPERION II D PET scanner. In order to assess the performance with respect to sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality, the ML algorithm was compared to a COG algorithm which calculates the COG from a restricted set of channels. The authors studied the energy resolution of the ML and the COG algorithm regarding incomplete light distributions (missing channel information caused by detector dead time). Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of using a filter based on the likelihood values on sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality. Results: A sensitivity gain of up to 19% was demonstrated in comparison to the COG algorithm for the selected operation parameters. Energy resolution and image quality were on a similar level for both algorithms. Additionally, the authors demonstrated that the performance of the ML

  19. Linear Array Ultrasonic Transducers: Sensitivity and Resolution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramb, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) under contract by the US Air Force has designed and integrated a fully automated inspection system for the inspection of turbine engines that incorporates linear phased array ultrasonic transducers. Phased array transducers have been successfully implemented into weld and turbine blade root inspections where the defect types are well known and characterized. Embedded defects in aerospace turbine engine components are less well defined, however. In order to determine the applicability of linear arrays to aerospace inspections the sensitivity of array transducers to embedded defects in engine materials must be characterized. In addition, the implementation of array transducers into legacy inspection procedures must take into account any differences in sensitivity between the array transducer and that of the single element transducer currently used. This paper discusses preliminary results in a study that compares the sensitivity of linear array and conventional single element transducers to synthetic hard alpha defects in a titanium alloy

  20. Incomplete factorization technique for positive definite linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteuffel, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for solving the large sparse symmetric linear systems that arise from the application of finite element methods. The technique combines an incomplete factorization method called the shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization with the method of generalized conjugate gradients. The shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization produces a splitting of the matrix A that is dependent upon a parameter α. It is shown that if A is positive definite, then there is some α for which this splitting is possible and that this splitting is at least as good as the Jacobi splitting. The method is shown to be more efficient on a set of test problems than either direct methods or explicit iteration schemes

  1. Reliability and Validity Assessment of a Linear Position Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.; López-Lastra, Silvia; Maté-Muñoz, José L.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the validity and reliability of peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), peak power (PP) and average power (AP) measurements were made using a linear position transducer. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi and T-Force Dynamic Measurement Systemr (Ergotech, Murcia, Spain) during two resistance exercises, bench press (BP) and full back squat (BS), performed by 71 trained male subjects. For the reliability study, a further 32 men completed both lifts using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemz in two identical testing sessions one week apart (session 1 vs. session 2). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicating the validity of the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi were high, with values ranging from 0.853 to 0.989. Systematic biases and random errors were low to moderate for almost all variables, being higher in the case of PP (bias ±157.56 W; error ±131.84 W). Proportional biases were identified for almost all variables. Test-retest reliability was strong with ICCs ranging from 0.922 to 0.988. Reliability results also showed minimal systematic biases and random errors, which were only significant for PP (bias -19.19 W; error ±67.57 W). Only PV recorded in the BS showed no significant proportional bias. The Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and estimating power in resistance exercises. The low biases and random errors observed here (mainly AV, AP) make this device a useful tool for monitoring resistance training. Key points This study determined the validity and reliability of peak velocity, average velocity, peak power and average power measurements made using a linear position transducer The Tendo Weight-lifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and power. PMID:25729300

  2. High Momentum Resolution tracking In a Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ljunggren, M; Oskarsson, A

    2011-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been made within the LCTPC-collaboration, an international collaboration for studying the technical aspects af a possible tracking detector at a linear collider. The collaboration has built a prototype Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for testing the properties of dierent readout structures. A TPC is a tracking detector consisting of a gas lled drift volume placed in a solenoidal magnetic eld where the readout is made using a segmented plane of so called pads. When a char...

  3. Ambiguity resolution in systems using Omega for position location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, G.; Gan, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The lane ambiguity problem prevents the utilization of the Omega system for many applications such as locating buoys and balloons. The method of multiple lines of position introduced herein uses signals from four or more Omega stations for ambiguity resolution. The coordinates of the candidate points are determined first through the use of the Newton iterative procedure. Subsequently, a likelihood function is generated for each point, and the ambiguity is resolved by selecting the most likely point. The method was tested through simulation.

  4. The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensor for gravitational wave interferometer low-frequency controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Hareem E-mail: htariq@ligo.caltech.edu; Takamori, Akiteru; Vetrano, Flavio; Wang Chenyang; Bertolini, Alessandro; Calamai, Giovanni; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Gennai, Alberto; Holloway, Lee; Losurdo, Giovanni; Marka, Szabolcs; Mazzoni, Massimo; Paoletti, Federico; Passuello, Diego; Sannibale, Virginio; Stanga, Ruggero

    2002-08-21

    Low-power, ultra-high-vacuum compatible, non-contacting position sensors with nanometer resolution and centimeter dynamic range have been developed, built and tested. They have been designed at Virgo as the sensors for low-frequency modal damping of Seismic Attenuation System chains in Gravitational Wave interferometers and sub-micron absolute mirror positioning. One type of these linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) has been designed to be also insensitive to transversal displacement thus allowing 3D movement of the sensor head while still precisely reading its position along the sensitivity axis. A second LVDT geometry has been designed to measure the displacement of the vertical seismic attenuation filters from their nominal position. Unlike the commercial LVDTs, mostly based on magnetic cores, the LVDTs described here exert no force on the measured structure.

  5. Design of a high-resolution high-stability positioning mechanism for crystal optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a novel miniature multi-axis driving structure that will allow positioning of two crystals with better than 50-nrad angular resolution and nanometer linear driving sensitivity.The precision and stability of this structure allow the user to align or adjust an assembly of crystals to achieve the same performance as does a single channel-cut crystal, so they call it an artificial channel-cut crystal. In this paper, the particular designs and specifications, as well as the test results,for a two-axis driving structure for a high-energy-resolution artificial channel-cut crystal monochromator are presented

  6. A metrology system for a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Sean, E-mail: walston2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., L-181, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Boogert, Stewart [Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., L-181, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Frisch, Joe [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gronberg, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., L-181, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hayano, Hitoshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hinton, Shantell [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Honda, Yosuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Khainovski, Oleg; Kolomensky, Yury; Loscutoff, Peter [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen [University College London, London (United Kingdom); May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Meller, Robert [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Miller, David [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Orimoto, Toyoko [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ross, Marc [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); and others

    2013-11-11

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will likely be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved–ideally using a beam-based stability measurement. We developed a high resolution RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. A triplet of these BPMs, installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and tested with its ultra-low emittance beam, achieved a position measurement resolution of 15 nm. A metrology system for the three BPMs was subsequently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame. We have demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body at the level of less than 5 nm.

  7. A metrology system for a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hinton, Shantell; Honda, Yosuke; Khainovski, Oleg; Kolomensky, Yury; Loscutoff, Peter; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2013-11-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will likely be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved-ideally using a beam-based stability measurement. We developed a high resolution RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. A triplet of these BPMs, installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and tested with its ultra-low emittance beam, achieved a position measurement resolution of 15 nm. A metrology system for the three BPMs was subsequently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame. We have demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body at the level of less than 5 nm.

  8. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  9. Isotropic-resolution linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography through inverse Radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Xia, Jun; Li, Lei; Wang, Lidai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Linear transducer arrays are readily available for ultrasonic detection in photoacoustic computed tomography. They offer low cost, hand-held convenience, and conventional ultrasonic imaging. However, the elevational resolution of linear transducer arrays, which is usually determined by the weak focus of the cylindrical acoustic lens, is about one order of magnitude worse than the in-plane axial and lateral spatial resolutions. Therefore, conventional linear scanning along the elevational direction cannot provide high-quality three-dimensional photoacoustic images due to the anisotropic spatial resolutions. Here we propose an innovative method to achieve isotropic resolutions for three-dimensional photoacoustic images through combined linear and rotational scanning. In each scan step, we first elevationally scan the linear transducer array, and then rotate the linear transducer array along its center in small steps, and scan again until 180 degrees have been covered. To reconstruct isotropic three-dimensional images from the multiple-directional scanning dataset, we use the standard inverse Radon transform originating from X-ray CT. We acquired a three-dimensional microsphere phantom image through the inverse Radon transform method and compared it with a single-elevational-scan three-dimensional image. The comparison shows that our method improves the elevational resolution by up to one order of magnitude, approaching the in-plane lateral-direction resolution. In vivo rat images were also acquired.

  10. Linear electrostatic micromotors for nano- and micro-positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, Edvard G.

    2004-05-01

    The functioning of the linear step electrostatic film micromotors with the short controlling pulse (less then 100-200 ´s) is studied to create nano- and micro-positioners. The theoretical study of the step movement of the given mass in this time frame is carried out. The results of the experimental studies of the multipetal reciprocal micromotors created on the basis of La modified Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6 ferroelectric films with 1-3 μm thickness are shown. The petals were made of beryllium bronze. It is shown that the electrostatic rolling can last less than 50 μs, and the process of separating two surfaces (the metal and the ferroelectric) can last less than 1 μs. These parameters allow one to operate the micromotor at 1-10 kHz frequency, and the propulsion force in the beginning (the first 20-100 μs) of the electrostatic rolling can be as high as 1-10 N per 1 mm2 of the rolling surface with the voltage pulse amplitude of 40-50 V. The possibility of obtaining moving plate (MP) step in the nanometer range is studied, as well as the precision of these steps during the continuous MP movement with the different clock frequencies and durations of the voltage pulses. The recommendations are given to improve the accuracy and the speed of the positioning in the nano- and micro-movement range. Possible fields of micromotor application are micromechanics, including precision micromechanics, microelectronics, microrobots, microoptics, microscanners, micropumps (e.g. in the jet printers), micro flying vehicles etc.

  11. Reliability and Validity Assessment of a Linear Position Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to determine the validity and reliability of peak velocity (PV, average velocity (AV, peak power (PP and average power (AP measurements were made using a linear position transducer. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi and T-Force Dynamic Measurement Systemr (Ergotech, Murcia, Spain during two resistance exercises, bench press (BP and full back squat (BS, performed by 71 trained male subjects. For the reliability study, a further 32 men completed both lifts using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemz in two identical testing sessions one week apart (session 1 vs. session 2. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs indicating the validity of the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi were high, with values ranging from 0.853 to 0.989. Systematic biases and random errors were low to moderate for almost all variables, being higher in the case of PP (bias ±157.56 W; error ±131.84 W. Proportional biases were identified for almost all variables. Test-retest reliability was strong with ICCs ranging from 0.922 to 0.988. Reliability results also showed minimal systematic biases and random errors, which were only significant for PP (bias -19.19 W; error ±67.57 W. Only PV recorded in the BS showed no significant proportional bias. The Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and estimating power in resistance exercises. The low biases and random errors observed here (mainly AV, AP make this device a useful tool for monitoring resistance training.

  12. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsimon, R. J.; Bett, D. R.; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G. B.; Clarke, C. I.; Constance, B. D.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Davis, M. R.; Perry, C.; Resta López, J.; Swinson, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6 ±0.1 ns . A single-pass beam position resolution of 291 ±10 nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  13. Development of nanometer resolution C-Band radio frequency beam position monitors in the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaton, T.; Mazaheri, G.

    1998-08-01

    Using a 47 GeV electron beam, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) produces vertical spot sizes around 70 nm. These small beam sizes introduce an excellent opportunity to develop and test high resolution Radio Frequency Beam Position Monitors (RF-BPMs). These BPMs are designed to measure pulse to pulse beam motion (jitter) at a theoretical resolution of approximately 1 nm. The beam induces a TM 110 mode with an amplitude linearly proportional to its charge and displacement from the BPM's (cylindrical cavity) axis. The C-band (5,712 MHz) TM 110 signal is processed and converted into beam position for use by the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Presented are the experimental procedures, acquisition, and analysis of data demonstrating resolution of jitter near 25 nm. With the design of future e + e - linear colliders requiring spot sizes close to 3 nm, understanding and developing RF-BPMs will be essential in resolving and controlling jitter

  14. Resolution limits of migration and linearized waveform inversion images in a lossy medium

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Dutta, Gaurav; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The vertical-and horizontal-resolution limits Delta x(lossy) and Delta z(lossy) of post-stack migration and linearized waveform inversion images are derived for lossy data in the far-field approximation. Unlike the horizontal resolution limit Delta x proportional to lambda z/L in a lossless medium which linearly worsens in depth z, Delta x(lossy) proportional to z(2)/QL worsens quadratically with depth for a medium with small Q values. Here, Q is the quality factor, lambda is the effective wavelength, L is the recording aperture, and loss in the resolution formulae is accounted for by replacing lambda with z/Q. In contrast, the lossy vertical-resolution limit Delta z(lossy) only worsens linearly in depth compared to Delta z proportional to lambda for a lossless medium. For both the causal and acausal Q models, the resolution limits are linearly proportional to 1/Q for small Q. These theoretical predictions are validated with migration images computed from lossy data.

  15. Resolution limits of migration and linearized waveform inversion images in a lossy medium

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-03-10

    The vertical-and horizontal-resolution limits Delta x(lossy) and Delta z(lossy) of post-stack migration and linearized waveform inversion images are derived for lossy data in the far-field approximation. Unlike the horizontal resolution limit Delta x proportional to lambda z/L in a lossless medium which linearly worsens in depth z, Delta x(lossy) proportional to z(2)/QL worsens quadratically with depth for a medium with small Q values. Here, Q is the quality factor, lambda is the effective wavelength, L is the recording aperture, and loss in the resolution formulae is accounted for by replacing lambda with z/Q. In contrast, the lossy vertical-resolution limit Delta z(lossy) only worsens linearly in depth compared to Delta z proportional to lambda for a lossless medium. For both the causal and acausal Q models, the resolution limits are linearly proportional to 1/Q for small Q. These theoretical predictions are validated with migration images computed from lossy data.

  16. Contribution to the study of position sensitive detectors with high spatial resolution for thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, Abdellah.

    1978-01-01

    With a view to improving the spatial resolution of the localization of thermal neutrons, the work covers four position sensitive detectors: - 800 cell multi-detectors (1 dimension), - linear 'Jeu de Jacquet' detectors (1 dimension) - Multi-detector XYP 128x128 (2 dimensions), - 'Jeu de Jacquet' detector with 2 dimensions. Mention is made of the various position finding methods known so far, as well as the reasons for selecting BF 3 as detector gas. A study is then made of the parameters of the multiwire chamber whose principle will form the basis of most of the position detecting appliances subsequently dealt with. Finally, a description is given of the detection tests of the thermal neutrons in the multiwire chamber depending on the pressure, a parameter that greatly affects the accuracy of the position finding. The single dimension position tests on two kinds of appliance, the 800 cell multi-detector for the wide angle diffraction studies, and the linear 'Jeu de Jacquet' detector designed for small angle diffraction are mentioned. A description is then given of two position appliances with two dimensions; the multi-detector XYP 128x128 and the two dimensional 'Jeu de Jacquet' detector. In the case of this latter detector, only the hoped for characteristics are indicated [fr

  17. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Cullinan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC requires beam position monitors (BPMs with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3 at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2/3  ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  18. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, F. J.; Boogert, S. T.; Farabolini, W.; Lefevre, T.; Lunin, A.; Lyapin, A.; Søby, L.; Towler, J.; Wendt, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires beam position monitors (BPMs) with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2 /3 ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  19. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, F.; Andritschke, R.; Shaw, H.; Nefzger, C.; Zoglauer, A.; Schoenfelder, V.; Kanbach, G.

    2000-01-01

    New γ-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from γ-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics inside the housing results in a cheap rugged design. While the development in our institute is mainly done for the Compton camera prototype, many other applications are conceivable

  20. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Shaw, H; Nefzger, C; Zoglauer, A; Schönfelder, V; Kanbach, G

    2000-01-01

    New gamma-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from gamma-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics in...

  1. Sparse PDF maps for non-linear multi-resolution image operations

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a new type of multi-resolution image pyramid for high-resolution images called sparse pdf maps (sPDF-maps). Each pyramid level consists of a sparse encoding of continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of pixel neighborhoods in the original image. The encoded pdfs enable the accurate computation of non-linear image operations directly in any pyramid level with proper pre-filtering for anti-aliasing, without accessing higher or lower resolutions. The sparsity of sPDF-maps makes them feasible for gigapixel images, while enabling direct evaluation of a variety of non-linear operators from the same representation. We illustrate this versatility for antialiased color mapping, O(n) local Laplacian filters, smoothed local histogram filters (e.g., median or mode filters), and bilateral filters. © 2012 ACM.

  2. Performance of a high-resolution depth-encoding PET detector module using linearly-graded SiPM arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junwei; Bai, Xiaowei; Gola, Alberto; Acerbi, Fabio; Ferri, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Yang, Yongfeng; Cherry, Simon R.

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to exploit the excellent spatial resolution characteristics of a position-sensitive silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and develop a high-resolution depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector module. The detector consists of a 30  ×  30 array of 0.445  ×  0.445  ×  20 mm3 polished LYSO crystals coupled to two 15.5  ×  15.5 mm2 linearly-graded SiPM (LG-SiPM) arrays at both ends. The flood histograms show that all the crystals in the LYSO array can be resolved. The energy resolution, the coincidence timing resolution and the DOI resolution were 21.8  ±  5.8%, 1.23  ±  0.10 ns and 3.8  ±  1.2 mm, respectively, at a temperature of -10 °C and a bias voltage of 35.0 V. The performance did not degrade significantly for event rates of up to 130 000 counts s-1. This detector represents an attractive option for small-bore PET scanner designs that simultaneously emphasize high spatial resolution and high detection efficiency, important, for example, in preclinical imaging of the rodent brain with neuroreceptor ligands.

  3. Single image super-resolution using locally adaptive multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soohwan; Kang, Wonseok; Ko, Seungyong; Paik, Joonki

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a regularized superresolution (SR) reconstruction method using locally adaptive multiple linear regression to overcome the limitation of spatial resolution of digital images. In order to make the SR problem better-posed, the proposed method incorporates the locally adaptive multiple linear regression into the regularization process as a local prior. The local regularization prior assumes that the target high-resolution (HR) pixel is generated by a linear combination of similar pixels in differently scaled patches and optimum weight parameters. In addition, we adapt a modified version of the nonlocal means filter as a smoothness prior to utilize the patch redundancy. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm better restores HR images than existing state-of-the-art methods in the sense of the most objective measures in the literature.

  4. Improvement of resolution in full-view linear-array photoacoustic computed tomography using a novel adaptive weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Parsa; Diop, Mamadou; Carson, Jeffrey; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-03-01

    Linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography is a popular methodology for deep and high resolution imaging. However, issues such as phase aberration, side-lobe effects, and propagation limitations deteriorate the resolution. The effect of phase aberration due to acoustic attenuation and constant assumption of the speed of sound (SoS) can be reduced by applying an adaptive weighting method such as the coherence factor (CF). Utilizing an adaptive beamforming algorithm such as the minimum variance (MV) can improve the resolution at the focal point by eliminating the side-lobes. Moreover, invisibility of directional objects emitting parallel to the detection plane, such as vessels and other absorbing structures stretched in the direction perpendicular to the detection plane can degrade resolution. In this study, we propose a full-view array level weighting algorithm in which different weighs are assigned to different positions of the linear array based on an orientation algorithm which uses the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG). Simulation results obtained from a synthetic phantom show the superior performance of the proposed method over the existing reconstruction methods.

  5. Single Image Super-Resolution Using Global Regression Based on Multiple Local Linear Mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Seok; Kim, Munchurl

    2017-03-01

    Super-resolution (SR) has become more vital, because of its capability to generate high-quality ultra-high definition (UHD) high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) input images. Conventional SR methods entail high computational complexity, which makes them difficult to be implemented for up-scaling of full-high-definition input images into UHD-resolution images. Nevertheless, our previous super-interpolation (SI) method showed a good compromise between Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) performances and computational complexity. However, since SI only utilizes simple linear mappings, it may fail to precisely reconstruct HR patches with complex texture. In this paper, we present a novel SR method, which inherits the large-to-small patch conversion scheme from SI but uses global regression based on local linear mappings (GLM). Thus, our new SR method is called GLM-SI. In GLM-SI, each LR input patch is divided into 25 overlapped subpatches. Next, based on the local properties of these subpatches, 25 different local linear mappings are applied to the current LR input patch to generate 25 HR patch candidates, which are then regressed into one final HR patch using a global regressor. The local linear mappings are learned cluster-wise in our off-line training phase. The main contribution of this paper is as follows: Previously, linear-mapping-based conventional SR methods, including SI only used one simple yet coarse linear mapping to each patch to reconstruct its HR version. On the contrary, for each LR input patch, our GLM-SI is the first to apply a combination of multiple local linear mappings, where each local linear mapping is found according to local properties of the current LR patch. Therefore, it can better approximate nonlinear LR-to-HR mappings for HR patches with complex texture. Experiment results show that the proposed GLM-SI method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art methods, and shows comparable PSNR performance with much lower

  6. Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kaczorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.

  7. POSITIVE SOLUTIONS TO SEMI-LINEAR SECOND-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN BANACH SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the existence of positive periodic solution to some second- order semi-linear differential equation in Banach space.By the fixed point index theory, we prove that the semi-linear differential equation has two positive periodic solutions.

  8. Successful use of a linear position-sensitive neutron detector in solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, P.; Heer, H.; Isacson, A.; Koch, M.; Thut, R.

    1991-01-01

    The double axis multicounter diffractometer (DMC) installed at the 10 MW reactor SAPHIR (PSI) has been designed as a good flux-good resolution (presently Δd/d≥4x10 -3 ) neutron poder diffractometer. The detector bank is based on a commercial position-sensitive linear BF 3 detector which may be automatically and precisely positioned on air cushions on inexpensive floors. This detector type has an 80deg angular opening, not allowing any standard collimation in front of the detector. We therefore developed an oscillating collimator system allowing easy use of the instrument even with sample environments such as a dilution cryostat. (orig.)

  9. An Automated Magnet Positioning System For Use in the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) is conceived as the world's most powerful electron-positron particle accelerator. Throughout the NLC, the beam itself will be used to measure errors in the positions of the lattice elements. This beam-based alignment strategy is an essential element of the NLC's design and precision adjustment systems have been identified as a critical enabling technology. Square One proposes a new type of precision manipulator that could be adapted for applications throughout the accelerator. As envisioned, this ''Tri-Sphere'' Adjustment System will possess up to six, non-redundant degrees of freedom, be capable of sub-micron resolutions and have ultimate load capacities in excess of 10,000 kg. The system will accommodate thermal expansions and contractions of the objects being supported and can be either motorized or manually actuated. Phase I development tasks will include detailed manipulator design, solution of the associated kinematic equations of motion and evaluation of actuators, gear reducers and transmission systems. The Phase I effort will culminate in the fabrication and full evaluation of a system prototype. A successfully developed Tri-Sphere manipulator could also be used to actively position critical fusion optics, adjust communication dishes or perform parts handling tasks in harsh manufacturing environments

  10. Linear mixing model applied to coarse spatial resolution data from multispectral satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, Brent N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    1993-01-01

    A linear mixing model was applied to coarse spatial resolution data from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The reflective component of the 3.55-3.95 micron channel was used with the two reflective channels 0.58-0.68 micron and 0.725-1.1 micron to run a constrained least squares model to generate fraction images for an area in the west central region of Brazil. The fraction images were compared with an unsupervised classification derived from Landsat TM data acquired on the same day. The relationship between the fraction images and normalized difference vegetation index images show the potential of the unmixing techniques when using coarse spatial resolution data for global studies.

  11. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Apsimon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6±0.1  ns. A single-pass beam position resolution of 291±10  nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  12. Two methods to estimate the position resolution for straw chambers with strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1992-01-01

    The centroid and charge-ratio methods are presented to estimate the position resolution of the straw chambers with strip readout. For the straw chambers of 10 mm in diameter, the highest position resolution was obtained for a strip pitch of 5 mm. With the centroid method and perpendicular X-ray beam, the position resolution was ≅120 μm, for the signal-to-noise ratio of 60-65. The charge-ratio method has demonstrated ≅10% better position resolution at the edges of the strip. 6 refs.; 5 figs

  13. Super-resolution for a point source using positive refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Ahmadpanahi, Hamed

    Leonhardt demonstrated (2009) that the 2D Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency, i.e., it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a receptor called "perfect drain" (PD) located at the corresponding MFE image point. The PD has the property of absorbing the complete radiation without radiation or scattering and it has been claimed as necessary to obtain super-resolution (SR) in the MFE. However, a prototype using a "drain" different from the PD has shown λ/5 resolution for microwave frequencies (Ma et al, 2010). Recently, the SR properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, called the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW) (Miñano et al, 2012) have been analyzed. The reported results show resolution up to λ /3000, for the SGW loaded with the perfect drain, and up to λ /500 for the SGW without perfect drain. The perfect drain was realized as a coaxial probe loaded with properly calculated impedance. The SGW provides SR only in a narrow band of frequencies close to the resonance Schumann frequencies. Here we analyze the SGW loaded with a small "perfect drain region" (González et al, 2011). This drain is designed as a region made of a material with complex permittivity. The comparative results show that there is no significant difference in the SR properties for both perfect drain designs.

  14. A New Method for Single-Epoch Ambiguity Resolution with Indoor Pseudolite Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jiming; Wang, Jinling; Qiu, Weining

    2017-04-21

    Ambiguity resolution (AR) is crucial for high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. Due to the existing characteristics of the pseudolite positioning system, such as the geometry structure of the stationary pseudolite which is consistently invariant, the indoor signal is easy to interrupt and the first order linear truncation error cannot be ignored, and a new AR method based on the idea of the ambiguity function method (AFM) is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is a single-epoch and nonlinear method that is especially well-suited for indoor pseudolite positioning. Considering the very low computational efficiency of conventional AFM, we adopt an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm to search for the best solution in the coordinate domain, and variances of a least squares adjustment is conducted to ensure the reliability of the solving ambiguity. Several experiments, including static and kinematic tests, are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed AR method. Numerical results show that the IPSO significantly improved the computational efficiency of AFM and has a more elaborate search ability compared to the conventional grid searching method. For the indoor pseudolite system, which had an initial approximate coordinate precision better than 0.2 m, the AFM exhibited good performances in both static and kinematic tests. With the corrected ambiguity gained from our proposed method, indoor pseudolite positioning can achieve centimeter-level precision using a low-cost single-frequency software receiver.

  15. Simulation studies for a high resolution time projection chamber at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muennich, A.

    2007-03-26

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is planned to be the next large accelerator. The ILC will be able to perform high precision measurements only possible at the clean environment of electron positron collisions. In order to reach this high accuracy, the requirements for the detector performance are challenging. Several detector concepts are currently under study. The understanding of the detector and its performance will be crucial to extract the desired physics results from the data. To optimise the detector design, simulation studies are needed. Simulation packages like GEANT4 allow to model the detector geometry and simulate the energy deposit in the different materials. However, the detector response taking into account the transportation of the produced charge to the readout devices and the effects ofthe readout electronics cannot be described in detail. These processes in the detector will change the measured position of the energy deposit relative to the point of origin. The determination of this detector response is the task of detailed simulation studies, which have to be carried out for each subdetector. A high resolution Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with gas amplification based on micro pattern gas detectors, is one of the options for the main tracking system at the ILC. In the present thesis a detailed simulation tool to study the performance of a TPC was developed. Its goal is to find the optimal settings to reach an excellent momentum and spatial resolution. After an introduction to the present status of particle physics and the ILC project with special focus on the TPC as central tracker, the simulation framework is presented. The basic simulation methods and implemented processes are introduced. Within this stand-alone simulation framework each electron produced by primary ionisation is transferred through the gas volume and amplified using Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The output format of the simulation is identical to the raw data from a

  16. Measurement of the position resolution of the Gas Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffitta, Paolo; Muleri, Fabio; Fabiani, Sergio; Costa, Enrico; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo; Pinchera, Michele; Spandre, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The Gas Pixel Detector was designed and built as a focal plane instrument for X-ray polarimetry of celestial sources, the last unexplored subtopics of X-ray astronomy. It promises to perform detailed and sensitive measurements resolving extended sources and detecting polarization in faint sources in crowded fields at the focus of telescopes of good angular resolution. Its polarimetric and spectral capability were already studied in earlier works. Here we investigate for the first time, with both laboratory measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, its imaging properties to confirm its unique capability to carry out imaging spectral-polarimetry in future X-ray missions.

  17. On the Linearized Darboux Equation Arising in Isometric Embedding of the Alexandrov Positive Annulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhe LI

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper,the solvability condition of the linearized Gauss-Codazzi system and the solutions to the homogenous system are given.In the meantime,the Solvability of a relevant linearized Darboux equation is given.The equations are arising in a geometric problem which is concerned with the realization of the Alexandrov's positive annulus in R3.

  18. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  19. Non-monotone positive solutions of second-order linear differential equations: existence, nonexistence and criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervan Pašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We study non-monotone positive solutions of the second-order linear differential equations: $(p(tx'' + q(t x = e(t$, with positive $p(t$ and $q(t$. For the first time, some criteria as well as the existence and nonexistence of non-monotone positive solutions are proved in the framework of some properties of solutions $\\theta (t$ of the corresponding integrable linear equation: $(p(t\\theta''=e(t$. The main results are illustrated by many examples dealing with equations which allow exact non-monotone positive solutions not necessarily periodic. Finally, we pose some open questions.

  20. High-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes using ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Rockberg, Johan; Forsström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies empower numerous important scientific, clinical, diagnostic, and industrial applications. Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning...... against unwanted (e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. The latter are typically probed with peptides, but the cost of peptide screening programs tends to prohibit comprehensive specificity analysis. To perform high-throughput, high......-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against...

  1. Linear quadratic Gaussian controller design for plasma current, position and shape control system in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V.; Kavin, A.; Rumyantsev, E.; Kharitonov, V.; Misenov, B.; Ovsyannikov, A.; Ovsyannikov, D.; Veremei, E.; Zhabko, A.; Mitrishkin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is focused on the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller synthesis methodology for the ITER plasma current, position and shape control system as well as power derivative management system. It has been shown that some poloidal field (PF) coils have less influence on reference plasma-wall gaps control during plasma disturbances and hence they have been used to reduce total control power derivative by means of the additional non-linear feedback. The design has been done on the basis of linear models. Simulation was provided for non-linear model and results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  2. A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jinchuan

    2010-01-01

    Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from B(H) into B(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state ρ on HxK is separable if and only if (ΦxI)ρ ≥ 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators Φ. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.

  3. A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinchuan

    2010-09-01

    Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from {\\mathcal B}(H) into {\\mathcal B}(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state ρ on HotimesK is separable if and only if (ΦotimesI)ρ >= 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators Φ. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.

  4. Giant negative linear compression positively coupled to massive thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weizhao; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2014-07-04

    Materials with negative linear compressibility are sought for various technological applications. Such effects were reported mainly in framework materials. When heated, they typically contract in the same direction of negative linear compression. Here we show that this common inverse relationship rule does not apply to a three-dimensional metal-organic framework crystal, [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3. In this material, the direction of the largest intrinsic negative linear compression yet observed in metal-organic frameworks coincides with the strongest positive thermal expansion. In the perpendicular direction, the large linear negative thermal expansion and the strongest crystal compressibility are collinear. This seemingly irrational positive relationship of temperature and pressure effects is explained and the mechanism of coupling of compressibility with expansivity is presented. The positive coupling between compression and thermal expansion in this material enhances its piezo-mechanical response in adiabatic process, which may be used for designing new artificial composites and ultrasensitive measuring devices.

  5. Development of nanometer resolution C-Band radio frequency beam position monitors in the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaton, T.; Mazaheri, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Shintake, T. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Using a 47 GeV electron beam, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) produces vertical spot sizes around 70 nm. These small beam sizes introduce an excellent opportunity to develop and test high resolution Radio Frequency Beam Position Monitors (RF-BPMs). These BPMs are designed to measure pulse to pulse beam motion (jitter) at a theoretical resolution of approximately 1 nm. The beam induces a TM{sub 110} mode with an amplitude linearly proportional to its charge and displacement from the BPM's (cylindrical cavity) axis. The C-band (5,712 MHz) TM{sub 110} signal is processed and converted into beam position for use by the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Presented are the experimental procedures, acquisition, and analysis of data demonstrating resolution of jitter near 25 nm. With the design of future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders requiring spot sizes close to 3 nm, understanding and developing RF-BPMs will be essential in resolving and controlling jitter.

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION LINEAR POLARIMETRIC IMAGING FOR THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Narayan, Ramesh; Doeleman, Sheperd S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wardle, John F. C. [Brandeis University, Physics Department, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Bouman, Katherine L., E-mail: achael@cfa.harvard.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 32 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Images of the linear polarizations of synchrotron radiation around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) highlight their projected magnetic field lines and provide key data for understanding the physics of accretion and outflow from supermassive black holes. The highest-resolution polarimetric images of AGNs are produced with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Because VLBI incompletely samples the Fourier transform of the source image, any image reconstruction that fills in unmeasured spatial frequencies will not be unique and reconstruction algorithms are required. In this paper, we explore some extensions of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to linear polarimetric VLBI imaging. In contrast to previous work, our polarimetric MEM algorithm combines a Stokes I imager that only uses bispectrum measurements that are immune to atmospheric phase corruption, with a joint Stokes Q and U imager that operates on robust polarimetric ratios. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique on 7 and 3 mm wavelength quasar observations from the VLBA and simulated 1.3 mm Event Horizon Telescope observations of Sgr A* and M87. Consistent with past studies, we find that polarimetric MEM can produce superior resolution compared to the standard CLEAN algorithm, when imaging smooth and compact source distributions. As an imaging framework, MEM is highly adaptable, allowing a range of constraints on polarization structure. Polarimetric MEM is thus an attractive choice for image reconstruction with the EHT.

  7. A study on virtual source position for electron beams from a Mevatron MD linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The virtual source position (VSP) for electron beams of energies 5, 7, 9 10, 12 and 14 MeV and for the applicators (cones) available in the department have been measured for a Mevatron MD class linear accelerator. Different methods of obtaining the virtual source position for electron beams have been investigated in the present study. The results obtained have been compared with those of other workers. It is observed that the VSP is very much machine dependent and needs to be measured for each linear accelerator. The effect of shielding on virtual source position for the type of applicators available in the department has also been investigated. (author)

  8. Distributed transition-edge sensors for linearized position response in a phonon-mediated X-ray imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Blas; Brink, Paul L.; Leman, Steven W.; Castle, Joseph P.; Tomada, Astrid; Young, Betty A.; Martínez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Stern, Robert A.; Deiker, Steve; Irwin, Kent D.

    2004-03-01

    For future solar X-ray satellite missions, we are developing a phonon-mediated macro-pixel composed of a Ge crystal absorber with four superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) distributed on the backside. The X-rays are absorbed on the opposite side and the energy is converted into phonons, which are absorbed into the four TES sensors. By connecting together parallel elements into four channels, fractional total energy absorbed between two of the sensors provides x-position information and the other two provide y-position information. We determine the optimal distribution for the TES sub-elements to obtain linear position information while minimizing the degradation of energy resolution.

  9. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references

  10. In-beam measurement of the position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Lee, I.Y.; Fallon, P.; Cromaz, M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Radford, D.C.; Vetter, K.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Ward, D.

    2005-01-01

    The position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector was determined by analyzing the 2055keV γ-ray transition of Zr90 excited in a fusion-evaporation reaction. The high velocity of the Zr90 nuclei imparted large Doppler shifts. Digital analysis of the detector signals recovered the energy and position of individual γ-ray interactions. The location of the first interaction in the crystal was used to correct the Doppler energy shift. Comparison of the measured energy resolution with simulations implied a position resolution (root mean square) of 2mm in three-dimensions

  11. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Emadi, Naghmeh [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Mohamad [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions in vitro. Two acrylic models were fabricated from a cast with normal occlusion. Straight and 75 degree mesially and lingually angulated pins were placed, and standardized panoramic radiographs were taken at standard position, at an 8 degree downward tilt of the occlusal plane compared to the standard position, at an 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior occlusal plane, and at a 10 degree downward tilt of the right and left sides of the model. On the radiographs, the length of the pins above (crown) and below (root) the occlusal plane, total pin length, crown-to-root ratio, and angulation of pins relative to the occlusal plane were calculated. The data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and LSD multiple comparisons tests. Significant differences were noted between the radiographic measurements and true values in different positions on both models with linear (P<0.001) and those with angulated pins (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were observed between the angular measurements and baselines of the natural head posture at different positions for the linear and angulated pins. Angular measurements on panoramic radiographs were sufficiently accurate and changes in the position of the occlusal plane equal to or less than 10 degree had no significant effect on them. Some variations could exist in the pin positioning (head positioning), and they were tolerable while taking panoramic radiographs. Linear measurements showed the least errors in the standard position and 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior part of the occlusal plane compared to other positions.

  12. Study on energy and position resolution of MWPC for the Beijing e/π test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Cui Xiangzong; Li Jiacai

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the research on the energy and position resolution of the MWPC used in the e/π Test Beam on BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider), which localizes the particles of e/π by the readout method of gravity center of the induced charges on the cathode strips. The spatial resolution of about 0.24 mm and energy resolution of 17% for 5.9 keV γ photons are attained at the 3700 V anode voltage. For the 1.1 GeV electrons, the spatial resolution of 0.3 mm is obtained. The contributions of various factors to energy resolution are analysed. It is found that energy resolution is changed with the anode voltage and there exists a least energy resolution. The reasons for these are discussed. (authors)

  13. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  14. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images......-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [(18)F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET...... on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers....

  15. A new formulation of the linear sampling method: spatial resolution and post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piana, M; Aramini, R; Brignone, M; Coyle, J

    2008-01-01

    A new formulation of the linear sampling method is described, which requires the regularized solution of a single functional equation set in a direct sum of L 2 spaces. This new approach presents the following notable advantages: it is computationally more effective than the traditional implementation, since time consuming samplings of the Tikhonov minimum problem and of the generalized discrepancy equation are avoided; it allows a quantitative estimate of the spatial resolution achievable by the method; it facilitates a post-processing procedure for the optimal selection of the scatterer profile by means of edge detection techniques. The formulation is described in a two-dimensional framework and in the case of obstacle scattering, although generalizations to three dimensions and penetrable inhomogeneities are straightforward

  16. Cross-Contextual Variability in Parents' and School Tutors' Conflict Resolution Styles and Positive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Beatriz; Rodrigo, María José; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how the variability in adult conflict resolution styles in family and school contexts was related to adolescents' positive development. Cluster analysis classified 440 fathers, 440 mothers, and 125 tutors into 4 clusters, based on self-reports of their conflict resolution styles. Adolescents exposed to Cluster 1 (inconsistency…

  17. Prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    2008-01-01

    Downsizing detector elements makes it possible that spatial resolutions of positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are improved very much. From this point of view, semiconductor detectors are preferable. To obtain high resolution, the pixel type or the multi strip type of semiconductor detectors can be used. However, in this case, there is a low packing ratio problem, because a dead area between detector arrays cannot be neglected. Here, we propose the use of position sensitive semiconductor detectors with resistive electrode. The CdTe detector is promising as a detector for PET camera because of its high sensitivity. In this paper, we report development of prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors. We made 1-dimensional position sensitive CdTe detectors experimentally by changing the electrode thickness. We obtained 750 A as an appropriate thickness of position sensitive detectors, and evaluated the performance of the detector using a collimated 241 Am source. A good position resolution of 1.2 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) was obtained. On the basis of the fundamental development of resistive electrode position sensitive detectors, we constructed a prototype of high resolution PET which was a dual head type and was consisted of thirty-two 1-dimensional position sensitive detectors. In conclusion, we obtained high resolutions which are 0.75 mm (FWHM) in transaxial, and 1.5 mm (FWHM) in axial. (author)

  18. Non-linearity and spatial resolution in a cellular automaton model of a small upland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Coulthard

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuing development of computational fluid dynamics is allowing the high resolution study of hydraulic and sediment transport processes but, due to computational complexities, these are rarely applied to areas larger than a reach. Existing approaches, based upon linked cross sections, can give a quasi two-dimensional view, effectively simulating sediment transport for a single river reach. However, a basin represents a whole discrete dynamic system within which channel, floodplain and slope processes operate over a wide range of space and time scales. Here, a cellular automaton (CA approach has been used to overcome some of these difficulties, in which the landscape is represented as a series of fixed size cells. For every model iteration, each cell acts only in relation to the influence of its immediate neighbours in accordance with appropriate rules. The model presented here takes approximations of existing flow and sediment transport equations, and integrates them, together with slope and floodplain approximations, within a cellular automaton framework. This method has been applied to the basin of Cam Gill Beck (4.2 km2 above Starbotton, upper Wharfedale, a tributary of the River Wharfe, North Yorkshire, UK. This approach provides, for the first time, a workable model of the whole basin at a 1 m resolution. Preliminary results show the evolution of bars, braids, terraces and alluvial fans which are similar to those observed in the field, and examples of large and small scale non-linear behaviour which may have considerable implications for future models.

  19. Mover Position Detection for PMTLM Based on Linear Hall Sensors through EKF Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Leyang; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2017-04-06

    Accurate mover position is vital for a permanent magnet tubular linear motor (PMTLM) control system. In this paper, two linear Hall sensors are utilized to detect the mover position. However, Hall sensor signals contain third-order harmonics, creating errors in mover position detection. To filter out the third-order harmonics, a signal processing method based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is presented. The limitation of conventional processing method is first analyzed, and then EKF is adopted to detect the mover position. In the EKF model, the amplitude of the fundamental component and the percentage of the harmonic component are taken as state variables, and they can be estimated based solely on the measured sensor signals. Then, the harmonic component can be calculated and eliminated. The proposed method has the advantages of faster convergence, better stability and higher accuracy. Finally, experimental results validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  20. Linearization of Positional Response Curve of a Fiber-optic Displacement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, O. G.; Matyunin, S. A.; Paranin, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the creation of optical measuring instruments and sensors for measuring linear displacement is one of the most relevant problems in the area of instrumentation. Fiber-optic contactless sensors based on the magneto-optical effect are of special interest. They are essentially contactless, non-electrical and have a closed optical channel not subject to contamination. The main problem of this type of sensors is the non-linearity of their positional response curve due to the hyperbolic nature of the magnetic field intensity variation induced by moving the magnetic source mounted on the controlled object relative to the sensing element. This paper discusses an algorithmic method of linearizing the positional response curve of fiber-optic displacement sensors in any selected range of the displacements to be measured. The method is divided into two stages: 1 - definition of the calibration function, 2 - measurement and linearization of the positional response curve (including its temperature stabilization). The algorithm under consideration significantly reduces the number of points of the calibration function, which is essential for the calibration of temperature dependence, due to the use of the points that randomly deviate from the grid points with uniform spacing. Subsequent interpolation of the deviating points and piecewise linear-plane approximation of the calibration function reduces the microcontroller storage capacity for storing the calibration function and the time required to process the measurement results. The paper also presents experimental results of testing real samples of fiber-optic displacement sensors.

  1. Three-frequency BDS precise point positioning ambiguity resolution based on raw observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-02-01

    All BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) satellites are transmitting signals on three frequencies, which brings new opportunity and challenges for high-accuracy precise point positioning (PPP) with ambiguity resolution (AR). This paper proposes an effective uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation and AR strategy which is based on a raw PPP model. First, triple-frequency raw PPP models are developed. The observation model and stochastic model are designed and extended to accommodate the third frequency. Then, the UPD is parameterized in raw frequency form while estimating with the high-precision and low-noise integer linear combination of float ambiguity which are derived by ambiguity decorrelation. Third, with UPD corrected, the LAMBDA method is used for resolving full or partial ambiguities which can be fixed. This method can be easily and flexibly extended for dual-, triple- or even more frequency. To verify the effectiveness and performance of triple-frequency PPP AR, tests with real BDS data from 90 stations lasting for 21 days were performed in static mode. Data were processed with three strategies: BDS triple-frequency ambiguity-float PPP, BDS triple-frequency PPP with dual-frequency (B1/B2) and three-frequency AR, respectively. Numerous experiment results showed that compared with the ambiguity-float solution, the performance in terms of convergence time and positioning biases can be significantly improved by AR. Among three groups of solutions, the triple-frequency PPP AR achieved the best performance. Compared with dual-frequency AR, additional the third frequency could apparently improve the position estimations during the initialization phase and under constraint environments when the dual-frequency PPP AR is limited by few satellite numbers.

  2. Study on the performance of large area MRPC with high position resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Wu Yucheng; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), which is mostly developed in high energy physics domain with excellent time resolution, is also highlighted in imaging applications. A set of 50 cm Multiplication-Sign 50 cm large area MRPC with high position resolution was successfully developed by our group and different experiments have been done to test its performances. Cosmic ray muons were used to do the test and proper high voltage and working gas were chosen. Data analysis indicates its good detection efficiency and good position resolution, which encourages further study of its application in RPC-PET and muon tomography.

  3. Correction of X-ray diffraction profiles in linear-type PSPC by position factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) makes it possible to obtain one-dimentional diffraction profiles without mechanical scanning. In a linear-type PSPC, the obtained profiles need correcting, because the position factor influences the intensity of the diffracted X-ray beam and the counting rate at each position on PSPC. The distances from the specimen are not the same at the center and at the edge of the detector, and the intensity decreases at the edge because of radiation and absorption. The counting rate varies with the incident angle of the diffracted beam at each position on PSPC. The position factor f i at channel i of the multichannel-analyser is given by f i = cos 4 α i ·exp{-μR(1/cosα i -1)} where R is the distance between the specimen and the center of PSPC, μ is the linear absorption coefficient and α i is the incident angle of the diffracted beam at channel i. The background profiles of silica gel powder were measured with CrKα and CuKα. The parameters of the model function were fitted to the profiles by the non-linear least squares method. The agreement between these parameters and the calculated values shows that the position factor can correct the measured profiles properly. (author)

  4. Approximation of functions in two variables by some linear positive operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Skorupka

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some linear positive operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type in the weighted spaces of continuous functions in two variables. We study the degree of the approximation of functions by these operators. The similar results for functions in one variable are given in [5]. Some operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type are examined also in [3], [4].

  5. Position resolution simulations for the inverted-coaxial germanium detector, SIGMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. P.; Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Boston, A. J.; Judson, D. S.; Labiche, M.; Nolan, P. J.; Page, R. D.; Pearce, F.; Radford, D. C.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2018-06-01

    The SIGMA Germanium detector has the potential to revolutionise γ-ray spectroscopy, providing superior energy and position resolving capabilities compared with current large volume state-of-the-art Germanium detectors. The theoretical position resolution of the detector as a function of γ-ray interaction position has been studied using simulated detector signals. A study of the effects of RMS noise at various energies has been presented with the position resolution ranging from 0.33 mm FWHM at Eγ = 1 MeV, to 0.41 mm at Eγ = 150 keV. An additional investigation into the effects pulse alignment have on pulse shape analysis and in turn, position resolution has been performed. The theoretical performance of SIGMA operating in an experimental setting is presented for use as a standalone detector and as part of an ancillary system.

  6. Predictive IP controller for robust position control of linear servo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaowu; Zhou, Fengxing; Ma, Yajie; Tang, Xiaoqi

    2016-07-01

    Position control is a typical application of linear servo system. In this paper, to reduce the system overshoot, an integral plus proportional (IP) controller is used in the position control implementation. To further improve the control performance, a gain-tuning IP controller based on a generalized predictive control (GPC) law is proposed. Firstly, to represent the dynamics of the position loop, a second-order linear model is used and its model parameters are estimated on-line by using a recursive least squares method. Secondly, based on the GPC law, an optimal control sequence is obtained by using receding horizon, then directly supplies the IP controller with the corresponding control parameters in the real operations. Finally, simulation and experimental results are presented to show the efficiency of proposed scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical networks with inflows and outflows: a positive linear differential inclusions approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, David; De Leenheer, Patrick; Sontag, Eduardo D

    2009-01-01

    Certain mass-action kinetics models of biochemical reaction networks, although described by nonlinear differential equations, may be partially viewed as state-dependent linear time-varying systems, which in turn may be modeled by convex compact valued positive linear differential inclusions. A result is provided on asymptotic stability of such inclusions, and applied to a ubiquitous biochemical reaction network with inflows and outflows, known as the futile cycle. We also provide a characterization of exponential stability of general homogeneous switched systems which is not only of interest in itself, but also plays a role in the analysis of the futile cycle. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  8. Positivity and job burnout in emergency personnel: examining linear and curvilinear relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basińska Beata Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000. Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010. The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

  9. Wireless Positioning Based on a Segment-Wise Linear Approach for Modeling the Target Trajectory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Joao; Pedersen, Troels; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Positioning solutions in infrastructure-based wireless networks generally operate by exploiting the channel information of the links between the Wireless Devices and fixed networking Access Points. The major challenge of such solutions is the modeling of both the noise properties of the channel...... measurements and the user mobility patterns. One class of typical human being movement patterns is the segment-wise linear approach, which is studied in this paper. Current tracking solutions, such as the Constant Velocity model, hardly handle such segment-wise linear patterns. In this paper we propose...... a segment-wise linear model, called the Drifting Points model. The model results in an increased performance when compared with traditional solutions....

  10. Development of a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoichi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Takatomi, Toshikazu; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Urakawa, Junji; Komamiya, Sachio; Nakamura, Tomoya; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Kim, Eun-San; Shin, Seung-Hwan; Vogel, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor (BPM) to be used at the focal point of the ATF2, which is a test beam line that is now being built to demonstrate stable orbit control at ˜nanometer resolution. The design of the cavity structure was optimized for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) beam in various ways. For example, the cavity has a rectangular shape in order to isolate two dipole modes in orthogonal directions, and a relatively thin gap that is less sensitive to trajectory inclination. A two stage homodyne mixer with highly sensitive electronics and phase-sensitive detection was also developed. Two BPM blocks, each containing two cavity BPMs, were installed in the existing ATF beam line using a rigid support frame. After testing the basic characteristics, we measured the resolution using three BPMs. The system demonstrated 8.7 nm position resolution over a dynamic range of 5μm.

  11. Approximation Theorems for q- Analouge of a Linear Positive Operator by A. Lupas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunesh Kumar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to introduce $q-$ analouge of a sequence of linear and positive operators which was introduced by A. Lupas [2]. First, we estimate moments of the operators and then prove a basic convergence theorem. Next, a local direct approximation theorem is established. Further, we study the rate of convergence and point-wise estimate using the Lipschitz type maximal function.

  12. Asynchronous L1-gain control of uncertain switched positive linear systems with dwell time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Hongbin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, dwell time (DT) stability, L 1 -gain performance analysis and asynchronous L 1 -gain controller design problems of uncertain switched positive linear systems (SPLSs) are investigated. Via a time-scheduled multiple linear co-positive Lyapunov function (TSMLCLF) approach, convex sufficient conditions of DT stability and L 1 -gain performance of SPLSs with interval and polytopic uncertainties are presented. Furthermore, by utilizing the feature that the TSMLCLF keeps decreasing even if the controller is running asynchronously with the system, the asynchronous L 1 -gain controller design problem of SPLSs with interval and polytopic uncertainties is investigated. Convex sufficient conditions of the existence of time-varying asynchronous state-feedback controller which can ensure the closed-loop system's positivity, stability and L 1 -gain performance are established, and the controller gain matrices can be calculated instantaneously online. The obtained L 1 -gain in the paper is standard. All the results are presented in terms of linear programming. A practical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of positive affect on conflict resolution: Modulated by approach-motivational intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Wang, Zhenhong; Quan, Sixiang; Li, Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    The motivational dimensional model of affect proposes that the influence of positive affect on cognitive processing is modulated by approach-motivational intensity. The present research extended this model by examining the influence of positive affect varying in approach-motivational intensity on conflict resolution-the ability to resolve interference from task-irrelevant distractors in order to focus on the target. The global-local task (Experiment 1) and letter-Flanker task (Experiment 2) were used to measure conflict resolution. Additionally, the 4:2 mapping design that assigns two kinds of task-relevant stimuli to one response key and two more to another response key was used in these two tasks to dissociate stimulus and response conflict. Results showed that positive affect varying in approach motivation had opposite influences on conflict resolution. The opposite influences are primarily reflected in low approach-motivated positive affect impairing, while high approach-motivated positive affect facilitating the resolution of response conflict. Conversely, the stimulus conflict was slightly influenced. These findings highlight the utility of distinguishing stimulus and response conflict in future research.

  14. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muraro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Methods: Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years, and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child’s family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. Results: We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p < 0.01 and adolescence (low SEP= -0.01 z-score; high SEP= 0.45 z-score, p < 0.01, whereas upward mobility did not affect their linear growth. Conclusion: Expressive social mobility was observed, but SEP in childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  15. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  16. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  17. The $\\mu$TPC Method: Improving the Position Resolution of Neutron Detectors Based on MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Iakovidis, George; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Ropelewski, Leszek; Thuiner, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Due to the Helium-3 crisis, alternatives to the standard neutron detection techniques are becoming urgent. In addition, the instruments of the European Spallation Source (ESS) require advances in the state of the art of neutron detection. The instruments need detectors with excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities and unprecedented spatial resolution. The Macromolecular Crystallography instrument (NMX) requires a position resolution in the order of 200 um over a wide angular range of incoming neutrons. Solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are proposed to meet the new requirements. Charged particles rising from the neutron capture have usually ranges larger than several millimetres in gas. This is apparently in contrast with the requirements for the position resolution. In this paper, we present an analysis technique, new in the field of neutron detection, based on the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept. Using a standard Single-GEM with the catho...

  18. Study of position resolution for cathode readout MWPC with measurement of induced charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, J.; Iwasaki, H.; Kageyama, T.; Kuribayashi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takeda, T.

    1983-01-01

    A readout technqiue of multiwire proportional chambers by measurement of charges induced on cathode strips, orthogonal to anode wires, requires an algorithm to relate the measured charge distribution to the avalanche position. With given chamber parameters and under the influence of noise, resolution limits depend on the chosen algorithm. We have studied the position resolution obtained by the centroid method and by the charge-ratio method, both using three consecutive cathode strips. While the centroid method uses a single number, the center of gravity of the measured charges, the charge-ratio method uses the ratios of the charges Qsub(i-1)/Qsub(i) and Qsub(i+1)/Qsub(i) where Qsub(i) is the largest. To obtain a given resolution, the charge-ratio method generally allows wider cathode strips and therefore a smaller number of readout channels than the centroid method. (orig.)

  19. Effects of angling and manual handling on pike behaviour investigated by high-resolution positional telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Aarestrup, Kim; Berg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Human disturbances such as angling and manual handling may have long-term effects on the behaviour of pike, Esox lucius L., an ecologically important species. Using continuous high-resolution positional telemetry, this study compared the swimming activity of handled and unhandled pike in a small...

  20. Study of position resolution and electron-hadron separation of electromagnetic calorimeter with a silicon structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodnichev, V.B.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Rykali, V.V.; Solovianov, V.L.; Ukhalov, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum shower silicon strip detectors embedded in a module of sandwich-type electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested. The position resolution at different depths of the silicon structure has been measured. The results on electron-hadron separation obtained as a byproduct in this study are presented, and possibility of their improvement is discussed. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  1. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, M.; Ulu, M. [eCOL Laboratory, Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Gennarakis, G. G.; Zouros, T. J. M. [Atomic Collisions and Electron Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R{sub 0} suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R{sub 0}= 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R{sub 0}) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R{sub 0}= 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R{sub 0}= 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R{sub 0}). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%-30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and/or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  2. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, M.; Ulu, M.; Gennarakis, G. G.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R 0 suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R 0 = 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R 0 ) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R 0 = 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R 0 = 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R 0 ). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%–30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and/or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  3. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M.; Ulu, M.; Gennarakis, G. G.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2013-04-01

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R0 suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R0 = 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R0) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R0 = 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R0 = 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R0). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%-30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and/or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  4. Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard H.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape.

  5. Subcellular localization for Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins using linear interpolation smoothing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Harsh; Raicar, Gaurav; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2015-12-07

    Protein subcellular localization is an important topic in proteomics since it is related to a protein׳s overall function, helps in the understanding of metabolic pathways, and in drug design and discovery. In this paper, a basic approximation technique from natural language processing called the linear interpolation smoothing model is applied for predicting protein subcellular localizations. The proposed approach extracts features from syntactical information in protein sequences to build probabilistic profiles using dependency models, which are used in linear interpolation to determine how likely is a sequence to belong to a particular subcellular location. This technique builds a statistical model based on maximum likelihood. It is able to deal effectively with high dimensionality that hinders other traditional classifiers such as Support Vector Machines or k-Nearest Neighbours without sacrificing performance. This approach has been evaluated by predicting subcellular localizations of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  7. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  8. Performance of high-resolution position-sensitive detectors developed for storage-ring decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Suzaki, F.; Izumikawa, T.; Miyazawa, S.; Morimoto, K.; Suzuki, T.; Tokanai, F.; Furuki, H.; Ichihashi, N.; Ichikawa, C.; Kitagawa, A.; Kuboki, T.; Momota, S.; Nagae, D.; Nagashima, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Ozawa, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Position-sensitive detectors were developed for storage-ring decay spectroscopy. • Fiber scintillation and silicon strip detectors were tested with heavy ion beams. • A new fiber scintillation detector showed an excellent position resolution. • Position and energy detection by silicon strip detectors enable full identification. -- Abstract: As next generation spectroscopic tools, heavy-ion cooler storage rings will be a unique application of highly charged RI beam experiments. Decay spectroscopy of highly charged rare isotopes provides us important information relevant to the stellar conditions, such as for the s- and r-process nucleosynthesis. In-ring decay products of highly charged RI will be momentum-analyzed and reach a position-sensitive detector set-up located outside of the storage orbit. To realize such in-ring decay experiments, we have developed and tested two types of high-resolution position-sensitive detectors: silicon strips and scintillating fibers. The beam test experiments resulted in excellent position resolutions for both detectors, which will be available for future storage-ring experiments

  9. Position and out-of-straightness measurement of a precision linear air-bearing stage by using a two-degree-of-freedom linear encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihide; Gao, Wei; Lijiang, Zeng

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents measurement of the X-directional position and the Z-directional out-of-straightness of a precision linear air-bearing stage with a two-degree-of-freedom (two-DOF) linear encoder, which is an optical displacement sensor for simultaneous measurement of the two-DOF displacements. The two-DOF linear encoder is composed of a reflective-type one-axis scale grating and an optical sensor head. A reference grating is placed perpendicular to the scale grating in the optical sensor head. Two-DOF displacements can be obtained from interference signals generated by the ±1 order diffracted beams from two gratings. A prototype two-DOF linear encoder employing the scale grating with the grating period of approximately 1.67 µm measured the X-directional position and the Z-directional out-of-straightness of the linear air-bearing stage

  10. Sliding-Mode Observer for Speed and Position Sensorless Control of Linear-PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazraji Saeed Masoumi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sliding-mode observer that utilizes sigmoid function for speed and position sensorless control of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM. In conventional sliding mode observer method there are the chattering phenomenon and the phase lag. Thus, in order to avoid the usage of the low pass filter and the phase compensator based on back EMF, in this paper a sliding mode observer with sigmoid function for detecting the back EMF in a PMLSM is designed to estimate the speed and the position of the rotor. Most of conventional sliding mode observers use sign or saturation functions which need low pass filter in order to detect back electromotive force (back EMF. In this paper a sigmoid function is used instead of discontinuous sign function to decrease undesirable chattering phenomenon. By reducing the chattering, detecting of the back EMF can be made directly from switching signal without any low pass filter. Thus the delay time in the proposed observer is eliminated because of the low pass filter. Furthermore, there is no need to compensate phase fault in position and speed estimating of linear-PMSM. Advantages of the proposed observer have been shown by simulation with MATLAB software.

  11. Optoelectronic device for the measurement of the absolute linear position in the micrometric displacement range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlanes, Tomas; de la Pena, Jose L.; Sanchez-Brea, Luis M.; Alonso, Jose; Crespo, Daniel; Saez-Landete, Jose B.; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2005-07-01

    In this work, an optoelectronic device that provides the absolute position of a measurement element with respect to a pattern scale upon switch-on is presented. That means that there is not a need to perform any kind of transversal displacement after the startup of the system. The optoelectronic device is based on the process of light propagation passing through a slit. A light source with a definite size guarantees the relation of distances between the different elements that constitute our system and allows getting a particular optical intensity profile that can be measured by an electronic post-processing device providing the absolute location of the system with a resolution of 1 micron. The accuracy of this measuring device is restricted to the same limitations of any incremental position optical encoder.

  12. Characterization and linear array LA48 Commissioner for measuring the position of the multi leaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conles Picos, I.; Cenizo de Castro, E.; Aparicio martin, A. R.; Barrio Lazo, F.; Cesteros Morante, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The protocol of Quality Control of electron accelerators for medical use of SEFM proposed for multi leaf collimation system (MLC) to verify the positioning of the blades connect. To do this you must find a system with sufficient accuracy and precision and, if possible, easy to assemble and offers real-time results. One of these teams is the Linear Array of PTW-Freiburg (LA48), which consists of a row of 47 ionization chambers, of 0008 cc and 8 mm apart from each other. In this paper, we describe our process of characterization and LA48 commissioner. (Author)

  13. Minimum Energy Control of 2D Positive Continuous-Discrete Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorek Tadeusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimum energy control problem for the 2D positive continuous-discrete linear systems is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability at the point of the systems are given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. It is shown that if the system is reachable then there exists an optimal input that steers the state from zero boundary conditions to given final state and minimizing the performance index for only one step (q = 1. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.

  14. The development of an algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric positive definite linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, P.; Mandel, J.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric, positive definite linear systems is developed based on the concept of prolongation by smoothed aggregation. Coarse levels are generated automatically. We present a set of requirements motivated heuristically by a convergence theory. The algorithm then attempts to satisfy the requirements. Input to the method are the coefficient matrix and zero energy modes, which are determined from nodal coordinates and knowledge of the differential equation. Efficiency of the resulting algorithm is demonstrated by computational results on real world problems from solid elasticity, plate blending, and shells.

  15. The Validity and Reliability of the Gymaware Linear Position Transducer for Measuring Counter-Movement Jump Performance in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Shannon; Tavares, Francisco; McMaster, Daniel; Chambers, Samuel; Driller, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of a linear position transducer when compared to a force plate through a counter-movement jump in female participants. Twenty-seven female recreational athletes (19 ± 2 years) performed three counter-movement jumps simultaneously using the linear position transducer and…

  16. Characterization of the order relation on the set of completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we characterize the order relation on the set of all nondegenerate completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras in terms of a self-dual Hilbert module induced by each completely n-positive linear map.

  17. A method of undifferenced ambiguity resolution for GPS+GLONASS precise point positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wenting; Song, Weiwei; Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Yibin

    2016-05-25

    Integer ambiguity resolution is critical for achieving positions of high precision and for shortening the convergence time of precise point positioning (PPP). However, GLONASS adopts the signal processing technology of frequency division multiple access and results in inter-frequency code biases (IFCBs), which are currently difficult to correct. This bias makes the methods proposed for GPS ambiguity fixing unsuitable for GLONASS. To realize undifferenced GLONASS ambiguity fixing, we propose an undifferenced ambiguity resolution method for GPS+GLONASS PPP, which considers the IFCBs estimation. The experimental result demonstrates that the success rate of GLONASS ambiguity fixing can reach 75% through the proposed method. Compared with the ambiguity float solutions, the positioning accuracies of ambiguity-fixed solutions of GLONASS-only PPP are increased by 12.2%, 20.9%, and 10.3%, and that of the GPS+GLONASS PPP by 13.0%, 35.2%, and 14.1% in the North, East and Up directions, respectively.

  18. Broadband interferometric characterisation of nano-positioning stages with sub-10 pm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Brand, Uwe; Wolff, Helmut; Koenders, Ludger; Yacoot, Andrew; Puranto, Prabowo

    2017-06-01

    A traceable calibration setup for investigation of the quasi-static and the dynamic performance of nano-positioning stages is detailed, which utilizes a differential plane-mirror interferometer with double-pass configuration from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). An NPL-developed FPGA-based interferometric data acquisition and decoding system has been used to enable traceable quasi-static calibration of nano-positioning stages with high resolution. A lockin based modulation technique is further introduced to quantitatively calibrate the dynamic response of moving stages with a bandwidth up to 100 kHz and picometer resolution. First experimental results have proven that the calibration setup can achieve under nearly open-air conditions a noise floor lower than 10 pm/sqrt(Hz). A pico-positioning stage, that is used for nanoindentation with indentation depths down to a few picometers, has been characterized with this calibration setup.

  19. Resolution Studies at Beam Position Monitors at the FLASH Facility at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboi, N.; Lund-Nielsen, J.; Noelle, D.; Riesch, W.; Traber, T.; Kruse, J.; Wendt, M.

    2006-11-01

    More than 60 beam position monitors (BPM) are installed along about 350m of beamline of the Free Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) at DESY. The room-temperature part of the accelerator is equipped mainly with stripline position monitors. In the accelerating cryo-modules there are cavity and re-entrant cavity BPMs, which will not be discussed here. In the undulator part of the machine button BPMs are used. This area requires a single bunch resolution of 10μm. The electronics is based on the AM/PM normalization principle and is externally triggered. Single-bunch position is measured. This paper presents the methods used to determine the resolution of the BPMs. The results based on correlations between different BPMs along the machine are compared to noise measurements in the RF lab. The performance and difficulties with the BPM design and the current electronics as well as its development are discussed.

  20. Sub-spatial resolution position estimation for optical fibre sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Werzinger, Stefan; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Methods from machine learning community are employed for estimating the position of fibre Bragg gratings in an array. Using the conventional methods for position estimation, based on inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT), it is required that two-point spatial resolution is less than gratings...... of reflection coefficients and the positions is performed. From the practical point of view, we can demonstrate the reduction of the interrogator's bandwidth by factor of 2. The technique is demonstrated for incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (IOFDR). However, the approach is applicable to any...

  1. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  2. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  3. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years) and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years), and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child's family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline) after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  4. Resolution and drift measurements on the Advanced Photon Source beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1994-01-01

    The resolution and long-term drift of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics were measured using the charged particle beams in the ESRF storage ring with various beam current and configurations (single bunch, 8 and 16 equally spaced bunches, and 1/3-fill). The energy of the stored electrons was 6 GeV. The integrated BPM electronics system as used for this work is capable of measuring the beam position on a turn-by-turn basis, which can be accumulated for N turns (N = 2 n , n = 1, 2, ... , 11). Estimation of the BPM resolution apart from the low-frequency beam motion was made by measuring the standard deviation in the measured beam position with different Ns. The analysis of the results indicates a BPM resolution of 18/√ N [μm] for the APS storage ring, which is equivalent to 0.07 μm/√Hz. For the miniature insertion device BPM with 2.8 times higher sensitivity, the resolution will be 0.02 μm/√Hz. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Comparison of the results with the laboratory measurements shows good agreement. Implication of the BPM resolution limit on the proposed global and local beam position feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed

  5. Resolution and drift measurements on the advanced photon source beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1995-01-01

    The resolution and long-term drift of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics were measured using the charged particle beams in the ESRF storage ring with various beam current and configurations (single bunch, 8 and 16 equally spaced bunches, and 1/3-fill). The energy of the stored electrons was 6 GeV. The integrated BPM electronics system as used for this work is capable of measuring the beam position on a turn-by-turn basis, which can be accumulated for N turns (N=2 n , n=1,2,...,11) . Estimation of the BPM resolution apart from the low-frequency beam motion was made by measuring the standard deviation in the measured beam position with different Ns. The analysis of the results indicates a BPM resolution of 18/√N [μm] for the APS storage ring, which is equivalent to 0.07 μm/√Hz. For the miniature insertion device BPM with 2.8 times higher sensitivity, the resolution will be 0.02 μm/√Hz. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Comparison of the results with the laboratory measurements shows good agreement. Implication of the BPM resolution limit on the proposed global and local beam position feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. A 3D Printed Linear Pneumatic Actuator for Position, Force and Impedance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krause

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although 3D printing has the potential to provide greater customization and to reduce the costs of creating actuators for industrial applications, the 3D printing of actuators is still a relatively new concept. We have developed a pneumatic actuator with 3D-printed parts and placed sensors for position and force control. So far, 3D printing has been used to create pneumatic actuators of the bellows type, thus having a limited travel distance, utilizing low pressures for actuation and being capable of only limited force production and response rates. In contrast, our actuator is linear with a large travel distance and operating at a relatively higher pressure, thus providing great forces and response rates, and this the main novelty of the work. We demonstrate solutions to key challenges that arise during the design and fabrication of 3D-printed linear actuators. These include: (1 the strategic use of metallic parts in high stress areas (i.e., the piston rod; (2 post-processing of the inner surface of the cylinder for smooth finish; (3 piston head design and seal placement for strong and leak-proof action; and (4 sensor choice and placement for position and force control. A permanent magnet placed in the piston head is detected using Hall effect sensors placed along the length of the cylinder to measure the position, and pressure sensors placed at the supply ports were used for force measurement. We demonstrate the actuator performing position, force and impedance control. Our work has the potential to open new avenues for creating less expensive, customizable and capable actuators for industrial and other applications.

  7. Sub-micron resolution rf cavity beam position monitor system at the SACLA XFEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesaka, H.; Ego, H.; Inoue, S.; Matsubara, S.; Ohshima, T.; Shintake, T.; Otake, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed and constructed a C-band (4.760 GHz) rf cavity beam position monitor (RF-BPM) system for the XFEL facility at SPring-8, SACLA. The demanded position resolution of the RF-BPM is less than 1 μm, because an electron beam and x-rays must be overlapped within 4 μm precision in the undulator section for sufficient FEL interaction between the electrons and x-rays. In total, 57 RF-BPMs, including IQ demodulators and high-speed waveform digitizers for signal processing, were produced and installed into SACLA. We evaluated the position resolutions of 20 RF-BPMs in the undulator section by using a 7 GeV electron beam having a 0.1 nC bunch charge. The position resolution was measured to be less than 0.6 μm, which was sufficient for the XFEL lasing in the wavelength region of 0.1 nm, or shorter.

  8. Design and development of 1 mm resolution PET detectors with position-sensitive PMTs

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Y; Chatziioannou, A F

    2002-01-01

    We report our investigation of a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with 1 m spatial resolution. The prototype detector consists of a 9x9 array of 1x1x10 mm sup 3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to Hamamatsu R5900-M64 or R5900-C12 position sensitive PMT by either optical fibers or an optical fiber bundle. With a 511 eV gamma source, the intrinsic spatial resolution of this detector was measured to be 0.92 mm. All crystals were well resolved in the flood source histogram. The measured energy and coincidence timing resolutions were around 26% and 4 ns, respectively, demonstrating that sufficient light can be extracted from these small crystals for PET applications.

  9. Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding the linear dynamic range for quantitative liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry utilizing natural isotopologue signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hanghui; Lam, Lily; Yan, Lin; Chi, Bert; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Less abundant isotopologue ions were utilized to decrease detector saturation. • A 25–50 fold increase in the upper limit of dynamic range was demonstrated. • Linear dynamic range was expanded without compromising mass resolution. - Abstract: The linear dynamic range (LDR) for quantitative liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry can be extended until ionization saturation is reached by using a number of target isotopologue ions in addition to the normally used target ion that provides the highest sensitivity. Less abundant isotopologue ions extend the LDR: the lower ion abundance decreases the probability of ion detector saturation. Effectively the sensitivity decreases and the upper limit of the LDR increases. We show in this paper that the technique is particularly powerful with a high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer because the data for all ions are automatically acquired, and we demonstrated this for four small organic molecules; the upper limits of LDRs increased by 25–50 times

  11. Development of a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Inoue

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor (BPM to be used at the focal point of the ATF2, which is a test beam line that is now being built to demonstrate stable orbit control at ∼nanometer resolution. The design of the cavity structure was optimized for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF beam in various ways. For example, the cavity has a rectangular shape in order to isolate two dipole modes in orthogonal directions, and a relatively thin gap that is less sensitive to trajectory inclination. A two stage homodyne mixer with highly sensitive electronics and phase-sensitive detection was also developed. Two BPM blocks, each containing two cavity BPMs, were installed in the existing ATF beam line using a rigid support frame. After testing the basic characteristics, we measured the resolution using three BPMs. The system demonstrated 8.7 nm position resolution over a dynamic range of 5  μm.

  12. Characterization of high density SiPM non-linearity and energy resolution for prompt gamma imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Cozzi, G.; Ferri, A.; Fiorini, C.; Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C.; Rucatti, D.; Zappalà, G.; Zorzi, N.; Gola, A.

    2017-07-01

    Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) (Trento, Italy) has recently introduced High Density (HD) and Ultra High-Density (UHD) SiPMs, featuring very small micro-cell pitch. The high cell density is a very important factor to improve the linearity of the SiPM in high-dynamic-range applications, such as the scintillation light readout in high-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy and in prompt gamma imaging for proton therapy. The energy resolution at high energies is a trade-off between the excess noise factor caused by the non-linearity of the SiPM and the photon detection efficiency of the detector. To study these effects, we developed a new setup that simulates the LYSO light emission in response to gamma photons up to 30 MeV, using a pulsed light source. We measured the non-linearity and energy resolution vs. energy of the FBK RGB-HD e RGB-UHD SiPM technologies. We considered five different cell sizes, ranging from 10 μm up to 25 μm. With the UHD technology we were able to observe a remarkable reduction of the SiPM non-linearity, less than 5% at 5 MeV with 10 μm cells, which should be compared to a non-linearity of 50% with 25 μm-cell HD-SiPMs. With the same setup, we also measured the different components of the energy resolution (intrinsic, statistical, detector and electronic noise) vs. cell size, over-voltage and energy and we separated the different sources of excess noise factor.

  13. Sparse PDF maps for non-linear multi-resolution image operations

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus; Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Beyer, Johanna; Krü ger, Jens J.; Mö ller, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    feasible for gigapixel images, while enabling direct evaluation of a variety of non-linear operators from the same representation. We illustrate this versatility for antialiased color mapping, O(n) local Laplacian filters, smoothed local histogram filters

  14. Markov Jump Linear Systems-Based Position Estimation for Lower Limb Exoskeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with Markov Jump Linear Systems-based filtering applied to robotic rehabilitation. The angular positions of an impedance-controlled exoskeleton, designed to help stroke and spinal cord injured patients during walking rehabilitation, are estimated. Standard position estimate approaches adopt Kalman filters (KF to improve the performance of inertial measurement units (IMUs based on individual link configurations. Consequently, for a multi-body system, like a lower limb exoskeleton, the inertial measurements of one link (e.g., the shank are not taken into account in other link position estimation (e.g., the foot. In this paper, we propose a collective modeling of all inertial sensors attached to the exoskeleton, combining them in a Markovian estimation model in order to get the best information from each sensor. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, simulation results regarding a set of human footsteps, with four IMUs and three encoders attached to the lower limb exoskeleton, are presented. A comparative study between the Markovian estimation system and the standard one is performed considering a wide range of parametric uncertainties.

  15. A novel capacitive absolute positioning sensor based on time grating with nanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hongji; Liu, Hongzhong; Liu, Xiaokang; Peng, Kai; Yu, Zhicheng

    2018-05-01

    The present work proposes a novel capacitive absolute positioning sensor based on time grating. The sensor includes a fine incremental-displacement measurement component combined with a coarse absolute-position measurement component to obtain high-resolution absolute positioning measurements. A single row type sensor was proposed to achieve fine displacement measurement, which combines the two electrode rows of a previously proposed double-row type capacitive displacement sensor based on time grating into a single row. To achieve absolute positioning measurement, the coarse measurement component is designed as a single-row type displacement sensor employing a single spatial period over the entire measurement range. In addition, this component employs a rectangular induction electrode and four groups of orthogonal discrete excitation electrodes with half-sinusoidal envelope shapes, which were formed by alternately extending the rectangular electrodes of the fine measurement component. The fine and coarse measurement components are tightly integrated to form a compact absolute positioning sensor. A prototype sensor was manufactured using printed circuit board technology for testing and optimization of the design in conjunction with simulations. Experimental results show that the prototype sensor achieves a ±300 nm measurement accuracy with a 1 nm resolution over a displacement range of 200 mm when employing error compensation. The proposed sensor is an excellent alternative to presently available long-range absolute nanometrology sensors owing to its low cost, simple structure, and ease of manufacturing.

  16. Definition of a reference metrology network for the positioning of a large linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, F.

    2003-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) alignment system, a project of linear accelerator of about 30 km long of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The pre-alignment tolerance on the transverse positions of the components of the CLIC linacs is typically ten microns over distances of 200 m. This research is a consequence of 10 years work, where several sets of special sensors dedicated to metrology have been adapted for the CLIC project. Most of these sensors deliver measurements linked to geometric references sensitive to gravity fluctuation. An important part of this work is therefore dedicated to study the gravity disruptions as a high level of accuracy is required. The parameters to take into account in the use of the hydrostatic leveling have thus been highlighted. A proposal of configuration of the system alignment based on a selection of sensors has also been given in this research. Computer models of different possible configurations have been presented. As the existing computing software was inappropriate, a new object oriented software package has been developed, to ensure future upgrades. An optimized configuration of the network has been defined from a set of simulations. Finally, due to problems in the use of hydrostatic leveling systems, a solution based on the use of a long laser beam as an alternative solution is discussed. (author)

  17. Compact very low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with mechanically driven horizontal linear positioning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderow, H; Guillamon, I; Vieira, S

    2011-03-01

    We describe a scanning tunneling microscope for operation in a dilution refrigerator with a sample stage which can be moved macroscopically in a range up to a cm and with an accuracy down to the tens of nm. The position of the tip over the sample as set at room temperature does not change more than a few micrometers when cooling down. This feature is particularly interesting for work on micrometer sized samples. Nanostructures can be also localized and studied, provided they are repeated over micrometer sized areas. The same stage can be used to approach a hard single crystalline sample to a knife and cleave it, or break it, in situ. In situ positioning is demonstrated with measurements at 0.1 K in nanofabricated samples. Atomic resolution down to 0.1 K and in magnetic fields of 8 T is demonstrated in NbSe(2). No heat dissipation nor an increase in mechanical noise has been observed at 0.1 K when operating the slider.

  18. Controlled laser cleaning of artworks via low resolution LIBS and linear correlation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentjes, M.; Dickmann, Klaus; Meijer, J.; Ostendof, A.; Hoult, A.; Lu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Based on a fibre optic miniature spectrometer (spectral range 200-1100 nm, λ-resolution 2 nm) we have built up a LIBS-system (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) for online monitoring during laser cleaning of artworks. This system is unsuitable for high resolved elemental identification but is

  19. Optimal design of a double-sided linear motor with a multi-segmented trapezoidal magnet array for a high precision positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon G.; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2004-01-01

    A comparative analysis is performed for linear motors adopting conventional and multi-segmented trapezoidal (MST) magnet arrays, respectively, for a high-precision positioning system. The proposed MST magnet array is a modified version of a Halbach magnet array. The MST array has trapezoidal magnets with variable shape and dimensions while the Halbach magnet array generally has a rectangular magnet with identical dimensions. We propose a new model that can describe the magnetic field resulting from the complex-shaped magnets. The model can be applied to both MST and conventional magnet arrays. Using the model, a design optimization of the two types of linear motors is performed and compared. The magnet array with trapezoidal magnets can produce more force than one with rectangular magnets when they are arrayed in a linear motor where there is a yoke with high permeability. After the optimization and comparison, we conclude that the linear motor with the MST magnet array can generate more actuating force per volume than the motor with the conventional array. In order to satisfy the requirements of next generation systems such as high resolution, high speed, and long stroke, the use of a linear motor with a MST array as an actuator in a high precision positioning system is recommended from the results obtained here

  20. A Novel Method to Implement the Matrix Pencil Super Resolution Algorithm for Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jamil Saifullah Khanzada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the estimation of the results for the algorithms implemented in order to estimate the delays and distances for the indoor positioning system. The data sets for the transmitted and received signals are captured at a typical outdoor and indoor area. The estimation super resolution algorithms are applied. Different state of art and super resolution techniques based algorithms are applied to avail the optimal estimates of the delays and distances between the transmitted and received signals and a novel method for matrix pencil algorithm is devised. The algorithms perform variably at different scenarios of transmitted and received positions. Two scenarios are experienced, for the single antenna scenario the super resolution techniques like ESPRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique and theMatrix Pencil algorithms give optimal performance compared to the conventional techniques. In two antenna scenario RootMUSIC and Matrix Pencil algorithm performed better than other algorithms for the distance estimation, however, the accuracy of all the algorithms is worst than the single antenna scenario. In all cases our devised Matrix Pencil algorithm achieved the best estimation results.

  1. A Novel, Aqueous Surface Treatment To Thermally Stabilize High Resolution Positive Photoresist Images*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, John J.; Spencer, Allen C.

    1986-07-01

    The paper describes a new approach to thermally stabilize the already imaged profile of high resolution positive photoresists such as ULTRAMAC" PR-914. ***XD-4000, an aqueous emulsion of a blend of fluorine-bearing compounds is spun on top of the developed, positive photoresist-imaged wafer, and baked. This allows the photoresist to withstand temperatures up to at least 175 deg. C. while essentially maintaining vertical edge profiles. Also, adverse effects of "outgassing" in harsh environments, ie., plasma and ion implant are greatly minimized by allowing the high resolution imaged photoresist to be post-baked at "elevated" temperatures. Another type of product that accomplishes the same effect is ***XD-4005, an aqueous emulsion of a high temperature-resistant polymer. While the exact mechanism is yet to be identified, it is postulated that absorption of the "polymeric" species into the "skin" of the imaged resist forms a temperature resistant "envelope", thereby allowing high resolution photoresists to also serve in a "high temperature" mode, without reticulation, or other adverse effects due to thermal degradation. SEM's are presented showing imaged ULTRAMAC" PR-914 and ULTRAMAC" **EPA-914 geometries coated with XD-4000 or XD-4005 and followed by plasma etched oxide,polysilicon and aluminum. Selectivity ratios are compared with and without the novel treatment and are shown to be significantly better with the treatment. The surface-treated photoresist for thermal resistance remains easily strippable in solvent-based or plasma media, unlike photoresists that have undergone "PRIST" or other gaseous thermal stabilization methods.

  2. Development of a multiplexed readout with high position resolution for positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangwon; Choi, Yong [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Ho [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Detector signals for positron emission tomography (PET) are commonly multiplexed to reduce the number of digital processing channels so that the system can remain cost effective while also maintaining imaging performance. In this work, a multiplexed readout combining Anger position estimation algorithm and position decoder circuit (PDC) was developed to reduce the number of readout channels by a factor of 24, 96-to-4. The data acquisition module consisted of a TDC (50 ps resolution), 4-channel ADCs (12 bit, 105 MHz sampling rate), 2 GB SDRAM and USB3.0. The performance of the multiplexed readout was assessed with a high-resolution PET detector block composed of 2×3 detector modules, each consisting of an 8×8 array of 1.52×1.52×6 mm{sup 3} LYSO, a 4×4 array of 3×3 mm{sup 2} silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and 13.4×13.4 mm{sup 2} light guide with 0.7 mm thickness. The acquired flood histogram showed that all 384 crystals could be resolved. The average energy resolution at 511 keV was 13.7±1.6% full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and the peak-to-valley ratios of the flood histogram on the horizontal and vertical lines were 18.8±0.8 and 22.8±1.3, respectively. The coincidence resolving time of a pair of detector blocks was 6.2 ns FWHM. The reconstructed phantom image showed that rods down to a diameter of 1.6 mm could be resolved. The results of this study indicate that the multiplexed readout would be useful in developing a PET with a spatial resolution less than the pixel size of the photosensor, such as a SiPM array.

  3. cMiCE a high resolution animal PET using continuous LSO with a statistics based positioning scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Joung Jin Hun; Lewellen, T K

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Detector designs for small animal scanners are currently dominated by discrete crystal implementations. However, given the small crystal cross-sections required to obtain very high resolution, discrete designs are typically expensive, have low packing fraction, reduced light collection, and are labor intensive to build. To overcome these limitations we have investigated the feasibility of using a continuous miniature crystal element (cMiCE) detector module for high resolution small animal PET applications. Methods: The detector module consists of a single continuous slab of LSO, 25x25 mm sup 2 in exposed cross-section and 4 mm thick, coupled directly to a PS-PMT (Hamamatsu R5900-00-C12). The large area surfaces of the crystal were polished and painted with TiO sub 2 and the short surfaces were left unpolished and painted black. Further, a new statistics based positioning (SBP) algorithm has been implemented to address linearity and edge effect artifacts that are inherent with conventional Anger sty...

  4. Data acquisition system for linear position sensitive detector based neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Behere, A.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V.D.; Mukhopadhyaya, P.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.

    2003-03-01

    This data acquisition system is developed to serve the requirements of various linear 1PSD based neutron diffractometers. A neutron diffractometer uses a neutron beam as a probe to study the crystallographic properties of materials. Presently two multi-PSD and two single-PSD diffractometers are commissioned and a few more are being installed in Dhruva. This data acquisition system is installed at each of these - diffractometers. Different requirements of individual diffractometers were studied and reconciled to design a single data acquisition system, which can be easily configured or customized for individual setups. The charge division in a linear PSD is converted to a position output with the help of an RDC (Ratio ADC). The ftont-end electronics, which consist of preamplifiers and shaping amplifiers, provide an interface between a PSD and an RDC. A PC add-on card is designed around a Transputer. It can interface 16 RDCs, a few motor controls and on/off controls. Data acquisition and other controls are implemented in the Transputer program. A front-end Windows98 application merges the raw data of different RDCs to obtain the equiangular data. Through software the data acquisition system can be configured for diffetent diffractometers. Commercially available hardware is also integrated as,a part of the data acquisition system in some of the setups. The data acquisition system is working reliably as a part of two single PSD and two multi-PSD diffractometers. It can handle data rates upto 15 K/Sec without any loss of counts. It has played a significant role in providing improved throughput and utilization ofvarious diffractometers. The'data acquisition system and its different applications are presented in this report. (author)

  5. Reconstruction of high resolution MLC leaf positions using a low resolution detector for accurate 3D dose reconstruction in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R; Godart, J; Wauben, D J L; Langendijk, J A; Van't Veld, A A; Korevaar, E W

    2016-01-01

    In pre-treatment dose verification, low resolution detector systems are unable to identify shifts of individual leafs of high resolution multi leaf collimator (MLC) systems from detected changes in the dose deposition. The goal of this study was to introduce an alternative approach (the shutter

  6. Linear or/and circular displacement capacite transducers. Study and realization of high resolutive industrial prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulit, Jacques; Beaudet, J.-P.

    1975-07-01

    Proposals are made about a linear or/and circular displacement transducer measurements using a capacity variation method. Absolute measurements are allowed with great accuracy, approximately on micrometer or one thousandth of a degree, for dimensions up to some hundred millimeters, or 360 degrees. A first approach up to millimeters or degrees is given by a classical method (i.e. binary encoded beam). The division of each millimeter is obtained by linear variation of photo engraved capacity on a glass ruber and measured by an original capacity via frequency conversion method. In this system, the use of variable frequency signals allows one to reach long distance display without any trouble and then shows great interest for many applications such as space, machine tool and so on [fr

  7. Applicability of hybrid linear ion trap-high resolution mass spectrometry and quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry for mycotoxin analysis in baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Josep; James, Kevin J; Mañes, Jordi; Soler, Carla

    2012-02-03

    Recent developments in mass spectrometers have created a paradoxical situation; different mass spectrometers are available, each of them with their specific strengths and drawbacks. Hybrid instruments try to unify several advantages in one instrument. In this study two of wide-used hybrid instruments were compared: hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (QTRAP®) and the hybrid linear ion trap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap®). Both instruments were applied to detect the presence of 18 selected mycotoxins in baby food. Analytical parameters were validated according to 2002/657/CE. Limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained by QTRAP® instrument ranged from 0.45 to 45 μg kg⁻¹ while lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) values were obtained by LTQ-Orbitrap®: 7-70 μg kg⁻¹. The correlation coefficients (r) in both cases were upper than 0.989. These values highlighted that both instruments were complementary for the analysis of mycotoxin in baby food; while QTRAP® reached best sensitivity and selectivity, LTQ-Orbitrap® allowed the identification of non-target and unknowns compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A time resolving data acquisition system for multiple high-resolution position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced time resolving data collection system for use in neutron and x-ray spectrometry has been implemented and put into routine operation. The system collects data from high-resolution position-sensitive area detectors with a maximum cumulative rate of 10/sup 6/ events per second. The events are sorted, in real-time, into many time-slice arrays. A programmable timing control unit allows for a wide choice of time sequences and time-slice array sizes. The shortest dwell time on a slice may be below 1 ms and the delay to switch between slices is zero

  9. Study of resolution and linearity in LaBr3: Ce scintillator through digital-pulse processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhinav Kumar; Mishra, Gaurav; Ramachandran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Advent of digital pulse processing has led to a paradigm shift in pulse processing techniques by replacing analog electronics processing chain with equivalent algorithms acting on pulse profiles digitized at high sampling rates. In this paper, we have carried out offline digital pulse processing of Cerium-doped Lanthanum bromide scintillator (LaBr 3 : Ce) detector pulses, acquired using CAEN V1742 VME digitizer module. Algorithms have been written to approximate the functioning of peak sensing analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) and charge-to-digital convertor (QDC). Energy dependence of resolution and energy linearity of LaBr 3 : Ce scintillator detector has been studied by utilizing aforesaid algorithms

  10. Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

    2013-05-01

    At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are

  11. Positive solution of non-square fully Fuzzy linear system of equation in general form using least square method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ezzati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the least square method for computing the positive solution of a non-square fully fuzzy linear system. To this end, we use Kaffman' arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers \\cite{17}. Here, considered existence of exact solution using pseudoinverse, if they are not satisfy in positive solution condition, we will compute fuzzy vector core and then we will obtain right and left spreads of positive fuzzy vector by introducing constrained least squares problem. Using our proposed method, non-square fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  12. Use of a YAP:Ce matrix coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Guerra, A.; Zavattini, G.; Notaristefani, F. de; Giganti, M.; Piffanelli, A.; Pani, R.; Turra, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new scintillation detector system has been designed for application in high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The detector is a bundle of small YAlO 3 :Ce (YAP) crystals closely packed (0.2 x 0.2 x 3.0 cm 3 ), coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The preliminary results obtained for spatial resolution, time resolution, energy resolution and efficiency of two such detectors working in coincidence are presented. These are 1.2 mm for the FWHM spatial resolution, 2.0 ns for the FWHM time resolution and 20% for the FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. The measured efficiency is (44 ± 3)% with a 150 keV threshold and (20 ± 2)% with a 300 keV threshold

  13. High resolution Thomson scattering system for steady-state linear plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. Y.; Lee, K. I.; Kim, J. H.; Lho, T.

    2018-01-01

    The high resolution Thomson scattering system with 63 points along a 25 mm line measures the radial electron temperature (Te) and its density (ne) in an argon plasma. By using a DC arc source with lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) electrode, plasmas with electron temperature of over 5 eV and densities of 1.5 × 1019 m-3 have been measured. The system uses a frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG laser with 0.25 J/pulse at 20 Hz. The scattered light is collected and sent to a triple-grating spectrometer via optical-fibers, where images are recorded by an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Although excellent in stray-light reduction, a disadvantage comes with its relatively low optical transmission and in sampling a tiny scattering volume. Thus requires accumulating multitude of images. In order to improve photon statistics, pixel binning in the ICCD camera as well as enlarging the intermediate slit-width inside the triple-grating spectrometer has been exploited. In addition, the ICCD camera capture images at 40 Hz while the laser is at 20 Hz. This operation mode allows us to alternate between background and scattering shot images. By image subtraction, influences from the plasma background are effectively taken out. Maximum likelihood estimation that uses a parameter sweep finds best fitting parameters Te and ne with the incoherent scattering spectrum.

  14. Partially slotted crystals for a high-resolution γ-camera based on a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giokaris, N.; Loudos, G.; Maintas, D.; Karabarbounis, A.; Lembesi, M.; Spanoudaki, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Boukis, S.; Gektin, A.; Pedash, V.; Gayshan, V.

    2005-01-01

    Partially slotted crystals have been designed and constructed and have been used to evaluate the performance with respect to the spatial resolution of a γ-camera based on a position-sensitive photomultiplier. It is shown that the resolution obtained with such a crystal is only slightly worse than the one obtained with a fully pixelized one whose cost, however, is much higher

  15. Nodal methods with non linear feedback for the three dimensional resolution of the diffusion's multigroup equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Nodal methods applied in order to calculate the power distribution in a nuclear reactor core are presented. These methods have received special attention, because they yield accurate results in short computing times. Present nodal schemes contain several unknowns per node and per group. In the methods presented here, non linear feedback of the coupling coefficients has been applied to reduce this number to only one unknown per node and per group. The resulting algorithm is a 7- points formula, and the iterative process has proved stable in the response matrix scheme. The intranodal flux shape is determined by partial integration of the diffusion equations over two of the coordinates, leading to a set of three coupled one-dimensional equations. These can be solved by using a polynomial approximation or by integration (analytic solution). The tranverse net leakage is responsible for the coupling between the spatial directions, and two alternative methods are presented to evaluate its shape: direct parabolic approximation and local model expansion. Numerical results, which include the IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem illustrate the efficiency of the developed methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. cMiCE: a high resolution animal PET using continuous LSO with a statistics based positioning scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung Jinhun; Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Detector designs for small animal scanners are currently dominated by discrete crystal implementations. However, given the small crystal cross-sections required to obtain very high resolution, discrete designs are typically expensive, have low packing fraction, reduced light collection, and are labor intensive to build. To overcome these limitations we have investigated the feasibility of using a continuous miniature crystal element (cMiCE) detector module for high resolution small animal PET applications. Methods: The detector module consists of a single continuous slab of LSO, 25x25 mm 2 in exposed cross-section and 4 mm thick, coupled directly to a PS-PMT (Hamamatsu R5900-00-C12). The large area surfaces of the crystal were polished and painted with TiO 2 and the short surfaces were left unpolished and painted black. Further, a new statistics based positioning (SBP) algorithm has been implemented to address linearity and edge effect artifacts that are inherent with conventional Anger style positioning schemes. To characterize the light response function (LRF) of the detector, data were collected on a coarse grid using a highly collimated coincidence setup. The LRF was then estimated using cubic spline interpolation. Detector performance has been evaluated for both SBP and Anger based decoding using measured data and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: Using the SBP scheme, edge artifacts were successfully handled. Simulation results show that the useful field of view (UFOV) was extended to ∼22x22 mm 2 with an average point spread function of ∼0.5 mm full width of half maximum (FWHM PSF ). For the same detector with Anger decoding the UFOV of the detector was ∼16x16 mm 2 with an average FWHM PSP of ∼0.9 mm. Experimental results yielded similar differences between FOV and resolution performance. FWHM PSF for the SBP and Anger based method was 1.4 and 2.0 mm, uncorrected for source size, with a 1 mm diameter point source, respectively. Conclusion

  17. Intrinsic spatial resolution limitations due to differences between positron emission position and annihilation detection localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Pedro; Malano, Francisco; Valente, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Since its successful implementation for clinical diagnostic, positron emission tomography (PET) represents the most promising medical imaging technique. The recent major growth of PET imaging is mainly due to its ability to trace the biologic pathways of different compounds in the patient's body, assuming the patient can be labeled with some PET isotope. Regardless of the type of isotope, the PET imaging method is based on the detection of two 511-keV gamma photons being emitted in opposite directions, with almost 180 deg between them, as a consequence of electron-positron annihilation. Therefore, this imaging method is intrinsically limited by random uncertainties in spatial resolutions, related with differences between the actual position of positron emission and the location of the detected annihilation. This study presents an approach with the Monte Carlo method to analyze the influence of this effect on different isotopes of potential implementation in PET. (author)

  18. High resolution multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) sensitive to position coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrascu, H.; Kumagai, H.; Tanihata, I.; Petrascu, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of MUSIC sensitive to position coordinates is reported. The development of the first version of this type of chamber is based on the principles presented by Badhwar in 1973. The present detector will be used in experiments on fusion by using radioactive beams. This chamber due to the high resolution is suitable to identification and tracking of low Z particles. One of our goals, when we started this work, was to reduce as much as possible the Z value of particles that can be 'seen' by an ionization chamber. The resolution of the chamber was significantly improved by connecting the preamplifiers directly to the MUSIC's pads. These preamplifiers are able to work in vacuum and very low gas pressure. In this way the value of signal to noise ratio was increased by a factor of ∼10. The detector is of Frisch grid type, with the anode split into 10 active pads. It is the first model of a MUSIC with the field shared between the position grid and the anode pads. The Frisch grid was necessary because the detector is originally designed for very accurate energy measurements and particle identification. A drawing of this detector is shown. The detector itself consists of four main parts. The first one is the constant field-gradient cage, sandwiched in between the cathode and the Frisch grid. The second is the Frisch grid. The third is the position grid located under the Frisch grid. The last one is the plate with the anode pads. The cage is made of 100 μm Cu-Be wires. Every wire was tensioned with a weight representing half of its breaking limit. The Frisch grid was done on an aluminium frame, on which 20 μm W wires spaced 0.3 mm, were wound. For the position grid, 10 groups of 20 μm gold plated W wires have been used. Each group consisted of 5 wires spaced 0.9 mm and connected in parallel. The anode pads 7.8 x 60 mm 2 were perpendicular to the beam direction. Each pad and each of the position wire groups were connected to a preamplifier. The energy resolution

  19. Acquisition de donnees a haute resolution et faible latence dediee aux capteurs avioniques de position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Zied

    The communication network and the detection mechanisms are two critical systems in a plane. Their performance has a direct impact on aircrafts. This is of particular interest for avionics designers, who have increasingly invested more and more in the development of these elements. As a part of a project in this domain, we introduce the design and the development of a smart interface for position sensors dedicated to flights (Smart Sensor Interface - SSI). This interface will serve to connect sensors of different technologies (electromagnetic, optical and MEMS) to the new communication network, AFDX. The role of this interface is to generate an appropriate excitation signal for certain types of sensors (R/LVDT), and to treat, demodulate, and digitize their output signals. The proposed interface is thus composed of a Signal Acquisition Path (SAP) and an Excitation Signal Generation (ESG). By adopting the Integrated Modular Avionics architecture (IMA), we can minimize the size of the classic interface, reduce its energy consumption and improve its reliability and its performance. The focus of our design is particularly on the Data Acquisition Path (DAP). An Architecture characterized by a high resolution (14 bits) and a low latency (1.2 ms) of this module is introduced and developed in this prestigious work. This architecture was developed after a wellconducted study of existing solutions found in literature work and a detailed analysis of the problems arise in the design and implementation of this system (DAP). The conversion of the sensor signal into a digital signal is the most important step in acquiring data, as it sets the resolution of the acquired information and generates the majority of its latency. This module can also affect the reliability and stability of the system. Among different models and architectures, the Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is preferred for this application (for better resolution). This converter is formed by an analog

  20. Estimation of position resolution for DOI-PET detector using diameter 0.2 mm WLS fibers [ANIMMA--2015-IO-x5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Ito, H.; Han, S.; Kawai, H.; Kodama, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Tabata, M.; Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2015-01-01

    We have been developing a submillimeter resolution and low-cost DOI-PET detector using wavelength shifting fibers (WLSF), scintillating crystal plates and MPPCs (Hamamatsu Photonics). Conventional design of DOI-PET detectors had approximately mm 3 of resolution by using some scintillating blocks with a volume of 1 mm 3 , which detects gamma-ray. They are expensive due to difficulties in processing scintillating crystals and a large number of photo-detectors, and these technologies are likely to reach the limit of the resolution. Development of a lower cost DOI-PET detector with higher resolution is challenging to popularize the PET diagnosis. We propose two type of PET detector. One is a whole body PET system, and the other is a PET system for brain or small animals. Each PET system consists 6 blocks. The former consists of 6 layers of crystal plates with 300 mm x 300 mm x 4 mm. The latter consists of 16 crystal layers, forming 4 x 4 crystal arrays. The size of the crystal plate is 40 mm x 40 mm x 1 mm. Wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) sheets are attached to above and up and down side of crystal planes. The whole PET system has 8 MPPCs attached on each side. For the brain PET detector, 9 WLSF fibers are attached on the each side. The expected position resolution would be less than 1 mm at the former system. We have performed an experimental performance estimation for the system component using 22 Na radioactive source. We achieved a collection efficiency of 10% using the WLSF sheet and Ce:Gd 3 (Al,Ga) 5 O 12 (GAGG) crystals at 511 keV. The linear relationship between reconstruction position and incident position was obtained, and a resolution of 0.7 mm (FWHM) for x-axis of DOI by the WLSF readout was achieved. (authors)

  1. Kalman filter with a linear state model for PDR+WLAN positioning and its application to assisting a particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitoharju, Matti; Nurminen, Henri; Piché, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Indoor positioning based on wireless local area network (WLAN) signals is often enhanced using pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based on an inertial measurement unit. The state evolution model in PDR is usually nonlinear. We present a new linear state evolution model for PDR. In simulated-data and real-data tests of tightly coupled WLAN-PDR positioning, the positioning accuracy with this linear model is better than with the traditional models when the initial heading is not known, which is a common situation. The proposed method is computationally light and is also suitable for smoothing. Furthermore, we present modifications to WLAN positioning based on Gaussian coverage areas and show how a Kalman filter using the proposed model can be used for integrity monitoring and (re)initialization of a particle filter.

  2. Linear transforms for Fourier data on the sphere: application to high angular resolution diffusion MRI of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Justin P; Leahy, Richard M

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel family of linear transforms that can be applied to data collected from the surface of a 2-sphere in three-dimensional Fourier space. This family of transforms generalizes the previously-proposed Funk-Radon Transform (FRT), which was originally developed for estimating the orientations of white matter fibers in the central nervous system from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data. The new family of transforms is characterized theoretically, and efficient numerical implementations of the transforms are presented for the case when the measured data is represented in a basis of spherical harmonics. After these general discussions, attention is focused on a particular new transform from this family that we name the Funk-Radon and Cosine Transform (FRACT). Based on theoretical arguments, it is expected that FRACT-based analysis should yield significantly better orientation information (e.g., improved accuracy and higher angular resolution) than FRT-based analysis, while maintaining the strong characterizability and computational efficiency of the FRT. Simulations are used to confirm these theoretical characteristics, and the practical significance of the proposed approach is illustrated with real diffusion weighted MRI brain data. These experiments demonstrate that, in addition to having strong theoretical characteristics, the proposed approach can outperform existing state-of-the-art orientation estimation methods with respect to measures such as angular resolution and robustness to noise and modeling errors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Linear antenna of an arbitrary orientation and position in cylindric screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    An equation of the linear antenna in cylindric screen is formulated. Using the averaging method a solution of this equation for the antenna of arbitrary orientation which does not contact the screen walls or contacts them in one or two ends is received. The obtained asymptotic expression for stream permits to describe in a single manner the case of resonance and non-resonance scattering. These results may be applied in design of UHF and accelerating installations using cylindric screens charged with linear vibrators. 9 refs. (author)

  4. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black

  5. The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, J.; Barth, C. J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)

  6. Position sensitive detection coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Imaging for molecular beam deflection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Arnaud, L.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Clavier, Ch.; Compagnon, I.; Dugourd, Ph.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed and tested a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a position sensitive detector for molecular beam deflection experiments. The major achievement of this new spectrometer is to provide a three-dimensional imaging (X and Y positions and time-of-flight) of the ion packet on the detector, with a high acquisition rate and a high resolution on both the mass and the position. The calibration of the experimental setup and its application to molecular beam deflection experiments are discussed

  7. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  8. Internal alignment and position resolution of the silicon tracker of DAMPE determined with orbit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykhonov, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Azzarello, P.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A.; Cadoux, F.; D'Amone, A.; De Benedittis, A.; De Mitri, I.; Di Santo, M.; Dong, Y. F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Fan, R. R.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gao, M.; Gargano, F.; Garrappa, S.; Gong, K.; Ionica, M.; La Marra, D.; Lei, S. J.; Li, X.; Loparco, F.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Peng, W. X.; Qiao, R.; Salinas, M. M.; Surdo, A.; Vagelli, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wu, D.; Wu, X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhao, H.; Zimmer, S.

    2018-06-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a space-borne particle detector designed to probe electrons and gamma-rays in the few GeV to 10 TeV energy range, as well as cosmic-ray proton and nuclei components between 10 GeV and 100 TeV. The silicon-tungsten tracker-converter is a crucial component of DAMPE. It allows the direction of incoming photons converting into electron-positron pairs to be estimated, and the trajectory and charge (Z) of cosmic-ray particles to be identified. It consists of 768 silicon micro-strip sensors assembled in 6 double layers with a total active area of 6.6 m2. Silicon planes are interleaved with three layers of tungsten plates, resulting in about one radiation length of material in the tracker. Internal alignment parameters of the tracker have been determined on orbit, with non-showering protons and helium nuclei. We describe the alignment procedure and present the position resolution and alignment stability measurements.

  9. Experimental dead time corrections for a linear position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Tompson, C.W.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Berliner, R.; Missouri Univ., Columbia

    1984-01-01

    Two simple counters included in the charge-digitization circuitry of a position-sensitive proportional counter using the charge division method for position encoding have enabled us to determine the dead time losses for the system. An interesting positional dependence of the dead time tau is observed, which agrees with a simple model. The system enables us to correct the experimental data for dead time and to be indifferent to the relatively slow analog-to-digital converters used in the system. (orig.)

  10. Current position of high-resolution MS for drug quantification in clinical & forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Helfer, Andreas G; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews high-resolution MS approaches published from January 2011 until March 2014 for the quantification of drugs (of abuse) and/or their metabolites in biosamples using LC-MS with time-of-flight or Orbitrap™ mass analyzers. Corresponding approaches are discussed including sample preparation and mass spectral settings. The advantages and limitations of high-resolution MS for drug quantification, as well as the demand for a certain resolution or a specific mass accuracy are also explored.

  11. Positioning of the rf potential minimum line of a linear Paul trap with micrometer precision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Albert, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a general technique to achieve a precise radial displacement of the nodal line of the radiofrequency (rf) field in a linear Paul trap. The technique relies on the selective adjustment of the load capacitance of the trap electrodes, achieved through the addition of capacitors...... to the basic resonant rf circuit used to drive the trap. Displacements of up to ~100 µm with micrometer precision are measured using a combination of fluorescence images of ion Coulomb crystals and coherent coupling of such crystals to a mode of an optical cavity. The displacements are made without measurable...

  12. Influence of Respiratory Gating, Image Filtering, and Animal Positioning on High-Resolution Electrocardiography-Gated Murine Cardiac Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were injected with 99m technetium (99mTc-tetrofosmin, and each was scanned in supine and prone positions in a U-SPECT-II scanner with respiratory and electrocardiographic (ECG gating. ECG-gated SPECT images were created without applying respiratory motion correction or with two different respiratory motion correction strategies. The images were filtered with a range of three-dimensional gaussian kernels, after which end-diastolic volumes (EDVs, end-systolic volumes (ESVs, and left ventricular ejection fractions were calculated. No significant differences in the measured cardiac parameters were detected when any strategy to reduce or correct for respiratory motion was applied, whereas big differences (> 5% in EDV and ESV were found with regard to different positioning of animals. A linear relationship (p < .001 was found between the EDV or ESV and the kernel size of the gaussian filter. In short, respiratory gating did not significantly affect the cardiac parameters of mice obtained with ultra-high-resolution SPECT, whereas the position of the animals and the image filters should be the same in a comparative study with multiple scans to avoid systematic differences in measured cardiac parameters.

  13. A Linear Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.

  14. Accretion of Fat-Free Mass Rather Than Fat Mass in Infancy Is Positively Associated with Linear Growth in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Andersen, Gregers S; Belachew, Tefera; Owino, Victor; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abera, Mubarek; Wibaek, Rasmus; Friis, Henrik; Kæstel, Pernille

    2018-04-01

    We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. This study examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized accretion rates were obtained by dividing FM and FFM accretion by their respective SD. FFM accretion from 0 to 6 mo of age was positively associated with length at 1 y (β = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.09; P = 0.005) and linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.07; P = 0.005). The strongest association with FFM accretion was observed at 1 y. The association with linear growth from 1 to 5 y was mainly engendered by the 1-y association. FM accretion from 0 to 4 mo was positively associated with linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.88; P = 0.038) in the fully adjusted model. In Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.

  15. Non-linear elasticity of extracellular matrices enables contractile cells to communicate local position and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessamine P Winer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most tissue cells grown in sparse cultures on linearly elastic substrates typically display a small, round phenotype on soft substrates and become increasingly spread as the modulus of the substrate increases until their spread area reaches a maximum value. As cell density increases, individual cells retain the same stiffness-dependent differences unless they are very close or in molecular contact. On nonlinear strain-stiffening fibrin gels, the same cell types become maximally spread even when the low strain elastic modulus would predict a round morphology, and cells are influenced by the presence of neighbors hundreds of microns away. Time lapse microscopy reveals that fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells on fibrin deform the substrate by several microns up to five cell lengths away from their plasma membrane through a force limited mechanism. Atomic force microscopy and rheology confirm that these strains locally and globally stiffen the gel, depending on cell density, and this effect leads to long distance cell-cell communication and alignment. Thus cells are acutely responsive to the nonlinear elasticity of their substrates and can manipulate this rheological property to induce patterning.

  16. About a Class of Positive Hybrid Dynamic Linear Systems and an Associate Extended Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov Lemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an “ad hoc” robust version under parametrical disturbances of the discrete version of the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov Lemma for a class of positive hybrid dynamic linear systems which consist of a continuous-time system coupled with a discrete-time or a digital one. An extended discrete system, whose state vector contains both the digital one and the discretization of the continuous-time one at sampling instants, is a key analysis element in the formulation. The hyperstability and asymptotic hyperstability properties of the studied class of positive hybrid systems under feedback from any member of a nonlinear (and, eventually, time-varying class of controllers, which satisfies a Popov’s-type inequality, are also investigated as linked to the positive realness of the associated transfer matrices.

  17. A new amplifier for improving piezoelectric actuator linearity based on current switching in precision positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Changhai; Chen, Liguo; Shao, Bing; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators have traditionally been driven by voltage amplifiers. When driven at large voltages these actuators exhibit a significant amount of distortion, known as hysteresis, which may reduce the stability robustness of the system in feedback control applications. Piezoelectric transducers are known to exhibit less hysteresis when driven with current or charge rather than voltage. Despite this advantage, such methods have found little practical application due to the poor low frequency response of present current and charge driver designs. In this paper, a new piezoelectric amplifier based on current switching is presented which can reduce hysteresis. Special circuits and a hybrid control algorithm realize quick and precise positioning. Experimental results demonstrate that the amplifier can be used for dynamic and static applications and low frequency bandwidths can also be achieved

  18. Integrating real-time and manual monitored data to predict hillslope soil moisture dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution using linear and non-linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture (') is a challenge that remains to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time ' monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of ' dynamic...

  19. Unambiguous determination of H-atom positions: comparing results from neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardberg, Anna S; Del Castillo, Alexis Rae; Weiss, Kevin L; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P; Myles, Dean A A

    2010-05-01

    The locations of H atoms in biological structures can be difficult to determine using X-ray diffraction methods. Neutron diffraction offers a relatively greater scattering magnitude from H and D atoms. Here, 1.65 A resolution neutron diffraction studies of fully perdeuterated and selectively CH(3)-protonated perdeuterated crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin (D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively) at room temperature (RT) are described, as well as 1.1 A resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the same protein at both RT and 100 K. The two techniques are quantitatively compared in terms of their power to directly provide atomic positions for D atoms and analyze the role played by atomic thermal motion by computing the sigma level at the D-atom coordinate in simulated-annealing composite D-OMIT maps. It is shown that 1.65 A resolution RT neutron data for perdeuterated rubredoxin are approximately 8 times more likely overall to provide high-confidence positions for D atoms than 1.1 A resolution X-ray data at 100 K or RT. At or above the 1.0sigma level, the joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structures define 342/378 (90%) and 291/365 (80%) of the D-atom positions for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. The X-ray-only 1.1 A resolution 100 K structures determine only 19/388 (5%) and 8/388 (2%) of the D-atom positions above the 1.0sigma level for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. Furthermore, the improved model obtained from joint XN refinement yielded improved electron-density maps, permitting the location of more D atoms than electron-density maps from models refined against X-ray data only.

  20. High-Resolution Anoscopy: Clinical Features of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-positive Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, Olivier; Hallensleben, Nora D. L.; Kreuter, Alexander; van Noesel, Carel J. M.; Prins, Jan M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution anoscopy is increasingly advocated to screen HIV+ men who have sex with men for anal cancer and its precursor lesions, anal intraepithelial neoplasia. A systematic comparison between clinical features and the histopathology of suspect lesions is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This

  1. A high resolution position sensitive X-ray MWPC for small angle X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Tappern, G.J.

    1981-02-01

    A small sealed-off delay line readout MWPC X-ray detector has been designed and built for small angle X-ray diffraction applications. Featuring a sensitive area of 100 mm x 25 mm it yields a spatial resolution of 0.13 mm (standard deviation) with a high rate capability and good quantum efficiency for copper K radiation. (author)

  2. Triple-Frequency GPS Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution Using Dual-Frequency Based IGS Precise Clock Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of the third civil signal in the Global Positioning System, triple-frequency Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution methods have drawn increasing attention due to significantly reduced convergence time. However, the corresponding triple-frequency based precise clock products are not widely available and adopted by applications. Currently, most precise products are generated based on ionosphere-free combination of dual-frequency L1/L2 signals, which however are not consistent with the triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements, resulting in inaccurate positioning and unstable float ambiguities. In this study, a GPS triple-frequency PPP ambiguity resolution method is developed using the widely used dual-frequency based clock products. In this method, the interfrequency clock biases between the triple-frequency and dual-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements are first estimated and then applied to triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements to obtain stable float ambiguities. After this, the wide-lane L2/L5 and wide-lane L1/L2 integer property of ambiguities are recovered by estimating the satellite fractional cycle biases. A test using a sparse network is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results show that the ambiguity resolution can be achieved in minutes even tens of seconds and the positioning accuracy is in decimeter level.

  3. A Non-linear Model for Predicting Tip Position of a Pliable Robot Arm Segment Using Bending Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth I. SKLAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using pliable materials for the construction of robot bodies presents new and interesting challenges for the robotics community. Within the EU project entitled STIFFness controllable Flexible & Learnable manipulator for surgical Operations (STIFF-FLOP, a bendable, segmented robot arm has been developed. The exterior of the arm is composed of a soft material (silicone, encasing an internal structure that contains air-chamber actuators and a variety of sensors for monitoring applied force, position and shape of the arm as it bends. Due to the physical characteristics of the arm, a proper model of robot kinematics and dynamics is difficult to infer from the sensor data. Here we propose a non-linear approach to predicting the robot arm posture, by training a feed-forward neural network with a structured series of pressures values applied to the arm's actuators. The model is developed across a set of seven different experiments. Because the STIFF-FLOP arm is intended for use in surgical procedures, traditional methods for position estimation (based on visual information or electromagnetic tracking will not be possible to implement. Thus the ability to estimate pose based on data from a custom fiber-optic bending sensor and accompanying model is a valuable contribution. Results are presented which demonstrate the utility of our non-linear modelling approach across a range of data collection procedures.

  4. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  5. Super-resolution for a point source better than λ/500 using positive refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miñano, Juan C; González, Juan C; Benítez, Pablo; Grabovickic, Dejan; Marqués, Ricardo; Delgado, Vicente; Freire, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Leonhardt (2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040) demonstrated that the two-dimensional (2D) Maxwell fish eye (MFE) lens can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency; that is, it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a ‘perfect point drain’ located at the corresponding image point. Moreover, a prototype with λ/5 super-resolution property for one microwave frequency has been manufactured and tested (Ma et al 2010 arXiv:1007.2530v1; Ma et al 2010 New J. Phys. 13 033016). However, neither software simulations nor experimental measurements for a broad band of frequencies have yet been reported. Here, we present steady-state simulations with a non-perfect drain for a device equivalent to the MFE, called the spherical geodesic waveguide (SGW), which predicts up to λ/500 super-resolution close to discrete frequencies. Out of these frequencies, the SGW does not show super-resolution in the analysis carried out. (paper)

  6. Super-resolution for a point source better than λ/500 using positive refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Marqués, Ricardo; González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Delgado, Vicente; Grabovickic, Dejan; Freire, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Leonhardt (2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040) demonstrated that the two-dimensional (2D) Maxwell fish eye (MFE) lens can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency; that is, it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a ‘perfect point drain’ located at the corresponding image point. Moreover, a prototype with λ/5 super-resolution property for one microwave frequency has been manufactured and tested (Ma et al 2010 arXiv:1007.2530v1; Ma et al 2010 New J. Phys. 13 033016). However, neither software simulations nor experimental measurements for a broad band of frequencies have yet been reported. Here, we present steady-state simulations with a non-perfect drain for a device equivalent to the MFE, called the spherical geodesic waveguide (SGW), which predicts up to λ/500 super-resolution close to discrete frequencies. Out of these frequencies, the SGW does not show super-resolution in the analysis carried out.

  7. Objective-lens-free Fiber-based Position Detection with Nanometer Resolution in a Fiber Optical Trapping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaoyang; Ho-Thanh, Minh-Tri; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2017-10-13

    Position detection with high accuracy is crucial for force calibration of optical trapping systems. Most existing position detection methods require high-numerical-aperture objective lenses, which are bulky, expensive, and difficult to miniaturize. Here, we report an affordable objective-lens-free, fiber-based position detection scheme with 2 nm spatial resolution and 150 MHz bandwidth. This fiber based detection mechanism enables simultaneous trapping and force measurements in a compact fiber optical tweezers system. In addition, we achieved more reliable signal acquisition with less distortion compared with objective based position detection methods, thanks to the light guiding in optical fibers and small distance between the fiber tips and trapped particle. As a demonstration of the fiber based detection, we used the fiber optical tweezers to apply a force on a cell membrane and simultaneously measure the cellular response.

  8. A CMOS 128-APS linear array integrated with a LVOF for highsensitivity and high-resolution micro-spectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Emadi, A.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    A linear array of 128 Active Pixel Sensors has been developed in standard CMOS technology and a Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF) is added using CMOS-compatible post-process, resulting in a single chip highly-integrated highresolution microspectrometer. The optical requirements imposed by the

  9. Super-resolution with a positive epsilon multi-quantum-well super-lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, A. O.; Giannini, V.; Maier, S. A.; Phillips, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    We design an anisotropic and dichroic quantum metamaterial that is able to achieve super-resolution without the need for a negative permittivity. When exploring the parameters of the structure, we take into account the limits of semiconductor fabrication technology based on quantum well stacks. By heavily doping the structure with free electrons, we infer an anisotropic effective medium with a prolate ellipsoid dispersion curve which allows for near-diffractionless propagation of light (similar to an epsilon-near-zero hyperbolic lens). This, coupled with low absorption, allows us to resolve images at the sub-wavelength scale at distances 6 times greater than equivalent natural materials

  10. On the use of iterative techniques for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    It is possible to use feedforward predictive control for transverse position and trajectory-angle jitter correction. The control procedure is straightforward, but creation of the predictive filter is not as obvious. The two process tested were the least mean squares (LMS) and Kalman filter methods. The controller parameters calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. These techniques worked well for both interpulse (pulse-to-pulse) correction and intrapulse (within a pulse) correction with the Kalman filter method being the clear winner. A simulation based on interpulse data taken at the Stanford Linear Collider showed an improvement factor of almost three in the average rms jitter over standard feedback techniques for the Kalman filter. An improvement factor of over three was found for the Kalman filter on intrapulse data taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The feedforward systems also improved the correction bandwidth. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. On the use of iterative techniques for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    It is possible to use feedforward predictive control for transverse position and trajectory-angle jitter correction. The control procedure is straightforward, but creation of the predictive filter is not as obvious. The two processes tested were the least mean squares (LMS) and Kalman inter methods. The controller parameters calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. These techniques worked well for both interpulse (pulse-to-pulse) correction and intrapulse (within a pulse) correction with the Kalman filter method being the clear winner. A simulation based on interpulse data taken at the Stanford Linear Collider showed an improvement factor of almost three in the average rms jitter over standard feedback techniques for the Kalman filter. An improvement factor of over three was found for the Kalman filter on intrapulse data taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The feedforward systems also improved the correction bandwidth

  12. Large, Linear, and Tunable Positive Magnetoresistance of Mechanically Stable Graphene Foam-Toward High-Performance Magnetic Field Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Wan, Caihua; Shehzad, Khurram; Navale, Sachin T; Anwar, Tauseef; Mane, Rajaram S; Piao, Hong-Guang; Ali, Abid; Stadler, Florian J

    2017-01-18

    Here, we present the first observation of magneto-transport properties of graphene foam (GF) composed of a few layers in a wide temperature range of 2-300 K. Large room-temperature linear positive magnetoresistance (PMR ≈ 171% at B ≈ 9 T) has been detected. The largest PMR (∼213%) has been achieved at 2 K under a magnetic field of 9 T, which can be tuned by the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) to the porous structure of the foam. This remarkable magnetoresistance may be the result of quadratic magnetoresistance. The excellent magneto-transport properties of GF open a way toward three-dimensional graphene-based magnetoelectronic devices.

  13. FAST INTEGER AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION IN GPS KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING LEFT NULL SPACE AND MULTI-TIME (INVERSE PAIRED CHOLESKY DECORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Duan

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems that huge amount of computation in ambiguity resolution with multiple epochs and high-order matrix inversion occurred in the GPS kinematic relative positioning, a modified algorithm for fast integer ambiguity resolution is proposed. Firstly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is applied to construct the left null space matrix in order to eliminate the baselines components, which is able to separate ambiguity parameters from the position parameters efficiently. Kalman filter is applied only to estimate the ambiguity parameters so that the real-time ambiguity float solution is obtained. Then, sorting and multi-time (inverse paired Cholesky decomposition are adopted for decorrelation of ambiguity. After diagonal elements preprocessing and diagonal elements sorting according to the results of Cholesky decomposition, the efficiency of decomposition and decorrelation is improved. Lastly, the integer search algorithm implemented in LAMBDA method is used for searching the integer ambiguity. To verify the validity and efficacy of the proposed algorithm, static and kinematic tests are carried out. Experimental results show that this algorithm has good performance of decorrelation and precision of float solution, with computation speed also increased effectively. The final positioning accuracy result with static baseline error less than 1 cm and kinematic error less than 2 cm, which indicates that it can be used for fast kinematic positioning of high precision carrier.

  14. Metrological 2iOF fibre-optic system for position and displacement measurement with 31 pm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Karolina; Świåtkowski, Michał; Kunicki, Piotr; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we describe a high sensitivity intensity fibre-optic displacement sensor with tens of picometre resolution combined with a sub-picometre resolution interferometric calibration system. Both integrated components form the so-called "2 in one ferrule" system 2iOF. The design and construction of the presented device depend on integrating two sensors' systems within one fibre-optic measuring head, which allows performing in situ calibration process with no additional time-consuming adjustment procedure. The resolution of the 2iOF system is 31 pm/Hz1/2 obtained with an interferometric Fabry-Perot based calibration system—providing accuracy better than tens of fm/Hz1/2 within 1 MHz bandwidth in the measurement range of up to 100 μm. The direct response from the intensity sensor is then the 2iOF output one. It is faster and more convenient to analyze in comparison, with much better resolution (3 orders of magnitude higher) but on the other hand also more time consuming and dependent on the absolute sample position interferometer. The proposed system is flexible and open to various applications. We will present the results of the piezoelectrical actuator displacement measurements, which were performed using the developed system.

  15. Efficacy of an opposite position aspiration on resolution of pneumothorax following CT-guided lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L-C; Du, Y; Yang, H-F; Xie, M-G; Liao, H-Q; Zhang, Y-D; Li, L; Wang, Q; Hu, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of aspiration in an opposite position to deal with pneumothorax after CT-guided lung biopsy. Methods: A retrospective study was developed involving 210 patients with pneumothorax who had undergone CT-guided percutaneous core biopsies from January 2012 to March 2014 for various pulmonary lesions. Asymptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax were treated conservatively. Simple manual aspiration was performed for symptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax and for all patients with moderate to large pneumothorax. An opposite position aspiration was performed when simple manual aspiration failed. The efficacy of simple manual aspiration and the opposite position aspiration was observed. Results: Among 210 patients with pneumothorax, 128 (61.0%) asymptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax were treated conservatively. The remaining 82 were treated with attempted simple manual aspiration. Out of these 82 patients, simple manual aspiration was successful in 58 (70.7%, 58/82) cases. The complete and partial regression rates were 17.2% (10/58) and 82.8% (48/58), respectively. In the other 24 patients (29.3%, 24/82), simple aspiration technique was ineffective. An opposite position (from prone to supine or vice versa) was applied, and a new biopsy puncture site was chosen for reaspiration. This procedure was successful in 22 patients but not in 2 patients who had to have a chest tube insertion. The complete and partial regression rates were 25.0% (6/24) and 66.7% (16/24), respectively. Applying the new method, the total effective rate of aspiration improved significantly from 70.7% (58/82) to 97.6% (80/82). Conclusion: The opposite position aspiration can be safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment for CT-guided lung biopsy-induced pneumothorax thus reducing the use of chest tube significantly. Advances in knowledge: (1) Opposite position aspiration can elevate the success rate of aspiration significantly (from 70.7% to 97

  16. Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar: Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Thursday 24 November 2010 Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar at 14:15  -  BE Auditorium, bldg. 6 (Meyrin) – please note unusual place Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution Stef Janssens /EN-MME Abstract: To reach the required luminosity at the CLIC interaction point, about 4000 quadrupoles are needed to obtain a vertical beam size of 1 nm at the interaction point. The mechanical jitter of the quadrupole magnets will result in an emittance growth. An active vibration isolation system is required to reduce vibrations from the ground and from external forces to about 1.5 nm integrated root mean square (r.m.s.) vertical displacement at 1 Hz. A short overview of vibration damping and isolation strategies will be presented as well as a comparison of existing systems. The unprecedented resolution requirements and the instruments enabling these measurements will be discussed. The vibration sources from which the magnets need to...

  17. An Unsplit Monte-Carlo solver for the resolution of the linear Boltzmann equation coupled to (stiff) Bateman equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernede, Adrien; Poëtte, Gaël

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the resolution of the time-dependent problem of particle transport in a medium whose composition evolves with time due to interactions. As a constraint, we want to use of Monte-Carlo (MC) scheme for the transport phase. A common resolution strategy consists in a splitting between the MC/transport phase and the time discretization scheme/medium evolution phase. After going over and illustrating the main drawbacks of split solvers in a simplified configuration (monokinetic, scalar Bateman problem), we build a new Unsplit MC (UMC) solver improving the accuracy of the solutions, avoiding numerical instabilities, and less sensitive to time discretization. The new solver is essentially based on a Monte Carlo scheme with time dependent cross sections implying the on-the-fly resolution of a reduced model for each MC particle describing the time evolution of the matter along their flight path.

  18. High dose-rate brachytherapy source localization: positional resolution using a diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T; Suchowerska, N; Bilek, M M; McKenzie, D R; Ng, N; Kron, T

    2003-01-01

    A potential real-time source position verification process for high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment is described. This process is intended to provide immediate confirmation that a treatment is proceeding according to plan, so that corrective action can be taken if necessary. We show that three dosimeters are in principle sufficient and demonstrate the feasibility of the process using a diamond detector and an Ir-192 source. An error analysis including all identified sources of error shows that this detector is capable of locating the distance to the source to within 2 mm for distances up to 12 cm. This positional accuracy is less than the diameter of typical HDR catheters indicating that a diamond detector can be used to accurately determine the distance to the source. The uncertainty in the distance is found to increase with distance

  19. High-resolution S-wave reflection survey in a linear depression; Senjo kubochi ni okeru kobunkaino S ha hanshaho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y [Kyushu Regional Construction Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    An attempt was made to apply a method combining the high-resolution S-wave reflection survey with boring to a fault survey at the Kuju town, Oita Prefecture. The investigation area has a linear depression area as small as about 600 m from east to west and about 100 m from north to south surround by mountain slopes. The boundary section with mountain peaks at the north ridge of the depression area is linear, and existence of a southward falling normal fault has been indicated. The seismic investigation has employed an artificial plank hammering method, and the derived data were processed by using the processing software, Vista for Windows. The Bin interval was 25 cm, the S-wave velocity ranged from 100 to 150 m/s, and the spatial resolution was estimated at several ten centimeters or less. The resolution is thought sufficient for assessing the fault location and displacement. The acquired depth cross sections presented distinct structural discontinuity, from which the fault locations were estimated. However, for displacements in the base bed and upper beds, the reflected waves fell into disorder at the faults, having made a detailed assessment difficult. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. It gets better: resolution of internalized homophobia over time and associations with positive health outcomes among MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael W

    2013-05-01

    Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men.

  1. Horizontal Positional Accuracy of Google Earth’s High-Resolution Imagery Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Potere

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth now hosts high-resolution imagery that spans twenty percent of the Earth’s landmass and more than a third of the human population. This contemporary highresolution archive represents a significant, rapidly expanding, cost-free and largely unexploited resource for scientific inquiry. To increase the scientific utility of this archive, we address horizontal positional accuracy (georegistration by comparing Google Earth with Landsat GeoCover scenes over a global sample of 436 control points located in 109 cities worldwide. Landsat GeoCover is an orthorectified product with known absolute positional accuracy of less than 50 meters root-mean-squared error (RMSE. Relative to Landsat GeoCover, the 436 Google Earth control points have a positional accuracy of 39.7 meters RMSE (error magnitudes range from 0.4 to 171.6 meters. The control points derived from satellite imagery have an accuracy of 22.8 meters RMSE, which is significantly more accurate than the 48 control-points based on aerial photography (41.3 meters RMSE; t-test p-value < 0.01. The accuracy of control points in more-developed countries is 24.1 meters RMSE, which is significantly more accurate than the control points in developing countries (44.4 meters RMSE; t-test p-value < 0.01. These findings indicate that Google Earth highresolution imagery has a horizontal positional accuracy that is sufficient for assessing moderate-resolution remote sensing products across most of the world’s peri-urban areas.

  2. A High Position Resolution X-ray Detector: an Edge on Illuminated Capillary Plate Combined with a Gas Amplification Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Ostling, J.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Peskov, V.; Tokanai, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested a prototype of a new type of high position resolution hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall lead glass capillary plate converter of X-rays combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber filled with gas at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0-90 degree. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between 5-30 percent in a single step mode and up to 50 percent in a multi-layered combination. Depending on the capillary geometry, the position resolution achieved was between 0.050-0.250 mm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon energy or gas mixture. The usual lead glass capillary plates operated without noticeable charging up effects at counting rates of 50 Hz/mm2, and hydrogen treated capillaries up to 10E5 Hz/mm2. The developed detector may open new possibil...

  3. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in a Gram-Positive Pathogen by Linear Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Anti-infective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motib, Anfal; Guerreiro, Antonio; Al-Bayati, Firas; Piletska, Elena; Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kadam, Anagha; Kuipers, Oscar; Hiller, Luisa; Cowen, Todd; Piletsky, Sergey; Andrew, Peter W; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-12-22

    We describe the development, characterization, and biological testing of a new type of linear molecularly imprinted polymer (LMIP) designed to act as an anti-infective by blocking the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism and so abrogating the virulence of the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. The LMIP is prepared (polymerized) in presence of a template molecule, but unlike in traditional molecular imprinting approaches, no cross-linker is used. This results in soluble low-molecular-weight oligomers that can act as a therapeutic agent in vitro and in vivo. The LMIP was characterized by mass spectrometry to determine its monomer composition. Fragments identified were then aligned along the peptide template by computer modeling to predict the possible monomer sequence of the LMIP. These findings provide a proof of principle that LMIPs can be used to block QS, thus setting the stage for the development of LMIPs a novel drug-discovery platform and class of materials to target Gram-positive pathogens. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High spatial and time resolutions with gas ionization detectors; Hautes resolutions en position et temps avec des detecteurs gazeux a ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthas, J

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the principles and the characteristics of the gaseous ionisation detectors used in position and timing measurements. The first two parts recall the main notions (electron and ion motions, gaseous amplification, signal formation) and their applications to the proportional counter and the wire chamber. The explanation of the signal formation makes use of the Ramo theorem. The third part is devoted to the different types of wire chambers: drift or cathode strip chambers, TPC (time projection chamber). Some aspects on construction and ageing are also presented. Part 4 is on the detectors in which the multiplication is performed by a 'Parallel Plate' system (PPAC, Pestov counter). Special attention is paid to the RPCs (Resistive Plate Chambers) and their timing resolutions. Part 5 concentrates on 'Micro-pattern detectors' which use different kinds of microstructure for gaseous amplification. The new detectors MICROMEGAS, CAT (compteur a trous) and GEM (gas electron multiplier) and some of their applications are presented. The last part is a bibliography including some comments on the documents. (author)

  5. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidad Gimenez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anal cancer, although a still rare disease, is being observed in ascending rates among some population segments known to be at risk for the development of the disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, immunodepression and anal intercourse are some factors associated with the development of the malignancy. Its similarities to cervical cancer have led to many studies aiming to establish guidelines for detecting and treating precursor lesions of anal cancer, with the goal of prevention. High-resolution anoscopy is routinely used for the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in many centers but the medical literature is still deficient concerning the role of this diagnostic modality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy in comparison to histopathological results of anal biopsies performed in HIV-positive patients treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, AM, Brazil. To observe any possible association between some risk factors for the development of anal cancer and the presence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: A hundred and twenty-eight HIV-positive patients were submitted to anal canal cytological sampling for the detection of HPV infection by a PCR based method. High-resolution anoscopy was then performed after topical application of acetic acid 3% in the anal canal for 2 minutes. Eventual acetowhite lesions that were detected were recorded in respect to location, and classified by their tinctorial pattern, distribution aspect, relief, surface and vascular pattern. Biopsies of acetowhite lesions were performed under local anesthesia and the specimens sent to histopathological analysis. The patients were interviewed for the presence of anal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalences of anal HPV infection and of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population were, respectively, 79% and 39.1%. High-resolution anoscopy

  6. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  7. Development of Bundle Position-Wise Linear Model for Predicting the Pressure Tube Diametral Creep in CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Na, Man Gyun

    2011-01-01

    Diametral creep of the pressure tube (PT) is one of the principal aging mechanisms governing the heat transfer and hydraulic degradation of a heat transport system. PT diametral creep leads to diametral expansion that affects the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the coolant channels and the critical heat flux. Therefore, it is essential to predict the PT diametral creep in CANDU reactors, which is caused mainly by fast neutron irradiation, reactor coolant temperature and so forth. The currently used PT diametral creep prediction model considers the complex interactions between the effects of temperature and fast neutron flux on the deformation of PT zirconium alloys. The model assumes that long-term steady-state deformation consists of separable, additive components from thermal creep, irradiation creep and irradiation growth. This is a mechanistic model based on measured data. However, this model has high prediction uncertainty. Recently, a statistical error modeling method was developed using plant inspection data from the Bruce B CANDU reactor. The aim of this study was to develop a bundle position-wise linear model (BPLM) to predict PT diametral creep employing previously measured PT diameters and HTS operating conditions. There are twelve bundles in a fuel channel and for each bundle, a linear model was developed by using the dependent variables, such as the fast neutron fluxes and the bundle temperatures. The training data set was selected using the subtractive clustering method. The data of 39 channels that consist of 80 percent of a total of 49 measured channels from Units 2, 3 and 4 were used to develop the BPLM models. The remaining 10 channels' data were used to test the developed BPLM models. The BPLM was optimized by the maximum likelihood estimation method. The developed BPLM to predict PT diametral creep was verified using the operating data gathered from the Units 2,3 and 4 in Korea. Two error components for the BPLM, which are the epistemic

  8. Impact of ambiguity resolution and application of transformation parameters obtained by regional GNSS network in Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, S.; Poluzzi, L.; Tavasci, L.

    2012-12-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is one of the possible approaches for GNSS data processing. As known this technique is faster and more flexible compared to the others which are based on a differenced approach and constitute a reliable methods for accurate positioning of remote GNSS stations, even in some remote area such as Antarctica. Until few years ago one of the major limits of the method was the impossibility to resolve the ambiguity as integer but nowadays many methods are available to resolve this aspect. The first software package permitting a PPP solution was the GIPSY OASIS realized, developed and maintained by JPL (NASA). JPL produce also orbits and files ready to be used with GIPSY. Recently, using these products came possible to resolve ambiguities improving the stability of solutions. PPP permit to estimate position into the reference frame of the orbits (IGS) and when coordinate in others reference frames, such al ITRF, are needed is necessary to apply a transformation. Within his products JPL offer, for each day, a global 7 parameter transformation that permit to locate the survey into the ITRF RF. In some cases it's also possible to create a costumed process and obtain analogous parameters using local/regional reference network of stations which coordinates are available also in the desired reference frame. In this work some tests on accuracy has been carried out comparing different PPP solutions obtained using the same software packages (GIPSY) but considering the ambiguity resolution, the global and regional transformation parameters. In particular two test area have been considered, first one located in Antarctica and the second one in Italy. Aim of the work is the evaluation of the impact of ambiguity resolution and the use of local/regional transformation parameter in the final solutions. Tests shown how the ambiguity resolution improve the precision, especially in the EAST component with a scattering reduction about 8%. And the use of global

  9. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun

    2009-01-01

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

  10. A Block-Based Linear MMSE Noise Reduction with a High Temporal Resolution Modeling of the Speech Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chunjian; Andersen, S. V.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) approach for parametric speech enhancement is developed. The proposed algorithms aim at joint LMMSE estimation of signal power spectra and phase spectra, as well as exploitation of correlation between spectral components. The major cause...... of this interfrequency correlation is shown to be the prominent temporal power localization in the excitation of voiced speech. LMMSE estimators in time domain and frequency domain are first formulated. To obtain the joint estimator, we model the spectral signal covariance matrix as a full covariancematrix instead...... of a diagonal covariance matrix as is the case in the Wiener filter derived under the quasi-stationarity assumption. To accomplish this, we decompose the signal covariance matrix into a synthesis filter matrix and an excitation matrix. The synthesis filter matrix is built from estimates of the all-pole model...

  11. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  12. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  13. A superconducting linear motor drive for a positive displacement bellows pump for use in the g-2 cryogenics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forced two-phase cooling of indirectly cooled magnets requires circulation of liquid helium through the magnet cooling channel. A bellows helium pump is one possible way of providing helium flow to a magnet cooling system. Since the bellows type of helium pump is immersed in liquid helium, a superconducting linear motor drive appears to be an attractive option. This report describes a linear motor drive that employs oriented permanent magnet materials such as samarium-cobalt as the stator magnet system and a superconducting loud speaker voice coil type of drive as the armature of the linear motor. This report examines drive motor requirements for a helium pump

  14. Resolution of an uncertain closed-loop logistics model: an application to fuzzy linear programs with risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Hsu, Hsin-Wei

    2010-11-01

    With the urgency of global warming, green supply chain management, logistics in particular, has drawn the attention of researchers. Although there are closed-loop green logistics models in the literature, most of them do not consider the uncertain environment in general terms. In this study, a generalized model is proposed where the uncertainty is expressed by fuzzy numbers. An interval programming model is proposed by the defined means and mean square imprecision index obtained from the integrated information of all the level cuts of fuzzy numbers. The resolution for interval programming is based on the decision maker (DM)'s preference. The resulting solution provides useful information on the expected solutions under a confidence level containing a degree of risk. The results suggest that the more optimistic the DM is, the better is the resulting solution. However, a higher risk of violation of the resource constraints is also present. By defining this probable risk, a solution procedure was developed with numerical illustrations. This provides a DM trade-off mechanism between logistic cost and the risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Screening and confirmation of 24 hormones in cosmetics by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Fengmei; Niu, Zengyuan; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Gang; Chen, Junhui

    2014-05-01

    A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was established to screen and confirm 24 hormones in cosmetics. Various cosmetic samples were extracted with methanol. The extract was loaded onto a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid for the separation. The accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion was acquired by full scanning of electrostatic field orbitrap. The rapid screening was carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion. The confirmation analysis for targeted compounds was performed with the retention time and qualitative fragments obtained by data dependent scan mode. Under the optimal conditions, the 24 hormones were routinely detected with mass accuracy error below 3 x 10(-6) (3 ppm), and good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The LODs (S/N = 3) of the 24 compounds were hormones in 50 cosmetic samples. The results demonstrate that the method is a useful tool for the rapid screening and identification of the hormones in cosmetics.

  16. Accretion of fat-free mass rather than fat mass in infancy is positively associated with linear growth in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu Wossen, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. Objective: This study...... examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. Methods: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth...... to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized...

  17. High-resolution metallic magnetic calorimeters for β-spectroscopy on 187rhenium and position resolved X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porst, Jan-Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution spectroscopy. MMCs are energy dispersive particle detectors based on the calorimetric principle which are typically operated at temperatures below 100 mK. The detectors make use of a paramagnetic temperature sensor to transform the temperature rise upon the absorption of a particle in the detector into a measurable magnetic flux change in a dc-SQUID. The application of MMCs for neutrino mass measurements and their advantages with respect to other approaches are discussed. In view of this application the development of an MMC optimized for β-endpoint spectroscopy on 187 rhenium is presented. A fully micro-fabricated X-ray detector is characterized and performs close to design values. Furthermore, a new technique to more efficiently couple rhenium absorbers mechanically and thermally to the sensor was developed and successfully tested. By employing a metallic contact, signal rise times faster than 5 μs could be observed with superconducting rhenium absorbers. In addition to the single pixel detectors, an alternative approach of reading out multiple pixels was developed in this work, too. Here, the individual absorbers have a different thermal coupling to only one temperature sensor resulting in a distribution of different pulse shapes. Straightforward position discrimination by means of rise time analysis is demonstrated for a four pixel MMC and a thermal model of the detector is provided. Unprecedented so far, an energy resolution of less than ΔE FWHM <5 eV for 5.9 keV X-rays was achieved across all absorbers. (orig.)

  18. Existence of 2m-1 Positive Solutions for Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems with Linear Functional Boundary Conditions on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Leggett-Williams fixed theorem, we establish the existence of multiple positive solutions for second-order nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems with linear functional boundary conditions. One explicit example with singularity is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

  19. Automatic control system of a linear actuator for positioning samples to neutron irradiation using low cost open-hardware boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunya, Eduardo; Chan, Renzo; Pacheco, Adison

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design criteria and implementation of an automatic control system based on embedded electronic circuits (microcontrollers) of different architectures (RISC, ARM) and open source framework software CanFestival, to develop user applications. Electronic devices are autonomous and support the functionality required for communication and remote control of the linear actuator. (author)

  20. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in a Gram Positive Pathogen by Linear Imprinted Copolymers with anti-Infective Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motib, Anfal; Guerreiro, Antonio; Al-Bayati, Firas; Piletska, Elena; Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kadam, Anagha; Kuipers, Oscar; Hiller, Luisa; Cowen, Todd; Piletsky, Sergey; Andrew, Peter; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe the development, characterization and biological testing of a new type of linear molecularly imprinted polymer (LMIP) designed to act as anti-infective by blocking the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism and so preventing virulence of the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. The LMIP is

  1. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive detection of exfoliated colon cancer cells on linear stapler cartridges was associated with depth of tumor invasion and preoperative bowel preparation in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kishiko; Endo, Shungo; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Hidaka, Eiji; Ishida, Fumio; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate exfoliated cancer cells (ECCs) on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomotic sites in colon cancer. We prospectively analyzed ECCs on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomosis in 100 colon cancer patients who underwent colectomy. Having completed the functional end-to-end anastomosis, the linear stapler cartridges were irrigated with saline, which was collected for cytological examination and cytological diagnoses were made by board-certified pathologists based on Papanicolaou staining. The detection rate of ECCs on the linear stapler cartridges was 20 %. Positive detection of ECCs was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion (p = 0.012) and preoperative bowel preparation (p = 0.003). There were no marked differences between ECC-positive and ECC-negative groups in terms of the operation methods, tumor location, histopathological classification, and surgical margins. Since ECCs were identified on the cartridge of the linear stapler used for anastomosis, preoperative mechanical bowel preparation using polyethylene glycol solution and cleansing at anastomotic sites using tumoricidal agents before anastomosis may be necessary to decrease ECCs in advanced colon cancer.

  3. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY 11973 (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao, E-mail: xiahuang@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  4. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  5. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  6. The reliability of linear position transducer, force plate and combined measurement of explosive power-time variables during a loaded jump squat in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between day reliability of power-time measures calculated with data collected using the linear position transducer or the force plate independently, or a combination of the two technologies. Twenty-five male rugby union players performed three jump squats on two occasions one week apart. Ground reaction forces were measured via a force plate and position data were collected using a linear position transducer. From these data, a number of power-time variables were calculated for each method. The force plate, linear position transducer and a combined method were all found to be a reliable means of measuring peak power (ICC = 0.87-0.95, CV = 3.4%-8.0%). The absolute consistency of power-time measures varied between methods (CV = 8.0%-53.4%). Relative consistency of power-time measures was generally comparable between methods and measures, and for many variables was at an acceptable level (ICC = 0.77-0.94). Although a number of time-dependent power variables can be reliably calculated from data acquired from the three methods investigated, the reliability of a number of these measures is below that which is acceptable for use in research and for practical applications.

  7. HbA1c Measured in Stored Erythrocytes Is Positively Linearly Associated with Mortality in Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Montonen, Jukka; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Sandbaek, Annelli; Overvad, Kim; Arriola, Larraitz; Ardanaz, Eva; Saieva, Calogero; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van Dieren, Susan; Nilsson, Peter M.; Groop, Leif C.; Franks, Paul W.; Rolandsson, Olov; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have shown that glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is related to mortality, but the shape of the association is less clear. Furthermore, disease duration and medication may modify this association. This observational study explored the association between HbA1c measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality. Secondly, it was assessed whether disease duration and medication use influenced the estimates or were independently associated with mortality. Methods Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition a cohort was analysed of 4,345 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes at enrolment. HbA1c was measured in blood samples stored up to 19 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models for all-cause mortality investigated HbA1c in quartiles as well as per 1% increment, diabetes medication in seven categories of insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents, and disease duration in quartiles. Results After a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 460 participants died. Higher HbA1c was associated with higher mortality: Hazard Ratio for 1%-increase was 1.11 (95% CI 1.06, 1.17). This association was linear (P-nonlinearity =0.15) and persistent across categories of medication use, disease duration, and co-morbidities. Compared with metformin, other medication types were not associated with mortality. Longer disease duration was associated with mortality, but not after adjustment for HbA1c and medication. Conclusion This prospective study showed that persons with lower HbA1c had better survival than those with higher HbA1c. The association was linear and independent of disease duration, type of medication use, and presence of co-morbidities. Any improvement of HbA1c appears to be associated with reduced mortality risk. PMID:22719972

  8. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ruurd; J., Godart; Wauben, D.J.L.; Langendijk, J.; van 't Veld, A.A.; Korevaar, E.W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a

  9. Design and Parametric Study of the Magnetic Sensor for Position Detection in Linear Motor Based on Nonlinear Parametric model order reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sarbajit; Chang, Junghwan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a design approach for a magnetic sensor module to detect mover position using the proper orthogonal decomposition-dynamic mode decomposition (POD-DMD)-based nonlinear parametric model order reduction (PMOR). The parameterization of the sensor module is achieved by using the multipolar moment matching method. Several geometric variables of the sensor module are considered while developing the parametric study. The operation of the sensor module is based on the principle of the airgap flux density distribution detection by the Hall Effect IC. Therefore, the design objective is to achieve a peak flux density (PFD) greater than 0.1 T and total harmonic distortion (THD) less than 3%. To fulfill the constraint conditions, the specifications for the sensor module is achieved by using POD-DMD based reduced model. The POD-DMD based reduced model provides a platform to analyze the high number of design models very fast, with less computational burden. Finally, with the final specifications, the experimental prototype is designed and tested. Two different modes, 90° and 120° modes respectively are used to obtain the position information of the linear motor mover. The position information thus obtained are compared with that of the linear scale data, used as a reference signal. The position information obtained using the 120° mode has a standard deviation of 0.10 mm from the reference linear scale signal, whereas the 90° mode position signal shows a deviation of 0.23 mm from the reference. The deviation in the output arises due to the mechanical tolerances introduced into the specification during the manufacturing process. This provides a scope for coupling the reliability based design optimization in the design process as a future extension.

  10. Characterization and linear array LA48 Commissioner for measuring the position of the multi leaf collimator; Caracterizacion y comisionado del linear array LA48 para medir el posicionamiento del colimador multilaminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conles Picos, I.; Cenizo de Castro, E.; Aparicio martin, A. R.; Barrio Lazo, F.; Cesteros Morante, M. J.

    2011-07-01

    The protocol of Quality Control of electron accelerators for medical use of SEFM proposed for multi leaf collimation system (MLC) to verify the positioning of the blades connect. To do this you must find a system with sufficient accuracy and precision and, if possible, easy to assemble and offers real-time results. One of these teams is the Linear Array of PTW-Freiburg (LA48), which consists of a row of 47 ionization chambers, of 0008 cc and 8 mm apart from each other. In this paper, we describe our process of characterization and LA48 commissioner. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of Position Resolution for a Prototype Whole-Body PET Detector Based on Suppressing Backgrounds by Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kento; Emoto, Yusaku; Ito, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Naomi; Kaneko, Hideyuki; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    emission. Material cost of this system is, 0.2M for HGR La-GPS, 0.03M for WLSF, 0.03M for 600 units of 6 by 6 mm SiPM's, 0.12M for 12000 units of 1 by 1 mm SiPM's, and 0.09M for 1800 channel of signal readout circuits. Considering total cost, price of this PET will be set 1M or less. This idea was confirmed with numerical simulation and experimentation. In experimentation, position resolution in photoelectric absorption was 0.2 mm, and minimum distance that this detector could recognize plural emission in Compton scattering was 1 mm. In parallel, three kinds of model were made: a prototype detector, all the signals readout method, and resistance delay method. Simulation setting was 2 MBq/L in normal tissue and 10 MBq/L in cancer. As a result of simulation, a prototype detector identified 3 mm cancer, however the others made unclear image and was not able to identified cancer. That is to say, the prototype detector is able to reject Compton scattering events and inexpensive. Therefore, whole-body PET system with this detector must diagnose cancer with a diameter of 3 mm or more and be priced 1M or less

  12. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction

  13. Methodology to reduce 6D patient positional shifts into a 3D linear shift and its verification in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Ray, Jyotirmoy; Ganesh, Tharmarnadar; Manikandan, Arjunan; Munshi, Anusheel; Rathinamuthu, Sasikumar; Kaur, Harpreet; Anbazhagan, Satheeshkumar; Giri, Upendra K.; Roy, Soumya; Jassal, Kanan; Kalyan Mohanti, Bidhu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to derive and verify a mathematical formulation for the reduction of the six-dimensional (6D) positional inaccuracies of patients (lateral, longitudinal, vertical, pitch, roll and yaw) to three-dimensional (3D) linear shifts. The formulation was mathematically and experimentally tested and verified for 169 stereotactic radiotherapy patients. The mathematical verification involves the comparison of any (one) of the calculated rotational coordinates with the corresponding value from the 6D shifts obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The experimental verification involves three sets of measurements using an ArcCHECK phantom, when (i) the phantom was not moved (neutral position: 0MES), (ii) the position of the phantom shifted by 6D shifts obtained from CBCT (6DMES) from neutral position and (iii) the phantom shifted from its neutral position by 3D shifts reduced from 6D shifts (3DMES). Dose volume histogram and statistical comparisons were made between ≤ft and ≤ft . The mathematical verification was performed by a comparison of the calculated and measured yaw (γ°) rotation values, which gave a straight line, Y  =  1X with a goodness of fit as R 2  =  0.9982. The verification, based on measurements, gave a planning target volume receiving 100% of the dose (V100%) as 99.1  ±  1.9%, 96.3  ±  1.8%, 74.3  ±  1.9% and 72.6  ±  2.8% for the calculated treatment planning system values TPSCAL, 0MES, 3DMES and 6DMES, respectively. The statistical significance (p-values: paired sample t-test) of V100% were found to be 0.03 for the paired sample ≤ft and 0.01 for ≤ft . In this paper, a mathematical method to reduce 6D shifts to 3D shifts is presented. The mathematical method is verified by using well-matched values between the measured and calculated γ°. Measurements done on the ArcCHECK phantom also proved that the proposed methodology is correct. The post-correction of the

  14. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuor, Gerald; Hounkpatin, Ozias K L; Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties-sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen-in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models-multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)-were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of redness

  15. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Forkuor

    Full Text Available Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat, terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties-sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC, soil organic carbon (SOC and nitrogen-in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models-multiple linear regression (MLR, random forest regression (RFR, support vector machine (SVM, stochastic gradient boosting (SGB-were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices

  16. High-Resolution Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for beta-Spectroscopy on 187-Rhenium and Position Resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Porst, Jan-Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution spectroscopy. MMCs are energy dispersive particle detectors based on the calorimetric principle which are typically operated at temperatures below 100 mK. The detectors make use of a paramagnetic temperature sensor to transform the temperature rise upon the absorption of a particle in the detector into a measurable magnetic flux change in a dc-SQUID. The application of MMCs for neutrino mass mea...

  17. Online Kidney Position Verification Using Non-Contrast Radiographs on a Linear Accelerator with on Board KV X-Ray Imaging Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David J.; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

  18. The 1 Repetition Maximum Mechanics of a High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Compared With a Conventional Deadlift as Measured by a Linear Position Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J

    2018-01-01

    Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Lazar, A, Risso, FG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Torne, IA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Davis, DL, Orjalo, AJ, and Callaghan, SJ. The 1 repetition maximum mechanics of a high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift compared with a conventional deadlift as measured by a linear position transducer. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 150-161, 2018-The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 men, 10 women) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited an SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p mechanics between subjects with or without an SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength-training adaptations over time.

  19. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  20. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, Peter, E-mail: pr20@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Temnykh, Alexander B. [Cornell University, Laboratory for Elem-Particle Physics, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Pauling, Alan K. [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States)

    2011-09-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  1. Seasonal and diel effects on the activity of northern pike studied by high-resolution positional telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Aarestrup, Kim; Berg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    , a detailed understanding of the behaviour of this species during winter is important. We continuously monitored the activity of adult northern pike (Esox lucius) in a small temperate lake from late summer to winter for two consecutive years using an automatic acoustic positional telemetry system. Four...

  2. Design, construction, and in vivo feasibility of a positioning device for irradiation of mice brains using a clinical linear accelerator and intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancilio, Nicholas J; Dahl, Shaun; Athanasiadi, Ilektra; Perez-Torres, Carlos J

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to design a positioning device that would allow for selective irradiation of the mouse brain with a clinical linear accelerator. We designed and fabricated an immobilization fixture that incorporates three functions: head stabilizer (through ear bars and tooth bar), gaseous anesthesia delivery and scavenging, and tissue mimic/bolus. Cohorts of five mice were irradiated such that each mouse in the cohort received a unique dose between 1000 and 3000 cGy. DNA damage immunohistochemistry was used to validate an increase in biological effect as a function of radiation dose. Mice were then followed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There was evidence of DNA damage throughout the brain proportional to radiation dose. Radiation-induced damage at the prescribed doses, as depicted by H&E, appeared to be constrained to the white matter consistent with radiological observation in human patients. The severity of the damage correlated with the radiation dose as expected. We have designed and manufactured a device that allows us to selectively irradiate the mouse brain with a clinical linear accelerator. However, some off-target effects are possible with large prescription doses.

  3. On the use of the autocorrelation and covariance methods for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    It is desired to design a predictive feedforward transverse jitter control system to control both angle and position jitter in pulsed linear accelerators. Such a system will increase the accuracy and bandwidth of correction over that of currently available feedback correction systems. Intrapulse correction is performed. An offline process actually ''learns'' the properties of the jitter, and uses these properties to apply correction to the beam. The correction weights calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. Jitter data were taken at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) telescope experiment at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The experiment consisted of the LANL telescope connected to the ANL ZGS proton source and linac. A simulation of the correction system using this data was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by a factor of two over that of a comparable standard feedback correction system. The system also improved the correction bandwidth

  4. On the use of the autocorrelation and covariance methods for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    It is desired to design a predictive feedforward transverse jitter control system to control both angle and position jitter in pulsed linear accelerators. Such a system will increase the accuracy and bandwidth of correction over that of currently available feedback correction systems. Intrapulse correction is performed. An offline process actually open-quotes learnsclose quotes the properties of the jitter, and uses these properties to apply correction to the beam. The correction weights calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. Jitter data were taken at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) telescope experiment at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The experiment consisted of the LANL telescope connected to the ANL ZGS proton source and linac. A simulation of the correction system using this data was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by a factor of two over that of a comparable standard feedback correction system. The system also improved the correction bandwidth

  5. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  6. Using high resolution aridity and drainage position data to better predict rainfall-runoff relationships in complex upland topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, D.; Sheridan, G. J.; Benyon, R. G.; Lane, P. N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In topographically complex terrain, the interaction of aspect-dependent solar exposure and drainage-position-dependent flow accumulation results in energy and water partitioning that is highly spatially variable. Catchment scale rainfall-runoff relationships are dependent on these smaller scale spatial patterns. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to how to represent this smaller scale variability within lumped parameter, catchment scale rainfall-runoff models. In this study we aim to measure and represent the key interactions between aridity and drainage position in complex terrain to inform the development of simple catchment-scale hydrologic model parameters. Six measurement plots were setup on opposing slopes in an east-west facing eucalypt forest headwater catchment. The field sites are spanning three drainage positions with two contrasting aridity indices each, while minimizing variations in other factors, e.g. geology and weather patterns. Sapflow, soil water content (SWC) and throughfall were continuously monitored on two convergent hillslopes with similar size (1.3 and 1.6ha) but contrasting aspects (north and south). Soil depth varied from 0.6m at the topslope to >2m at the bottomslope positions. Maximum tree heights ranged from 16.2m to 36.9m on the equator-facing slope and from 30.1m to 45.5m on the pole-facing slope, with height decreasing upslope on both aspects. Two evapotranspiration (ET) patterns emerged in relation to aridity and drainage position. On the equator-facing slope (AI~ 2.1), seasonal understorey and overstorey ET patterns were in sync, whereas on the pole-facing slope (AI~1.5) understorey ET showed larger seasonal fluctuations than overstorey ET. Seasonal ET patterns and competition between soil evaporation and root water uptake lead to distinct differences in profile SWC across the sites, likely caused by depletion from different depths. Topsoil water content on equator-facing slopes was generally lower and responded

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of the X-ray response of a germanium microstrip detector with energy and position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, G; Fajardo, P; Morse, J

    1999-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo computer simulations of the X-ray response of a micro-strip germanium detector over the energy range 30-100 keV. The detector consists of a linear array of lithographically defined 150 mu m wide strips on a high purity monolithic germanium crystal of 6 mm thickness. The simulation code is divided into two parts. We first consider a 10 mu m wide X-ray beam striking the detector surface at normal incidence and compute the interaction processes possible for each photon. Photon scattering and absorption inside the detector crystal are simulated using the EGS4 code with the LSCAT extension for low energies. A history of events is created of the deposited energies which is read by the second part of the code which computes the energy histogram for each detector strip. Appropriate algorithms are introduced to account for lateral charge spreading occurring during charge carrier drift to the detector surface, and Fano and preamplifier electronic noise contributions. Computed spectra for differen...

  8. A single-layer flat-coil-oscillator (SFCO)-based super-broadband position sensor for nano-scale-resolution seismometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgyan, Samvel [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)], E-mail: gevs_sam@web.am; Gevorgyan, Vardan [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia); International Scientific-Educational Center, National Academy of Sciences, 24-D Marshal Baghramyan av., Yerevan 0019 (Armenia); Karapetyan, Gagik [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)

    2008-05-15

    A new class super-broadband, nano-scale-resolution position sensor is tested. It is used as an additional sensor in seismograph. It enables to extend the band and enhance the sensitivity of the available technique by at least an order of magnitude. It allows transferring of mechanical vibrations of constructions and buildings, with amplitudes over 1 nm, into detectable signal in a frequency range starting practically from quasi-static movements. It is based on detection of position changes of a vibrating normal-metallic plate placed near the flat coil-being used as a pick-up in a stable tunnel diode oscillator. Frequency of the oscillator is used as a detecting parameter, and the measuring effect is determined by a distortion of the MHz-range testing field configuration near a coil by a vibrating plate, leading to magnetic inductance changes of the coil, with a resolution {approx}10 pH. This results in changes of oscillator frequency. We discuss test data of such a position sensor, installed in a Russian SM-3 seismometer, as an additional pick-up component, showing its advantages compared to traditional techniques. We also discuss the future of such a novel sensor involving substitution of a metallic coil by a superconductive one and replacement of a tunnel diode by an S/I/S hetero-structure-as much less-powered active element in the oscillator, compared to tunnel diode. These may strongly improve the stability of oscillators, and therefore enhance the resolution of seismic techniques.

  9. MHSP with position detection capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natal da Luz, H. [Physics Dept., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A. [Physics Dept., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: jveloso@fis.ua.pt; Mendes, N.F.C. [Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Mir, J.A. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-01

    The first implementation of a position sensitive readout for a Micro Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) is described and tested. The readout consists on a resistive layer crossing the anodes and connected to a preamplifier on each side. By weighing the charge pulses on both preamplifiers it is possible to determine the interaction point. A 100-200 {omega} resistance layer between consecutive strips was found to be the best compromise between position linearity and energy resolution. Preliminary results using 22.1 keV X-rays present a good linearity between the measured and the actual position with a mean deviation of about 0.15 mm and a position resolution of 1.6 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), being limited by the analogue division electronic circuit. The performance of the MHSP position detector will be presented and discussed for 1D readout.

  10. An apparatus for high speed measurements of small-angle x-ray scattering profiles with a linear position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeji; Suehiro, Shoji; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Saijo, Kenji; Kawai, Hiromichi

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for high speed measurements of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is described. This apparatus utilizes a 12 kW rotating anode X-ray generator, a linear position sensitive proportional counter (multicathode delay line PSPC), and a two-parameter multichannel pulse height analyzer (MCA) with 12 kwords (16 bits/word) memory area available for SAXA intensity data as a function of position (scattering angles) and time slice. The two-parameter MCA is constructed within a microcomputer system, by utilizing its R/W memory for data storage, and the memory incrementing and real-time CRT display is implemented by using two direct memory access (DMA) controllers. The cycle time of the access is about 10 μs. The measuring time for SAXS profiles with this apparatus can be shortened approximately by three orders of magnitude in comparison with the measuring time with SAXS apparatuses utilizing a conventional step-scanning goniometer and a conventional X-ray tube, thus permitting time-resolved analyses of SAXS profiles. Some applications of the apparatus to dynamic SAXS measurements are presented for polymeric systems, the preliminary results of which seem to indicate the possibility of obtaining a new class of data on dynamics in structural transformation, deformation, formation and annihilation in the scale of a few tens to several hundred Angstroms. (author)

  11. Development of a positive column pulsed capillary discharge source for use with high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, W A A

    2002-01-01

    We report the designing and application of a positive column pulsed capillary discharge with the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The pulsed light source has been used for the first time with the ultraviolet FTS. The experiment has been carried out with the high energy pulsed discharge with energy of 2-3 J lasting about 300 ns. A system has been developed to trigger the discharge at about 600 Hz with the pulses directly taken from the FTS sampling system. The spectrum of Ar III has been recorded in the 19 000-50 000 cm -1 region with good signal to noise ratio. The results have opened a wide range of applications in spectroscopy of multiply ionized species

  12. A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Deng, Zhihong; Wang, Shunting; Fu, Mengyin

    2010-01-01

    Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

  13. On the stability, the periodic solutions and the resolution of certain types of non linear equations, and of non linearly coupled systems of these equations, appearing in betatronic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valat, J.

    1960-12-01

    Universal stability diagrams have been calculated and experimentally checked for Hill-Meissner type equations with square-wave coefficients. The study of these equations in the phase-plane has then made it possible to extend the periodic solution calculations to the case of non-linear differential equations with periodic square-wave coefficients. This theory has been checked experimentally. For non-linear coupled systems with constant coefficients, a search was first made for solutions giving an algebraic motion. The elliptical and Fuchs's functions solve such motions. The study of non-algebraic motions is more delicate, apart from the study of nonlinear Lissajous's motions. A functional analysis shows that it is possible however in certain cases to decouple the system and to find general solutions. For non-linear coupled systems with periodic square-wave coefficients it is then possible to calculate the conditions leading to periodic solutions, if the two non-linear associated systems with constant coefficients fall into one of the categories of the above paragraph. (author) [fr

  14. Ozone-induced dissociation on a traveling wave high-resolution mass spectrometer for determination of double-bond position in lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc; Brown, Jeffery; Giles, Kevin; Zhang, Qibin

    2017-09-15

    The position of C=C within fatty acyl chains affects the biological function of lipids. Ozone-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (OzID-MS) has great potential in determination of lipid double-bond position, but has generally been implemented on low-resolution ion trap mass spectrometers. In addition, most of the OzID-MS experiments carried out so far were focused on the sodiated adducts of lipids; fragmentation of the most commonly observed protonated ions generated in LC/MS-based lipidomics workflow has been less explored. Ozone generated in line from an ozone generator was connected to the trap and transfer gas supply line of a Synapt G2 high-resolution mass spectrometer. Protonated ions of different phosphatidylcholines (PC) were generated by electrospray ionization through direct infusion. Different parameters, including traveling wave height and velocity, trap entrance and DC potential, were adjusted to maximize the OzID efficiency. sn-positional isomers and cis/trans isomers of lipids were compared for their reactivity with ozone. Traveling wave height and velocity were tuned to prolong the encounter time between lipid ions and ozone, and resulted in improved OzID efficiency, as did increasing trapping region DC and entrance potential. Under optimized settings, at least 1000 times enhancement in OzID efficiency was achieved compared to that under default settings for monounsaturated PC standards. Monounsaturated C=C in the sn-2 PC isomer reacted faster with ozone than the sn-1 isomer. Similarly, the C=C in trans PC reacted faster than in cis PC. This is the first implementation of OzID in the trap and transfer region of a traveling wave enabled high-resolution mass spectrometer. The OzID reaction efficiency is significantly improved by slowing down ions in the trap region for their prolonged interaction with ozone. This will facilitate application of high-resolution OzID-MS in lipidomics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. High resolution micro-CT scanning as an innovative tool for evaluation of the surgical positioning of cochlear implant electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, A; Zarowski, A; De Clerck, N; Vanpoucke, F; Offeciers, F E; Van Dyck, D; Peeters, S

    2006-05-01

    X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) is a new technique allowing for visualization of the internal structure of opaque specimens with a quasi-histological quality. Among multiple potential applications, the use of this technique in otology is very promising. Micro-CT appears to be ideally suited for in vitro visualization of the inner ear tissues as well as for evaluation of the electrode damage and/or surgical insertion trauma during implantation of the cochlear implant electrodes. This technique can greatly aid in design and development of new cochlear implant electrodes and is applicable for temporal bone studies. The main advantage of micro-CT is the practically artefact-free preparation of the samples and the possibility of evaluation of the interesting parameters along the whole insertion depth of the electrode. This paper presents the results of the first application of micro-CT for visualization of the inner ear structures in human temporal bones and for evaluation of the surgical positioning of the cochlear implant electrodes relative to the intracochlear soft tissues.

  16. A 30 m Resolution Surface Water Mask Including Estimation of Positional and Thematic Differences Using Landsat 8, SRTM and OpenStreetMap: A Case Study in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Donchyts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate maps of surface water are essential for many environmental applications. Surface water maps can be generated by combining measurements from multiple sources. Precise estimation of surface water using satellite imagery remains a challenging task due to the sensor limitations, complex land cover, topography, and atmospheric conditions. As a complementary dataset, in the case of hilly landscapes, a drainage network can be extracted from high-resolution digital elevation models. Additionally, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI initiatives, such as OpenStreetMap, can also be used to produce high-resolution surface water masks. In this study, we derive a high-resolution water mask using Landsat 8 imagery and OpenStreetMap as well as (potential a drainage network using 30 m SRTM. Our approach to derive a surface water mask from Landsat 8 imagery comprises the use of a lower 15% percentile of Landsat 8 Top of Atmosphere (TOA reflectance from 2013 to 2015. We introduce a new non-parametric unsupervised method based on the Canny edge filter and Otsu thresholding to detect water in flat areas. For hilly areas, the method is extended with an additional supervised classification step used to refine the water mask. We applied the method across the Murray-Darling basin, Australia. Differences between our new Landsat-based water mask and the OpenStreetMap water mask regarding positional differences along the rivers and overall coverage were analyzed. Our results show that about 50% of the OpenStreetMap linear water features can be confirmed using the water mask extracted from Landsat 8 imagery and the drainage network derived from SRTM. We also show that the observed distances between river features derived from OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 are mostly smaller than 60 m. The differences between the new water mask and SRTM-based linear features and hilly areas are slightly larger (110 m. The overall agreement between OpenStreetMap and Landsat 8 water

  17. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  19. Biologically relevant conformational features of linear and cyclic proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide analogues obtained by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordopati, Golfo G.; Tzoupis, Haralambos; Troganis, Anastassios N.; Tsivgoulis, Gerasimos M.; Golic Grdadolnik, Simona; Simal, Carmen; Tselios, Theodore V.

    2017-09-01

    Proteolipid protein (PLP) is one of the main proteins of myelin sheath that are destroyed during the progress of multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunodominant PLP139-151 epitope is known to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, animal model of MS), wherein residues 144 and 147 are recognized by T cell receptor (TCR) during the formation of trimolecular complex with peptide-antigen and major histocompability complex. The conformational behavior of linear and cyclic peptide analogues of PLP, namely PLP139-151 and cyclic (139-151) (L144, R147) PLP139-151, have been studied in solution by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in combination with unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the side chains of mutated amino acids in the cyclic analogue have different spatial orientation compared with the corresponding side chains of the linear analogue, which can lead to reduced affinity to TCR. NMR experiments combined with theoretical calculations pave the way for the design and synthesis of potent restricted peptides of immunodominant PLP139-151 epitope as well as non peptide mimetics that rises as an ultimate goal.

  20. Fluorescence-type Monochromatic X-ray Beam-position Monitor with High-spatial Resolution for the NSLS-II Beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Phil S.; Siddons, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We developed a fluorescence-type monochromatic X-ray beam-position monitor (X-BPM) with high-spatial resolution for end-station experiments at the initial project beamlines of the NSLS-II. We designed a ring array of multi-segmented Si PIN-junction photodiodes to use as a position sensor. Further, we integrated a low-noise charge-preamplification HERMES4 ASIC chip into an electronic readout system for photon-counting application. A series of precision measurements to characterize electronically the Si-photodiode sensor and the ASIC chip demonstrated that the inherent noise from the detector system is sufficiently low to meet our stringent requirements. Using a Gaussian beam, we parametrically modeled the optimum working distance to ensure the detector's best performance. Based upon the results from the parametric modeling, prototypes of the next versions of the X-BPM are being developed. In this paper, we describe the methodology for developing the new compact monochromatic X-ray BPM, including its instrumentation, detector modeling, and future plan.

  1. Position sensitive detector used to detect beam profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyan; Zhao Zhizheng; Zu Kailing; Zheng Jianhua; Wang Yifang

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the detecting system of the residual-gas beam profile, we introduce the principle and construction of the Position Sensitive Detector (PSD). The performance of PSD is tested. Position resolution, position linearity, detection efficiency and background are obtained

  2. High-resolution metallic magnetic calorimeters for {beta}-spectroscopy on {sup 187}rhenium and position resolved X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porst, Jan-Patrick

    2011-02-01

    This thesis describes the development of metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution spectroscopy. MMCs are energy dispersive particle detectors based on the calorimetric principle which are typically operated at temperatures below 100 mK. The detectors make use of a paramagnetic temperature sensor to transform the temperature rise upon the absorption of a particle in the detector into a measurable magnetic flux change in a dc-SQUID. The application of MMCs for neutrino mass measurements and their advantages with respect to other approaches are discussed. In view of this application the development of an MMC optimized for {beta}-endpoint spectroscopy on {sup 187}rhenium is presented. A fully micro-fabricated X-ray detector is characterized and performs close to design values. Furthermore, a new technique to more efficiently couple rhenium absorbers mechanically and thermally to the sensor was developed and successfully tested. By employing a metallic contact, signal rise times faster than 5 {mu}s could be observed with superconducting rhenium absorbers. In addition to the single pixel detectors, an alternative approach of reading out multiple pixels was developed in this work, too. Here, the individual absorbers have a different thermal coupling to only one temperature sensor resulting in a distribution of different pulse shapes. Straightforward position discrimination by means of rise time analysis is demonstrated for a four pixel MMC and a thermal model of the detector is provided. Unprecedented so far, an energy resolution of less than {delta}E{sub FWHM}<5 eV for 5.9 keV X-rays was achieved across all absorbers. (orig.)

  3. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit” which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  4. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert; Riper, Kenneth Van; Lasche, George

    2017-09-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF ("Visual RobFit") which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  5. RESOLUCIÓN DE UN PROBLEMA INVERSO VÍA SUBESTIMACIÓN LINEAL A TROZOS //\tAN INVERSE PROBLEM RESOLUTION VIA PIECEWISE LINEAR UNDERESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernádez Benítez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In reactor design phase bubble column type (CBT is required to have the distribution of solids within the reactor. This distribution satisfies an ordinary differential equation (ODE of order two, with boundary conditions that was developed by D. R. Cova [2], followed by D. N. Smith and J. A. Ruether [8]. Some elements of this equation are given by correlations that depend on certain parameters that are unknown but may be obtained from experimental data. The methodology used to determine these parameters is the sub- piecewise linear underestimation developed by O. L. Mangasarian, J. B. Rosen, M. E. Thompson. // RESUMEN: En el diseño de reactores trifásicos tipo columna de burbujeo (CBT, se requiere tener la distribución de solidos dentro del reactor. Esta distribución satisface una ecuación diferencial ordinaria (EDO de orden dos, con condiciones de frontera que fue desarrollada por D. R. Cova [2], y posteriormente por D. N. Smith y J. A. Ruether [8]. Algunos elementos de esta ecuación están dados por correlaciones que dependen de ciertos parámetros que son desconocidos, pero se pueden obtener a partir de datos experimentales. La metodología utilizada para determinar dichos parámetros es la sub-estimación lineal a trozos desarrollada por O. L. Mangasarian, J. B. Rosen y M. E. Thompson.

  6. Evaluation and Comparison of High-Resolution (HR) and High-Light (HL) Phosphors in the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) using Generalized Linear Systems Analyses (GMTF, GDQE) that include the Effect of Scatter, Magnification and Detector Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandesh K; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the imaging characteristics of the high-resolution, high-sensitivity micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) with 35-micron pixel-pitch when used with different commercially-available 300 micron thick phosphors: the high resolution (HR) and high light (HL) from Hamamatsu. The purpose of this evaluation was to see if the HL phosphor with its higher screen efficiency could be replaced with the HR phosphor to achieve improved resolution without an increase in noise resulting from the HR's decreased light-photon yield. We designated the detectors MAF-HR and MAF-HL and compared them with a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194 micron pixel pitch and 600 micron thick CsI(Tl)). For this comparison, we used the generalized linear-system metrics of GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE which are more realistic measures of total system performance since they include the effect of scattered radiation, focal spot distribution, and geometric un-sharpness. Magnifications (1.05-1.15) and scatter fractions (0.28 and 0.33) characteristic of a standard head phantom were used. The MAF-HR performed significantly better than the MAF-HL at high spatial frequencies. The ratio of GMTF and GDQE of the MAF-HR compared to the MAF-HL at 3(6) cycles/mm was 1.45(2.42) and 1.23(2.89), respectively. Despite significant degradation by inclusion of scatter and object magnification, both MAF-HR and MAF-HL provide superior performance over the FPD at higher spatial frequencies with similar performance up to the FPD's Nyquist frequency of 2.5 cycles/mm. Both substantially higher resolution and improved GDQE can be achieved with the MAF using the HR phosphor instead of the HL phosphor.

  7. Multi-class geospatial object detection based on a position-sensitive balancing framework for high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yanfei; Han, Xiaobing; Zhang, Liangpei

    2018-04-01

    Multi-class geospatial object detection from high spatial resolution (HSR) remote sensing imagery is attracting increasing attention in a wide range of object-related civil and engineering applications. However, the distribution of objects in HSR remote sensing imagery is location-variable and complicated, and how to accurately detect the objects in HSR remote sensing imagery is a critical problem. Due to the powerful feature extraction and representation capability of deep learning, the deep learning based region proposal generation and object detection integrated framework has greatly promoted the performance of multi-class geospatial object detection for HSR remote sensing imagery. However, due to the translation caused by the convolution operation in the convolutional neural network (CNN), although the performance of the classification stage is seldom influenced, the localization accuracies of the predicted bounding boxes in the detection stage are easily influenced. The dilemma between translation-invariance in the classification stage and translation-variance in the object detection stage has not been addressed for HSR remote sensing imagery, and causes position accuracy problems for multi-class geospatial object detection with region proposal generation and object detection. In order to further improve the performance of the region proposal generation and object detection integrated framework for HSR remote sensing imagery object detection, a position-sensitive balancing (PSB) framework is proposed in this paper for multi-class geospatial object detection from HSR remote sensing imagery. The proposed PSB framework takes full advantage of the fully convolutional network (FCN), on the basis of a residual network, and adopts the PSB framework to solve the dilemma between translation-invariance in the classification stage and translation-variance in the object detection stage. In addition, a pre-training mechanism is utilized to accelerate the training procedure

  8. Solution of the transfer functions and the linear networks by an analog computer; Resolution des fonctions de transfert et des reseaux lineaires sur calculateur analogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, D

    1967-09-27

    This study presents five methods used to realize a transfer function on analog computer - method of operational amplifiers - method of successive integrations - method of the auxiliary variable - method of the Horner decomposition - method of the direct analog transposition. The method that seems to us the most interesting, this one of Horner, is exposed with some complements. The last method presents the study of a linear network (mechanical, electronic) by direct analog transposition, without having to calculate its transfer function. Several aspects are studied the economy or the material type, the simpleness of implementing the adaptation of coefficients to the computer, the introduction of initial conditions of input and output functions. Every method presented is discussed in function of these problems. The precision of the result is not studied here, but we can indicate that the methods treated here, do not include approximations other than these ones of the computer elements. [French] Cette etude presente cinq methodes utilisees pour realiser une fonction de transfert quelconque sur calculateur analogique - methode des Amplificateurs operationnels - methode des integrations successives - methode de la variable auxiliaire - methode de la decomposition de Horner - methode de la transposition analogique directe. La methode qui nous semble la plus interessante, celle de Horner, est exposee avec quelques complements. La derniere methode presente l'etude d'un reseau lineaire (mecanique, electronique...) par transposition analogique directe, sans avoir a calculer sa fonction de transfert. Plusieurs aspects sont etudies l'economie ou le type de materiel, la simplicite de mise en oeuvre l'adaptation des coefficients au calculateur, l'introduction des conditions initiales des fonctions d'entree et de sortie. Chaque methode presentee est discutee en fonction de ces problemes. La precision du resultat n'est pas etudiee ici, mais on peut indiquer toutefois que les

  9. Linear mass reflectron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  10. The application in detection the position accuracy of the multi-leaf collimator of Varian linear accelerator with dynamic therapy log files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changhu; Xu Liming; Teng Jianjian; Ge Wei; Zhang Jun; Ma Guangdong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explorer the application in detection the position accuracy of the multileaf collimator of Varian accelerator with dynamic therapy log files. Methods: A pre-designed MLC format files named PMLC for two Varian accelerators, the dynamic treatment log files were recorded 10 times on a different date, and be converted into the MLC format files named DMLC, compared with the original plan PMLC, so we can analysis two files for each leaf position deviation. In addition, we analysis the repeatability of MLC leaves position accuracy between 10 dynalog files of two accelerators. Results: No statistically significant difference between the average position of the 10 times leaf position of the two accelerators,their were 0.29 -0.29 and 0.29 -0.30 (z = -0.77, P=0.442). About 40%, 30%, 20% and 10% of the leaf position deviation was at ≤0.2 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively. the maximum value was 0.5 mm. More than 86% of the leaf position are completely coincident between 10 dynamic treatment files of two accelerators. The rate of position deviation no more 0. 05 mm was 96. 6% and 97.3%, respectively. And the maximum value was 0.09 mm. Conclusions: Dynamic treatment log file is a splendid tool in testing the actual position of multi-leaf collimator. The multi-leaf collimator of two accelerators be detected are precise and stabilized. (authors)

  11. Position sensitive x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchione, E.L.A.

    1990-01-01

    A multi ware position sensitive gas counter for X-ray detection was developed in our laboratory, making use of commercial delay-lines for position sensing. Six delay-line chips (50 ns delay each, 40 Mhz cut-off frequency) cover a total sensitive length of 150 mm leading to a delay-risetime ratio that allows for a high-resolution position detection. Tests using the 5,9 keV X-ray line from a 55 Fe source and integral linearity better than 0,1% and a maximal differential linearity of ±4,0% were obtained operating the detector with an Ar-C H 4 (90%-10%) gas mixture at 700 torr. Similar tests were performed, using the 8,04 keV line from a Cu x-ray tube. A total resolution of 330 μm, and the same integral and differential linearities were obtained. (author)

  12. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  13. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid tumours in patients with thyroid nodules. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of high-resolution ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Marzola, M C; Zucchetta, P; Tregnaghi, A; Cecchin, D; Bui, F

    2003-09-01

    A series of 112 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent both high-resolution neck ultrasonography (US) and 99mTc-sestamibi/99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy (SS) prior to successful parathyroidectomy was reviewed. There were 29 (25.9%) men and 83 (74.1%) women, with a median age of 58 years (range 13-78 years). Patients were divided into two groups, according to the preoperative US findings: group A (87 patients, 77.7%) without thyroid diseases, and group B (25 patients, 22.3%) with either multinodular goitre or a solitary nontoxic thyroid nodule. In group B patients partial or total thyroidectomy was also performed, according to the intraoperative findings and frozen-section examination results. Final histopathology showed 99 (88.4%) solitary parathyroid (PT) adenomas and 3 (2.7%) PT carcinomas, while 10 (8.9%) patients had a multiglandular disease. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were (group A vs group B) 79.8% vs 70.8% (P=0.25) and 95.7% vs 94.4% (P=0.58) for US, and 83.3% vs 87.0% (P=0.47) and 95.9% vs 90.9% (P=0.32) for SS respectively. Better but similar (P=not significant) results were obtained in patients with solitary PT tumours: 81.5% vs 77.8% (US) and 85.0 vs 94.1% (SS) sensitivity; 97.1% vs 93.3% (US) and 95.8% vs 88.9% (SS) PPV. Overall, the combination of US and SS was 92.9% sensitive (group A=93.1%, group B=92.0%; P=0.55), and the PPV reached 100% in each group. In conclusion, in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism the results of both US and SS are independent of coexistent thyroid disease, especially in patients with solitary PT tumours.

  14. Silicon Drift Detectors development for position sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Novel Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) with multi-linear architecture specifically intended for 2D position sensing and imaging applications are presented and their achievable spatial, energy and time resolution are discussed. The capability of providing a fast timing of the interaction with nanosecond time resolution is a new available feature that allows operating the drift detector in continuous readout mode for coincidence imaging applications either with an external trigger or in self-timing. The application of SDDs with multi-linear architecture to Compton electrons' tracking within a single silicon layer and the achieved experimental results will be discussed

  15. Noise in position measurement by centroid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, P.

    1996-01-01

    The position of a particle trajectory in a gaseous (or semiconductor) detector can be measured by calculating the centroid of the induced charge on the cathode plane. The charge amplifiers attached to each cathode strip introduce noise which is added to the signal. This noise broadens the position resolution line. Our article gives an analytical tool to estimate the resolution broadening due to the noise per strip and the number of strips involved in the centroid calculation. It is shown that the position resolution increases faster than the square root of the number of strips involved. We also consider the consequence of added interstrip capacitors, intended to diminish the differential nonlinearity. It is shown that the position error increases slower than linearly with the interstrip capacities, due to the cancellation of correlated noise. The estimation we give, can be applied to calculations of position broadening other than the centroid finding. (orig.)

  16. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  17. Effect of removing the common mode errors on linear regression analysis of noise amplitudes in position time series of a regional GPS network & a case study of GPS stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhou, Boye

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the correlations between the noise in different components of GPS stations has positive significance to those trying to obtain more accurate uncertainty of velocity with respect to station motion. Previous research into noise in GPS position time series focused mainly on single component evaluation, which affects the acquisition of precise station positions, the velocity field, and its uncertainty. In this study, before and after removing the common-mode error (CME), we performed one-dimensional linear regression analysis of the noise amplitude vectors in different components of 126 GPS stations with a combination of white noise, flicker noise, and random walking noise in Southern California. The results show that, on the one hand, there are above-moderate degrees of correlation between the white noise amplitude vectors in all components of the stations before and after removal of the CME, while the correlations between flicker noise amplitude vectors in horizontal and vertical components are enhanced from un-correlated to moderately correlated by removing the CME. On the other hand, the significance tests show that, all of the obtained linear regression equations, which represent a unique function of the noise amplitude in any two components, are of practical value after removing the CME. According to the noise amplitude estimates in two components and the linear regression equations, more accurate noise amplitudes can be acquired in the two components.

  18. High resolution silicon detectors for colliding beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Raso, G.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.

    1984-01-01

    Resolution and linearity of the position measurement of Pisa multi-electrode silicon detectors are presented. The detectors are operated in slightly underdepleted mode and take advantage of their intrinsic resistivity for resistive charge partition between adjacent strips. 22 μm resolution is achieved with readout lines spaced 300 μm. Possible applications in colliding beam experiments for the detection of secondary vertices are discussed. (orig.)

  19. On the stability, the periodic solutions and the resolution of certain types of non linear equations, and of non linearly coupled systems of these equations, appearing in betatronic oscillations; Sur la stabilite, les solutions periodiques et la resolution de certaines categories d'equations et systemes d'equations differentielles couplees non lineaires apparaissant dans les oscillations betatroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valat, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Universal stability diagrams have been calculated and experimentally checked for Hill-Meissner type equations with square-wave coefficients. The study of these equations in the phase-plane has then made it possible to extend the periodic solution calculations to the case of non-linear differential equations with periodic square-wave coefficients. This theory has been checked experimentally. For non-linear coupled systems with constant coefficients, a search was first made for solutions giving an algebraic motion. The elliptical and Fuchs's functions solve such motions. The study of non-algebraic motions is more delicate, apart from the study of nonlinear Lissajous's motions. A functional analysis shows that it is possible however in certain cases to decouple the system and to find general solutions. For non-linear coupled systems with periodic square-wave coefficients it is then possible to calculate the conditions leading to periodic solutions, if the two non-linear associated systems with constant coefficients fall into one of the categories of the above paragraph. (author) [French] Pour les equations du genre de Hill-Meissner a coefficients creneles, on a calcule des diagrammes universels de stabilite et ceux-ci ont ete verifies experimentalement. L'etude de ces equations dans le plan de phase a permis ensuite d'etendre le calcul des solutions periodiques au cas des equations differentielles non lineaires a coefficients periodiques creneles. Cette theorie a ete verifiee experimentalement. Pour Jes systemes couples non lineaires a coefficients constants, on a d'abord cherche les solutions menant a des mouvements algebriques. Les fonctions elliptiques et fuchsiennes uniformisent de tels mouvements. L'etude de mouvements non algebriques est plus delicate, a part l'etude des mouvements de Lissajous non lineaires. Une analyse fonctionnelle montre qu'il est toutefois possible dans certains cas de decoupler le systeme et de trouver des solutions generales. Pour les

  20. Direct linear driving systems; Les entrainements lineaires directs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, E.; Brunner, C.; Piaget, D. [ETEL SA (France)

    1999-11-01

    The linear motor is one of the most important developments in electrical drive technology. However, it only, began to be adopted on a large scale at the beginning of the 1990's and will not be considered a mature technology until well into the next millennium. Actuators based on linear motor technology have a number of technical advantages including high speed, high positional accuracy and fine resolution. They also require fewer component parts. Some precautions are necessary when using linear motors. Care must be taken to avoid overheating and excessive vibration, and the magnetic components must be protected.

  1. A combined stretching-tilting mechanism produces negative, zero and positive linear thermal expansion in a semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Prem; Das, Raj Kumar; Smith, Vincent J; Barbour, Leonard J

    2014-06-21

    A novel semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF has been synthesized and characterized by variable temperature powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The material displays an unusual combination of thermal expansion (TE) i.e. negative, zero and positive, which is an extremely rare finding, especially for metal-organic frameworks as a result of a combined stretching-tilting mechanism.

  2. Instrumentation for millisecond-resolution scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.B.; Ludwig, K.F. Jr.; Jordan-Sweet, J.L.; Brauer, S.; Mainville, J.; Yang, Y.S.; Sutton, M.

    1989-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray scattering studies of phase transition kinetics have been carried out using the wide-bandpass monochromator and fast linear position-sensitive detector system at the IBM/MIT beamline X-20C at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We report here on the instrumentation that has been developed for these studies, and in particular on the methods used to measure, change, and control sample temperature with millisecond resolution

  3. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  4. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Errors on interrupter tasks presented during spatial and verbal working memory performance are linearly linked to large-scale functional network connectivity in high temporal resolution resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew Evan; Thompson, Garth John; Schwarb, Hillary; Pan, Wen-Ju; McKinley, Andy; Schumacher, Eric H; Keilholz, Shella Dawn

    2015-12-01

    The brain is organized into networks composed of spatially separated anatomical regions exhibiting coherent functional activity over time. Two of these networks (the default mode network, DMN, and the task positive network, TPN) have been implicated in the performance of a number of cognitive tasks. To directly examine the stable relationship between network connectivity and behavioral performance, high temporal resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected during the resting state, and behavioral data were collected from 15 subjects on different days, exploring verbal working memory, spatial working memory, and fluid intelligence. Sustained attention performance was also evaluated in a task interleaved between resting state scans. Functional connectivity within and between the DMN and TPN was related to performance on these tasks. Decreased TPN resting state connectivity was found to significantly correlate with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a spatial working memory paradigm and decreased DMN/TPN anti-correlation was significantly correlated with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a verbal working memory paradigm. A trend for increased DMN resting state connectivity to correlate to measures of fluid intelligence was also observed. These results provide additional evidence of the relationship between resting state networks and behavioral performance, and show that such results can be observed with high temporal resolution fMRI. Because cognitive scores and functional connectivity were collected on nonconsecutive days, these results highlight the stability of functional connectivity/cognitive performance coupling.

  6. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  7. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, B.; Tamborini, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSB{sub rms}. The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 ps{sub rms} (i.e., 36 ps{sub FWHM}) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 ps{sub FWHM}. The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  8. Linear equations and rap battles: how students in a wired classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities in hybrid spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    This paper draws on the constructs of hybridity, figured worlds, and cultural capital to examine how a group of African-American students in a technology-driven, project-based algebra classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities during group work. Analyses of several vignettes of small group dynamics highlight how hybridity was established as the students engaged in multiple on-task and off-task computer-based activities, each of which drew on different lived experiences and forms of cultural capital. The paper ends with a discussion on how classrooms that make use of student-led collaborative work, and where students are afforded autonomy, have the potential to support the academic engagement of students from historically marginalized communities.

  9. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  10. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  11. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT beam position monitor (BPM data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β-functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β-functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM. We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β-functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  12. Analysis of the positon resolution in centroid measurements in MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.

    1981-01-01

    Resolution limits in avalanche localization along the anode wires of an MWPC with cathodes connected by resistors and equally spaced amplifiers, are evaluated. A simple weighted-centroid method and a highly linear method based on a linear centroid finding filter, are considered. The contributions to the variance of the estimator of the avalanche position, due to the series noise of the amplifiers and to the thermal noise of the resistive line are separately calculated and compared. A comparison is made with the resolution of the MWPC with isolated cathodes. The calculations are performed with a distributed model of the diffusive line formed by the cathodes and the resistors. A comparison is also made with the results obtained with a simple lumped model of the diffusive line. A number of graphs useful in determining the best parameters of a MWPC, with a specified position and time resolution, are given. It has been found that, for short resolution times, an MWPC with cathodes connected by resitors presents better resolution (lower variance of the estimator of the avalanche position) than an MWPC with isolated cathodes. Conversely, for long resolution times, the variance of the estimator of the avalanche position is lower in an MWPC with isolated cathodes. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic linearization system for a radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarello, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The linearization system and process converts a high resolution non-linear analog input signal, representative of the thickness of an object, into a high resolution linear analog output signal suitable for use in driving a variety of output devices. The system requires only a small amount of memory for storing pre-calculated non-linear correction coefficients. The system channels the input signal to separate circuit paths so that it may be used directly to; locate an appropriate correction coefficient; develop a correction term after an appropriate correction coefficient is located; and develop a linearized signal having the same high resolution inherent in the input signal. The system processes the linearized signal to compensate for the possible errors introduced by radiation source noise. The processed linearized signal is the high resolution linear analog output signal which accurately represents the thickness of the object being gauged

  14. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  15. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  16. Resolution and systematic limitations in beam based alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    2000-03-15

    Beam based alignment of quadrupoles by variation of quadrupole strength is a widely-used technique in accelerators today. The authors describe the dominant systematic limitation of this technique, which arises from the change in the center position of the quadrupole as the strength is varied, and derive expressions for the resulting error. In addition, the authors derive an expression for the statistical resolution of such techniques in a periodic transport line, given knowledge of the line's transport matrices, the resolution of the beam position monitor system, and the details of the strength variation procedure. These results are applied to the Next Linear Collider main linear accelerator, an 11 kilometer accelerator containing 750 quadrupoles and 5,000 accelerator structures. The authors find that in principle a statistical resolution of 1 micron is easily achievable but the systematic error due to variation of the magnetic centers could be several times larger.

  17. Efficacy of the addition of positive airway pressure to conventional chest physiotherapy in resolution of pleural effusion after drainage: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinaldo da Conceição dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Discussion: Conventional chest physiotherapy and intermittent positive airway pressure breathing are widely indicated for people with pleural effusion and chest drains; however, no studies have evaluated the real benefit of this type of treatment. Our hypothesis is that optimised lung expansion achieved through the application of intermittent positive airway pressure will accelerate the reabsorption of pleural effusion, decrease the duration of chest drainage and respiratory system impairment, reduce the length of hospital stay, and reduce the incidence of pulmonary complications.

  18. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  19. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  20. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  1. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  2. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  3. X-ray diffractometry with spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiner, K.

    1981-04-01

    X-ray diffractometry is one of the extensively used methods for investigation of the crystalline structure of materials. Line shape and position of a diffracted line are influenced by grain size, deformation and stress. Spatial resolution of one of these specimen characteristics is usually achieved by point-focused X-ray beams and subsequently analyzing different specimen positions. This work uses the method of image reconstruction from projections for the generation of distribution maps. Additional experimental requirements when using a conventional X-ray goniometer are a specimen scanning unit and a computer. The scanning unit repeatedly performs a number of translation steps followed by a rotation step in a fixed X-ray tube/detector (position sensitive detector) arrangement. At each specimen position a diffraction line is recorded using a line-shaped X-ray beam. This network of diffraction lines (showing line resolution) is mathematically converted to a distribution map of diffraction lines and going thus a point resolution. Specimen areas of up to several cm 2 may be analyzed with a linear resolution of 0.1 to 1 mm. Image reconstruction from projections must be modified for generation of ''function-maps''. This theory is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulations. Diffraction line analysis is done for specimen deformation using a deconvolution procedure. The theoretical considerations are experimentally verified. (author)

  4. Self-broadening coefficients and positions of acetylene around 1.533 μm studied by high-resolution diode laser absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingsong; Durry, Georges; Cousin, Julien; Joly, Lilian; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zeninari, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The self-broadening coefficients of acetylene at room temperature have been measured for 10 lines in the P branch of the ν 1 +ν 3 (Σ u + )-0(Σ g + ) bands of 12 C 2 H 2 and 13 C 12 CH 2 near 1.533 μm, using a high resolution tunable diode laser spectrometer developed for the Martian space mission PHOBOS-Grunt. The collisional widths are obtained by fitting each recorded line with the Voigt profile as well as the Rautian profile accounting for the collisional Dicke narrowing effect. The standard Voigt model provides slightly smaller broadening coefficients than the Rautian model. Our data are thoroughly compared to the main atmospheric molecule database HITRAN and previous values in various bands of acetylene. Moreover, it is worth noting that a large number of new transitions not listed in the latest HITRAN08 were measured and identified for the first time.

  5. Simultaneous resolution of spectral and temporal properties of UV and visible fluorescence using single-photon counting with a position-sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, L.A.; Trunk, J.G.; Polewski, K.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A new fluorescence spectrometer has been assembled at the U9B beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source to allow simultaneous multiwavelength and time-resolved fluorescence detection, as well as spatial imaging of the sample fluorescence. The spectrometer employs monochromatized, tunable UV and visible excitation light from a synchrotron bending magnet and an imaging spectrograph equipped with a single-photon sensitive emission detector. The detector is comprised of microchannel plates in series, with a resistive anode for encoding the position of the photon-derived current. The centroid position of the photon-induced electron cascade is derived in a position analyzer from the four signals measured at the corners of the resistive anode. Spectral information is obtained by dispersing the fluorescence spectrum across one dimension of the detector photocathode. Timing information is obtained by monitoring the voltage divider circuit at the last MCP detector. The signal from the MCP is used as a ''start'' signal to perform a time-correlated single photon counting experiment. The analog signal representing the position, and hence wavelength, is digitized concomitantly with the start/stop time difference and stored in the two-dimensional histogramming memory of a multiparameter analyzer

  6. 基于TRIZ创新理论的战略定位冲突解决矩阵研究%The Matrix of Strategic Positioning for the Conflict Resolution Based on TRIZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文亮

    2011-01-01

    利用TRIZ的创新方法与体系对战略定位问题进行研究,分析管理领域冲突与TRIZ理论所研究冲突的差异.选取23个战略冲突参数,确定32个适用于战略定位的基本原理,在此基础上构建适用于战略定位问题解决的冲突解决矩阵.%The paper studies the issue of strategic positioning by TRIZ innovative methods and systems, and analyzes the difference between the conflict of management theory and the conflict of TRIZ theory. It determines the 23 selected strategic conflict parameters and 32 basic principles of strategic positioning. On this basis, the paper builds a problem - solving matrix of strategic positioning for the conflict resolution.

  7. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  8. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  9. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  10. Improved resolution in the position of drought-related QTLs in a single mapping population of rice by meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtois Brigitte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis of QTLs combines the results of several QTL detection studies and provides narrow confidence intervals for meta-QTLs, permitting easier positional candidate gene identification. It is usually applied to multiple mapping populations, but can be applied to one. Here, a meta-analysis of drought related QTLs in the Bala × Azucena mapping population compiles data from 13 experiments and 25 independent screens providing 1,650 individual QTLs separated into 5 trait categories; drought avoidance, plant height, plant biomass, leaf morphology and root traits. A heat map of the overlapping 1 LOD confidence intervals provides an overview of the distribution of QTLs. The programme BioMercator is then used to conduct a formal meta-analysis at example QTL clusters to illustrate the value of meta-analysis of QTLs in this population. Results The heat map graphically illustrates the genetic complexity of drought related traits in rice. QTLs can be linked to their physical position on the rice genome using Additional file 1 provided. Formal meta-analysis on chromosome 1, where clusters of QTLs for all trait categories appear close, established that the sd1 semi-dwarfing gene coincided with a plant height meta-QTL, that the drought avoidance meta-QTL was not likely to be associated with this gene, and that this meta-QTL was not pleiotropic with close meta-QTLs for leaf morphology and root traits. On chromosome 5, evidence suggests that a drought avoidance meta-QTL was pleiotropic with leaf morphology and plant biomass meta-QTLs, but not with meta-QTLs for root traits and plant height 10 cM lower down. A region of dense root QTL activity graphically visible on chromosome 9 was dissected into three meta-QTLs within a space of 35 cM. The confidence intervals for meta-QTLs obtained ranged from 5.1 to 14.5 cM with an average of 9.4 cM, which is approximately 180 genes in rice. Additional file 1 Alignment of markers on the Bala

  11. A photon beam position monitor for SSRL beamline 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerino, J.A.; Rabedeau, T.; Bowen, W.

    1995-10-01

    We present here the concept of a simple one dimensional photon beam position monitor for use with high power synchrotron radiation beams. It has micron resolution, reasonable linearity in an inexpensive design. Most important, is its insensitivity to diffusely scattered low energy radiation from components upstream of the monitor

  12. Time and position resolution of high granularity, high counting rate MRPC for the inner zone of the CBM-TOF wall

    CERN Document Server

    Petriş, M.

    2016-09-13

    Multi-gap RPC prototypes with readout on a multi-strip electrode were developed for the small polar angle region of the CBM-TOF subdetector, the most demanding zone in terms of granularity and counting rate. The prototypes are based on low resistivity ($\\sim$10$^{10}$ $\\Omega$cm) glass electrodes for performing in high counting rate environment. The strip width/pitch size was chosen such to fulfill the impedance matching with the front-end electronics and the granularity requirements of the innermost zone of the CBM-TOF wall. The in-beam tests using secondary particles produced in heavy ion collisions on a Pb target at SIS18 - GSI Darmstadt and SPS - CERN were focused on the performance of the prototype in conditions similar to the ones expected at SIS100/FAIR. An efficiency larger than 98\\% and a system time resolution in the order of 70~-~80~ps were obtained in high counting rate and high multiplicity environment.

  13. Definition of a reference metrology network for the positioning of a large linear accelerator; Definition d'un reseau de reference metrologique pour le positionnement d'un grand accelerateur lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, F

    2003-12-15

    This thesis is a study of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) alignment system, a project of linear accelerator of about 30 km long of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The pre-alignment tolerance on the transverse positions of the components of the CLIC linacs is typically ten microns over distances of 200 m. This research is a consequence of 10 years work, where several sets of special sensors dedicated to metrology have been adapted for the CLIC project. Most of these sensors deliver measurements linked to geometric references sensitive to gravity fluctuation. An important part of this work is therefore dedicated to study the gravity disruptions as a high level of accuracy is required. The parameters to take into account in the use of the hydrostatic leveling have thus been highlighted. A proposal of configuration of the system alignment based on a selection of sensors has also been given in this research. Computer models of different possible configurations have been presented. As the existing computing software was inappropriate, a new object oriented software package has been developed, to ensure future upgrades. An optimized configuration of the network has been defined from a set of simulations. Finally, due to problems in the use of hydrostatic leveling systems, a solution based on the use of a long laser beam as an alternative solution is discussed. (author)

  14. Efficacy of the addition of positive airway pressure to conventional chest physiotherapy in resolution of pleural effusion after drainage: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Elinaldo; Lunardi, Adriana Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Chest drainage for pleural effusion can cause pain and changes in respiratory function. It can also increase the risk of pulmonary complications and impair functional ability, which may increase length of hospital stay and the associated costs. For these reasons, surgical and clinical strategies have been adopted to reduce the duration of chest drainage. To evaluate the efficacy of the addition of intermittent positive airway pressure applied by the Muller reanimator via a rubber facial mask versus conventional physiotherapy on the duration of chest drainage (primary objective), and its effect on the recovery of respiratory function, length of hospital stay and incidence of pulmonary complications (secondary objectives). Randomised, controlled trial. Inpatients with pleural effusion, aged over 18 years, who have had chest drainage in situ for drain will be a transudate output ≤ 200ml over 24hours and full lung expansion on chest radiography, as assessed by a blinded physician. Duration of chest drainage, length of hospital stay, and any pulmonary complications diagnosed during hospitalisation will be recorded. Intention to treat using: survival analysis for duration of chest drainage, and length of hospital stay; analysis of variance for chest-tube output, lung function and peripheral oxygen saturation; and chi-square tests for comparing the incidence of pulmonary complications between groups. Conventional chest physiotherapy and intermittent positive airway pressure breathing are widely indicated for people with pleural effusion and chest drains; however, no studies have evaluated the real benefit of this type of treatment. Our hypothesis is that optimised lung expansion achieved through the application of intermittent positive airway pressure will accelerate the reabsorption of pleural effusion, decrease the duration of chest drainage and respiratory system impairment, reduce the length of hospital stay, and reduce the incidence of pulmonary complications

  15. Experimental positions and lifetimes of Be-like 1s23lnl'(n=3 to 5) states of O4+ and Ne6+ ions investigated by high resolution electron spectroscopy: test of calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using high resolution electron spectroscopy, positions and lifetimes of many Be-like singlet states of the 1s 2 3lnl' Rydberg series (n = 3 to 5) of oxygen and neon have been measured for the first time. This was achieved by a fitting procedure which takes into account an accurate definition of the post-collisional electron lineshapes. These states are produced after a double electron capture by multicharged ions has occurred in O 6+ (1s 2 )+He, H 2 and Ne 8+ (1s 2 )+He collisions at about 4 keV/amu collision energy. (orig.)

  16. Northern Hemisphere Influence on the Position of the SPCZ During MIS3: a High Resolution Glacial Rainfall Record from a Niuean Speleothem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D.; Sherrell, R. M.; Tremaine, D. M.; Sweeney, J. R.; Rowe, H.; Wright, J. D.; Mortlock, R. A.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Cheng, H.; Min, A.; Edwards, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present a high-resolution glacial paleorainfall record from the heart of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) extracted from a stalagmite from the remote island of Niue (19°03'S 169°52'W). The record spans much of MIS3 (25-45 ka) and captures rapid rainfall changes associated with shifts in the SPCZ. It is clear that rapid climate shifts in the Northern Hemisphere have a strong influence on the SPCZ. All of the warm Dansgaard-Oeschger (`D-O') interstadials across this period are represented by rainfall increases, with D-O Events 9-11 particularly strongly represented. Since Niue lies south of the core of the SPCZ, this implies that rather than shifting northwards (as the ITCZ does), the SPCZ instead rotates clockwise in response to northern Hemisphere warming (analogous to a shift between modern El Nino and La Nina states). We propose that changes to surface ocean temperature gradients in the Eastern Pacific modulate the strength of the Wind Evaporation SST feedback, changing the size and westward penetration of the eastern Pacific dry zone, resulting in changes to the diagonality of the SPCZ. Our record also captures a response to strong northern Hemisphere cooling. The 25-45 ka record is bounded by large hiatuses (inferred dry conditions) coincident with cold Heinrich Stadials (HS) 2 and 5, while HS3 and HS4 are captured as distinct reductions in speleothem growth rate and proxy evidence for declining rainfall. This is consistent with a counter-clockwise rotation of the SPCZ during Northern cooling, supporting our proposed mechanism. Interestingly, our record also captures several other (non-Heinrich) cooling events, including a strong 500-year dry interval at 26ka that is seen in Chinese and Brazilian speleothems and coincides with a strong cooling over Asia (inferred from Greenland dust records). We note the (possibly coincidental) timing between this event and the Oruanui super-eruption at 25.6 ka.

  17. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  18. Simulation of optical configurations and signal processing methods in Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Strauss, M.G.; Brenner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial linearity and resolution of Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detectors are studied using a semi-empirical model. Detector optics with either an air gap or optical grease between the scintillator and the dispersive light guide are considered. Three signal processing methods which truncate signals from PMT's distant from the scintillation are compared with the linear resistive weighting method. Air gap optics yields a 15% improvement in spatial resolution and 50% reduction in differential and integral nonlinearity relative to grease coupled optics, using linear processing. Using signal truncation instead of linear processing improves the resolution 15-20% for the air gap and 20-30% for the grease coupling case. Thus, the initial discrepancy in the resolution between the two optics nearly vanished, however the linearity of the grease coupled system is still significantly poorer

  19. Linear pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjutju, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)

  20. High resolution study of MSiH4 (M=28, 29, 30) in the Dyad Region: Analysis of line positions, intensities and half-widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Kashirina, N. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2017-12-01

    The infrared spectra of SiH4 in natural abundance (92.23% of 28SiH4, 4.68% of 29SiH4, and 3.09% of 30SiH4) were measured in the region of 600-1200 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer, analyzed and compared with the results available in the literature. More than 3500 transitions with Jmax. = 27 were assigned to the dyad bands ν4 and ν2 of 28SiH4 (the band ν2 is allowed in Raman, but forbidden in absorption spectra for symmetry reasons, and its transitions appear in absorption spectra only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The results of the analogous analyses of the 29SiH4 and 30SiH4 isotopologues are also presented (the numbers of the assigned transitions are here more than 1360 and 1120). An further analysis of about 790 experimental ro-vibrational lines in the dyad region of 28SiH4 was performed using the Voigt profile to simulate the measured line shape and to determine experimental line intensities. A set of 4 effective dipole moment parameters for the dyad of 28SiH4 was obtained on that basis from the weighted fit, which reproduce the initial experimental intensities of about 790 lines with the drms = 5.6 % . Analogous analyses were made for the two other isotopic species, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4. A detailed line list of transitions in the region of 750-1150 cm-1 is generated. The half-widths of 40 ro-vibrational lines (Jup.max. = 16) are studied from the multi-spectrum analysis, and self-pressure broadening coefficients are determined.

  1. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  2. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Abola, A.; Beadle, E.R.; Smith, G.A.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Warkentien, R.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 x 10 10 to 1.5 x 10 13 particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with ± 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of ± 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 degree C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  3. Rules of Thumb for Depth of Investigation, Pseudo-Position and Resolution of the Electrical Resistivity Method from Analysis of the Moments of the Sensitivity Function for a Homogeneous Half-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The electrical resistivity method is now highly developed with 2D and even 3D surveys routinely performed and with available fast inversion software. However, rules of thumb, based on simple mathematical formulas, for important quantities like depth of investigation, horizontal position and resolution have not previously been available and would be useful for survey planning, preliminary interpretation and general education about the method. In this contribution, I will show that the sensitivity function for the resistivity method for a homogeneous half-space can be analyzed in terms of its first and second moments which yield simple mathematical formulas. The first moment gives the sensitivity-weighted center of an apparent resistivity measurement with the vertical center being an estimate of the depth of investigation. I will show that this depth of investigation estimate works at least as well as previous estimates based on the peak and median of the depth sensitivity function which must be calculated numerically for a general four electrode array. The vertical and horizontal first moments can also be used as pseudopositions when plotting 1, 2 and 3D pseudosections. The appropriate horizontal plotting point for a pseudosection was not previously obvious for nonsymmetric arrays. The second moments of the sensitivity function give estimates of the spatial extent of the region contributing to an apparent resistivity measurement and hence are measures of the resolution. These also have simple mathematical formulas.

  4. Intrinsic spatial resolution limitations due to differences between positron emission position and annihilation detection localization; Limitacoes da resolucao espacial intrinseca devido as diferencas entre a posicao da emissao do positron e a deteccao da localizacao de aniquilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Pedro; Malano, Francisco; Valente, Mauro, E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Fac. de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF)

    2012-07-01

    Since its successful implementation for clinical diagnostic, positron emission tomography (PET) represents the most promising medical imaging technique. The recent major growth of PET imaging is mainly due to its ability to trace the biologic pathways of different compounds in the patient's body, assuming the patient can be labeled with some PET isotope. Regardless of the type of isotope, the PET imaging method is based on the detection of two 511-keV gamma photons being emitted in opposite directions, with almost 180 deg between them, as a consequence of electron-positron annihilation. Therefore, this imaging method is intrinsically limited by random uncertainties in spatial resolutions, related with differences between the actual position of positron emission and the location of the detected annihilation. This study presents an approach with the Monte Carlo method to analyze the influence of this effect on different isotopes of potential implementation in PET. (author)

  5. High-resolution microbiome profiling uncovers Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii, and Lactobacillus vaginalis associated to oral and oropharyngeal cancer in saliva from HPV positive and HPV negative patients treated with surgery and chemo-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; White, James Robert; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Rodríguez-Hilario, Arnold; Navarro, Kelvin; González, Herminio; Michailidi, Christina; Jedlicka, Anne; Canapp, Sierra; Bondy, Jessica; Dziedzic, Amanda; Mora-Lagos, Barbara; Rivera-Alvarez, Gustavo; Ili-Gangas, Carmen; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Westra, William; Koch, Wayne; Kang, Hyunseok; Marchionni, Luigi; Kim, Young; Sidransky, David

    2017-12-19

    Microbiome studies show altered microbiota in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), both in terms of taxonomic composition and metabolic capacity. These studies utilized a traditional bioinformatics methodology, which allows for accurate taxonomic assignment down to the genus level, but cannot accurately resolve species level membership. We applied Resphera Insight, a high-resolution methodology for 16S rRNA taxonomic assignment that is able to provide species-level context in its assignments of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing (NGS) data. Resphera Insight applied to saliva samples from HNSCC patients and healthy controls led to the discovery that a subset of HNSCC saliva samples is significantly enriched with commensal species from the vaginal flora, including Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (710x higher in saliva) and Lactobacillus vaginalis (52x higher in saliva). These species were not observed in normal saliva from Johns Hopkins patients, nor in 16S rRNA NGS saliva samples from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Interestingly, both species were only observed in saliva from Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive and HPV negative oropharyngeal cancer patients. We confirmed the representation of both species in HMP data obtained from mid-vagina (n=128) and vaginal introitus (n=121) samples. Resphera Insight also led to the discovery that Fusobacterium nucleatum , an oral cavity flora commensal bacterium linked to colon cancer, is enriched (600x higher) in saliva from a subset of HNSCC patients with advanced tumors stages. Together, these high-resolution analyses on 583 samples suggest a possible role for bacterial species in the therapeutic outcome of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC patients.

  6. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  7. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.

    1993-01-01

    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  8. Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…

  9. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  10. Position Reconstruction and Charge Distribution in LHCb VELO Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Versloot, TW; Akiba, K; Artuso, M; Van Beuzekom, M; Borel, J; Bowcock, TJV; Buytaert, J; Collins, P; Dumps, R; Dwyer, L; Eckstein, D; Eklund, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Frei, R; Gersabek M; Haefeli, G; Hennessy, K; Huse, T; Jans, E; John, M; Ketel, TJ; Keune, A; Lastoviicka, T; Mountain, R; Neufeld, N; Parkes, C; Stone, S; Szumlak, T; Tobin, M; Van Lysebetten, A; Viret, S; De Vries, H; Wang, J

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, a partially equipped LHCb VELO detector half was characterised in a test beam experiment (Alignment Challenge and Detector Commissioning, ACDC3). The position reconstruction and resolution for 2-strip R-sensor clusters was studied as a function of strip pitch and track inclination on the sensor surface. The Charge Density Distribution (CDD) is derived from the weighted charge distribution. It becomes asymmetric for tracks non-perpendicular to the strip surface. It is shown that the asymmetric broadening of the CDD around the track intercept position results in a linear eta-function at higher angles (>6 degrees). The sensor spatial resolution is determined both using a linear weighted mean of strip charges, as well as a third-order polynomial approximation via a eta-correction. The experimental results are in agreement with previous simulations. Future studies are underway to determine the angle and pitch dependent parameters which will be implemented in the LHCb VELO cluster position software tools.

  11. CLIC Drive Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, S; Gudkov, D; Soby, L; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    CLIC, an electron-positron linear collider proposed to probe the TeV energy scale, is based on a two-beam scheme where RF power to accelerate a high energy luminosity beam is extracted from a high current drive beam. The drive beam is efficiently generated in a long train at modest frequency and current then compressed in length and multiplied in frequency via bunch interleaving. The drive beam decelerator requires >40000 quadrupoles, each holding a beam position monitor (BPM). Though resolution requirements are modest (2 microns) these BPMs face several challenges. They must be compact and inexpensive. They must operate below waveguide cutoff to insure locality of position signals, ruling out processing at the natural 12 GHz bunch spacing frequency. Wakefields must be kept low. We find compact conventional stripline BPM with signals processed below 40 MHz can meet requirements. Choices of mechanical design, operating frequency, bandwidth, calibration and processing algorithm are presented. Calculations of wa...

  12. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.

  13. Linear pneumatic actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.

  14. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  15. An accurate test of calculated positions and lifetimes for Ne{sup 6+}(1s{sup 2}3lnl{sup '}) {sup 1}L states (n=3 and 4) using a high-resolution electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. E-mail: abm@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D

    2003-05-01

    An accurate test of available calculations for the autoionizing doubly excited states belonging to the Be-like 1s{sup 2}3lnl{sup '} Rydberg series of neon (positions and lifetimes) is presented in this short communication. These theoretical data are used to calculate electron line shapes which are compared, through a fitting procedure, with a high-resolution electron spectrum measured in Ne{sup 8+}(1s{sup 2}) + He collisional system, at 80 keV collision energy and 13.1 deg. observation angle. Present tests concern the n=3 and n=4 singlet states. It is found that some of these calculations suffer from large discrepancies with experiment and do not allow a description of the electron spectrum. A quantitative comparison of measured and calculated post-collisional Coulomb interaction-shifted line positions is also given and briefly discussed; for one theoretical data set, the agreement with experiment is found to be generally within {+-}50 meV; in contrast agreement with other data often considerably scatters within {+-}500 meV and sometimes more.

  16. An accurate test of calculated positions and lifetimes for Ne6+(1s23lnl') 1L states (n=3 and 4) using a high-resolution electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.

    2003-01-01

    An accurate test of available calculations for the autoionizing doubly excited states belonging to the Be-like 1s 2 3lnl ' Rydberg series of neon (positions and lifetimes) is presented in this short communication. These theoretical data are used to calculate electron line shapes which are compared, through a fitting procedure, with a high-resolution electron spectrum measured in Ne 8+ (1s 2 ) + He collisional system, at 80 keV collision energy and 13.1 deg. observation angle. Present tests concern the n=3 and n=4 singlet states. It is found that some of these calculations suffer from large discrepancies with experiment and do not allow a description of the electron spectrum. A quantitative comparison of measured and calculated post-collisional Coulomb interaction-shifted line positions is also given and briefly discussed; for one theoretical data set, the agreement with experiment is found to be generally within ±50 meV; in contrast agreement with other data often considerably scatters within ±500 meV and sometimes more

  17. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  18. Inductive Non-Contact Position Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Garcia, Alyssa; Simmons, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Optical hardware has been developed to measure the depth of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter's windows. In this hardware, a mirror is translated such that its position corresponds to the defect's depth, so the depth measurement problem is transferred to a mirror-position measurement problem. This is preferable because the mirror is internal to the optical system and thus accessible. Based on requirements supplied by the window inspectors, the depth of the defects needs to be measured over a range of 200 microns with a resolution of about 100 nm and an accuracy of about 400 nm. These same requirements then apply to measuring the position of the mirror, and in addition, since this is a scanning system, a response time of about 10 ms is needed. A market search was conducted and no sensor that met these requirements that also fit into the available housing volume (less than one cubic inch) was found, so a novel sensor configuration was constructed to meet the requirements. This new sensor generates a nearly linearly varying magnetic field over a small region of space, which can easily be sampled, resulting in a voltage proportional to position. Experiments were done with a range of inductor values, drive voltages, drive frequencies, and inductor shapes. A rough mathematical model was developed for the device that, in most aspects, describes how it operates and what electrical parameters should be chosen for best performance. The final configuration met all the requirements, yielding a small rugged sensor that was easy to use and had nanometer resolution over more than the 200-micron range required. The inductive position sensor is a compact device (potentially as small as 2 cubic centimeters), which offers nanometer-position resolution over a demonstrated range of nearly 1 mm. One of its advantages is the simplicity of its electrical design. Also, the sensor resolution is nearly uniform across its operational range, which is in contrast to eddy current and

  19. Position readout by charge division in large two-dimensional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.

    1976-10-01

    The improvement in readout spatial resolution for charge division systems with subdivided readout electrodes has been analyzed. This readout forms the position and sum signals by a linear, unambiguous analogue summation technique. It is shown that the readout resolution is a function of only electrode capacitance and shaping parameters. The line width improves as 1/N/sup 1 / 2 /, where N is the number of electrode subdivisions

  20. Multiresidue analysis of 22 sulfonamides and their metabolites in animal tissues using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and high resolution mass spectrometry (hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, H; Arnaudguilhem, C; Jaber, F; Lobinski, R

    2014-08-15

    A new high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method was developed for a simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 22 sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites in edible animal (pig, beef, sheep and chicken) tissues. Sample preparation was optimized on the basis of the "QuEChERS" protocol. The analytes were identified using their LC retention times and accurate mass; the identification was further confirmed by multi-stage high mass accuracy (Pig kidney" with ǀ Z-scoreǀpig, beef, sheep, and chicken) allowing the simultaneous quantification of target sulfonamides at concentration levels above the MRL/2 and the identification of untargeted compounds such as N(4)-acetyl metabolites using multi-stage high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  2. Extended analysis of the high resolution FTIR spectrum of 32S16O2 in the region of the ν2 band: Line positions, strengths, and pressure broadening widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Gromova, O. V.; Quack, M.; Mellau, G. Ch.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2018-05-01

    The high resolution infrared spectra of sulfur dioxide (32S16O2) were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Zürich prototype ZP2001) in combination with a Ge:Cu detector and analyzed in the ν2 fundamental band region (400-650 cm-1 , ν0 ˜ = 517.8725691(77) cm-1). More than 4200 transitions were assigned in the experimental spectra to the ν2 band (the maximum values of the quantum numbers are Jmax. = 96 and Kamax. = 25). The subsequent weighted fit of experimentally assigned transitions was made with the Watson Hamiltonian. The 148 highly accurate MW transitions known from the literature have been also taken into account in the fit, resulting in a set of 33 parameters which reproduces the initial 1295 infrared ro-vibrational energy values from more than 4200 experimental line positions with a root mean square deviation drms = 1.5 ×10-4 cm-1. An analysis of 992 experimental ro-vibrational line intensities of the ν2 band was made, and a set of four effective dipole moment parameters was obtained which reproduces the initial experimental line intensities with a relative drms = 5.7 % . The half-widths of 146 ro-vibrational lines (Jmax. = 53 and Kamax. = 20) were analyzed from the multi-spectrum fit, and self-pressure broadening coefficients were determined.

  3. A large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, M M D; Souza, F A; Alonso, E E; Fujii, R J; Meyknecht, A B; Added, N; Aissaoui, N; Cardenas, W H Z; Ferraretto, M D; Schnitter, U; Szanto, E M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Yamamura, M S; Carlin, N

    1999-01-01

    Large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detectors were developed to be used in the study of light heavy-ion nuclear reactions at the University of Sao Paulo Pelletron Laboratory. Each detector has a 20x20 cm sup 2 active area and consists of three grids (X-position, anode and Y-position) made of 25 mu m diameter gold plated tungsten wires. The position is determined through resistive divider chains. Results for position resolution, linearity and efficiency as a function of energy and position for different elements are reported.

  4. MO-FG-204-09: High Spatial Resolution and Artifact-Free CT Bone Imaging at Off-Centered Positions: An Application of Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G; Li, K; Gomez-Cardona, D; Budde, A; Hsieh, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although the anatomy of interest should be positioned as close as possible to the isocenter of CT scanners, off-centering may be inevitable during certain exams in clinical practice such as lumbar spine and elbow imaging. Off-centering degrades image sharpness, generates streak artifacts, and sometimes creates blooming artifacts due to truncation. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether the use of model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) can alleviate the negative impacts of off-centering to achieve high quality CT bone imaging. Methods: Both an anthropomorphic phantom and an ex vivo swine elbow sample were scanned at centered and off-centered positions using clinical CT bone scan protocols. The magnitude of off-centering was determined from localizer radiographs. Both FBP and MBIR reconstructions were performed. For FBP, both standard and Bone Plus kernels commonly used in bone imaging were used. Objective assessment of image sharpness, noise standard deviation, and noise nonuniformity were performed. Additionally, we retrospectively analyzed human subject data acquired under off-centered conditions as a validation study. Results: In FBP images of the phantom, off-centering by 10 cm led to a 14% increase in noise (p<1e-3) and a 68% increase in noise nonuniformity (p<0.02). A visible drop in bone sharpness was observed. In contrast, no significant difference in the noise magnitude or the noise nonuniformity between the centered and off-centered MBIR images was found. The image sharpness of off-centered MBIR images outperformed that of FBP images reconstructed with the Bone Plus kernel. In images of the swine elbow off-centered by 20 cm, not only was the noise and spatial resolution performance improved by MBIR, truncation artifacts were also elliminated. The human subject study generated similar results, in which the visibility of the off-centered lumbar spine was significantly improved. Conclusion: High quality CT bone imaging at off

  5. CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR SYSTEM FOR ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, S T; Cullinan, F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A; Aryshev, A; Honda, Y; Naito, T; Terunuma, N; Urakara, J; Heo, A; Kim, E-S; Kim, Y I; McCormick, D; Frisch, J; Nelson, J; Smith, T; White, G R

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) in KEK, Japan, is a prototype scaled demonstrator system for the final focus required for a future high energy lepton linear collider. The ATF2 beam-line is instrumented with a total of 41 high resolution C and S band resonant cavity beam position monitors (BPM) with associated mixer electronics and digitisers. In addition 4 high resolution BPMs have been recently installed at the interaction point, we briefly describe the first operational experience of these cavities in the ATF2 beam-line. The current status of the overall BPM system is also described, with a focus on operational techniques and performance.

  6. CERN balances linear collider studies

    CERN Multimedia

    ILC Newsline

    2011-01-01

    The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader.   The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...

  7. Towards the resolution of a long-standing evolutionary question: muscle identity and attachments are mainly related to topological position and not to primordium or homeotic identity of digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Walsh, Sean; Smith, Christopher; Ziermann, Janine M; Abdala, Virginia

    2015-06-01

    Signaling for limb bone development usually precedes that for muscle development, such that cartilage is generally present before muscle formation. It remains obscure, however, if: (i) tetrapods share a general, predictable spatial correlation between bones and muscles; and, if that is the case, if (ii) such a correlation would reflect an obligatory association between the signaling involved in skeletal and muscle morphogenesis. We address these issues here by using the results of a multidisciplinary analysis of the appendicular muscles of all major tetrapod groups integrating dissections, muscle antibody stainings, regenerative and ontogenetic analyses of fluorescently-labeled (GFP) animals, and studies of non-pentadactyl human limbs related to birth defects. Our synthesis suggests that there is a consistent, surprising anatomical pattern in both normal and abnormal phenotypes, in which the identity and attachments of distal limb muscles are mainly related to the topological position, and not to the developmental primordium (anlage) or even the homeotic identity, of the digits to which they are attached. This synthesis is therefore a starting point towards the resolution of a centuries-old question raised by authors such as Owen about the specific associations between limb bones and muscles. This question has crucial implications for evolutionary and developmental biology, and for human medicine because non-pentadactyly is the most common birth defect in human limbs. In particular, this synthesis paves the way for future developmental experimental and mechanistic studies, which are needed to clarify the processes that may be involved in the elaboration of the anatomical patterns described here, and to specifically test the hypothesis that distal limb muscle identity/attachment is mainly related to digit topology. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  8. Ironless Inductive Position Sensor for Harsh Magnetic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Danisi, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro

    Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) are widely used for high-precision and high-accuracy linear position sensing in harsh environments, such as the LHC collimators at CERN. These sensors guarantee theoretically infinite resolution and long lifetimes thanks to contactless sensing. Furthermore, they offer very good robustness and ruggedness, as well as micrometer uncertainty over a range of centimeters when proper conditioning techniques are used (such as the three-parameter Sine-Fit algorithm). They can also be suitable for radioactive environments. Nevertheless, an external DC/slowly-varying magnetic field can seriously affect the LVDT reading, leading to position drifts of hundreds of micrometers, often unacceptable in high-accuracy applications. The effect is due to the presence of non-linear ferromagnetic materials in the sensor’s structure. A detailed Finite Element model of an LVDT is first proposed in order to study and characterize the phenomenon. The model itself becomes a powerful de...

  9. A GEM readout with radial zigzag strips and linear charge-sharing response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiwu; Hohlmann, Marcus; Azmoun, Babak; Purschke, Martin L.; Woody, Craig

    2018-04-01

    We study the position sensitivity of radial zigzag strips intended to read out large GEM detectors for tracking at future experiments. Zigzag strips can cover a readout area with fewer strips than regular straight strips while maintaining good spatial resolution. Consequently, they can reduce the number of required electronic channels and related cost for large-area GEM detector systems. A non-linear relation between incident particle position and hit position measured from charge sharing among zigzag strips was observed in a previous study. We significantly reduce this non-linearity by improving the interleaving of adjacent physical zigzag strips. Zigzag readout structures are implemented on PCBs and on a flexible foil and are tested using a 10 cm × 10 cm triple-GEM detector scanned with a strongly collimated X-ray gun on a 2D motorized stage. Angular resolutions of 60-84 μrad are achieved with a 1.37 mrad angular strip pitch at a radius of 784 mm. On a linear scale this corresponds to resolutions below 100 μm.

  10. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  11. Experimental Results from a Microwave Cavity Beam Position Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, V.; Bazhan, A.; Lunev, P.; Solyak, N.; Vogel, V.; Zhogolev, P.; Lisitsyn, A.; Yakimenko, V.

    1999-01-01

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required

  12. Resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction for a high-resolution animal SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Sajedi, Salar; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Arabi, Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    The small-animal High-Resolution SPECT (HiReSPECT) is a dedicated dual-head gamma camera recently designed and developed in our laboratory for imaging of murine models. Each detector is composed of an array of 1.2 × 1.2 mm(2) (pitch) pixelated CsI(Na) crystals. Two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) are coupled to each head's crystal. In this paper, we report on a resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction code applicable to the system and present the experimental results achieved using different phantoms and mouse scans. Collimator-detector response functions (CDRFs) were measured via a pixel-driven method using capillary sources at finite distances from the head within the field of view (FOV). CDRFs were then fitted by independent Gaussian functions. Thereafter, linear interpolations were applied to the standard deviation (σ) values of the fitted Gaussians, yielding a continuous map of CDRF at varying distances from the head. A rotation-based maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was used for reconstruction. A fast rotation algorithm was developed to rotate the image matrix according to the desired angle by means of pre-generated rotation maps. The experiments demonstrated improved resolution utilizing our resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction. While the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) radial and tangential resolution measurements of the system were over 2 mm in nearly all positions within the FOV without resolution recovery, reaching around 2.5 mm in some locations, they fell below 1.8 mm everywhere within the FOV using the resolution-recovery algorithm. The noise performance of the system was also acceptable; the standard deviation of the average counts per voxel in the reconstructed images was 6.6% and 8.3% without and with resolution recovery, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  14. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  15. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  16. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  17. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang

    .3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS......) with a linear array transducer. The second harmonic imaging is obtained by a pulse inversion technique. The received data is beamformed by the SASB using a Beamformation Toolbox. In the measurements the lateral resolution at -6 dB is improved by 66% compared to the conventional imaging algorithm. There is also...... a 35% improvement for the lateral resolution at -6 dB compared with the sole harmonic imaging and a 46% improvement compared with merely using the SASB....

  18. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  19. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  20. Crosstalk corrections for improved energy resolution with highly segmented HPGe-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Wiens, Andreas; Eberth, Juergen; Hess, Herbert; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Warr, Nigel; Aydin, Sezgin; Bazzacco, Dino; Recchia, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Crosstalk effects of 36-fold segmented, large volume AGATA HPGe detectors cause shifts in the γ-ray energy measured by the inner core and outer segments as function of segment multiplicity. The positions of the segment sum energy peaks vary approximately linearly with increasing segment multiplicity. The resolution of these peaks deteriorates also linearly as a function of segment multiplicity. Based on single event treatment, two methods were developed in the AGATA Collaboration to correct for the crosstalk induced effects by employing a linear transformation. The matrix elements are deduced from coincidence measurements of γ-rays of various energies as recorded with digital electronics. A very efficient way to determine the matrix elements is obtained by measuring the base line shifts of untriggered segments using γ-ray detection events in which energy is deposited in a single segment. A second approach is based on measuring segment energy values for γ-ray interaction events in which energy is deposited in only two segments. After performing crosstalk corrections, the investigated detector shows a good fit between the core energy and the segment sum energy at all multiplicities and an improved energy resolution of the segment sum energy peaks. The corrected core energy resolution equals the segment sum energy resolution which is superior at all folds compared to the individual uncorrected energy resolutions. This is achieved by combining the two independent energy measurements with the core contact on the one hand and the segment contacts on the other hand.

  1. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2004-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  2. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2003-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  3. Two-dimensional Fast ESPRIT Algorithm for Linear Array SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi-chao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The linear array Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR system is a popular research tool, because it can realize three-dimensional imaging. However, owning to limitations of the aircraft platform and actual conditions, resolution improvement is difficult in cross-track and along-track directions. In this study, a twodimensional fast Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT algorithm for linear array SAR imaging is proposed to overcome these limitations. This approach combines the Gerschgorin disks method and the ESPRIT algorithm to estimate the positions of scatterers in cross and along-rack directions. Moreover, the reflectivity of scatterers is obtained by a modified pairing method based on “region growing”, replacing the least-squares method. The simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm with high resolution, quick calculation, and good real-time response.

  4. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-01-01

    installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single

  5. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-15

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  6. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-01

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  7. Nonnegative constraint quadratic program technique to enhance the resolution of γ spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinglun; Xiao, Wuyun; Ai, Xianyun; Chen, Ye

    2018-04-01

    Two concepts of the nonnegative least squares problem (NNLS) and the linear complementarity problem (LCP) are introduced for the resolution enhancement of the γ spectra. The respective algorithms such as the active set method and the primal-dual interior point method are applied to solve the above two problems. In mathematics, the nonnegative constraint results in the sparsity of the optimal solution of the deconvolution, and it is this sparsity that enhances the resolution. Finally, a comparison in the peak position accuracy and the computation time is made between these two methods and the boosted L_R and Gold methods.

  8. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  9. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation camera for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area is described in which means is provided for second order positional resolution. The phototubes, which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  10. Five degree-of-freedom control of an ultra-precision magnetically-suspended linear bearing. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, David L.; Slocum, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors constructed a high precision linear bearing. A 10.7 kg platen measuring 125 mm by 125 mm by 350 mm is suspended and controlled in five degrees of freedom by seven electromagnets. The position of the platen is measured by five capacitive probes which have nanometer resolution. The suspension acts as a linear bearing, allowing linear travel of 50 mm in the sixth degree of freedom. In the laboratory, this bearing system has demonstrated position stability of 5 nm peak-to-peak. This is believed to be the highest position stability yet demonstrated in a magnetic suspension system. Performance at this level confirms that magnetic suspensions can address motion control requirements at the nanometer level. The experimental effort associated with this linear bearing system is described. Major topics are the development of models for the suspension, implementation of control algorithms, and measurement of the actual bearing performance. Suggestions for the future improvement of the bearing system are given.

  11. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  12. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  13. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  14. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  15. Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yun Gui [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Sahebdivan, Sahar; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Ong, C K, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    The resolution of lenses is normally limited by the wave nature of light. Imaging with perfect resolution was believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we present experimental evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction.

  16. Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yun Gui; Sahebdivan, Sahar; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf; Ong, C K

    2011-01-01

    The resolution of lenses is normally limited by the wave nature of light. Imaging with perfect resolution was believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we present experimental evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction.

  17. Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yun Gui; Sahebdivan, Sahar; Ong, C. K.; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The resolution of lenses is normally limited by the wave nature of light. Imaging with perfect resolution was believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we present experimental evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  18. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  19. Flat Panel PMT: advances in position sensitive photodetection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Trotta, C.; Cinti, M.N.; Bennati, P.; Trotta, G.; Iurlaro, G.; Montani, L.; Ridolfi, S.; Cusanno, F.; Garibaldi, F.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last ten years there was being a strong advancement in photodetection. Different application fields are involved in their use in particular high energy physics, astrophysics and nuclear medicine. They usually work by coupling a scintillation crystal and more recent scintillation arrays with pixel size as small as 0.5 mm. PSPMT represents today the most ready technology for photodetection with large detection areas and very high spatial resolution. Flat panel PMT represents the last technological advancement. Its dimension is 50x50 mm 2 with a narrow peripheral dead zone (0.5 mm final goal). Its compactness allow to assemble different modules closely packed, achieving large detection areas with an effective active area of 97%. In this paper we analyze the imaging performances of PSPMT by coupling two scintillation arrays and by light spot scanning of photocathode to evaluate the linearity position response, spatial resolution and uniformity gain response as a function of light distribution spread and the number of photoelectrons generated on photocathode. The results point out a very narrow PMT intrinsic charge spread and low cross-talk between anodes. Energy resolution and spatial resolution show a good linearity with DRF variation. An unexpected intra-anode gain variation is carried out. In this paper we present the results obtained with this PSPMT regarding imaging performances principally addressed to nuclear medicine application

  20. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  1. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  2. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...

  3. COMPARISON OF LINEAR CONTROLLERS FOR A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2005-01-01

    on comparing different linear controllers, based on both simulation and experimental results, to determine what is obtainable when applying standard linear controllers to a hydraulic SISO servo system. The paper furthermore addresses how the performance may be improved by using internal pressure control......In many hydraulic control applications, classic linear controllers are still employed, although there exist a number of number of nonlinear control methods, which may be better suited for handling the intrensic non-linearities often found in hydraulic systems. The focus of this paper is therefore...... and model based information to include feedforward information. The control strategies considered are all based on measurement of piston position and pressure only....

  4. Resolution unfolding with limits imposed by statistical experimental errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.W.

    1977-02-01

    A typical form of the resolution equation is derived by considering the physical measurement of an energy dependent spectrum. It is shown that the information contained in a data set may be expressed by writing the spectrum as a linear combination of a set of resolution functions. Introduction of other functions to describe the spectrum involves extra physical information. An iterative conjugate gradient technique to obtain a spectrum consistent with the data is described. At each iteration the residual discrepancy between the currently predicted yield and the measured data is used to generate the form and mangitude of the next term to be added to the spectrum. Other unfolding techniques are described and analysed, some faster than the conjugate gradient technique in special cases, but restricted in usefulness by implicit assumptions about the resolution functions. The nature of residual errors is considered. The variations of independently measured data sets are discussed, and hence, the variations of the sequence of terms appearing in a consequent conjugate gradient analysis. An approximate measure is obtained for the expected variation of independently obtained spectra. Refinements are briefly considered which apply to a resolution function that is not known precisely or which make use of a requirement that the spectrum be positive throughout its range. It is concluded that a conjugate gradient technique is best if sufficient computer facilities are available, and that, of the less demanding techniques, the best is one that is essentially a more slowly convergent version of a conjugate gradient method. (author)

  5. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  6. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  7. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  8. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  9. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  10. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  11. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  12. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  13. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.

  14. SRXRF analysis with spatial resolution of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Perez, Carlos Alberto; Grenon, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    This work presents elemental-composition studies of dental calculus by X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation. The intrinsic characteristics of synchrotron light allow for a semi-quantitative analysis with spatial resolution. The experiments were carried out in the high-vacuum station of the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). All the measurements were performed in conventional geometry (45 deg. + 45 deg.) and the micro-collimation was attained via a pair of orthogonal slits mounted in the beamline. In this way, pixels of 50 μmx50 μm were obtained keeping a high flux of photons on the sample. Samples of human dental calculus were measured in different positions along their growing axis, in order to determine variations of the compositions in the pattern of deposit. Intensity ratios of minor elements and traces were obtained, and linear profiles and surface distributions were determined. As a general summary, we can conclude that μXRF experiments with spatial resolution on dental calculus are feasible with simple collimation and adequate positioning systems, keeping a high flux of photon. These results open interesting perspectives for the future station of the line, devoted to μXRF, which will reach resolutions of the order of 10 μm

  15. SRXRF analysis with spatial resolution of dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Pérez, Carlos Alberto; Grenón, Miriam

    2000-09-01

    This work presents elemental-composition studies of dental calculus by X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation. The intrinsic characteristics of synchrotron light allow for a semi-quantitative analysis with spatial resolution. The experiments were carried out in the high-vacuum station of the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). All the measurements were performed in conventional geometry (45°+45°) and the micro-collimation was attained via a pair of orthogonal slits mounted in the beamline. In this way, pixels of 50 μm×50 μm were obtained keeping a high flux of photons on the sample. Samples of human dental calculus were measured in different positions along their growing axis, in order to determine variations of the compositions in the pattern of deposit. Intensity ratios of minor elements and traces were obtained, and linear profiles and surface distributions were determined. As a general summary, we can conclude that μXRF experiments with spatial resolution on dental calculus are feasible with simple collimation and adequate positioning systems, keeping a high flux of photon. These results open interesting perspectives for the future station of the line, devoted to μXRF, which will reach resolutions of the order of 10 μm.

  16. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  17. A linear maglev guide for machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieste, K D [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Popp, K [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Machine tools require linear guides with high slide velocity and very high position accuracy. The three tasks of a linear guide - supporting, guiding and driving - shall be realised by means of active magnetic bearings (AMB). The resulting linear magnetically levitated (maglev) guide has to accomplish the following characteristics: High stiffness, good damping and low noise as well as low heat production. First research on a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) support magnet unit aimed at the development of components and efficient control strategies for the linear maglev guide. The actual research is directed to realise a five DOF linear maglev guide for machine tools without drive to answer the question whether the maglev principle can be used for a linear axis in a machine tool. (orig.)

  18. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  19. Non-linear Imaging using an Experimental Synthetic Aperture Real Time Ultrasound Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first non-linear B-mode image of a wire phantom using pulse inversion attained via an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS). The purpose of this study is to implement and validate non-linear imaging on SARUS for the further development of new...... non-linear techniques. This study presents non-linear and linear B-mode images attained via SARUS and an existing ultrasound system as well as a Field II simulation. The non-linear image shows an improved spatial resolution and lower full width half max and -20 dB resolution values compared to linear...

  20. Systematic test on fast time resolution parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Li Guangwu; Gu Xianbao; Chen Yanchao; Zhang Gang; Zhang Wenhui; Yan Guohong

    2011-01-01

    Systematic test on each detect unit of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) used in the fission multi-parameter measurement was performed with a 241 Am α source to get the time resolution and position resolution. The detectors work at 600 Pa flowing isobutane and with-600 V on cathode. The time resolution was got by TOF method and the position resolution was got by delay line method. The time resolution of detect units is better than 400 ps, and the position resolution is 6 mm. The results show that the demand of measurement is fully covered. (authors)

  1. Determination of accurate 1H positions of an alanine tripeptide with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures by high resolution 1H solid state NMR and GIPAW chemical shift calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Koji; Suzuki, Furitsu; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ohata, Takuya; Aoki, Akihiro; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Hironori; Shimizu, Tadashi; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2012-11-25

    The accurate (1)H positions of alanine tripeptide, A(3), with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures could be determined by highly resolved (1)H DQMAS solid-state NMR spectra and (1)H chemical shift calculation with gauge-including projector augmented wave calculations.

  2. Positive real balancing for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Ciuprina, G; Ioan, D

    2007-01-01

    We extend the positive real balancing procedure for passive linear systems to the nonlinear systems case. We show that, just like in the linear case, model reduction based on this technique preserves passivity.

  3. GREIT: a unified approach to 2D linear EIT reconstruction of lung images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Andy; Arnold, John H; Bayford, Richard; Borsic, Andrea; Brown, Brian; Dixon, Paul; Faes, Theo J C; Frerichs, Inéz; Gagnon, Hervé; Gärber, Yvo; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Hahn, Günter; Lionheart, William R B; Malik, Anjum; Patterson, Robert P; Stocks, Janet; Tizzard, Andrew; Weiler, Norbert; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2009-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinically monitoring patients during mechanical ventilation, because it can provide a non-invasive continuous image of pulmonary impedance which indicates the distribution of ventilation. However, most clinical and physiological research in lung EIT is done using older and proprietary algorithms; this is an obstacle to interpretation of EIT images because the reconstructed images are not well characterized. To address this issue, we develop a consensus linear reconstruction algorithm for lung EIT, called GREIT (Graz consensus Reconstruction algorithm for EIT). This paper describes the unified approach to linear image reconstruction developed for GREIT. The framework for the linear reconstruction algorithm consists of (1) detailed finite element models of a representative adult and neonatal thorax, (2) consensus on the performance figures of merit for EIT image reconstruction and (3) a systematic approach to optimize a linear reconstruction matrix to desired performance measures. Consensus figures of merit, in order of importance, are (a) uniform amplitude response, (b) small and uniform position error, (c) small ringing artefacts, (d) uniform resolution, (e) limited shape deformation and (f) high resolution. Such figures of merit must be attained while maintaining small noise amplification and small sensitivity to electrode and boundary movement. This approach represents the consensus of a large and representative group of experts in EIT algorithm design and clinical applications for pulmonary monitoring. All software and data to implement and test the algorithm have been made available under an open source license which allows free research and commercial use.

  4. GREIT: a unified approach to 2D linear EIT reconstruction of lung images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Andy; Arnold, John H; Bayford, Richard; Tizzard, Andrew; Borsic, Andrea; Brown, Brian; Dixon, Paul; Faes, Theo J C; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert; Gagnon, Hervé; Gärber, Yvo; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Hahn, Günter; Lionheart, William R B; Malik, Anjum; Patterson, Robert P; Stocks, Janet; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2009-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinically monitoring patients during mechanical ventilation, because it can provide a non-invasive continuous image of pulmonary impedance which indicates the distribution of ventilation. However, most clinical and physiological research in lung EIT is done using older and proprietary algorithms; this is an obstacle to interpretation of EIT images because the reconstructed images are not well characterized. To address this issue, we develop a consensus linear reconstruction algorithm for lung EIT, called GREIT (Graz consensus Reconstruction algorithm for EIT). This paper describes the unified approach to linear image reconstruction developed for GREIT. The framework for the linear reconstruction algorithm consists of (1) detailed finite element models of a representative adult and neonatal thorax, (2) consensus on the performance figures of merit for EIT image reconstruction and (3) a systematic approach to optimize a linear reconstruction matrix to desired performance measures. Consensus figures of merit, in order of importance, are (a) uniform amplitude response, (b) small and uniform position error, (c) small ringing artefacts, (d) uniform resolution, (e) limited shape deformation and (f) high resolution. Such figures of merit must be attained while maintaining small noise amplification and small sensitivity to electrode and boundary movement. This approach represents the consensus of a large and representative group of experts in EIT algorithm design and clinical applications for pulmonary monitoring. All software and data to implement and test the algorithm have been made available under an open source license which allows free research and commercial use

  5. From neurons to circuits: linear estimation of local field potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Malte; Logthetis, Nikos K.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular physiological recordings are typically separated into two frequency bands: local field potentials (LFPs, a circuit property) and spiking multi-unit activity (MUA). There has been increased interest in LFPs due to their correlation with fMRI measurements and the possibility of studying local processing and neuronal synchrony. To further understand the biophysical origin of LFPs, we asked whether it is possible to estimate their time course based on the spiking activity from the same or nearby electrodes. We used Signal Estimation Theory to show that a linear filter operation on the activity of one/few neurons can explain a significant fraction of the LFP time course in the macaque primary visual cortex. The linear filter used to estimate the LFPs had a stereotypical shape characterized by a sharp downstroke at negative time lags and a slower positive upstroke for positve time lags. The filter was similar across neocortical regions and behavioral conditions including spontaneous activity and visual stimulation. The estimations had a spatial resolution of ~1 mm and a temporal resolution of ~200 ms. By considering a causal filter, we observed a temporal asymmetry such that the positive time lags in the filter contributed more to the LFP estimation than negative time lags. Additionally, we showed that spikes occurring within ~10 ms of spikes from nearby neurons yielded better estimation accuracies than nonsynchronous spikes. In sum, our results suggest that at least some circuit-level local properties of the field potentials can be predicted from the activity of one or a few neurons. PMID:19889990

  6. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  7. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  8. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  9. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  10. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  11. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  12. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  13. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  14. Characterization of non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the separation of triacylglycerol positional isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Yuji, Hiromi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Ichioka, Kenji; Kuroda, Ikuma; Noguchi, Noriko; Wada, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of a non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the resolution of triacylglycerol positional isomers (TAG-PI) were examined using a recycle HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry system. A pair of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids at least 12 carbons was separated. Except for TAG-PI containing elaidic acid, pairs of TAG-PI containing three unsaturated fatty acids were not separated, even by recycle runs. These results indicate that the resolution of TAG-PI on a non-endcapped polymeric ODS stationary phase is realized by the recognition of the linear structure of the fatty acid and the binding position of the saturated fatty acid in TAG-PI. Chain length was also an important factor for resolution. This method may be a useful and simple for measuring the abundance ratio of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids in natural oils.

  15. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. Application of Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network for Enhancing Image Resolution in Chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Kensuke; Ota, Junko; Ishida, Takayuki

    2017-10-18

    In this study, the super-resolution convolutional neural network (SRCNN) scheme, which is the emerging deep-learning-based super-resolution method for enhancing image resolution in chest CT images, was applied and evaluated using the post-processing approach. For evaluation, 89 chest CT cases were sampled from The Cancer Imaging Archive. The 89 CT cases were divided randomly into 45 training cases and 44 external test cases. The SRCNN was trained using the training dataset. With the trained SRCNN, a high-resolution image was reconstructed from a low-resolution image, which was down-sampled from an original test image. For quantitative evaluation, two image quality metrics were measured and compared to those of the conventional linear interpolation methods. The image restoration quality of the SRCNN scheme was significantly higher than that of the linear interpolation methods (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05). The high-resolution image reconstructed by the SRCNN scheme was highly restored and comparable to the original reference image, in particular, for a ×2 magnification. These results indicate that the SRCNN scheme significantly outperforms the linear interpolation methods for enhancing image resolution in chest CT images. The results also suggest that SRCNN may become a potential solution for generating high-resolution CT images from standard CT images.

  17. Squares of Random Linear Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    a positive answer, for codes of dimension $k$ and length roughly $\\frac{1}{2}k^2$ or smaller. Moreover, the convergence speed is exponential if the difference $k(k+1)/2-n$ is at least linear in $k$. The proof uses random coding and combinatorial arguments, together with algebraic tools involving the precise......Given a linear code $C$, one can define the $d$-th power of $C$ as the span of all componentwise products of $d$ elements of $C$. A power of $C$ may quickly fill the whole space. Our purpose is to answer the following question: does the square of a code ``typically'' fill the whole space? We give...

  18. Numerical computation of linear instability of detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Dmitry; Kasimov, Aslan

    2017-11-01

    We propose a method to study linear stability of detonations by direct numerical computation. The linearized governing equations together with the shock-evolution equation are solved in the shock-attached frame using a high-resolution numerical algorithm. The computed results are processed by the Dynamic Mode Decomposition technique to generate dispersion relations. The method is applied to the reactive Euler equations with simple-depletion chemistry as well as more complex multistep chemistry. The results are compared with those known from normal-mode analysis. We acknowledge financial support from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.

  19. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  20. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  2. Linearizing W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  3. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  4. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  5. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  6. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  7. Stepping motor adaptor actuator for a commercial uhv linear motion feedthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarocci, M.; Oversluizen, T.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptor coupling has been developed that will allow the attachment of a standard stepping motor to a precision commercial (Varian) uhv linear motion feedthrough. The assembly, consisting of the motor, motor adaptor, limit switches, etc. is clamped to the feedthrough body which can be done under vacuum conditions if necessary. With a 500 step/rev. stepping motor the resolution is 1.27 μm per step. We presently use this assembly in a remote location for the precise positioning of a beam sensing monitor. 2 refs., 3 figs

  8. Control system design for nano-positioning using piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Jinjun; Liu, Yanfang; Cui, Naigang; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic control system design for nano-positioning of a piezoelectric actuator (PEA). PEAs exhibit hysteresis nonlinearity, which can dramatically limit the application and performance of linear feedback control theory. Thus the hysteresis is compensated for based on the Maxwell resistive capacitor (MRC) model first. Then a proportional plus integral (PI) controller and a proportional double integral plus lead compensation (PII and L) controller are designed for the hysteresis-compensated PEA to account for model uncertainty, disturbance, and noise. The robust stability of both controllers is proved. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated experimentally. Both controllers achieve fast precise positioning. The 2% settling times for the PI controller and the PII and L controller are 1.5 ms and 4.7 ms, respectively. The positioning resolution is upto 1 nm for both controllers. (paper)

  9. Psychosocial Resolution and Counsellor Trainee Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level counseling students (n=74) were surveyed to investigate the relationship between resolution of Erikson's psychosocial stage of intimacy/isolation and counselor trainee empathy. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between measures of psychosocial stage resolution and counselor empathy and a significant main effect for…

  10. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies

  11. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  12. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  13. Performance of a reentrant cavity beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Simon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The beam-based alignment and feedback systems, essential operations for the future colliders, require high resolution beam position monitors (BPMs. In the framework of the European CARE/SRF program, a reentrant cavity BPM with its associated electronics was developed by the CEA/DSM/Irfu in collaboration with DESY. The design, the fabrication, and the beam test of this monitor are detailed within this paper. This BPM is designed to be inserted in a cryomodule, work at cryogenic temperature in a clean environment. It has achieved a resolution better than 10  μm and has the possibility to perform bunch to bunch measurements for the x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL and the International Linear Collider (ILC. Its other features are a small size of the rf cavity, a large aperture (78 mm, and an excellent linearity. A first prototype of a reentrant cavity BPM was installed in the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH, at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY and demonstrated its operation at cryogenic temperature inside a cryomodule. The second, installed, also, in the FLASH linac to be tested with beam, measured a resolution of approximately 4  μm over a dynamic range ±5  mm in single bunch.

  14. Performance of a reentrant cavity beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Luong, M.; Chel, S.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Rouviere, N.; Baboi, N.; Mildner, N.; Nolle, D.

    2008-01-01

    The beam-based alignment and feedback systems, essential operations for the future colliders, require high resolution beam position monitors (BPMs). In the framework of the European CARE/SRF program, a reentrant cavity BPM with its associated electronics was developed by the CEA/DSM/Irfu in collaboration with DESY. The design, the fabrication, and the beam test of this monitor are detailed within this paper. This BPM is designed to be inserted in a cryo-module, work at cryogenic temperature in a clean environment. It has achieved a resolution better than 10 μm and has the possibility to perform bunch to bunch measurements for the X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). Its other features are a small size of the rf cavity, a large aperture (78 mm), and an excellent linearity. A first prototype of a reentrant cavity BPM was installed in the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and demonstrated its operation at cryogenic temperature inside a cryo-module. The second, installed, also, in the FLASH linac to be tested with beam, measured a resolution of approximately 4 μm over a dynamic range ± 5 mm in single bunch. (authors)

  15. Performance of a reentrant cavity beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Claire; Luong, Michel; Chel, Stéphane; Napoly, Olivier; Novo, Jorge; Roudier, Dominique; Rouvière, Nelly; Baboi, Nicoleta; Mildner, Nils; Nölle, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    The beam-based alignment and feedback systems, essential operations for the future colliders, require high resolution beam position monitors (BPMs). In the framework of the European CARE/SRF program, a reentrant cavity BPM with its associated electronics was developed by the CEA/DSM/Irfu in collaboration with DESY. The design, the fabrication, and the beam test of this monitor are detailed within this paper. This BPM is designed to be inserted in a cryomodule, work at cryogenic temperature in a clean environment. It has achieved a resolution better than 10μm and has the possibility to perform bunch to bunch measurements for the x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). Its other features are a small size of the rf cavity, a large aperture (78 mm), and an excellent linearity. A first prototype of a reentrant cavity BPM was installed in the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and demonstrated its operation at cryogenic temperature inside a cryomodule. The second, installed, also, in the FLASH linac to be tested with beam, measured a resolution of approximately 4μm over a dynamic range ±5mm in single bunch.

  16. POSITION DETERMINATION OF CLOSELY SPACED BUNCHES USING CAVITY BPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Cullinan, F; Lyapin, A

    2011-01-01

    Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems form a major part of precision position measurement diagnostics for linear accelerators with low emittance beams. Using cavity BPMs, a position resolution of less than 100 nm has been demonstrated in single bunch mode operation. In the case of closely spaced bunches, where the decay time of the cavity is comparable to the time separation between bunches, the BPM signal from a bunch is polluted by the signal induced by the previous bunches in the same bunch-train. This paper discusses our ongoing work to develop the methods to extract the position of closely spaced bunches using cavity BPMs. A signal subtraction code is being developed to remove the signal pollution from previous bunches and to determine the individual bunch position. Another code has been developed to simulate the BPM data for the cross check. Performance of the code is studied on the experimental and simulated data. Application of the analysis techniques to the linear colliders,...

  17. R and D of MPGD-readout TPC for the International Linear Collider experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonamine, R

    2012-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is chosen for the central tracker of the ILD detector, one of two detector concepts planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Physics goals at the ILC will require a TPC with a position resolution of 100 μm and superior track separation, which are not achievable with a conventional Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) readout. A MPGD readout offers improved position resolution and track separation due to measuring the signal at the anode and minimization of E × B effect. For several years, the LC TPC collaboration has been developing a MPGD readout using various small TPC prototypes and the Large Prototype TPC that is operated in a test beam at DESY. The MPGD technologies being tested are GEM and Micromegas with resistive charge broadening, with both traditional pad and CMOS pixel readout. Readout modules with both GEM and Micromegas gas amplification have achieved a position resolution on the order of 100 μm at B = 1 T. In this paper we report on the recent R and D toward the ILD TPC.

  18. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  19. The Grief Resolution Process in Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compares grief in divorce to the Kubler-Ross model of grief resolution in bereavement in 17 persons who wrote essays about their divorce. The results suggested a conceptual model based on three chronological stages with linear progression through the stages, characterized by circularity within each stage. (JAC)

  20. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  1. Applied linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Olver, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  2. Theory of linear operations

    CERN Document Server

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  3. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  4. Linear programming using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Ploskas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book  are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus.  The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...

  5. Linear Colliders TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) collaboration (at present 19 institutions from seven countries) is to establish the technology for a high energy electron-positron linear collider using superconducting radiofrequency cavities to accelerate its beams. Another basic goal is to demonstrate that such a collider can meet its performance goals in a cost effective manner. For this the TESLA collaboration is preparing a 500 MeV superconducting linear test accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg. This TTF (TESLA Test Facility) consists of four cryomodules, each approximately 12 m long and containing eight 9-cell solid niobium cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz

  6. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  7. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  8. Handbook of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  9. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  10. LINEAR MODEL FOR NON ISOSCELES ABSORBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.

    2003-05-12

    Previous analyses have assumed that wedge absorbers are triangularly shaped with equal angles for the two faces. In this case, to linear order, the energy loss depends only on the position in the direction of the face tilt, and is independent of the incoming angle. One can instead construct an absorber with entrance and exit faces facing rather general directions. In this case, the energy loss can depend on both the position and the angle of the particle in question. This paper demonstrates that and computes the effect to linear order.

  11. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  12. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  13. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  14. Applicability of linear and non-linear potential flow models on a Wavestar float

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozonnet, Pauline; Dupin, Victor; Tona, Paolino

    2017-01-01

    as a model based on non-linear potential flow theory and weakscatterer hypothesis are successively considered. Simple tests, such as dip tests, decay tests and captive tests enable to highlight the improvements obtained with the introduction of nonlinearities. Float motion under wave actions and without...... control action, limited to small amplitude motion with a single float, is well predicted by the numerical models, including the linear one. Still, float velocity is better predicted by accounting for non-linear hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces.......Numerical models based on potential flow theory, including different types of nonlinearities are compared and validated against experimental data for the Wavestar wave energy converter technology. Exact resolution of the rotational motion, non-linear hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces as well...

  15. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  16. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  17. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-01

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of ΔE b /E b =10 -4 . (orig.)

  18. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  19. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation camera is described for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area in which means is provided for second-order positional resolution. The phototubes which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second-order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  20. America, Linearly Cyclical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought

  1. Stanford's linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, B.

    1985-01-01

    The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).

  2. Dosimetry of linear sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Neto, F.

    1992-01-01

    The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)

  3. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  4. LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy

    1992-01-01

    As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus

  5. Linear genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brameier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field

  6. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  7. Review of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi

    1992-01-01

    The status of R and D of future e + e - linear colliders proposed by the institutions throughout the world is described including the JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC, DESY/THD and TESLA projects. The parameters and RF sources are discussed. (G.P.) 36 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Evaluating the immediate postverbal position as a focus position in Zulu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buell, L.; Matondo, M.; McLaughlin, F.; Potsdam, E.

    2009-01-01

    It has been claimed that in Bantu languages a focused element must occur in the IAV (Immediately After the Verb) linear position, which in turn has been argued by some to constitute a syntactic focus position below IP. This paper examines the extent to which the IAV linear position is obligatory for

  9. Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Changho; Jung, Woonggyu; Boppart, Stephen A

    2011-03-10

    A full-bandwidth k-domain linearization method for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is demonstrated. The method uses information of the wavenumber-pixel-position provided by a translating-slit-based wavelength filter. For calibration purposes, the filter is placed either after a broadband source or at the end of the sample path, and the filtered spectrum with a narrowed line width (∼0.5 nm) is incident on a line-scan camera in the detection path. The wavelength-swept spectra are co-registered with the pixel positions according to their central wavelengths, which can be automatically measured with an optical spectrum analyzer. For imaging, the method does not require a filter or a software recalibration algorithm; it simply resamples the OCT signal from the detector array without employing rescaling or interpolation methods. The accuracy of k-linearization is maximized by increasing the k-linearization order, which is known to be a crucial parameter for maintaining a narrow point-spread function (PSF) width at increasing depths. The broadening effect is studied by changing the k-linearization order by undersampling to search for the optimal value. The system provides more position information, surpassing the optimum without compromising the imaging speed. The proposed full-range k-domain linearization method can be applied to SD-OCT systems to simplify their hardware/software, increase their speed, and improve the axial image resolution. The experimentally measured width of PSF in air has an FWHM of 8 μm at the edge of the axial measurement range. At an imaging depth of 2.5 mm, the sensitivity of the full-range calibration case drops less than 10 dB compared with the uncompensated case.

  10. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  11. A Turn-Projected State-Based Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    State-based conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) algorithms detect conflicts and resolve them on the basis on current state information without the use of additional intent information from aircraft flight plans. Therefore, the prediction of the trajectory of aircraft is based solely upon the position and velocity vectors of the traffic aircraft. Most CD&R algorithms project the traffic state using only the current state vectors. However, the past state vectors can be used to make a better prediction of the future trajectory of the traffic aircraft. This paper explores the idea of using past state vectors to detect traffic turns and resolve conflicts caused by these turns using a non-linear projection of the traffic state. A new algorithm based on this idea is presented and validated using a fast-time simulator developed for this study.

  12. A high resolution beam profile monitor using Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development of efficient high energy linear colliders in the 1 TeV range requires final focus systems capable of producing beam spot sizes on the order of 1--20 nm, about three orders of magnitude smaller than those produced at the SLC. Although beam line designs exist which can, in principle, produce the required optics, the construction of quadrupoles with the size and precision required will be challenging. Field errors in these quads must be small and should be verified experimentally, which is difficult with existing technology. This paper describes a proposal to use bremsstrahlung from heavy targets to measure high energy beam profiles and positions with a resolution approaching a few nm. The method is also applicable to tests of other final focus systems (flat beams, plasma lenses) at lower energies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. The Morava E-theories of finite general linear groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattafirri, Sara

    The feasibility of producing an image of radioactivity distribution within a patient or confined region of space using information carried by the gamma-rays emitted from the source is investigated. The imaging approach makes use of parameters related to the gamma-rays which undergo Compton scattering within a detection system, it does not involve the use of pin-holes, and it employs gamma-rays of energy ranging from a few hundreds of keVs to MeVs. Energy range of the photons and absence of pin-holes aim to provide larger pool of radioisotopes and larger efficiency than other emission imaging modalities, such as single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography, making it possible to investigate larger pool of functions and smaller radioactivity doses. The observables available to produce the image are the gamma-ray position of interaction and energy deposition during Compton scattering within the detection systems. Image reconstruction methodologies such as backprojection and list-mode maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm are characterized and applied to produce images of simulated and experimental sources on the basis of the observed parameters. Given the observables and image reconstruction methodologies, imaging systems based on minimizing the variation of the impulse response with position within the field of view are developed. The approach allows imaging of three-dimensional sources when an imaging system which provides full 4 pi view of the object is used and imaging of two-dimensional sources when a single block-type detector which provides one view of the object is used. Geometrical resolution of few millimeters is obtained at few centimeters from the detection system if employing gamma-rays of energy in the order of few hundreds of keVs and current state of the art semi-conductor detectors; At this level of resolution, detection efficiency is in the order of 10-3 at few centimeters from the detector when a single

  14. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Gockenbach, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  15. Smartphone application for mechanical quality assurance of medical linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwiyoung; Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Suk; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2017-06-07

    Mechanical quality assurance (QA) of medical linear accelerators consists of time-consuming and human-error-prone procedures. We developed a smartphone application system for mechanical QA. The system consists of two smartphones: one attached to a gantry for obtaining real-time information on the mechanical parameters of the medical linear accelerator, and another displaying real-time information via a Bluetooth connection with the former. Motion sensors embedded in the smartphone were used to measure gantry and collimator rotations. Images taken by the smartphone's high-resolution camera were processed to evaluate accuracies of jaw-positioning, crosshair centering and source-to-surface distance (SSD). The application was developed using Android software development kit and OpenCV library. The accuracy and precision of the system was validated against an optical rotation stage and digital calipers, prior to routine QA measurements of five medical linear accelerators. The system accuracy and precision in measuring angles and lengths were determined to be 0.05  ±  0.05° and 0.25  ±  0.14 mm, respectively. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) in QA measurements of gantry and collimator rotation were 0.05  ±  0.04° and 0.05  ±  0.04°, respectively. The MAE in QA measurements of light field was 0.39  ±  0.36 mm. The MAEs in QA measurements of crosshair centering and SSD were 0.40  ±  0.35 mm and 0.41  ±  0.32 mm, respectively. In conclusion, most routine mechanical QA procedures could be performed using the smartphone application system with improved precision and within a shorter time-frame, while eliminating potential human errors.

  16. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  17. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Two dimension position sensitive multi-plate PPAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Ruishi; Guo Zhongyan; Xiao Guoqing; Zhan Wenlong; Xu Hushan; Hu Zhengguo; Wang Meng; Sun Zhiyu; Chen Zhiqiang; Chen Lixin; Li Chen; Bai Jie; Zhang Jinxia; Li Cunfan

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional positional sensitive multi-plate PPAC with resistance chain readout has been developed for Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL). The PPAC has an active area of 100 mm x 100 mm. It consists of an anode plane, a x wire plane, a y wire plane and two cathode planes. The gaps between anode and wire planes are 3 mm. And the gaps between cathodes and wire planes also are 3 mm. When filled with iso-butane at a pressure of 6.5 mb, the 0.58 mm (FWHM) position resolution and >99.2% detection efficiencies and <±50 μm linearity of the PPAC was estimated for 3 components α source

  19. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1  μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  20. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Ainsworth, R.; Aryshev, A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G.; Frisch, J.; Heo, A.; Honda, Y.; Hwang, W. H.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, E.-S.; Kim, S. H.; Lyapin, A.; Naito, T.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Mellor, R. E.; Molloy, S.; Nelson, J.; Park, S. J.; Park, Y. J.; Ross, M.; Shin, S.; Swinson, C.; Smith, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tauchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; White, G. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM) system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.