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Sample records for pose significant threats

  1. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, the smaller of the two islands in the Prince Edward. Island group, has few introduced organisms; it is cur- rently known to support only three introduced animals.

  2. Zoonotic pathogens from feral swine that pose a significant threat to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V R; Bowen, R A; Bosco-Lauth, A M

    2018-06-01

    The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals. This manuscript thoroughly reviews zoonotic diseases of concern including brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, leptospirosis, enteric pathogens, both Salmonella spp. and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and hepatitis E. These pathogens are not a comprehensive list of microbes that are capable of infecting both humans and feral swine, but rather have been selected as they are known to infect US feral swine, direct transmission between wild suids and humans has previously been documented, or they have been shown to be readily transmitted during processing or consumption of feral swine pork. Humans that interact directly or indirectly with feral swine are at much higher risk for the development of a number of zoonotic pathogens. Numerous case reports document transmission events from feral swine and wild boar to humans, and the resulting diseases may be mild and self-limiting, chronic or fatal. Individuals that interact with feral swine should take preventative measures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and all meat should be thoroughly cooked. Additionally, public health campaigns to increase knowledge of the risks associated with feral swine are imperative. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Laser Remediation of Threats Posed by Small Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Rogers, Jan R.; Hovater, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The continually increasing amount of orbital debris in near Earth space poses an increasing challenge to space situational awareness. Recent collisions of spacecraft caused abrupt increases in the density of both large and small debris in near Earth space. An especially challenging class of threats is that due to the increasing density of small (1 mm to 10 cm dimension) orbital debris. This small debris poses a serious threat since: (1) The high velocity enables even millimeter dimension debris to cause serious damage to vulnerable areas of space assets, e.g., detector windows; (2) The small size and large number of debris elements prevent adequate detection and cataloguing. We have identified solutions to this threat in the form of novel laser systems and novel ways of using these laser systems. While implementation of the solutions we identify is challenging we find approaches offering threat mitigation within time frames and at costs of practical interest. We base our analysis on the unique combination of coherent light specifically structured in both space and time and applied in novel ways entirely within the vacuum of space to deorbiting small debris. We compare and contrast laser based small debris removal strategies using ground based laser systems with strategies using space based laser systems. We find laser systems located and used entirely within space offer essential and decisive advantages over groundbased laser systems.

  4. Cultural adaptations to the differential threats posed by hot versus cold climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Damian R

    2013-10-01

    Hot and cold climates have posed differential threats to human survival throughout history. Cold temperatures can pose direct threats to survival in themselves, whereas hot temperatures may pose threats indirectly through higher prevalence of infectious disease. These differential threats yield convergent predictions for the relationship between more demanding climates and freedom of expression, but divergent predictions for freedom from discrimination.

  5. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2017-10-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and is a major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly challenging because it is considered the fifth most threatened large taxonomic group in the world; several species are among the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and the 11 largest online auction sites selling cacti, we documented the international cactus trade. To provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (a hotspot of cactus trade and invasions). We purchased seeds of every available species and used DNA barcoding to identify species to the genus level. Although <20% of this trade involved threatened species and <3% involved known invasive species, many species were identified by a common name. However, only 0.02% of the globally traded cacti were collected from wild populations. Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which 15% and 1.5% were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. With DNA barcoding, we identified 24% of the species to genus level. Based on our results, we believe that if trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, then the commercial trade in cactus poses a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Assessing the Biological Threat Posed by Suicide Bombers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    the test by about 350’, it is clear some aerosol particles “ surfed ” the shockwave from the blast and were carried a distance upwind. Had the sampling...projectiles implantation in victims of suicide bombings and implications for health and emergency care provideres: the 7/7 experience, Ann R Coll Surg Engl...Ebola in East Africa and Implications for Global Health and Security, Global Policy 2013. (8) Ustun, C.; Ozgurler, O., Ebola: A Significant Threat as

  7. Invasive Lionfish (Pterosis volitans) Pose Public Health Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity. Lionfish pose several public health threats. New strategies to control the lionfish population explosion in coastal waters and offshore fisheries are needed now to ensure seafood safety and public health. The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, is native to the reefs of the western Indian and Pacific Oceans (Figure 1). Brightly colored with red, white, and black stripes and adorned with feathery fins, the lionfish is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins (Figure 2). Lionfish were introduced into the western North Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s after some specimens were discarded by dissatisfied amateur aquarists and others escaped from hurricane-flooded public aquariums.1 Since lionfish are voracious carnivores, have few natural predators, and reproduce prolifically, they have overpopulated and dispersed widely from Cape Hatteras to Florida, throughout the Caribbean Sea, and into the Gulf of Mexico.1 The population density of lionfish in its new, invaded territory now exceeds that of its native habitat.1 As a result, campaigns to control lionfish populations were launched in Florida and the Caribbean. Lionfish now pose several public

  8. Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Weigmann, Diana L.; Speenburgh, Renee M.; Neves, Richard J.; Kitchel, Lisie; Bruenderman, Sue A., 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Provides an brief introduction to the invasion of the zebra mussel into American waters, explains the economic consequences they pose, and discusses if Virginia will inherit the problem, what the public can do to help, the general lifecycle of the zebra mussel and if they can be controlled, and who is working on the zebra mussel problem.

  9. The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 researchers have sought to better understand the macroeconomic consequences of terrorism. Despite a...The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups A Monograph by MAJ Joshua Glonek...SUBTITLE The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  10. Personal privacy, information assurance, and the threat posed by malware techology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2006-04-01

    In spite of our best efforts to secure the cyber world, the threats posed to personal privacy by attacks upon networks and software continue unabated. While there are many reasons for this state of affairs, clearly one of the reasons for continued vulnerabilities in software is the inability to assess their security properties and test their security systems while they are in development. A second reason for this growing threat to personal privacy is the growing sophistication and maliciousness of malware coupled with the increasing difficulty of detecting malware. The pervasive threat posed by malware coupled with the difficulties faced when trying to detect its presence or an attempted intrusion make addressing the malware threat one of the most pressing issues that must be solved in order to insure personal privacy to users of the internet. In this paper, we will discuss the threat posed by malware, the types of malware found in the wild (outside of computer laboratories), and current techniques that are available for from a successful malware penetration. The paper includes a discussion of anti-malware tools and suggestions for future anti-malware efforts.

  11. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  12. Does nitrate deposition following astrophysical ionizing radiation events pose an additional threat to amphibians?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Brian C.; Honeyman, Michelle D.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that amphibians are especially susceptible to the combination of heightened UVB radiation and increased nitrate concentrations. Various astrophysical events have been suggested as sources of ionizing radiation that could pose a threat to life on Earth, through destruction of the ozone layer and subsequent increase in UVB, followed by deposition of nitrate. In this study, we investigate whether the nitrate deposition following an ionizing event is sufficiently large to cause an add...

  13. Understanding the threats posed by non-native species: public vs. conservation managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe E Gozlan

    Full Text Available Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone.

  14. Buckling-driven delamination growth in composite laminates: Guidelines for assessing the threat posed by interlaminar matrix delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhushan, Karihaloo; Stang, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with development of a simple procedure to assess the threat posed by interlaminar matrix delaminations to the integrity of composite laminates when they are situated in a compressive stress field. Depending upon the size of the delamination, its location below the surface...

  15. An alternative approach to risk rank chemicals on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Donnachie, Rachel L; Sumpter, John P; Jürgens, Monika D; Moeckel, Claudia; Pereira, M Gloria

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new and unbiased method of risk ranking chemicals based on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment. The study ranked 12 metals, 23 pesticides, 11 other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 13 pharmaceuticals, 10 surfactants and similar compounds and 2 nanoparticles (total of 71) of concern against one another by comparing their median UK river water and median ecotoxicity effect concentrations. To complement this, by giving an assessment on potential wildlife impacts, risk ranking was also carried out by comparing the lowest 10th percentile of the effects data with the highest 90th percentile of the exposure data. In other words, risk was pared down to just toxicity versus exposure. Further modifications included incorporating bioconcentration factors, using only recent water measurements and excluding either lethal or sub-lethal effects. The top ten chemicals, based on the medians, which emerged as having the highest risk to organisms in UK surface waters using all the ecotoxicity data were copper, aluminium, zinc, ethinylestradiol (EE2), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), triclosan, manganese, iron, methomyl and chlorpyrifos. By way of contrast, using current UK environmental quality standards as the comparator to median UK river water concentrations would have selected 6 different chemicals in the top ten. This approach revealed big differences in relative risk; for example, zinc presented a million times greater risk then metoprolol and LAS 550 times greater risk than nanosilver. With the exception of EE2, most pharmaceuticals were ranked as having a relatively low risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Counterintelligence Screening Needed lo Reduce Security Threat That Unscreened Local National Linguists Pose to U.S. Forces (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    Logistics Civil Augmentation Program MEP Mission Essential Personnel MFR Memorandum for Record OCI Organizational Conflict of Interest OCONUS Outside...reports would draw conclusions and recollllllel1dations on the retention, hir.ing, or threat posed by the LNs. MEP would send thjl MFRs to tlie...office responsible for issning badges on the local installations if the MFRs had no negative CI infonnation. If the MFRs had CI exploitable information

  17. Victims’ Reactions to the Interpersonal Threat to Public Identity Posed by Copycats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal threats to public identity consist of situations where another person intentionally attempts to illegitimately undermine one’s ability to display a valued and distinctive public identity. In three studies, we examined victims’ reactions to copycatting as an interpersonal threat to public identity to test each component of this definition. In Study, participants expressed the greatest degree of anger when the copying was illegitimate and intentional. In Study 2, participants expressed a greater degree of anger to copying of an important (vs. unimportant characteristic. In Study 3, we manipulated the number of identity characteristics copied. A structural model showed that as the number of copied characteristics increased, participants’ perception of the situation as illegitimate and the copying as intentional predicted a threat to one’s freedom, which in turn predicted felt reactance predicting an unfavorable impression and a desire to confront the copycat. Together, the results support the definition of interpersonal threats to public identity and copycatting as such a situation.

  18. Climate change poses additional threat to the future of ash resources in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Prasad; Louis Iverson; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that climate change has the potential to alter the distribution of plant species all over the world. In the United States, ash (Fraxinus spp.) is encountering the double threat of short-term emerald ash borer (EAB) infestation, which could decimate ash throughout the country, and longer term perturbations due to...

  19. Do New Mobile Devices in Enterprises Pose A Serious Security Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A Altalbe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a research proposal designed to explore the network securityissues concerning mobile devices protection. Many threats exist and they harm not only computers but handheld devices as well. The mobility of phones and their excessive use make them more vulnerable. The findings suggest a list of protections that can provide high level of security for new mobile devices.

  20. Landscape, Legal, and Biodiversity Threats that Windows Pose to Birds: A Review of an Important Conservation Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klem Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows in human residential and commercial structures in urban, suburban, and rural landscapes contribute to the deaths of billions of birds worldwide. International treaties, federal, provincial, state, and municipal laws exist to reduce human-associated avian mortality, but are most often not enforced for bird kills resulting from window strikes. As an additive, compared to a compensatory mortality factor, window collisions pose threats to the sustainability and overall population health of common as well as species of special concern. Several solutions to address the window hazard for birds exist, but the most innovative and promising need encouragement and support to market, manufacture, and implement.

  1. Potential Threats Posed by Tetrodotoxins in UK Waters: Examination of Detection Methodology Used in Their Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Turner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin responsible for many human fatalities, most commonly following the consumption of pufferfish. Whilst the source of the toxin has not been conclusively proven, it is thought to be associated with various species of marine bacteria. Whilst the toxins are well studied in fish and gastropods, in recent years, there have been a number of reports of tetrodotoxin occurring in bivalve shellfish, including those harvested from the UK and other parts of Europe. This paper reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of tetrodotoxins in the UK together with methodologies currently available for testing. Biological, biomolecular and chemical methods are reviewed, including recommendations for further work. With the recent development of quantitative chromatographic methods for these and other hydrophilic toxins, as well as the commercial availability of rapid testing kits, there are a number of options available to ensure consumers are protected against this threat.

  2. Threats to Security Posed by ISIS in Syria: A Human Security Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil war in Syria coupled with the attacks by ISIS, has resulted in one of the largest humanitarian crises since World War II. Although international efforts have resulted in regaining control of important cities, these military approaches have escalated and inflamed the violence of which innocent civilians bear the consequences. The continuing violence and resulting threats or insecurities negatively affect the lives, freedom, dignity and development of the people to name but a few. For that reason, the aim is to explore the applicability of a human security approach to the conflict in Syria that focuses on, among other aspects, minimising violence, mitigating the effects of the conflict, protecting people, restoring peace and eliminating the grounds that resulted in the development of these conditions in the first place.

  3. Life History Variation in Invading Applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) May Pose Ecological Threats to Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfurt, R. K.; Boland, B. B.; Burks, R. L.

    2005-05-01

    In native habitats, channeled applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) graze periphyton. However, casual observations from introduced populations suggest these invaders show variation in feeding ecology, predator response and life history strategies. Attempts to predict this consumer influence on ecosystem function suffer from a lack of basic data. We tested how salinity affected snail mortality. Both adults and hatchlings tolerated salinity levels up to 8 ppt. Adult feeding on lettuce increased significantly at 8 ppt compared to 0 ppt (p = 0.002), while hatchling consumption of algae did not vary (p = 0.284). To see how these consumers responded to predators from the invaded ecosystem, we tested behavioural responses to predatory cues from fish, turtles, crayfish and adult applesnails. Results indicated that fish and crayfish prompted similar predator-avoidance behaviors in hatchlings (p's 0.05) between native (ramshorn) and exotic applesnails, whereas adult fish consumed more applesnails (x2, p < 0.001). Our current efforts focus on examining if predator presence or macrophyte choice alters applesnail feeding rates. Research providing insight into the basic ecology of applesnails can foster management efforts at the ecosystem scale.

  4. What Threats to Human Health Does Space Radiation Pose in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Semones, Eddie; Weyland, Mark; Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program spanned more than the entire length of a solar cycle. Investigations aimed towards understanding the health risks of the astronauts from exposures to space radiation involved mostly physical measurements of the dose and the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. Measurement of the dose rate on the Shuttle provided invariable new data for different periods of the solar cycle, whereas measurement of the LET spectrum using the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) produced the most complete mapping of the radiation environment of the low Earth orbits (LEO). Exposures to the Shuttle astronauts were measured by the personal dosimeter worn by the crewmembers. Analysis of over 300 personal dosimeter readings indicated a dependence on the mission duration, the altitude and inclination of the orbit, and the solar cycle, with the crewmembers on the launch and repair of the Hubble telescope receiving the highest doses due to the altitude of the mission. Secondary neutrons inside the Shuttle were determined by recoil protons or with Bonner spheres, and may contribute significantly to the risks of the crewmembers. In addition, the skin dose and the doses received at different organs were compared using a human phantom onboard a Shuttle mission. A number of radiobiology investigations wer e also performed. The biological doses were determined on six astronauts/cosmonauts on long-duration Shuttle/Mir missions and on two crewmembers on a Hubble repair mission by analyzing the damages in the chromosomes of the crewmembers? white blood cells. Several experiments were also conducted to address the question of possible synergistic effects of spaceflight, microgravity in particular, on the repair of radiation-induced DNA damages. The experimental design included exposure of cells before launch, during flight, or after landing. These physical and biological studies were invaluable in predicting the health risks for astronauts on ISS and future

  5. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk

  6. Report on the costs of domestic and international emergencies and on the threats posed by the Kuwaiti oil fires as required by P. L. 102-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    The report fulfills the requirements of Public Law 12-55, the FY 1992 dire emergency supplemental appropriations bill, signed by the President on June 13, 1991. This law required the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to prepare and submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on: unfunded costs of dire emergencies because of floods, droughts, tornadoes, unemployment, and other disasters in the United States; unfunded costs, including food assistance, of international disaster emergencies existing because of floods, droughts, tornadoes, and other disasters; and the threats to oil supply, human health, and the environment that the Kuwaiti oil fires might pose.

  7. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-01-01

    Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957

  8. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KARRIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  10. Significance of the institute of appeals under the conditions of increasing threats to national security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kapulovskyi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the regulatory and scientific foundation for the development of the institute of citizens’ treatments in terms of obvious internal and external threats to national security. An attempt to construct an applicable model of management of public processes in terms of threats to national security, in which public opinion plays a key value. The fact that a successful resolution of problem of public participation in the preparation and acceptance of political decisions requires not only the presence of the constitutionally enshrined rights and duties and political institutions formed democratically, but also a variety of forms and ways of influencing in the activities of public authorities. At the same time, in a not declared, the so-called »hybrid» war, in which warfare are conducted locally - in some parts of the state and all other public and private institutions function in usual mode, tracking of possible threats to national security and factors that give rise to such threats should be carried out by means of both cleanly military, and civil means and methods. Thus, one of the most effective civil means of tracking such threats are the reception of citizens’ treatments, their processing and the adoption of appropriate response measures, in my opinion. Keywords: national security, public safety, human rights, public authorities, public interest.

  11. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  12. Incinerators, Hazardous Waste, To identify and locate abandoned oil production facilities and apparatus which pose a potential threat for creating an oil spill through either natural or accidental causes., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Incinerators, Hazardous Waste dataset current as of 1998. To identify and locate abandoned oil production facilities and apparatus which pose a potential threat for...

  13. Mitigation of the threat posed to transfusion by donors traveling to Zika-affected areas: a Canadian risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; O'Brien, Sheila F; Grégoire, Yves; Fearon, Margaret; Devine, Dana

    2017-10-01

    The recent spread of the Zika virus to the Americas and the recognition that it can cause severe disease in the developing fetus has prompted the adoption of measures to mitigate the risk that this virus might pose to transfusion safety. In nonendemic countries, the risk to transfusion results from donors traveling to an endemic region. Canada implemented a 21-day temporary deferral for prospective donors who traveled to such regions. We present the rationale for this policy, including a quantitative risk assessment supported by a Monte Carlo simulation. The model considered the following parameters, each with specified values and ranges: the probability that a donor recently returned from a Zika-endemic region, the duration of travel to this region, the daily risk of acquiring Zika while in an endemic region, and the incubation and viremic periods. We ran the simulation 20 times, each with 10 million iterations. In the absence of any travel deferral, 32 donors (range, 20-46 donors) would be able to donate while still being at risk of transmitting Zika, corresponding to a rate of 1:312,500 (range, 1:217,000 to 1:500,000). None of these donors would be viremic beyond 21 days after returning from their travel, with a risk estimated at less than 1:200,000,000. A 21-day temporary travel deferral offers an extremely wide margin of safety for the possible transmission of Zika by a donation obtained from someone who recently returned from a country where the virus is circulating. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Which US States Pose the Greatest Threats to Military Readiness and Public Health? Public Health Policy Implications for a Cross-sectional Investigation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Body Mass Index, and Injuries Among US Army Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Grieve, George L; Clennin, Morgan N; McLain, Alexander C; Whitsel, Laurie P; Beets, Michael W; Hauret, Keith G; Jones, Bruce H; Sarzynski, Mark A

    2018-01-09

    Many states in the southern region of the United States are recognized for higher rates of obesity, physical inactivity, and chronic disease. These states are therefore recognized for their disproportionate public health burden. The purpose of this study was to investigate state-level distributions of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI), and injuries among US Army recruits in order to determine whether or not certain states may also pose disproportionate threats to military readiness and national security. Sex-specific state-level values for injuries and fitness among 165 584 Army recruits were determined. Next, the relationship between median cardiorespiratory fitness and injury incidence at the state level was examined using Spearman correlations. Finally, multivariable Poisson regression models stratified by sex examined state-level associations between fitness and injury incidence, while controlling for BMI, and other covariates. Cardiorespiratory fitness and training-related injury incidence. A cluster of 10 states from the south and southeastern regions (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas) produced male or female recruits who were significantly less fit and/or more likely to become injured than recruits from other US states. Compared with the "most fit states," the incidence of injuries increased by 22% (95% CI, 17-28; P < .001) and 28% (95% CI, 19-36; P < .001) in male and female recruits from the "least fit states," respectively. The impact of policies, systems, and environments on physical activity behavior, and subsequently fitness and health, has been clearly established. Advocacy efforts aimed at active living policies, systems, and environmental changes to improve population health often fail. However, advocating for active living policies to improve national security may prove more promising, particularly with legislators. Results from this study demonstrate

  15. Threat Posed by Mounting Vigilantism in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    unexamined amid this narco-mayhem are vigilante activities. Rossana Reguillo Cruz , an activ- ist who studies crime and violence at the Jesuit Uni...zero—even though choppers belonging to television networks managed to set down. Mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who narrowly lost the 2006...groundswell of support.3 Rossana Reguillo Cruz , an activist who studies crime and vio- lence at the Jesuit University of Guadalajara, echoed this

  16. Development of a semi-quantitative risk assessment model for evaluating environmental threat posed by the three first EU watch-list pharmaceuticals to urban wastewater treatment plants: An Irish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Alexandre; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Clifford, Eoghan; Cummins, Enda; Rowan, Neil

    2017-12-15

    Contamination of receiving waters with pharmaceutical compounds is of pressing concern. This constitutes the first study to report on the development of a semi-quantitative risk assessment (RA) model for evaluating the environmental threat posed by three EU watch list pharmaceutical compounds namely, diclofenac, 17-beta-estradiol and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol, to aquatic ecosystems using Irish data as a case study. This RA model adopts the Irish Environmental Protection Agency Source-Pathway-Receptor concept to define relevant parameters for calculating low, medium or high risk score for each agglomeration of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which include catchment, treatments, operational and management factors. This RA model may potentially be used on a national scale to (i) identify WWTPs that pose a particular risk as regards releasing disproportionally high levels of these pharmaceutical compounds, and (ii) help identify priority locations for introducing or upgrading control measures (e.g. tertiary treatment, source reduction). To assess risks for these substances of emerging concern, the model was applied to 16 urban WWTPs located in different regions in Ireland that were scored for the three different compounds and ranked as low, medium or high risk. As a validation proxy, this case study used limited monitoring data recorded at some these plants receiving waters. It is envisaged that this semi-quantitative RA approach may aid other EU countries investigate and screen for potential risks where limited measured or predicted environmental pollutant concentrations and/or hydrological data are available. This model is semi-quantitative, as other factors such as influence of climate change and drug usage or prescription data will need to be considered in a future point for estimating and predicting risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  18. 24 CFR 9.131 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... health or safety of others. (b) “Direct threat” means a significant risk to the health or safety of... provision of auxiliary aids or services. (c) In determining whether an individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others, the agency must make an individualized assessment, based on reasonable...

  19. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  20. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  1. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariwan M M Al-Bajalan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017.For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran.In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  2. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bajalan, Mariwan M M; Al-Jaf, Sirwan M A; Niranji, Sherko S; Abdulkareem, Dler R; Al-Kayali, Khudhair K; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017. For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran. In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  3. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  4. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  5. Fungus diseases of poplar that pose a threat to Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, E.; Cellerino, G.P.; Garibaldi, A.

    1981-01-01

    European Economic Community Directive No. 7793 on the exchange of, and trade in, plant material between member countries specified Hypoxylon mammatum, Mycosphaerella populorum, Melampsora medusae and Xanthomonas populi as the causal agents of serious poplar diseases the introduction of which into Italy should be avoided. Information is given on the geographic distribution, morphology and biology of the four pathogens, together with notes on the symptoms of attack, host plants and damage caused. Control measures to avoid their introduction and spread are suggested.

  6. America’s Food: Does Anthrax Pose A Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    a 1996 JAMA article, “Unexplained Severe Illness Possibly Associated with Consumption of Kombucha Tea - Iowa 1995.”13 For clarification, the... Kombucha “mush- room” is a “ symbiotic colony of several species of yeast and bacteria that are bound to- gether by a surrounding membrane.”14 Dr. Sadjadi...described an outbreak in Iran of cuta- 9 neous anthrax related to the Kombucha mushroom. In 1996 in a village on the outskirts of Tehran, 20 people

  7. Does modern piracy pose a threat to maritime transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Makowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to answer the question whether the observed since 2005 “renaissance” of piracy in the Somali region and the Gulf of Aden (in general, we can speak of the eastern part of the Indian Ocean, is in a position to threaten the international chains of supplies in their global dimension. The conducted analysis of lines of maritime transport compared with the number of pirate attacks and their consequences on the individual sea areas helped to establish that, answering the main question raised in the title of the article, we can certainly say that it does not.

  8. The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; Jacquemard, Tim; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel; Novitzky, Peter; Gordijn, Bert

    2016-02-01

    The rapid evolution of information, communication and entertainment technologies will transform the lives of citizens and ultimately transform society. This paper focuses on ethical issues associated with the likely convergence of virtual realities (VR) and social networks (SNs), hereafter VRSNs. We examine a scenario in which a significant segment of the world's population has a presence in a VRSN. Given the pace of technological development and the popularity of these new forms of social interaction, this scenario is plausible. However, it brings with it ethical problems. Two central ethical issues are addressed: those of privacy and those of autonomy. VRSNs pose threats to both privacy and autonomy. The threats to privacy can be broadly categorized as threats to informational privacy, threats to physical privacy, and threats to associational privacy. Each of these threats is further subdivided. The threats to autonomy can be broadly categorized as threats to freedom, to knowledge and to authenticity. Again, these three threats are divided into subcategories. Having categorized the main threats posed by VRSNs, a number of recommendations are provided so that policy-makers, developers, and users can make the best possible use of VRSNs.

  9. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  10. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  11. The art of problem posing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    1990-01-01

    Updated and expanded, this second edition satisfies the same philosophical objective as the first -- to show the importance of problem posing. Although interest in mathematical problem solving increased during the past decade, problem posing remained relatively ignored. The Art of Problem Posing draws attention to this equally important act and is the innovator in the field. Special features include: * an exploration ofthe logical relationship between problem posing and problem solving * a special chapter devoted to teaching problem posing as a separate course * sketches, drawings, diagrams, and cartoons that illustrate the schemes proposed * a special section on writing in mathematics.

  12. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  13. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  14. University Students' Problem Posing Abilities and Attitudes towards Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmeier, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)

  15. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  16. Association study of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence: a strategy to assess the extent of risk posed by bacterial population in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Ekka, Roseleen; Mishra, Mitali; Mohapatra, Harapriya

    2017-07-01

    The present study explored the association between multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index and virulence index to determine what percent of environmental antibiotic-resistant (eARB) bacteria could pose threat as potential pathogen. 16srRNA-based sequencing of 113 non-duplicate isolates identified majority of them to be gram negative belonging to Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Proteus, Acinetobacter, and Klebsiella. Statistical comparison of MAR indices of the abovementioned genera indicated differences in the median values among the groups (p  Klebsiella = Acinetobacter > Proteus > Aeromonas > Enterobacter. Association between MAR index and virulence index revealed that 25% of isolates in the population under study posed high threat to human/animal or both; out of which 75% isolates belonged to genus Pseudomonas. Based on observations of comparative analysis of the six gram-negative genera, it could be concluded that Pseudomonas isolates from environment pose significantly high threat as potential pathogens while Enterobacter isolates posed no threat.

  17. Transactional costs of the interaction between business and government as a threat to the economic security of the state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evmenov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the costs of the interaction between the state and business as a threat to the development of the economy of the Russian Federation from the point of view of ensuring economic security. The authors identified significant obstacles both from the business and from the government side, which pose a threat to economic security. The study is of interest for the further development of a system of providing the economic security of the Russian Federation.

  18. Exemplar-based human action pose correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Deng, Ke; Bai, Xiang; Leyvand, Tommer; Guo, Baining; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-07-01

    The launch of Xbox Kinect has built a very successful computer vision product and made a big impact on the gaming industry. This sheds lights onto a wide variety of potential applications related to action recognition. The accurate estimation of human poses from the depth image is universally a critical step. However, existing pose estimation systems exhibit failures when facing severe occlusion. In this paper, we propose an exemplar-based method to learn to correct the initially estimated poses. We learn an inhomogeneous systematic bias by leveraging the exemplar information within a specific human action domain. Furthermore, as an extension, we learn a conditional model by incorporation of pose tags to further increase the accuracy of pose correction. In the experiments, significant improvements on both joint-based skeleton correction and tag prediction are observed over the contemporary approaches, including what is delivered by the current Kinect system. Our experiments for the facial landmark correction also illustrate that our algorithm can improve the accuracy of other detection/estimation systems.

  19. Meeting the challenge of interacting threats in freshwater ecosystems: A call to scientists and managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Craig

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities create threats that have consequences for freshwater ecosystems and, in most watersheds, observed ecological responses are the result of complex interactions among multiple threats and their associated ecological alterations. Here we discuss the value of considering multiple threats in research and management, offer suggestions for filling knowledge gaps, and provide guidance for addressing the urgent management challenges posed by multiple threats in freshwater ecosystems. There is a growing literature assessing responses to multiple alterations, and we build off this background to identify three areas that require greater attention: linking observed alterations to threats, understanding when and where threats overlap, and choosing metrics that best quantify the effects of multiple threats. Advancing science in these areas will help us understand existing ecosystem conditions and predict future risk from multiple threats. Because addressing the complex issues and novel ecosystems that arise from the interaction of multiple threats in freshwater ecosystems represents a significant management challenge, and the risks of management failure include loss of biodiversity, ecological goods, and ecosystem services, we also identify actions that could improve decision-making and management outcomes. These actions include drawing insights from management of individual threats, using threat attributes (e.g., causes and spatio-temporal dynamics to identify suitable management approaches, testing management strategies that are likely to be successful despite uncertainties about the nature of interactions among threats, avoiding unintended consequences, and maximizing conservation benefits. We also acknowledge the broadly applicable challenges of decision-making within a socio-political and economic framework, and suggest that multidisciplinary teams will be needed to innovate solutions to meet the current and future challenge of interacting

  20. Meeting the challenge of interacting threats in freshwater ecosystems: A call to scientists and managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Laura S.; Olden, Julian D.; Arthington, Angela; Entrekin, Sally; Hawkins, Charles P.; Kelly, John J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Maitland, Bryan M.; Rosi, Emma J.; Roy, Allison; Strayer, David L.; Tank, Jennifer L.; West, Amie O.; Wooten, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities create threats that have consequences for freshwater ecosystems and, in most watersheds, observed ecological responses are the result of complex interactions among multiple threats and their associated ecological alterations. Here we discuss the value of considering multiple threats in research and management, offer suggestions for filling knowledge gaps, and provide guidance for addressing the urgent management challenges posed by multiple threats in freshwater ecosystems. There is a growing literature assessing responses to multiple alterations, and we build off this background to identify three areas that require greater attention: linking observed alterations to threats, understanding when and where threats overlap, and choosing metrics that best quantify the effects of multiple threats. Advancing science in these areas will help us understand existing ecosystem conditions and predict future risk from multiple threats. Because addressing the complex issues and novel ecosystems that arise from the interaction of multiple threats in freshwater ecosystems represents a significant management challenge, and the risks of management failure include loss of biodiversity, ecological goods, and ecosystem services, we also identify actions that could improve decision-making and management outcomes. These actions include drawing insights from management of individual threats, using threat attributes (e.g., causes and spatio-temporal dynamics) to identify suitable management approaches, testing management strategies that are likely to be successful despite uncertainties about the nature of interactions among threats, avoiding unintended consequences, and maximizing conservation benefits. We also acknowledge the broadly applicable challenges of decision-making within a socio-political and economic framework, and suggest that multidisciplinary teams will be needed to innovate solutions to meet the current and future challenge of interacting threats in

  1. The threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, S.; Touchard, P.; Ferrandery, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Second chapter of the book on the geopolitics of the sustainable development, this chapter deals with the threats of the climatic change on the earth and the humans. the authors analyze the consequences of the climatic change on the developing countries of the South and the necessity of a sustainable development implementation in the North. They inform on the resources depletion, the water problem, the nuclear activities and the public health and the french government policy facing the sustainable management of the territory. (A.L.B.)

  2. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Is supergravity well-posed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenberg, J.; Bao, D.; Yasskin, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    One rather fundamental question concerning supergravity remains unresolved: Is supergravity a well-posed field theory? That is, does a set of certain (Cauchy) data specified on some initial spacelike surface determine a unique, causally propagating spacetime solution of the supergravity field equations (at least in some finite neighborhood of the initial surface)? In this paper, the authors give a very brief report on work directed towards answering this question. (Auth.)

  4. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  5. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.

    2006-01-01

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  6. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  7. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  8. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  9. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  10. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  11. 75 FR 30002 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... management; c. Nuclear deterrence transformation; d. Weapons effects; and e. Other Office of the Under... Reduction Agency on the following: a. Reducing the threat posed by nuclear, biological, chemical...

  12. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  13. Initial perspectives on process threat management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, James R. Rob; Mannan, M. Sam

    2004-01-01

    Terrorist and criminal acts are now considered credible risks in the process industries. Deliberate attacks on the nation's petroleum refineries and chemical plants would pose a significant threat to public welfare, national security, and the US economy. To-date, the primary response of government and industry has been on improved security to prevent attacks and the associated consequences. While prevention is clearly preferred, the potential for successful attacks must be addressed. If plant security is breached, the extent of the inflicted damage is determined by the available plant safety systems and procedures. We refer to this 'inside the gate' response as process threat management. The authors have initiated a joint industry/academia study to address: - the level of safety provided by existing plant equipment and safety systems in response to a terrorist act, and; - identification of process (rather than security) needs or opportunities to address this new safety concern. This paper describes the initial perspectives and issues identified by the team at the beginning of the study

  14. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  15. Security Evaluation of the Cyber Networks under Advanced Persistent Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Li, Pengdeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-01-01

    Advanced persistent threats (APTs) pose a grave threat to cyberspace, because they deactivate all the conventional cyber defense mechanisms. This paper addresses the issue of evaluating the security of the cyber networks under APTs. For this purpose, a dynamic model capturing the APT-based

  16. Science priorities for reducing the threat of invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. Chornesky; A. M. Bartuska; G. H. Aplet; J. Cummings-Carlson; F. W. Davis; J. Eskow; D. R. Gordon; K. W. Gottschalk; R. A. Haack; A. J. Hansen; R. N. Mack; F. J. Rahel; M. A. Shannon; L. A. Wainger; T. B. Wigley

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species pose a major, yet poorly addressed, threat to sustainable forestry. Here we set forth an interdisciplinary science strategy of research, development, and applications to reduce this threat. To spur action by public and private entities that too often are slow, reluctant, or unable to act, we recommend (a) better integrating invasive species into...

  17. New threats to academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  19. Threat Assessment: Do Lone Terrorists Differ from Other Lone Offenders?

    OpenAIRE

    Diane M. Zierhoffer

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999) poses ten questions about t...

  20. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  2. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  3. Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Budhi Utami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.

  4. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Contactless and pose invariant biometric identification using hand surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhangad, Vivek; Kumar, Ajay; Zhang, David

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for hand matching that achieves significantly improved performance even in the presence of large hand pose variations. The proposed method utilizes a 3-D digitizer to simultaneously acquire intensity and range images of the user's hand presented to the system in an arbitrary pose. The approach involves determination of the orientation of the hand in 3-D space followed by pose normalization of the acquired 3-D and 2-D hand images. Multimodal (2-D as well as 3-D) palmprint and hand geometry features, which are simultaneously extracted from the user's pose normalized textured 3-D hand, are used for matching. Individual matching scores are then combined using a new dynamic fusion strategy. Our experimental results on the database of 114 subjects with significant pose variations yielded encouraging results. Consistent (across various hand features considered) performance improvement achieved with the pose correction demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach for hand based biometric systems with unconstrained and contact-free imaging. The experimental results also suggest that the dynamic fusion approach employed in this work helps to achieve performance improvement of 60% (in terms of EER) over the case when matching scores are combined using the weighted sum rule.

  6. Foreign-funded M&A Poses No Threatto China’s Economic Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志乐

    2007-01-01

    Foreign funded M■A(Mergers ■ Acquisitions) activity is becoming increasingly common in China.In this article Wang Zhile assesses the effects and risks associated with M■A,finding that foreign funded M■A activity is immensely beneficial to China and poses no threat to economic security.

  7. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan A. Rather; Jameel B. Lone; Vivek K. Bajpai; Woon K. Paek; Jeongheui Lim

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is bei...

  8. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  9. Manifolds for pose tracking from monocular video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saurav; Poulin, Joshua; Acton, Scott T.

    2015-03-01

    We formulate a simple human-pose tracking theory from monocular video based on the fundamental relationship between changes in pose and image motion vectors. We investigate the natural embedding of the low-dimensional body pose space into a high-dimensional space of body configurations that behaves locally in a linear manner. The embedded manifold facilitates the decomposition of the image motion vectors into basis motion vector fields of the tangent space to the manifold. This approach benefits from the style invariance of image motion flow vectors, and experiments to validate the fundamental theory show reasonable accuracy (within 4.9 deg of the ground truth).

  10. Polish families in the face of challenges and threats posed by the first half of the 20th century (in the light of „Szkoła” [Rodziny polskie wobec wyzwań i zagrożeń pierwszej połowy XX wieku (w świetle „Szkoły”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka WAŁĘGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For Polish people and Polish families the first half of the 20th century was a difficult time. It was the final period of the Partitions, with intensified repression, especially Russification and Germanization, the time of World War I, and twenty years of the rebuilding of Polish statehood which ended in another worldwide armed conflict in 1939. The dynamic political changes which led to the outbreak of WWI and WWII and to the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918 were accompanied by significant transformations of social structure and new tendencies in the development of culture and education. The change of women’s social position and their political and educational emancipation forced new models of family relations to appear, and a uniform school system reconstructed after 123 years of bondage, together with the introduction of compulsory school attendance and the development of forms of pre-schooling education were significant challenges for many parents and their children. During the entire period the Polish family played a very important part in educational ideologies binding in Polish lands at that time – national and state education. Because of that it was the subject of interest of many pedagogic magazines. The aim of the paper is to indicate the main areas of tasks given to Polish families in the first half of the 20th century in the light of one of the oldest Polish periodicals of this type – „Szkoła”. Apart from the topics brought up in the pages of this magazine in the second half of the 19th century such as the cooperation of home and school, some new problems appeared then, including: the duties of a family in the difficult war and post-war period, concern for child’s health at home, or the significance of parents’ shaping of characteristics propagated by the supporters of national education.

  11. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  12. Kidnapping and abduction minimizing the threat and lessons in survival

    CERN Document Server

    Heard, Brian John

    2014-01-01

    Terrorist groups and organized crime cartels pose an increasing threat of kidnapping throughout many regions in the word. At the same time, international travel has become more commonplace for both business and leisure purposes. Kidnapping and Abduction: Minimizing the Threat and Lessons in Survival provides a practical guide on the precautions travelers can take to avoid being kidnapped or derail a kidnapping attempt in progress. In the event this cannot be avoided, the book supplies advice on how to ensure survival during captivity. Readers will learn: The basic elements of kidnapping and abduction The motivations and mechanisms of kidnappers The hotspots where kidnapping/hostage taking is prevalent Vehicles best suited for avoidance of kidnap threat and proposals for up-armoring an existing vehicle How to recognize immediate threats and precautions to be taken in assessing threat level The types of weapons most favored by kidnappers and their threat level Available bullet-resistant materials and their use ...

  13. Real threat of nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a 'flying squad' with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs

  14. Challenges Posed by Novel Psychoactive Substances – Middle East Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J. Bogusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are defined as substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat. In this context, the term “new” does not necessarily refer to new inventions but to substances that have recently become available or popular in a given society or country. This definition indicates that the problem of NPS is not new; however, the availability of any information via new communication technologies in the 21st century has enabled the spread of unwanted and socially harmful information, like information on the commercial availability of various NPS, offered in rising amounts and brands.

  15. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  16. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  17. Multi-task pose-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-03-01

    Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.

  18. Experimental estimation of snare detectability for robust threat monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    O Kelly, H. J.; Rowcliffe, M.; Durant, S.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2018-01-01

    Hunting with wire snares is rife within many tropical forest systems, and constitutes one of the severest threats to a wide range of vertebrate taxa. As for all threats, reliable monitoring of snaring levels is critical for assessing the relative effectiveness of management interventions. However, snares pose a particular challenge in terms of tracking spatial or temporal trends in their prevalence because they are extremely difficult to detect, and are typically spread across large, inaccess...

  19. Treatment of Leptothrix Cells with Ultrapure Water Poses a Threat to Their Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Leptothrix, a type of Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria, is characterized by its formation of an extracellular and microtubular sheath. Although almost all sheaths harvested from natural aquatic environments are hollow, a few chained bacterial cells are occasionally seen within some sheaths of young stage. We previously reported that sheaths of Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 cultured in artificial media became hollow with aging due to spontaneous autolysis within the sheaths. In this study, we investigated environmental conditions that lead the OUMS1 cells to die. Treatment of the cells with ultrapure water or acidic buffers (pH 6.0 caused autolysis of the cells. Under these conditions, the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of cells were drastically damaged, resulting in leakage of intracellular electrolytes and relaxation of genomic DNA. The autolysis was suppressed by the presence of Ca2+. The hydrolysis of peptidoglycan by the lysozyme treatment similarly caused autolysis of the cells and was suppressed also by the presence of Ca2+. However, it remains unclear whether the acidic pH-dependent autolysis is attributable to damage of peptidoglycan. It was observed that L. discophora strain SP-6 cells also underwent autolysis when suspended in ultrapure water; it is however, uncertain whether this phenomenon is common among other members of the genus Leptothrix.

  20. Treatment of Leptothrix Cells with Ultrapure Water Poses a Threat to Their Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Leptothrix, a type of Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria, is characterized by its formation of an extracellular and microtubular sheath. Although almost all sheaths harvested from natural aquatic environments are hollow, a few chained bacterial cells are occasionally seen within some sheaths of young stage. We previously reported that sheaths of Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 cultured in artificial media became hollow with aging due to spontaneous autolysis within the sheaths. In this study, we investigated environmental conditions that lead the OUMS1 cells to die. Treatment of the cells with ultrapure water or acidic buffers (pH 6.0) caused autolysis of the cells. Under these conditions, the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of cells were drastically damaged, resulting in leakage of intracellular electrolytes and relaxation of genomic DNA. The autolysis was suppressed by the presence of Ca2+. The hydrolysis of peptidoglycan by the lysozyme treatment similarly caused autolysis of the cells and was suppressed also by the presence of Ca2+. However, it remains unclear whether the acidic pH-dependent autolysis is attributable to damage of peptidoglycan. It was observed that L. discophora strain SP-6 cells also underwent autolysis when suspended in ultrapure water; it is however, uncertain whether this phenomenon is common among other members of the genus Leptothrix. PMID:25634812

  1. States of Terror: Understanding Evolving Islamist Terrorist Organizations and the Threat They Pose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Joint Publication 1-02) (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2016), http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine...holdings have devastatingly reduced the organization’s span of control in Somalia to small pockets of territory (see Figure 3). 38 Areas...no. 1 (March 2011): 3–31. doi:10.1080/09592318.2011.546572. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated

  2. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi poses no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Titelman, Josefin; Hansson, Lars Johan

    2011-01-01

    conducted laboratory incubation experimentsand video observations to quantify feeding rates on Baltic cod eggs and larvae. Ingestion rates increased with codlarvae concentrations up to 8 prey L21, beyond which ingestion remained constant. Neither Mnemiopsis size noregg concentration (1–16 prey L21) affected...... feeding rates on cod eggs. Observed feeding rates pooled from allexperiments conducted at nonsaturating prey concentrations were low, with the highest volume-specific clearanceon , 4.5-d-old yolk-sac larvae (0.05 6 0.02 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21), and lower rates on 4.5–8-d-old larvae(0.02 6 0.02 L (m......L Mnemiopsis)21 h21) and eggs (0.02 6 0.03 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21). When offered Artemiasalina and cod eggs simultaneously, Mnemiopsis passively selected against cod eggs. Video recordings showed thateggs did not trigger the capture response that Mnemiopsis shows toward motile prey, and ingested eggs were...

  3. Increased outdoor recreation, diminished ozone layer pose ultraviolet radiation threat to eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-24

    The long-term effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on the eye are of increasing concern as many people live longer and spend more of that time in outdoor recreation and as the diminishing ozone layer filters less UV light. Ultraviolet radiation is strongest at high altitude, low latitude, and open for reflective environments (sand, snow, or water). For people who lack an eye lens (aphakics), UV light is transmitted directly onto the retina. Cumulative exposure to the 300- to 400-nm range of UV light is one factor causing cataracts. Ophthalmologists say cataracts cause visual deficits for more than 3.5 million people in the United States. Cumulative UV exposure may lead to age-related macular degeneration. At a Research to Prevent Blindness conference in Arlington, VA, John S. Werner, PhD, professor of psychology and neurosciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, described how his group demonstrated the effects of UV light on retinal cones. Different types of intraocular lenses were placed in each eye of eight patients who had undergone bilateral cataract surgery. After five years, retinal cones chronically exposured to UV radiation had less sensitivity for short wavelengths (440 nm) by a factor of 1.7.

  4. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no apparent dietary threat to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in 17-year cicadas from Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland, were well below levels known to be harmful to birds. Cicadas contained concentrations of metals similar to or less than other local invertebrates except they contained more copper than did earthworms. Copper and lead concentrations in cicadas from one site may have been elevated by sewage plant effluent deposited during river floodings. Cicadas from the median of a major highway did not contain more lead than cicadas from non-traffic sites.

  5. The Risky Shift Toward Online Activism: Do Hacktivists Pose an Increased Threat to the Homeland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Cow and was intended to refer to the use of technology to foster human rights and the open exchange of information.11 The term has since evolved to...Orbit Ion Cannon (LOIC) has become a favorite of the hacktivist group Anonymous. The tool, originally created to perform witting stress tests of...that were generating the enormous heat , the enormous pressure, the enormous growth, and really shaping the political.”249 This failed approach to align

  6. Growing trend of identity theft poses safety and billing loss threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Identity theft is more than just a legal issue. Patients with improper identification are at risk for receiving potentially harmful treatment. Have registration department require photo identification from all patients. Ask additional questions, such as the patient's date of birth. Ask staff members to be the "eyes and ears" of registration and security, and ask them to report anything suspicious.

  7. Countering Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    threat, and to develop a common vision of how an insider can be categorized as well as an integrated approach that allows a qualitative reasoning about the threat and the possibilities of attacks. This report gives an overview of the discussions and presentations during the week, as well as the outcome...

  8. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  9. An improved silhouette for human pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Anthony H.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel method for analyzing images that exploits the natural lines of a human poses to find areas where self-occlusion could be present. Errors caused by self-occlusion cause several modern human pose estimation methods to mis-identify body parts, which reduces the performance of most action recognition algorithms. Our method is motivated by the observation that, in several cases, occlusion can be reasoned using only boundary lines of limbs. An intelligent edge detection algorithm based on the above principle could be used to augment the silhouette with information useful for pose estimation algorithms and push forward progress on occlusion handling for human action recognition. The algorithm described is applicable to computer vision scenarios involving 2D images and (appropriated flattened) 3D images.

  10. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to 'Power Poses'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body ( n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body ( n = 22), two expansive, high power poses ( n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses ( n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  11. Non-standard and improperly posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian; Ames, William F

    1997-01-01

    Written by two international experts in the field, this book is the first unified survey of the advances made in the last 15 years on key non-standard and improperly posed problems for partial differential equations.This reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers provides an overview of the methodology typically used to study improperly posed problems. It focuses on structural stability--the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions and the modeling equations--and on problems for which data are only prescribed on part of the boundary.The book addresses continuou

  12. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  13. The nucleolus is well-posed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragnelli, Vito; Patrone, Fioravante; Torre, Anna

    2006-02-01

    The lexicographic order is not representable by a real-valued function, contrary to many other orders or preorders. So, standard tools and results for well-posed minimum problems cannot be used. We prove that under suitable hypotheses it is however possible to guarantee the well-posedness of a lexicographic minimum over a compact or convex set. This result allows us to prove that some game theoretical solution concepts, based on lexicographic order are well-posed: in particular, this is true for the nucleolus.

  14. Global Threat Reduction Initiative International Partners' Conference. Summary of the proceedings and findings of the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) International Partners' Conference took place in Vienna, Austria, from September 18-19, 2004. More than 590 representatives from 100 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States attended the GTRI International Partners' Conference on September 18-19, 2004, in Vienna, Austria. Representatives from ten non-governmental and international organizations were also present during the conference. The Governments of the United States and the Russian Federation co-sponsored the International Partners Conference, with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The purpose of the International Partners' Conference was to build and broaden international support for efforts by national authorities to identify, secure, recover, and/or facilitate the disposition of high-risk nuclear and radioactive materials that pose a potential threat to the international community. One of the significant outcomes of the International Partners Conference was reaching agreement on the Findings of the Conference (enclosed in this document) by participating Member States that outlined a broadly shared opinion of participating Member States on efforts to reduce the potential threat posed by vulnerable, unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material. It is hoped that this document can be used as a framework to consolidate, expand, and accelerate domestic, regional, and IAEA programs that address unsecured vulnerable nuclear and radioactive materials, as deemed necessary by Member States. As a first step, participating members states urged the international community to note additional opportunities to further build support for activities related to GTRI

  15. Camera formation and more, but what comes next? an analysis of volcanic threat of Nisyros island, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winson, A; Kinvig, H; Gottsmann, J; Partington, E; Geyer, A

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of volcanic threat of Nisyros island (Greece) based on a catalogue of questions compiled for the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). We find that the score puts Nisyros in the league of volcanoes posing a very high threat. US volcanoes with a comparable threat level include Mt. St. Helens, Augustine and the Long Valley caldera.

  16. Camera formation and more, but what comes next? an analysis of volcanic threat of Nisyros island, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winson, A; Kinvig, H; Gottsmann, J; Partington, E; Geyer, A [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    We present an analysis of volcanic threat of Nisyros island (Greece) based on a catalogue of questions compiled for the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). We find that the score puts Nisyros in the league of volcanoes posing a very high threat. US volcanoes with a comparable threat level include Mt. St. Helens, Augustine and the Long Valley caldera.

  17. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  18. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  19. Head Pose Estimation from Passive Stereo Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenstein, Michael D.; Jensen, Jeppe; Høilund, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    function. Our algorithm incorporates 2D and 3D cues to make the system robust to low-quality range images acquired by passive stereo systems. It handles large pose variations (of ±90 ° yaw and ±45 ° pitch rotation) and facial variations due to expressions or accessories. For a maximally allowed error of 30...

  20. Responding to the Threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction After September 11, 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewy, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction as it is understood following the events of 11 September 2001 and the anthrax attacks directed at congressional and media offices...

  1. Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawhan, Karl

    2001-01-01

    .... Nontraditional threats, however, pose asymmetric dilemmas for the United States. The increased U.S. military and economic reliance on information systems introduces new vulnerabilities not adequately protected by traditional kinetic force arms...

  2. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  3. Spontaneous and posed facial expression in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M C; Smith, M K; Ellgring, H

    1996-09-01

    Spontaneous and posed emotional facial expressions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 12) were compared with those of healthy age-matched controls (n = 12). The intensity and amount of facial expression in PD patients were expected to be reduced for spontaneous but not posed expressions. Emotional stimuli were video clips selected from films, 2-5 min in duration, designed to elicit feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, or anger. Facial movements were coded using Ekman and Friesen's (1978) Facial Action Coding System (FACS). In addition, participants rated their emotional experience on 9-point Likert scales. The PD group showed significantly less overall facial reactivity than did controls when viewing the films. The predicted Group X Condition (spontaneous vs. posed) interaction effect on smile intensity was found when PD participants with more severe disease were compared with those with milder disease and with controls. In contrast, ratings of emotional experience were similar for both groups. Depression was positively associated with emotion rating but not with measures of facial activity. Spontaneous facial expression appears to be selectively affected in PD, whereas posed expression and emotional experience remain relatively intact.

  4. Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, R.; Slamet, I.; Budiyono

    2017-09-01

    One of the difficulties of students in the learning of geometry is on the subject of plane that requires students to understand the abstract matter. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of Problem Posing learning model with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in geometry learning. This quasi experimental research was conducted in one of the junior high schools in Karanganyar, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The results of this research indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students’ conceptual understanding significantly in geometry learning especially on plane topics. It is because students on the application of Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach are become to be active in constructing their knowledge, proposing, and problem solving in realistic, so it easier for students to understand concepts and solve the problems. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on geometry material. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  5. Combating Terrorism: Linking Threats to Strategies and Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...) gathers intelligence and assesses the threat posed by domestic sources of terrorism. According to the U.S. intelligence community, conventional explosives and firearms continue to be the weapons of choice for terrorists. The intelligence community (both foreign and domestic agencies) reports an increased possibility that terrorists may use CBRN agents in the next decade.

  6. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system. [Chandy S, Abraham P and ..... distribution of the hosts through international shipping routes. The majority of SEOV-related .... Dalrymple J M 1994 Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, ...

  7. Swazi Journalism and the 'Muslim Threat' | Rooney | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Swaziland constitution; (ii) a report that Muslims were enticing university students to convert to Islam in return for scholarships; and (iii) a public symposium run on the subject of Islam. It concludes that Swazi newspapers frame Muslims as warlike people who are plotting against the kingdom and who pose a threat to Swazi ...

  8. MILITARY TRADE UNIONS: A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions .... includes a rights-based culture, a rise in individualism, a change in the acceptance of ... military leadership with the military unions that poses the greatest threat to civil– ... 10 European Organisation of Military Associations, available at ...

  9. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  10. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  11. Tridimensional pose estimation of a person head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Berenguer, Elisa; Soria, Carlos; Nasisi, Oscar; Mut, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for estimating 3-D motion parameters; this method provides an alternative way for 3D head pose estimation from image sequence in the current computer vision literature. This method is robust over extended sequences and large head motions and accurately extracts the orientation angles of head from a single view. Experimental results show that this tracking system works well for development a human-computer interface for people that possess severe motor incapacity

  12. Driver head pose tracking with thermal camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, S.; Fournier, C.; Lavergne, C.; Druart, G.; Lépine, T.

    2016-09-01

    Head pose can be seen as a coarse estimation of gaze direction. In automotive industry, knowledge about gaze direction could optimize Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Pose estimation systems are often based on camera when applications have to be contactless. In this paper, we explore uncooled thermal imagery (8-14μm) for its intrinsic night vision capabilities and for its invariance versus lighting variations. Two methods are implemented and compared, both are aided by a 3D model of the head. The 3D model, mapped with thermal texture, allows to synthesize a base of 2D projected models, differently oriented and labeled in yaw and pitch. The first method is based on keypoints. Keypoints of models are matched with those of the query image. These sets of matchings, aided with the 3D shape of the model, allow to estimate 3D pose. The second method is a global appearance approach. Among all 2D models of the base, algorithm searches the one which is the closest to the query image thanks to a weighted least squares difference.

  13. An integrated approach to adapt physical protection to the new terrorism threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Braun, C.; Bunn, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: New terrorism (NT) differs significantly from the traditional form of terrorism insofar as it has the capability to: train and deploy suicide commandos; use sophisticated logistics; implement transnational terrorist operations; infiltrate security and diplomatic communities; and commit acts of mass disturbance and mass killings. NT does not engage in negotiations: it does not discriminate in its attacks between children, adult civilians or military personnel; and it is willing to deploy weapons of mass destruction. These characteristics require that the conventional approach to physical protection of installations dealing with nuclear and other radioactive materials (e.g., Design Basis Threat (DBT)) be adapted accordingly. This integrated approach should encompass: at the international level: revised legally binding conventions and recommendations which are more specific than current versions, providing practically applicable advice reflecting the new threat scenarios; at the national level: introducing an element of transparency for validating the national threat perception and supra-national review of the effectiveness of the counteractions taken such as regulatory approaches implementing these international agreements; at the operational level: enhancing security-related co-operation at the command and control level between the on-site security forces at nuclear installations, the response force, police and the military, as well as upgrading of the force-on-force training; and at the research level: R and D in physical protection technology and practices to keep abreast of the threats posed by the NT. (author)

  14. Population structure, behavior, and current threats to the sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Raj Gosai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone is listed as “vulnerable” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Sarus cranes are distributed in the lowlands, but most live outside protected areas, especially in agricultural areas and wetlands of Nepal. The continuous expansion of agricultural land and the reduction of wetland habitats pose the greatest threats to the conservation of the species. We studied the sarus crane in the Rupandehi District of Nepal to understand their population structure, behavior, and current threats. We used the line (i.e., road transect method from August 2013 to February 2014. The study area contained 147 sarus cranes. Agricultural land and wetland areas contained the highest number of sarus cranes. Our analysis showed that the population of sarus crane in the area has declined since 2007. Most sarus cranes lived in pairs. A single flock contained 13 cranes at maximum. Sarus crane behavior was not significantly different before and after the breeding seasons. Human–sarus crane conflict began when cranes started utilizing agricultural areas. The main threats to the hatching success and survival of sarus cranes in the Rupendehi District are egg theft and the hunting of cranes for meat. The findings of this study establish baseline information on the overall conservation status, habitat availability, and ecological behavior of sarus cranes in the district. We propose regular surveys to monitor sarus crane population levels in the face of multiple anthropogenic threats to their survival.

  15. Hybrid Wars: The 21 st -Century's New Threats to Global Peace and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyber-terrorism' and 'cyber-war' against the backdrop of Russia's 'Ukrainian Spring' and the continuing threat posed by radical Islamist groups in Africa and the Middle East. It also discusses the findings of an on-going hybrid threat project by ...

  16. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  17. Would an obese person whistle vivaldi? Targets of prejudice self-present to minimize appearance of specific threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Neufeld, Samantha L; Neuberg, Steven L

    2013-05-01

    How do targets of stigma manage social interactions? We built from a threat-specific model of prejudice to predict that targets select impression-management strategies that address the particular threats other people see them to pose. We recruited participants from two groups perceived to pose different threats: overweight people, who are heuristically associated with disease and targeted with disgust, and Black men, who are perceived to be dangerous and targeted with fear. When stereotypes and prejudices toward their groups were made salient, overweight people (Studies 1 and 2) and Black men (Study 2) selectively prioritized self-presentation strategies to minimize apparent disease threat (wearing clean clothes) or physical-violence threat (smiling), respectively. The specific threat a group is seen to pose plays an important but underexamined role in the psychology of being a target of prejudice.

  18. From Threat to Relief: Expressing Prejudice toward Atheists as a Self-Regulatory Strategy Protecting the Religious Orthodox from Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Szwed, Paulina; Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, Aneta; Sekerdej, Maciek; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    We claim that religious orthodoxy is related to prejudice toward groups that violate important values, i.e., atheists. Moreover, we suggest that expressing prejudice may efficiently reduce the threat posed by this particular group among people who hold high levels, but not low levels, of orthodox belief. We tested these assumptions in an experimental study in which, after being exposed to atheistic worldviews (value-threat manipulation), high and low orthodox participants were allowed (experimental condition) or not (control condition) to express prejudice toward atheists. Threat was operationalized by cardiovascular reactivity, i.e., heart rate (HR); the higher the HR index, the higher the threat. The results found that people who hold high (vs. low) levels of orthodox belief responded with increased HR after the threat manipulation. However, we observed decreased HR after the expression of prejudice toward atheists among highly orthodox participants compared to the control condition. We did not find this effect among people holding low levels of orthodox belief. Thus, we conclude that expressing prejudice toward this particular group may be an efficient strategy to cope with the threat posed by this group for highly orthodox people. The results are discussed in light of previous findings on religious beliefs and the self-regulatory function of prejudice. PMID:28611715

  19. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  20. Robotic-surgical instrument wrist pose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Stephan; Baek, Kyungim; Berkelman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Lightweight Surgery Robot from the University of Hawaii includes two teleoperated instruments and one endoscope manipulator which act in accord to perform assisted interventional medicine. The relative positions and orientations of the robotic instruments and endoscope must be known to the teleoperation system so that the directions of the instrument motions can be controlled to correspond closely to the directions of the motions of the master manipulators, as seen by the the endoscope and displayed to the surgeon. If the manipulator bases are mounted in known locations and all manipulator joint variables are known, then the necessary coordinate transformations between the master and slave manipulators can be easily computed. The versatility and ease of use of the system can be increased, however, by allowing the endoscope or instrument manipulator bases to be moved to arbitrary positions and orientations without reinitializing each manipulator or remeasuring their relative positions. The aim of this work is to find the pose of the instrument end effectors using the video image from the endoscope camera. The P3P pose estimation algorithm is used with a Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to ensure convergence. The correct transformations between the master and slave coordinate frames can then be calculated and updated when the bases of the endoscope or instrument manipulators are moved to new, unknown, positions at any time before or during surgical procedures.

  1. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  2. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  3. Relative Pose Estimation Algorithm with Gyroscope Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vision and inertial fusion algorithm S2fM (Simplified Structure from Motion for camera relative pose estimation. Different from current existing algorithms, our algorithm estimates rotation parameter and translation parameter separately. S2fM employs gyroscopes to estimate camera rotation parameter, which is later fused with the image data to estimate camera translation parameter. Our contributions are in two aspects. (1 Under the circumstance that no inertial sensor can estimate accurately enough translation parameter, we propose a translation estimation algorithm by fusing gyroscope sensor and image data. (2 Our S2fM algorithm is efficient and suitable for smart devices. Experimental results validate efficiency of the proposed S2fM algorithm.

  4. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  5. Explaining opposition to refugee resettlement: The role of NIMBYism and perceived threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferwerda, Jeremy; Flynn, D J; Horiuchi, Yusaku

    2017-09-01

    One week after President Donald Trump signed a controversial executive order to reduce the influx of refugees to the United States, we conducted a survey experiment to understand American citizens' attitudes toward refugee resettlement. Specifically, we evaluated whether citizens consider the geographic context of the resettlement program (that is, local versus national) and the degree to which they are swayed by media frames that increasingly associate refugees with terrorist threats. Our findings highlight a collective action problem: Participants are consistently less supportive of resettlement within their own communities than resettlement elsewhere in the country. This pattern holds across all measured demographic, political, and geographic subsamples within our data. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that threatening media frames significantly reduce support for both national and local resettlement. Conversely, media frames rebutting the threat posed by refugees have no significant effect. Finally, the results indicate that participants in refugee-dense counties are less responsive to threatening frames, suggesting that proximity to previously settled refugees may reduce the impact of perceived security threats.

  6. Managing threats from emerging technologies: can safeguards show the way?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffer, Teri N.

    2014-01-01

    The system of international nuclear safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is primarily a means of verification of states’ commitments under various legal instruments, principally the Nuclear Non‑Proliferation Treaty (NPT), to utilize controlled nuclear fission for peaceful purposes only. However, the safeguards system can also be seen as a mechanism through which states acted to reduce the threat posed by a new technology that had a transformative impact on existing national security paradigms when it emerged in the twentieth century. In the twenty‑first century, new technologies with equally profound national security implications are emerging. These include biotechnology and synthetic biology, nano technology, information technology, cognitive science, robotics and artificial intelligence. Throughout its history, the safeguards system has evolved to accommodate new technologies, new undertakings and new threats. Because multiple emerging technologies now constitute potential national security threats, it is appropriate to consider whether and how the lessons and successes of the safeguards system, including its capacity to evolve in response to changing requirements, could be leveraged to mitigate the threat posed by these new technologies. This paper addresses the possibility of re‑imagining safeguards in a way that makes them applicable to a broader range of technology‑based threats without compromising their effectiveness for their original purpose.

  7. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdiak, J.; Gafrik, A.; Pulis, P.; Susko, M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  8. Insider threats to cybersecurity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakha, D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ? Acting on opportunity Taking revenge for perceived injustice Making a statement Doing competitor s bidding Seeing themselves as a future competition INSIDER THREATS | Combating it! Darshan Lakha 7 5 January 2017 General Investigations...! Darshan Lakha 11 5 January 2017 Monitor user actions Use auditing to monitor access to files Examine cached Web files Monitor Web access at the firewall Monitor incoming and outgoing e-mail messages Control what software employees can install...

  9. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  10. Tooth display and lip position during spontaneous and posed smiling in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Berge, Stefaan J; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M

    2008-08-01

    To analyze differences in tooth display, lip-line height, and smile width between the posed smiling record, traditionally produced for orthodontic diagnosis, and the spontaneous (Duchenne) smile of joy. The faces of 122 male participants were each filmed during spontaneous and posed smiling. Spontaneous smiles were elicited through the participants watching a comical movie. Maxillary and mandibular lip-line heights, tooth display, and smile width were measured using a digital videographic method for smile analysis. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare measurements of posed and spontaneous smiling. Maxillary lip-line heights during spontaneous smiling were significantly higher than during posed smiling. Compared to spontaneous smiling, tooth display in the (pre)molar area during posed smiling decreased by up to 30%, along with a significant reduction of smile width. During posed smiling, also mandibular lip-line heights changed and the teeth were more covered by the lower lip than during spontaneous smiling. Reduced lip-line heights, tooth display, and smile width on a posed smiling record can have implications for the diagnostics of lip-line height, smile arc, buccal corridors, and plane of occlusion. Spontaneous smiling records next to posed smiling records are therefore recommended for diagnostic purposes. Because of the dynamic nature of spontaneous smiling, it is proposed to switch to dynamic video recording of the smile.

  11. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  12. Conceptualizing threats to tobacco control from international economic agreements: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; McGrady, Benn; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Lencucha, Raphael; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-10-19

    Using the results of dozens of interviews with key actors involved in tobacco control policymaking, we examine these actors' perceptions of threats to tobacco control policy efforts from international economic policies on trade and investment. We also evaluate, from a legal perspective, the genuine threats that exist or potential challenges that economic policies may pose to the Brazilian government's public health efforts. We find that most actors did not perceive these economic policies as a major threat to tobacco control. Objectively, we found that some threats do exist. For example, Brazil's attempt to ban most tobacco additives and flavorings continues to met resistance at the World Trade Organization.

  13. Toward a psychology of human survival: Psychological approaches to contemporary global threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear weapons, population explosion, resource and food-supply depletion, and environmental deterioration have been posing increasing threats to human survival. Moreover, for the first time in history, all these major global threats are human caused and can, therefore, be traced in large part to psychological origins. After a brief overview of the nature and extent of current threats, this paper suggests criteria for an adequate psychology of human survival. The causes and effects of the threats are examined from various psychological perspectives and the psychological principles underlying effective responses are deduced. The ways in which mental health professionals may contribute to this most crucial task are discussed. 76 references

  14. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  15. Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

  16. 2D Methods for pose invariant face recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Ntabiseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognise face images under random pose is a task that is done effortlessly by human beings. However, for a computer system, recognising face images under varying poses still remains an open research area. Face recognition across pose...

  17. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  18. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Of greatest importance in ethnic folklore are the recognised and unrecognised elements that are used when founding identity on tradition. For the aim of ethnic identification is to note and know the cultural features that connect me with people like me and separate me from people who are not like me. Every group and each of its members thus needs an opponent, a contact partner in order to identify itself. What about the Lapps? The ethnocentric values of ethnic folklore provide a model for this generalising comparison. 'They' are a potential danger, are unknown, strange, a threat from beyond the fells. They are sufficiently common for the group's ethnic feeling. It is here that we find tradition, folk tales, describing the community's traditional enemies, describing the threat from without, engendering preconceived ideas, conflicts and even war. The Lapps have never had an empire, they have never conquered others' territory, they have never engaged in systematic warfare against other peoples. For this reason Lapp tradition lacks an offensive ethnic folklore proper with emphasis on aggression, power, violence, heroism and an acceptance of the ideology of subordinating others. On the contrary,Lapp folklore is familiar with a tradition in which strangers are always threatening the Lapps' existence, plundering their territories, burning and destroying. The Lapp has always had to fight against alien powers, to give in or to outwit the great and powerful enemy. In the Lapp tradition the staalo represents an outside threat that cannot be directly concretised. If foes are regarded as concrete enemies that may be defeated in physical combat or that can be made to look ridiculous, a staalo is more mythical, more supranormal, more vague. One basic feature of the staalo tradition is that it only appears as one party to a conflict. The stories about the Lapp who succeeds in driving away a staalo threatening the community, to outwit the stupid giant or to kill

  19. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  20. Use of modified threat reduction assessments to estimate success of conservation measures within and adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Brandon P

    2008-12-01

    The importance of biodiversity as natural capital for economic development and sustaining human welfare is well documented. Nevertheless, resource degradation rates and persistent deterioration of human welfare in developing countries is increasingly worrisome. Developing effective monitoring and evaluation schemes and measuring biodiversity loss continue to pose unique challenges, particularly when there is a paucity of historical data. Threat reduction assessment (TRA) has been proposed as a method to measure conservation success and as a proxy measurement of conservation impact, monitoring threats to resources rather than changes to biological parameters themselves. This tool is considered a quick, practical alternative to more cost- and time-intensive approaches, but has inherent weaknesses. I conducted TRAs to evaluate the effectiveness of Kruger National Park (KNP) and Limpopo Province, South Africa, in mitigating threats to biodiversity from 1994 to 2004 in 4 geographical areas. I calculated TRA index values in these TRAs by using the original scoring developed by Margoluis and Salafsky (2001)and a modified scoring system that assigned negative mitigation values to incorporate new or worsening threats. Threats were standardized to allow comparisons across the sites. Modified TRA index values were significantly lower than values derived from the original scoring exercise. Five of the 11 standardized threats were present in all 4 assessment areas, 2 were restricted to KNP, 2 to Limpopo Province, and 2 only to Malamulele municipality. These results indicate, first, the need to integrate negative mitigation values into TRA scoring. By including negative values, investigators will be afforded a more accurate picture of biodiversity threats and of temporal and spatial trends across sites. Where the original TRA scoring was used to measure conservation success, reevaluation of these cases with the modified scoring is recommended. Second, practitioners must

  1. Enemies within: Christian Extremism, a Threat to the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    promotes fear of Muslim radical groups that perpetuate violence in the name of religion , while ignoring the threat Christian extremism poses on...those within the homeland that threaten the very liberty and freedom intended by the founding fathers for all Americans. This thesis and many more...the safety and freedom of Americans are protected. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Christian Extremism 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  2. An Ecological Assessment of the Pandemic Threat of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Colin J; Dougherty, Eric R; Getz, Wayne

    2016-08-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. While the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the Americas indicates that the full potential distribution of Zika remains uncertain. Moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. Here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset from Zika viral surveillance and serological surveys based in its native range, and construct ecological niche models to test basic hypotheses about its spread and potential establishment. The hypothesis that the outbreak of cases in Mexico and North America are anomalous and outside the native ecological niche of the disease, and may be linked to either genetic shifts between strains, or El Nino or similar climatic events, remains plausible at this time. Comparison of the Zika niche against the known distribution of dengue fever suggests that Zika is more constrained by the seasonality of precipitation and diurnal temperature fluctuations, likely confining autochthonous non-sexual transmission to the tropics without significant evolutionary change. Projecting the range of the diseases in conjunction with three major vector species (Aedes africanus, Ae. aegypti, and Ae. albopictus) that transmit the pathogens, under climate change, suggests that Zika has potential for northward expansion; but, based on current knowledge, our models indicate Zika is unlikely to fill the full range its vectors occupy, and public fear of a vector-borne Zika epidemic in the mainland United States is potentially informed by biased or limited scientific knowledge. With recent sexual transmission of the virus globally, we caution that our results only apply to the vector-borne transmission route of the pathogen, and while the threat of a mosquito-carried Zika pandemic may be overstated in the media

  3. Project risk as identity threat: explaining the development and consequences of risk discourse in an infrastructure project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, A.; van Berkel, F.J.F.W.; de Gilder, T.C.; van Dyck, C.; Groenewegen, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role of social identity threat in risk discourse in an infrastructure project, and the consequences risk discourse has for cooperation between stakeholders. We show that risks posed a threat to the identity of the project team, resulting in a discourse focused on attributing

  4. A Study on OS Selection Using ANP Based Choquet Integral in Terms of Cyber Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Goztepe, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    Critical systems are today exposed to new kinds of security threats. Cyber security is determine with cyberspace safe from threats, it is called cyber-threats. Cyber-threats is applied the malicious use of information and communication technologies or the behaviour of attackers. Because of the importance of cyber threats, operating system (OS) selection is a critical decision that can significantly affect future competitiveness and performance of an organization. It is increasingly valuable i...

  5. External Threat Risk Assessment Algorithm (ExTRAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Troy C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Two risk assessment algorithms and philosophies have been augmented and combined to form a new algorit hm, the External Threat Risk Assessment Algorithm (ExTRAA), that allows for effective and statistically sound analysis of external threat sources in relation to individual attack methods . In addition to the attack method use probability and the attack method employment consequence, t he concept of defining threat sources is added to the risk assessment process. Sample data is tabulated and depicted in radar plots and bar graphs for algorithm demonstration purposes. The largest success of ExTRAA is its ability to visualize the kind of r isk posed in a given situation using the radar plot method.

  6. Threats, protests greet conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-04

    In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate.

  7. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  8. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available are allowed to flood. Such flooding-induced seismicity can have significant environmental, social and economic consequences, and may endanger neighbouring mines and surface communities. While fluid-induced seismicity has been observed in other settings (e...

  9. Pose Planning for the Feed Support System of FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-cable driven parallel manipulator and an A-B rotator in the feed support system of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST are adopted for realizing the position and pose of nine feeds. The six-cable driven parallel manipulator is a flexible mechanism, which may not be stably controlled due to a small cable tension. The A-B rotator is a rigid mechanism, and its stability and accuracy can be improved by small pose angle. Based on the different characteristics, a pose planning function is presented. The optimization target of the pose planning function is to get the smallest pose angle of the A-B rotator, and the constraint condition can reflect the controllability of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator. Then, the pose planning realization process of the feed support system is proposed. Based on the pose planning method, optimized pose angles of the feed support system for the nine feeds are obtained, which suggests that the pose angle of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator changes from 0° to 14° and the pose angle of the A-B rotator changes from 0° to 26.4°.

  10. Web-based Visualisation of Head Pose and Facial Expressions Changes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Vidakis, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant recent advances in the field of head pose estimation and facial expression recognition, raising the cognitive level when analysing human activity presents serious challenges to current concepts. Motivated by the need of generating comprehensible visual representations from...... and accurately estimate head pose changes in unconstrained environment. In order to complete the secondary process of recognising four universal dominant facial expressions (happiness, anger, sadness and surprise), emotion recognition via facial expressions (ERFE) was adopted. After that, a lightweight data...

  11. To Strike a Pose: No Stereotype Backlash for Power Posing Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rennung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful versus powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473 asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures. High-power posers were rated higher on competence, admiration, envy, and contempt compared to low-power posers, whereas the opposite was true for pity. There was no impact of power posing on perceived warmth. Contrary to expectations, the poser’s gender did not moderate any of the effects. These findings suggest that nonverbal displays of power do influence fundamental dimensions of social perception and their accompanying emotional reactions but result in comparably positive and negative evaluations for both genders.

  12. Head pose estimation algorithm based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanming; Liu, Yijun

    2017-05-01

    Head pose estimation has been widely used in the field of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and intelligent human-computer interaction and so on. Good head pose estimation algorithm should deal with light, noise, identity, shelter and other factors robustly, but so far how to improve the accuracy and robustness of attitude estimation remains a major challenge in the field of computer vision. A method based on deep learning for pose estimation is presented. Deep learning with a strong learning ability, it can extract high-level image features of the input image by through a series of non-linear operation, then classifying the input image using the extracted feature. Such characteristics have greater differences in pose, while they are robust of light, identity, occlusion and other factors. The proposed head pose estimation is evaluated on the CAS-PEAL data set. Experimental results show that this method is effective to improve the accuracy of pose estimation.

  13. How Is Existential Threat Related to Intergroup Conflict? Introducing the Multidimensional Existential Threat (MET) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Leidner, Bernhard; Saguy, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Existential threat lies at the heart of intergroup conflict, but the literature on existential concerns lacks clear conceptualization and integration. To address this problem, we offer a new conceptualization and measurement of existential threat. We establish the reliability and validity of our measure, and to illustrate its utility, we examine whether different existential threats underlie the association between political ideology and support for specific political policies. Study 1 (N = 798) established the construct validity of the scale, and revealed four distinct existential threats: personal death (PD), physical collective annihilation (PA), symbolic collective annihilation (SA), and past victimization (PV). Study 2 (N = 424) confirmed the 4-factor structure, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. Study 3 (N = 170) revealed that the association between a hawkish political ideology and support for hardline policies was mediated by PV, whereas the association between a dovish political ideology and conciliatory policies was mediated by concerns over collective symbolic annihilation. Study 4 (N = 503) conceptually replicated the pattern of findings found in Study 3, and showed that at times of conflict, PA concerns also mediate the relationship between hawkish ideologies and support for hardline policies. In both Studies 3 and 4, when controlling for other threats, PD did not play a significant role. These results underscore the need to consider the multidimensional nature of existential threat, especially in the context of political conflict. PMID:27994561

  14. Threat Is a Multidimensional Construct: Exploring the Role of Children's Threat Appraisals in the Relationship between Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Erin R.; Dadds, Mark R.; Chipuer, Heather; Dawe, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Past research has emphasised the importance of children's appraisals of the threat posed by parent conflict for understanding links between interparental conflict and child outcomes. However, little is known about what it is that children actually find threatening about parent conflict. Children (n = 236) aged 10-16 years were recruited to examine…

  15. The lighter side of advertising: investigating posing and lighting biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole A; Burkitt, Jennifer A; Patrick, Regan E; Elias, Lorin J

    2008-11-01

    People tend to display the left cheek when posing for a portrait; however, this effect does not appear to generalise to advertising. The amount of body visible in the image and the sex of the poser might also contribute to the posing bias. Portraits also exhibit lateral lighting biases, with most images being lit from the left. This effect might also be present in advertisements. A total of 2801 full-page advertisements were sampled and coded for posing direction, lighting direction, sex of model, and amount of body showing. Images of females showed an overall leftward posing bias, but the biases in males depended on the amount of body visible. Males demonstrated rightward posing biases for head-only images. Overall, images tended to be lit from the top left corner. The two factors of posing and lighting biases appear to influence one another. Leftward-lit images had more leftward poses than rightward, while the opposite occurred for rightward-lit images. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the posing biases in advertisements are dependent on the amount of body showing in the image, and that biases in lighting direction interact with these posing biases.

  16. In-the-wild facial expression recognition in extreme poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Chi; Qiu, Guoping

    2018-04-01

    In the computer research area, facial expression recognition is a hot research problem. Recent years, the research has moved from the lab environment to in-the-wild circumstances. It is challenging, especially under extreme poses. But current expression detection systems are trying to avoid the pose effects and gain the general applicable ability. In this work, we solve the problem in the opposite approach. We consider the head poses and detect the expressions within special head poses. Our work includes two parts: detect the head pose and group it into one pre-defined head pose class; do facial expression recognize within each pose class. Our experiments show that the recognition results with pose class grouping are much better than that of direct recognition without considering poses. We combine the hand-crafted features, SIFT, LBP and geometric feature, with deep learning feature as the representation of the expressions. The handcrafted features are added into the deep learning framework along with the high level deep learning features. As a comparison, we implement SVM and random forest to as the prediction models. To train and test our methodology, we labeled the face dataset with 6 basic expressions.

  17. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  18. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  19. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  20. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  1. Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellhed, Una; Björklund, Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Women are stereotypically perceived as worse negotiators than men, which may make them ask for less salary than men when under stereotype threat (Kray et al., 2001). However, the mechanisms of stereotype threat are not yet properly understood. The current study investigated whether stereotype threat effects in salary negotiations can be explained by motivational factors. A total of 116 business students negotiated salary with a confederate and were either told that this was diagnostic of negotiating ability (threat manipulation) or not. Measures of minimum (reservation) and ideal (aspiration) salary goals and regulatory focus were collected. The finding (Kray et al., 2001) that women make lower salary requests than men when under stereotype threat was replicated. Women in the threat condition further reported lower aspiration salary, marginally significantly lower reservation salary and less eagerness/more vigilance than men. Reservation salary mediated the stereotype threat effect, and there was a trend for regulatory focus to mediate the effect. Thus, reservation salary partly explains why women ask for less salary than men under stereotype threat. Female negotiators may benefit from learning that stereotype threat causes sex-differences in motivation. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  3. Muscle utilization patterns vary by skill levels of the practitioners across specific yoga poses (asanas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Mooney, Kiersten; Balachandran, Anoop; Richards, Luca; Harriell, Kysha; Signorile, Joseph F

    2014-08-01

    To compare muscle activation patterns in 14 dominant side muscles during different yoga poses across three skill levels. Mixed repeated-measures descriptive study. University neuromuscular research laboratory, Miami, US. A group of 36 yoga practitioners (9 M/27 F; mean ± SD, 31.6 ± 12.6 years) with at least 3 months yoga practice experience. Each of the 11 surya namaskar poses A and B was performed separately for 15s and the surface electromyography for 14 muscles were recorded. Normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (NrmsEMG) for 14 muscles (5 upper body, 4 trunk, 5 lower body). There were significant main effects of pose for all fourteen muscles except middle trapezius (p<.02) and of skill level for the vastus medialis; p=.027). A significant skill level × pose interaction existed for five muscles (pectoralis major sternal head, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, upper rectus abdominis and gastrocnemius lateralis; p<.05). Post hoc analyses using Bonferroni comparisons indicated that different poses activated specific muscle groups; however, this varied by skill level. Our results indicate that different poses can produce specific muscle activation patterns which may vary due to practitioners' skill levels. This information can be used in designing rehabilitation and training programs and for cuing during yoga training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  5. The Urban Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Threat to Human Security and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediel Hove

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban centres have existed and have been evolving for many centuries across the world. However, the accelerated growth of urbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon. The enormous size of urban populations and more significantly, the rapidity with which urban areas have been and are growing in many developing countries have severe social, economic and physical repercussions. This paper argues that the accelerated growth of urbanisation has amplified the demand for key services. However, the provision of shelter and basic services such as water and sanitation, education, public health, employment and transport has not kept pace with this increasing demand. Furthermore, accelerated and poorly managed urbanisation has resulted in various types of atmospheric, land and water pollution thereby jeopardising human security. This paper offers the conclusion that the increased environmental, social and economic problems associated with rapid urbanisation pose a threat to sustainable development, human security and, crucially, peace.

  6. Alert but less alarmed: a pooled analysis of terrorism threat perception in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr Margo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Australian research has highlighted disparities in community perceptions of the threat posed by terrorism. A study with a large sample size is needed to examine reported concerns and anticipated responses of community sub-groups and to determine their consistency with existing Australian and international findings. Methods Representative samples of New South Wales (NSW adults completed terrorism perception questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI in 2007 (N = 2081 and 2010 (N = 2038. Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Data sets from the two surveys were pooled and multivariate multilevel analyses conducted to identify health and socio-demographic factors associated with higher perceived risk of terrorism and evacuation response intentions, and to examine changes over time. Results In comparison with 2007, Australians in 2010 were significantly more likely to believe that a terrorist attack would occur in Australia (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR = 1.24, 95%CI:1.06-1.45 but felt less concerned that they would be directly affected by such an incident (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI:0.55-0.75. Higher perceived risk of terrorism and related changes in living were associated with middle age, female gender, lower education and higher reported psychological distress. Australians of migrant background reported significantly lower likelihood of terrorism (AOR = 0.52, 95%CI:0.39-0.70 but significantly higher concern that they would be personally affected by such an incident (AOR = 1.57, 95%CI:1.21-2.04 and having made changes in the way they live due to this threat (AOR = 2.47, 95%CI:1.88-3.25. Willingness to evacuate homes and public places in response to potential incidents increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (AOR = 1.53, 95%CI:1.33-1.76. Conclusion While an increased proportion of Australians believe that the national threat of terrorism remains high, concern about being personally affected

  7. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  8. Standard diffusive systems are well-posed linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matignon, Denis; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2004-01-01

    The class of well-posed linear systems as introduced by Salamon has become a well-understood class of systems, see e.g. the work of Weiss and the book of Staffans. Many partial partial differential equations with boundary control and point observation can be formulated as a well-posed linear system.

  9. Formulas in inverse and ill-posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Anikonov, Yu E

    1997-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  10. Turkish Primary School Teachers' Opinions about Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the most important topics in a mathematics education. Through problem posing, students gain mathematical abilities and concepts and teachers can evaluate their students and arrange adequate learning environments. The aim of the present study is to investigate Turkish primary school teachers' opinions about problem posing…

  11. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  12. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  13. Real-Time Head Pose Estimation on Mobile Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Ren

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many computer vision applications such as augmented reality require head pose estimation. As far as the real-time implementation of head pose estimation on relatively resource limited mobile platforms is concerned, it is required to satisfy real-time constraints while maintaining reasonable head pose estimation accuracy. The introduced head pose estimation approach in this paper is an attempt to meet this objective. The approach consists of the following components: Viola-Jones face detection, color-based face tracking using an online calibration procedure, and head pose estimation using Hu moment features and Fisher linear discriminant. Experimental results running on an actual mobile device are reported exhibiting both the real- time and accuracy aspects of the developed approach.

  14. Pose estimation for mobile robots working on turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.D.; Chen, Q.; Liu, J.J.; Sun, Z.G.; Zhang, W.Z. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-03-11

    This paper discussed a features point detection and matching task technique for mobile robots used in wind turbine blade applications. The vision-based scheme used visual information from the robot's surrounding environment to match successive image frames. An improved pose estimation algorithm based on a scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed to consider the characteristics of local images of turbine blades, pose estimation problems, and conditions. The method included a pre-subsampling technique for reducing computation and bidirectional matching for improving precision. A random sample consensus (RANSAC) method was used to estimate the robot's pose. Pose estimation conditions included a wide pose range; the distance between neighbouring blades; and mechanical, electromagnetic, and optical disturbances. An experimental platform was used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  16. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tranquilli

    Full Text Available Numerous protected areas (PAs have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  17. Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Panchanathan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1∘. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2∘ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.

  18. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  19. A review of cooperative and uncooperative spacecraft pose determination techniques for close-proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-08-01

    The capability of an active spacecraft to accurately estimate its relative position and attitude (pose) with respect to an active/inactive, artificial/natural space object (target) orbiting in close-proximity is required to carry out various activities like formation flying, on-orbit servicing, active debris removal, and space exploration. According to the specific mission scenario, the pose determination task involves both theoretical and technological challenges related to the search for the most suitable algorithmic solution and sensor architecture, respectively. As regards the latter aspect, electro-optical sensors represent the best option as their use is compatible with mass and power limitation of micro and small satellites, and their measurements can be processed to estimate all the pose parameters. Overall, the degree of complexity of the challenges related to pose determination largely varies depending on the nature of the targets, which may be actively/passively cooperative, uncooperative but known, or uncooperative and unknown space objects. In this respect, while cooperative pose determination has been successfully demonstrated in orbit, the uncooperative case is still under study by universities, research centers, space agencies and private companies. However, in both the cases, the demand for space applications involving relative navigation maneuvers, also in close-proximity, for which pose determination capabilities are mandatory, is significantly increasing. In this framework, a review of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms developed in the last decades for cooperative and uncooperative pose determination by processing data provided by electro-optical sensors is herein presented. Specifically, their main advantages and drawbacks in terms of achieved performance, computational complexity, and sensitivity to variability of pose and target geometry, are highlighted.

  20. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  1. Fast human pose estimation using 3D Zernike descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjón, Daniel; Morán, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Markerless video-based human pose estimation algorithms face a high-dimensional problem that is frequently broken down into several lower-dimensional ones by estimating the pose of each limb separately. However, in order to do so they need to reliably locate the torso, for which they typically rely on time coherence and tracking algorithms. Their losing track usually results in catastrophic failure of the process, requiring human intervention and thus precluding their usage in real-time applications. We propose a very fast rough pose estimation scheme based on global shape descriptors built on 3D Zernike moments. Using an articulated model that we configure in many poses, a large database of descriptor/pose pairs can be computed off-line. Thus, the only steps that must be done on-line are the extraction of the descriptors for each input volume and a search against the database to get the most likely poses. While the result of such process is not a fine pose estimation, it can be useful to help more sophisticated algorithms to regain track or make more educated guesses when creating new particles in particle-filter-based tracking schemes. We have achieved a performance of about ten fps on a single computer using a database of about one million entries.

  2. The role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, David C; McNamara, James A; Sigler, Lauren M; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics, as determined by laypersons and orthodontists. Twenty orthodontists and 20 lay evaluators were asked to perform six Q-sorts on different photographs of 48 white female subjects. The six Q-sorts consisted of three different photographs for each of two time points (pre- and posttreatment), as follows: (1) smile-only, (2) face without the smile, and (3) face with the smile. The evaluators determined a split-line for attractive and unattractive images at the end of each Q-sort. The proportions of attractive patients were compared across Q-sorts using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data. The evaluators also ranked nine facial/dental characteristics at the completion of the six Q-sorts. Evaluators found the pretreatment face without the smile to be significantly more attractive than the face with the smile or the smile-only photographs. Dissimilar results were seen posttreatment; there was not a significant difference between the three posttreatment photographs. The two panels agreed on the proportion of "attractive" subjects but differed on the attractiveness level of each individual subject. The presence of a malocclusion has a negative impact on facial attractiveness. Orthodontic correction of a malocclusion affects overall facial esthetics positively. Laypeople and orthodontists agree on what is attractive. Overall facial harmony is the most important characteristic used in deciding facial attractiveness.

  3. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  4. Surviving the Storm : Expanding Public Health’s Capabilities in Response to the Increasing Threats Posed by Novel Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    1529. 88 Sailen Barik , “New Treatments for Influenza,” BioMed Central [BMC] Medicine 10, no. 1 (2012): 104. 28...approved in Japan and Korea only Known: Yes Experimental: Yes (Peramivir is in Phase II trials) 89 Sailen Barik , “New Treatments for Influenza,” 104...state stockpiles Known: Yes Experimental: Yes 94 Sailen Barik , “New Treatments for Influenza,” 104. 95 Ibid. 96 Ibid. 97 Ibid. 30

  5. Mitigation of Threats to the Continuation of Marine Recruit Training Posed by a Category 4/5 Influenza Pandemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiGiovanni, Clete; Monto, Arnold S; Malone, John D

    2007-01-01

    ..., and prone to error in implementation that we reluctantly conclude that the most sensible course, in the absence of an effective vaccine or reliable and safe antiviral prophylaxis, may be to rely on personnel...

  6. Forests or fields? A response to the theory that tropical forest conservation poses a threat to the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P M

    1993-04-01

    A rebuttal is provided of David Wood's proposal to open up tropical forests to agricultural uses. Concern is raised that his proposal exaggerates the ability of forests to regenerate after agricultural uses, sacrifices tropical forests in the name of alleviating poverty and in support of large land owners, and prevents valuable potential resource use by local populations. There is misunderstanding by Wood of conservationists' postures and the cause of current deforestation. In Brazil, deforestation has occurred primarily for low productivity cattle pasture (62% of all private land in the Amazon region in ranches over 1000 hectares-ha). Only 11% of private Amazonian land was in farms of less than 100 ha; only 30% of this size farm area was involved in 1991 in deforestation, while 70% of deforestation took place on ranches over 100 ha. Mass migrations of Brazil's population from the northeast to the Transamazon Highway and from Parana to Rondonia were impelled by increasing concentration of land tenure in migrant areas, and not by population growth. The rate of deforestation has slowed due to the economic recession. A World Bank study indicates that redistributing unproductive large landholdings in northeastern Brazil would increase agricultural output by 80%. The agricultural productivity of tropic areas is not as assured; Wood's support is based on preliminary findings, which are being revised with more cautionary thinking. Wood also understates the maintenance of soil fertility with fertilizers. The issue of scale also affects the use of agroforestry and perennial crop plantations such as rubber and cacao, which can only absorb the production of small areas, due to marketing constraints and physical resource limitations. Conservationists have not effectively redirected World Bank efforts to protect environments and help the impoverished, as suggested by Wood. Forest recovery has been very slow in large cattle pastures, and would take thousands of years if the land is left undisturbed. Recovery even under traditional shifting cultivation schemes is slower than Wood recognizes. Wood's argument that deforestation is temporary is not sufficient to invalidate the claim for conservation now. Reallocation is really the same as land extensification; current practices in Brazil will not support large human populations. The solution is to develop environmental services and find other means to support rural populations in urban areas.

  7. Adjustment of incubation according to the threat posed: a further signal of enemy recognition in the Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 3 (2009), s. 569-576 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : aggression * brood parasitism * nest attendance * nest defence * nest predation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.476, year: 2009

  8. Assessing the threat posed by indigenous exotics: A case study of two North American bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Dodds; D. W. Gilmore; S. J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, was detected in 2001 in northern Minnesota outside its natural range and the range of its native hosts, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, and western larch, Larix occidentalis Nutt. Consecutive years of...

  9. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  10. Methods of RVD object pose estimation and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; He, Yan; Wang, Weihua; Yu, Qifeng

    2007-11-01

    Methods of measuring a RVD (rendezvous and docking) cooperative object's pose from monocular and binocular images respectively are presented. The methods solve the initial values first and optimize the object pose parameters by bundle adjustment. In the disturbance-rejecting binocular method, chosen measurement system parameters of one camera's exterior parameters are modified simultaneously. The methods need three or more cooperative target points to measure the object's pose accurately. Experimental data show that the methods converge quickly and stably, provide accurate results and do not need accurate initial values. Even when the chosen measurement system parameters are subjected to some amount of disturbance, the binocular method manages to provide fairly accurate results.

  11. Effects of night work, sleep loss and time on task on simulated threat detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Rubinstein, Joshua; Fomberstein, Kenneth M; Coble, Matthew C; Ecker, Adrian; Avinash, Deepa; Dinges, David F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effects of night work and sleep loss on a simulated luggage screening task (SLST) that mimicked the x-ray system used by airport luggage screeners. We developed more than 5,800 unique simulated x-ray images of luggage organized into 31 stimulus sets of 200 bags each. 25% of each set contained either a gun or a knife with low or high target difficulty. The 200-bag stimuli sets were then run on software that simulates an x-ray screening system (SLST). Signal detection analysis was used to obtain measures of hit rate (HR), false alarm rate (FAR), threat detection accuracy (A'), and response bias (B"(D)). Experimental laboratory study 24 healthy nonprofessional volunteers (13 women, mean age +/- SD = 29.9 +/- 6.5 years). Subjects performed the SLST every 2 h during a 5-day period that included a 35 h period of wakefulness that extended to night work and then another day work period after the night without sleep. Threat detection accuracy A' decreased significantly (P work, while both A' (P = 0.001) and HR decreased (P = 0.008) during day work following sleep loss. There were prominent time-on-task effects on response bias B"(D) (P= 0.002) and response latency (P = 0.004), but accuracy A' was unaffected. Both HR and FAR increased significantly with increasing study duration (both P work and sleep loss adversely affect the accuracy of detecting complex real world objects among high levels of background clutter. If the results can be replicated in professional screeners and real work environments, fatigue in luggage screening personnel may pose a threat for air traffic safety unless countermeasures for fatigue are deployed.

  12. Hypersonic Threats to the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    ADAM) system . This ground based system protects 7 soldiers against rocket threats and utilizes a 10 kW laser with an effective range out to...early warning systems for response to hypersonic threats . The integration of directed energy defensive systems with Space Based Infrared Sensors (SBIRS...and early warning radars already in operation will save costs. By capitalizing on Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system capabilities

  13. The Four Dimensions of the Foreign Fighter Threat : Making Sense of an Evolving Phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, A.G., Pohl, J. and M. Jegerings.

    2017-01-01

    In light of Islamic State’s decreasing military power and growing emphasis on a decentralised operational strategy, the threat posed by foreign fighters is shifting, with some aspects becoming less threatening as others become more salient. This Policy Brief provides a concise outline of four main

  14. No Imminent Threat to Catholic Colleges' Freedom Seen in Vatican Ban on Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Zoe

    1986-01-01

    Observers say the Vatican's revocation of a prominent scholar's license to teach theology at the Catholic University of America poses no immediate threat to academic freedom at other Roman Catholic colleges and universities but could make theologians at those institutions hesitate to express opinions. (MSE)

  15. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security: threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauch, H.G.; Oswald Spring, Ú.; Mesjasz, C.; Grin, J.; Kameri-Mbote, P.; Chourou, B.; Dunay, P.; Birkmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10

  16. Political instability and the ability of local government to respond to reputational threats in unison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Caroline Louise Howard; Salomonsen, Heidi Houlberg

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates whether local governments are able to act in a unified manner when responding to reputational threats posed by negative media coverage. Based on an argument that local governments facing political instability are less able to perform in unison, the article investigates a...

  17. THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Putin’s intent. What we can do is learn from his actions, and what we see suggests growing Russian capabilities, significant military modernization...AU/ACSC/POWELL, N/AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT...The methodology focuses on Russian capability, capacity, and intention to threaten NATO members’ existence. While Russia does possess nuclear weapons

  18. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ESPRIT: an Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, in support of NASA's effort in developing crew exercise technologies for...

  19. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  20. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  1. Pose estimation of industrial objects towards robot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Zhou, Fuqiang; Tan, Haishu; Cao, Yu

    2017-10-01

    With the advantages of wide range, non-contact and high flexibility, the visual estimation technology of target pose has been widely applied in modern industry, robot guidance and other engineering practices. However, due to the influence of complicated industrial environment, outside interference factors, lack of object characteristics, restrictions of camera and other limitations, the visual estimation technology of target pose is still faced with many challenges. Focusing on the above problems, a pose estimation method of the industrial objects is developed based on 3D models of targets. By matching the extracted shape characteristics of objects with the priori 3D model database of targets, the method realizes the recognition of target. Thus a pose estimation of objects can be determined based on the monocular vision measuring model. The experimental results show that this method can be implemented to estimate the position of rigid objects based on poor images information, and provides guiding basis for the operation of the industrial robot.

  2. Best practices in ranking communicable disease threats: a literature review, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eleanor Charlotte; Taft, Rachel; Geary, Katie; Ciotti, Massimo; Suk, Jonathan E

    2016-04-28

    The threat of serious, cross-border communicable disease outbreaks in Europe poses a significant challenge to public health and emergency preparedness because the relative likelihood of these threats and the pathogens involved are constantly shifting in response to a range of changing disease drivers. To inform strategic planning by enabling effective resource allocation to manage the consequences of communicable disease outbreaks, it is useful to be able to rank and prioritise pathogens. This paper reports on a literature review which identifies and evaluates the range of methods used for risk ranking. Searches were performed across biomedical and grey literature databases, supplemented by reference harvesting and citation tracking. Studies were selected using transparent inclusion criteria and underwent quality appraisal using a bespoke checklist based on the AGREE II criteria. Seventeen studies were included in the review, covering five methodologies. A narrative analysis of the selected studies suggests that no single methodology was superior. However, many of the methods shared common components, around which a 'best-practice' framework was formulated. This approach is intended to help inform decision makers' choice of an appropriate risk-ranking study design.

  3. Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kabanikhin, S I

    2011-01-01

    The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.

  4. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA. The real brunt of the virus is, however, borne by children and adults alike. Case studies of the ZIKV outbreaks in the French Polynesia and other places have suggested that there is a close link between the ZIKV and Gullian-Barre syndrome (GBS. The GBS has closely followed in areas facing ZIKV outbreaks. Although solid evidence is yet to emerge, clinical data integration has revealed a large number of ZIKV patients having GBS. Moreover, the amniotic fluids, blood cord, and miscarriage tissues of mothers have been detected with ZIKV, which indicates that the virus either gets transferred from mother to fetus or seeks direct entry in the fetus, causing microcephaly and other brain anomalies in the newborn babies. Studies on mice have confirmed the link between the ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in babies. Reports have highlighted the sexual transmission of the ZIKV, as it has been detected in the semen and saliva of affected persons. The intensity with which the ZIKA is spreading can collapse the health sector of several countries, which are poor. A comprehensive strategy is a need of an hour to combat this virus so as to prevent its transmission and avert the looming threat. At the same time, more research on the cure of the ZIKV is imperative.

  5. Perspective projection for variance pose face recognition from camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhir, M. M.; Woo, W. L.; Chambers, J. A.; Dlay, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    Variance pose is an important research topic in face recognition. The alteration of distance parameters across variance pose face features is a challenging. We provide a solution for this problem using perspective projection for variance pose face recognition. Our method infers intrinsic camera parameters of the image which enable the projection of the image plane into 3D. After this, face box tracking and centre of eyes detection can be identified using our novel technique to verify the virtual face feature measurements. The coordinate system of the perspective projection for face tracking allows the holistic dimensions for the face to be fixed in different orientations. The training of frontal images and the rest of the poses on FERET database determine the distance from the centre of eyes to the corner of box face. The recognition system compares the gallery of images against different poses. The system initially utilises information on position of both eyes then focuses principally on closest eye in order to gather data with greater reliability. Differentiation between the distances and position of the right and left eyes is a unique feature of our work with our algorithm outperforming other state of the art algorithms thus enabling stable measurement in variance pose for each individual.

  6. Robust head pose estimation via supervised manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Xubo

    2014-05-01

    Head poses can be automatically estimated using manifold learning algorithms, with the assumption that with the pose being the only variable, the face images should lie in a smooth and low-dimensional manifold. However, this estimation approach is challenging due to other appearance variations related to identity, head location in image, background clutter, facial expression, and illumination. To address the problem, we propose to incorporate supervised information (pose angles of training samples) into the process of manifold learning. The process has three stages: neighborhood construction, graph weight computation and projection learning. For the first two stages, we redefine inter-point distance for neighborhood construction as well as graph weight by constraining them with the pose angle information. For Stage 3, we present a supervised neighborhood-based linear feature transformation algorithm to keep the data points with similar pose angles close together but the data points with dissimilar pose angles far apart. The experimental results show that our method has higher estimation accuracy than the other state-of-art algorithms and is robust to identity and illumination variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Asynchronous vehicle pose correction using visual detection of ground features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnarinesingh, Randy E S; Syan, Chanan S

    2014-01-01

    The inherent noise associated with odometry manifests itself as errors in localization for autonomous vehicles. Visual odometry has been previously used in order to supplement classical vehicle odometry. However, visual odometry is limited in its ability to reduce errors in localization for large travel distances that entail the cumulative summing of individual frame-to-frame image errors. In this paper, a novel machine vision approach for tiled surfaces is proposed to address this problem. Tile edges in a laboratory environment are used to define a travel trajectory for the Quansar Qbot (autonomous vehicle) built on the iRobot iRoomba platform with a forward facing camera. Tile intersections are used to enable asynchronous error recovery for vehicle position and orientation. The proposed approach employs real-time image classification and is feasible for error mitigation for large travel distances. The average position error for an 8m travel distance using classical odometry was measured to be 0.28m. However, implementation of the proposed approach resulted in an error of 0.028m. The proposed approach therefore significantly reduces pose estimation error and could be used to supplement existing modalities such as GPS and Laser-based range sensors

  8. Defending against the Advanced Persistent Threat: An Optimal Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengdeng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The new cyberattack pattern of advanced persistent threat (APT has posed a serious threat to modern society. This paper addresses the APT defense problem, that is, the problem of how to effectively defend against an APT campaign. Based on a novel APT attack-defense model, the effectiveness of an APT defense strategy is quantified. Thereby, the APT defense problem is modeled as an optimal control problem, in which an optimal control stands for a most effective APT defense strategy. The existence of an optimal control is proved, and an optimality system is derived. Consequently, an optimal control can be figured out by solving the optimality system. Some examples of the optimal control are given. Finally, the influence of some factors on the effectiveness of an optimal control is examined through computer experiments. These findings help organizations to work out policies of defending against APTs.

  9. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  10. Threats to North American Forests from Southern Pine Beetle with Warming Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Corey; Coffel, Ethan; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Dodds, Kevin; Horton, Radley M.

    2016-01-01

    In coming decades, warmer winters are likely to lift range constraints on many cold-limited forest insects. Recent unprecedented expansion of the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis) into New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts in concert with warming annual temperature minima highlights the risk that this insect pest poses to the pine forests of the northern United States and Canada under continued climate change. Here we present the first projections of northward expansion in SPB-suitable climates using a statistical bioclimatic range modeling approach and current-generation general circulation model (GCM) output under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios. Our results show that by the middle of the 21st century, the climate is likely to be suitable for SPB expansion into vast areas of previously unaffected forests throughout the northeastern United States and into southeastern Canada. This scenario would pose a significant economic and ecological risk to the affected regions, including disruption oflocal ecosystem services, dramatic shifts in forest structure, and threats to native biodiversity.

  11. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2013-12-27

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  12. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  13. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  14. Threat Assessment: Do Lone Terrorists Differ from Other Lone Offenders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Zierhoffer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999 poses ten questions about the patterns of thinking and behaviors that may precipitate an attack of targeted violence. Three terrorists are studied to assess the model’s value as a predictor of terrorism. It is assessed for its use within law enforcement, during an investigation of someone brought to attention as a possible terrorist and for family members or friends who suspect potential terrorist behavior. Would these questions encourage someone to report a friend to prevent a possible attack? This threat assessment model provides a foundation for future research focused on developing a structured risk assessment for lone terrorists. In its present form, the questions can assist both citizens and law enforcement personnel in identifying the patterns of thought and behavior potentially indicative of a lone terrorist.

  15. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser-Renouf, Connie; Maibach, Edward W; Li, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources. We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011-2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%), and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%). Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed.

  16. Turkey's response to threats of weapons of mass destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Guray.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike most of its NATO allies, Turkey did not emerge from the Cold War with enhanced security. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missiles by its neighbors in the Middle Eastâ Iran, Iraq and Syriaâ creates a serious security concern for Turkey. This thesis analyzes the numerous threats posed to Turkey by its neighborsα nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and their ballistic missiles. It evaluates Turkeyαs defense options to counter these thre...

  17. Threats of Password Pattern Leakage Using Smartwatch Motion Recognition Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the development of Internet of Things (IoT technologies, wearable markets have been growing rapidly. Smartwatches can be said to be the most representative product in wearable markets, and involve various hardware technologies in order to overcome the limitations of small hardware. Motion recognition sensors are a representative example of those hardware technologies. However, smartwatches and motion recognition sensors that can be worn by users may pose security threats of password pattern leakage. In the present paper, passwords are inferred through experiments to obtain password patterns inputted by users using motion recognition sensors, and verification of the results and the accuracy of the results is shown.

  18. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  19. Single leg balancing in ballet: effects of shoe conditions and poses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo da Costa, Paula H; Azevedo Nora, Fernanda G S; Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of lower limb positioning and shoe conditions on stability levels of selected single leg ballet poses performed in demi-pointe position. Fourteen female non-professional ballet dancers (mean age of 18.4±2.8 years and mean body mass index of 21.5±2.8kg/m(2)) who had practiced ballet for at least seven years, without any musculoskeletal impairment volunteered to participate in this study. A capacitive pressure platform allowed for the assessment of center of pressure variables related to the execution of three single leg ballet poses in demi pointé position: attitude devant, attitude derriére, and attitude a la second. Peak pressures, contact areas, COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral COP oscillations and velocities were compared between two shoe conditions (barefoot versus slippers) and among the different poses. Barefoot performances produced more stable poses with significantly higher plantar contact areas, smaller COP oscillation areas and smaller anterior-posterior COP oscillations. COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior COP oscillations and medio-lateral COP velocities indicated that attitude a la second is the least challenging and attitude derriére the most challenging pose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Insider Threat Indicator Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    be aware that building a model is part science, part rules, and part art . Differences among analysts during language interpretation can affect...automated extraction of semantics from natural text, some of which would improve the current state of the art significantly. There are also efforts to...isBeneficiaryOrganization Of hasBoyfrie nd hasFriendRe lation This relates a person to a male friend with whom that person has a romantic relationship. Person Person

  1. Prefrontal inhibition of threat processing protects working memory from interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Clarke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up processes can interrupt ongoing cognitive processing in order to adaptively respond to emotional stimuli of high potential significance, such as those that threaten wellbeing. However it is vital that this interference can be modulated in certain contexts to focus on current tasks. Deficits in the ability to maintain the appropriate balance between cognitive and emotional demands can severely impact on day-to-day activities. This fMRI study examined this interaction between threat processing and cognition; 18 adult participants performed a visuospatial working memory (WM task with two load conditions, in the presence and absence of anxiety induction by threat of electric shock. Threat of shock interfered with performance in the low cognitive load condition; however interference was eradicated under high load, consistent with engagement of emotion regulation mechanisms. Under low load the amygdala showed significant activation to threat of shock that was modulated by high cognitive load. A directed top-down control contrast identified two regions associated with top-down control; ventrolateral PFC and dorsal ACC. Dynamic causal modelling provided further evidence that under high cognitive load, top-down inhibition is exerted on the amygdala and its outputs to prefrontal regions. Additionally, we hypothesised that individual differences in a separate, non-emotional top-down control task would predict the recruitment of dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC during top-down control of threat. Consistent with this, performance on a separate dichotic listening task predicted dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC activation during high WM load under threat of shock, though activation in these regions did not directly correlate with WM performance. Together, the findings suggest that under high cognitive load and threat, top-down control is exerted by dACC and vlPFC to inhibit threat processing, thus enabling WM performance without threat

  2. A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle L; Papini, Santiago; Rosenfield, David; Roelofs, Karin; Kolb, Sarah; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-12-01

    This manuscript details a randomized controlled study designed to test the efficacy of power posing (i.e., briefly holding postures associated with dominance and power) as an augmentative strategy for exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Seventy-three individuals diagnosed with SAD were assigned to one of three conditions: power posing, submissive posing, or rest (no posing) prior to participating in an exposure therapy session. Participants were assessed for between-group differences in pre- and post-manipulation salivary hormone levels, within-session subjective experiences of fear, and pre- and 1-week post-treatment SAD severity outcome measures. Though the intervention resulted in decreased SAD symptom severity one week later, analyses revealed no significant between-group differences on any tested variables. Accordingly, this study provides no evidence to suggest that power posing impacts hormone levels or exposure therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Students’ Mathematical Creative Thinking through Problem Posing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, U.; Prabawanto, S.; Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    The research aims to investigate the differences in enhancement of students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach assisted by manipulative media and students who received problem posing approach without manipulative media. This study was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. Population of this research was third-grade students of a primary school in Bandung city in 2016/2017 academic year. Sample of this research was two classes as experiment class and control class. The instrument used is a test of mathematical creative thinking ability. Based on the results of the research, it is known that the enhancement of the students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach with manipulative media aid is higher than the ability of those who received problem posing approach without manipulative media aid. Students who get learning problem posing learning accustomed in arranging mathematical sentence become matter of story so it can facilitate students to comprehend about story

  4. Temporal subtraction of chest radiographs compensating pose differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Jens; Dworzak, Jalda; Klinder, Tobias; Manke, Dirk; Kreth, Adrian; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Lorenz, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Temporal subtraction techniques using 2D image registration improve the detectability of interval changes from chest radiographs. Although such methods are well known for some time they are not widely used in radiologic practice. The reason is the occurrence of strong pose differences between two acquisitions with a time interval of months to years in between. Such strong perspective differences occur in a reasonable number of cases. They cannot be compensated by available image registration methods and thus mask interval changes to be undetectable. In this paper a method is proposed to estimate a 3D pose difference by the adaptation of a 3D rib cage model to both projections. The difference between both is then compensated for, thus producing a subtraction image with virtually no change in pose. The method generally assumes that no 3D image data is available from the patient. The accuracy of pose estimation is validated with chest phantom images acquired under controlled geometric conditions. A subtle interval change simulated by a piece of plastic foam attached to the phantom becomes visible in subtraction images generated with this technique even at strong angular pose differences like an anterior-posterior inclination of 13 degrees.

  5. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Pose estimation for augmented reality applications using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying Kin; Wong, Kin Hong; Chang, Michael Ming Yuen

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes a genetic algorithm that tackles the pose-estimation problem in computer vision. Our genetic algorithm can find the rotation and translation of an object accurately when the three-dimensional structure of the object is given. In our implementation, each chromosome encodes both the pose and the indexes to the selected point features of the object. Instead of only searching for the pose as in the existing work, our algorithm, at the same time, searches for a set containing the most reliable feature points in the process. This mismatch filtering strategy successfully makes the algorithm more robust under the presence of point mismatches and outliers in the images. Our algorithm has been tested with both synthetic and real data with good results. The accuracy of the recovered pose is compared to the existing algorithms. Our approach outperformed the Lowe's method and the other two genetic algorithms under the presence of point mismatches and outliers. In addition, it has been used to estimate the pose of a real object. It is shown that the proposed method is applicable to augmented reality applications.

  7. TPPA and tobacco control: threats to APEC countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Deborah K; Stumberg, Robert K

    2014-11-01

    Twelve-member countries of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) are negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), a free trade agreement to facilitate international trade and investment. As reported by multiple sources, the TPPA would grant the same trade benefits and legal protections to tobacco products, services and investments that it would provide to other sectors. Malaysia proposed excluding tobacco control measures from the scope of all TPPA chapters while the US proposed only to establish a consultation process in tobacco-related disputes and to declare that tobacco control measures serve a health objective within the scope of the general exceptions. The article analyses selected TPPA trade and investment rules and shows how they strengthen the ability of tobacco companies or a country to challenge the most progressive tobacco control measures. In the absence of a complete TPPA text, the analysis is based on specific leaked chapters, legal analysis from observers in the negotiations, existing free trade agreements among the TPPA parties and positions of the tobacco industry and its allies. Five TPPA chapters pose the most significant threats to tobacco control measures: Investment, Regulatory Coherence, Services, Intellectual Property and Technical Barriers to Trade. Trade negotiators should expand safeguards to ensure that the TPPA does no harm. The most effective would be to exclude (carve out) tobacco control measures from the scope of all TPPA chapters, as Malaysia has proposed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

  9. Threats to economic security of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Salikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of economic security are in sight of the researchers for more than two decades. Today in the economic literature widely presents the conceptual aspects of economic safety of the state. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of this multifaceted problem lies in the researches of many domestic and foreign scientists, which are the basic levels of economic security. Among the priority levels include, in our view, the regional level (meso-level and actual problems of economic security studied to date lack detail. Economic development regions of the country has its own specifics, which is projected to the achieving of regional and national economic security. The article summarizes the approaches to definition of essence of the category “economic security of the region” and was given its author’s interpretation, considers the reasons of appearance and development of crisis situations causing threats to the economic security of the region. Given that the prevention of threats and reduction of their consequences is the basis of regional economic security, the article identifies the main threats to economic security, as well as the peculiarities of their manifestations (for example, the most significant threats to economic security of the Voronezh region, as well as the proposed activities in support of regional economic security and stated objectives of regional economic policy, the solution of which is aimed at ensuring the economic security of the region. In addition, it is proved that the actual problems of economic security must be constantly in sight of the regional leadership and find its solution in government documents and policy programmes promising socio-economic development of the region.

  10. Pose-Invariant Face Recognition via RGB-D Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; Li, Jing; Zhao, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) face models can intrinsically handle large pose face recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel pose-invariant face recognition method via RGB-D images. By employing depth, our method is able to handle self-occlusion and deformation, both of which are challenging problems in two-dimensional (2D) face recognition. Texture images in the gallery can be rendered to the same view as the probe via depth. Meanwhile, depth is also used for similarity measure via frontalization and symmetric filling. Finally, both texture and depth contribute to the final identity estimation. Experiments on Bosphorus, CurtinFaces, Eurecom, and Kiwi databases demonstrate that the additional depth information has improved the performance of face recognition with large pose variations and under even more challenging conditions.

  11. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  12. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  13. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  14. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  15. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  16. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  17. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  18. The threat of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, I.N.; Tsanis, I.K.; Koutroulis, A.; Kourgialas, N.N.; Varouchakis, A.E.; Karatzas, G.P.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinisation is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring in Europe. The effects of salinisation can be observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Drivers of salinisation can be detected both in the natural and man-made environment, with climate and

  19. Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    this challenge. CMU/SEI-2012-TR-007 | 2 2 The Components of the ITSRA Figure 2 shows the four layers of the ITSRA. The Business Security layer......organizations improve their level of preparedness to address the insider threat. Business Security Architecture Data Security Architecture

  20. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  1. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Pose-invariant face recognition using Markov random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Huy Tho; Chellappa, Rama

    2013-04-01

    One of the key challenges for current face recognition techniques is how to handle pose variations between the probe and gallery face images. In this paper, we present a method for reconstructing the virtual frontal view from a given nonfrontal face image using Markov random fields (MRFs) and an efficient variant of the belief propagation algorithm. In the proposed approach, the input face image is divided into a grid of overlapping patches, and a globally optimal set of local warps is estimated to synthesize the patches at the frontal view. A set of possible warps for each patch is obtained by aligning it with images from a training database of frontal faces. The alignments are performed efficiently in the Fourier domain using an extension of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm that can handle illumination variations. The problem of finding the optimal warps is then formulated as a discrete labeling problem using an MRF. The reconstructed frontal face image can then be used with any face recognition technique. The two main advantages of our method are that it does not require manually selected facial landmarks or head pose estimation. In order to improve the performance of our pose normalization method in face recognition, we also present an algorithm for classifying whether a given face image is at a frontal or nonfrontal pose. Experimental results on different datasets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    people is a very challenging problem for methods based on pictorials structure as for any other monocular pose estimation method. In this report we present work on a multi-view approach based on pictorial structures that integrate low level information from multiple calibrated cameras to improve the 2D...

  4. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills through Problem Posing and Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugito; E. S., Sri Mulyani; Hartono; Supartono

    2017-01-01

    This study was to explore how enhance communication skill through problem posing and presentation method. The subjects of this research were the seven grade students Junior High School, including 20 male and 14 female. This research was conducted in two cycles and each cycle consisted of four steps, they were: planning, action, observation, and…

  5. Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or ...

  6. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  7. Developing teachers' subject didactic competence through problem posing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie; Hošpesová, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-143 ISSN 0013-1954 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : professional development * primary school teachers * problem posing Subject RIV: AM - Education Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10649-012-9455-1

  8. The relative pose estimation of aircraft based on contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tai; Sun, Xiangyi

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a relative pose estimation approach based on object contour model. The first step is to obtain a two-dimensional (2D) projection of three-dimensional (3D)-model-based target, which will be divided into 40 forms by clustering and LDA analysis. Then we proceed by extracting the target contour in each image and computing their Pseudo-Zernike Moments (PZM), thus a model library is constructed in an offline mode. Next, we spot a projection contour that resembles the target silhouette most in the present image from the model library with reference of PZM; then similarity transformation parameters are generated as the shape context is applied to match the silhouette sampling location, from which the identification parameters of target can be further derived. Identification parameters are converted to relative pose parameters, in the premise that these values are the initial result calculated via iterative refinement algorithm, as the relative pose parameter is in the neighborhood of actual ones. At last, Distance Image Iterative Least Squares (DI-ILS) is employed to acquire the ultimate relative pose parameters.

  9. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David

    1990-01-01

    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  10. 3D Facial Landmarking under Expression, Pose, and Occlusion Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dibeklioğ lu; A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); L. Akarun

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomatic localization of 3D facial features is important for face recognition, tracking, modeling and expression analysis. Methods developed for 2D images were shown to have problems working across databases acquired with different illumination conditions. Expression variations, pose

  11. POSING THE HISTORICAL JESUS QUESTION AND THE GOAL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycl

    ... study recommended that. African scholars be allowed to develop and pose the Historical Jesus ... he is seen as the starting point for modern critical study of Jesus. (Burer). ... African anthropology and culture and the data of revelation, and how this theology ... Man” from two perspectives: that of a biblical culture in the first.

  12. Effects of pose and image resolution on automatic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khan, Samee U.

    The popularity of face recognition systems have increased due to their use in widespread applications. Driven by the enormous number of potential application domains, several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Face pose and image resolutions are among the two important factors that

  13. Meanings Given to Algebraic Symbolism in Problem-Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, María C.; Molina, Marta; del Río, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    Some errors in the learning of algebra suggest that students might have difficulties giving meaning to algebraic symbolism. In this paper, we use problem posing to analyze the students' capacity to assign meaning to algebraic symbolism and the difficulties that students encounter in this process, depending on the characteristics of the algebraic…

  14. N deposition as a threat to the World's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, A.; Hicks, W.K.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the world's protected areas (PAs) under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), common classification systems of ecosystem conservation status, and current knowledge on ecosystem responses to nitrogen (N) deposition to determine areas most at risk. The results show that 40% (approx. 11% of total area) of PAs currently receive >10 kg N/ha/yr with projections for 2030 indicating that this situation is not expected to change. Furthermore, 950 PAs are projected to receive >30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030 (approx. twice the 2000 number), of which 62 (approx. 11,300 km 2 ) are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions; with forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia particularly at risk. Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide. Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Highlights: → Significant areas of the Protected Areas Programme under the CBD will likely be under threat of high N deposition levels by the year 2030.→ Approx. 950 PAs are projected to receive N deposition levels of more than 30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030.→ 62 of these sites are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions, where forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia will be particularly at risk.→ Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide → Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Significant areas of the UNEP Protected Areas Programme under the CBD receive high N deposition rates that are likely to increase in the future, especially in Asia, and may pose a significant threat to biodiversity.

  15. Threats from urban expansion, agricultural transformation and forest loss on global conservation priority areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte; Di Minin, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available. We first explore how global priority areas for the conservation of vertebrate (mammals, birds, and amphibians) species coded in the Red List as vulnerable to each threat differ spatially. We then identify spatial conservation priorities for all species vulnerable to all threats. Finally, we identify the potentially most threatened areas by overlapping the identified priority areas for conservation with maps for each threat. We repeat the same with four other well-known global conservation priority area schemes, namely Key Biodiversity Areas, Biodiversity Hotspots, the global Protected Area Network, and Wilderness Areas. We find that residential and commercial development directly threatens only about 4% of the global top 17% priority areas for species vulnerable under this threat. However, 50% of the high priority areas for species vulnerable to forest loss overlap with areas that have already experienced some forest loss. Agricultural expansion overlapped with ~20% of high priority areas. Biodiversity Hotspots had the greatest proportion of their total area under direct threat from all threats, while expansion of low intensity agriculture was found to pose an imminent threat to Wilderness Areas under future agricultural expansion. Our results

  16. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  17. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  18. Metals and metalloids in PM10 in Nandan County, Guangxi, China, and the health risks posed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guanghui; Song, Bo; Xia, Deshang; Yang, Zijie; Wang, Fopeng

    2018-03-16

    Intense mining, smelting, and tailing activities of polymetallic ore deposits have affected the environment in Nandan County, Guangxi, China. Samples of particulates with aerodynamic diameters low or equal 10 μm (PM 10 ) were collected in Nandan County to investigate the concentrations of and health risks posed by 17 metals and metalloids in the PM 10 . The metal and metalloid concentrations were lower than those found in other industrial cities. The mean Cr concentration was 7.48 ng/m 3 . Significant higher metal and metalloid concentrations were found in PM 10 from mining areas (Dachang and Chehe) than from the control area (Liuzhai) (p metalloids in PM 10 at all the sites were low, but the non-carcinogenic risks posed to children by all the metals and metalloids together exceeded the safe level (i.e., risk value > 1). The carcinogenic risks posed by Cd, Ni, and Pb were negligible at all sites, while As, Co, and Cr posed potential carcinogenic risks to the residents.

  19. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  20. Web-based visualisation of head pose and facial expressions changes: monitoring human activity using depth data

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Vidakis, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant recent advances in the field of head pose estimation and facial expression recognition, raising the cognitive level when analysing human activity presents serious challenges to current concepts. Motivated by the need of generating comprehensible visual representations from different sets of data, we introduce a system capable of monitoring human activity through head pose and facial expression changes, utilising an affordable 3D sensing technology (Microsoft Kinect sensor)...

  1. PORT SECURITY-Threats and Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kusi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Takoradi port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vul-nerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Takoradi port operations are being conducted in other to ide...

  2. Perceptions of Threats to Physical Safety, Sexual Autonomy, Values, and of Discrimination Drive LGB Prejudices Toward Heterosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; Rusten, Marta L; Butterfuss, Reese M

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have investigated heterosexuals' prejudices toward nonheterosexuals, yet LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine the threats and opportunities (i.e., affordances) LGB perceive heterosexuals to pose and whether those affordances explain their sexual prejudices toward heterosexuals. Study 1 analyzed LGB's reasons for liking and disliking heterosexuals, which determined whether the threats predicted to be salient for LGB mirrored the affordances they generated. Study 2 measured these perceived affordances and examined the extent to which they drove LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals. Generally, perceptions of discrimination and unreciprocated sexual interest threats drove anger, physical safety and sexual autonomy threats drove fear, and values threats drove moral disgust toward heterosexuals, although results varied slightly by perceiver and target groups. Goals to alleviate the tensions between heterosexuals and LGB require an understanding of the dynamics between these groups. This research provides preliminary insights into understanding those dynamics. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  4. Pose Estimation of Interacting People using Pictorial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Pose estimation of people have had great progress in recent years but so far research has dealt with single persons. In this paper we address some of the challenges that arise when doing pose estimation of interacting people. We build on the pictorial structures framework and make important...... contributions by combining color-based appearance and edge information using a measure of the local quality of the appearance feature. In this way we not only combine the two types of features but dynamically find the optimal weighting of them. We further enable the method to handle occlusions by searching...... a foreground mask for possible occluded body parts and then applying extra strong kinematic constraints to find the true occluded body parts. The effect of applying our two contributions are show through both qualitative and quantitative tests and show a clear improvement on the ability to correctly localize...

  5. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations

  6. Sensing Strategies for Disambiguating among Multiple Objects in Known Poses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    ELEMENT. PROIECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AE OKUI UBR 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 021.39 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...AD-Ali65 912 SENSING STRATEGIES FOR DISAMBIGURTING MONG MULTIPLE 1/1 OBJECTS IN KNOWN POSES(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL ...or Dist Special 1 ’ MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 855 August, 1985 Sensing Strategies for

  7. Solution of linear ill-posed problems using overcomplete dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Pensky, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider application of overcomplete dictionaries to solution of general ill-posed linear inverse problems. Construction of an adaptive optimal solution for such problems usually relies either on a singular value decomposition or representation of the solution via an orthonormal basis. The shortcoming of both approaches lies in the fact that, in many situations, neither the eigenbasis of the linear operator nor a standard orthonormal basis constitutes an appropriate co...

  8. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  9. Mining Key Skeleton Poses with Latent SVM for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition based on 3D skeleton has become an active research field in recent years with the recently developed commodity depth sensors. Most published methods analyze an entire 3D depth data, construct mid-level part representations, or use trajectory descriptor of spatial-temporal interest point for recognizing human activities. Unlike previous work, a novel and simple action representation is proposed in this paper which models the action as a sequence of inconsecutive and discriminative skeleton poses, named as key skeleton poses. The pairwise relative positions of skeleton joints are used as feature of the skeleton poses which are mined with the aid of the latent support vector machine (latent SVM. The advantage of our method is resisting against intraclass variation such as noise and large nonlinear temporal deformation of human action. We evaluate the proposed approach on three benchmark action datasets captured by Kinect devices: MSR Action 3D dataset, UTKinect Action dataset, and Florence 3D Action dataset. The detailed experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art skeleton-based action recognition methods.

  10. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  11. LEVELING STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING IN SOLVING AND POSING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.794.17-40

  12. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  13. Applying the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte R Pennington

    Full Text Available Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-target or gender group's ability (group-as-target or would be non-diagnostic of gaming ability (control. In Experiment 2, 90 females were primed that their performance would be judged by a group of other females (in-group source or males (out-group source, or would be non-diagnostic of ability (control. Participants then completed a casual gaming task, as well as measures of competence beliefs, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings from Experiment 1 indicate that neither a self-as-target nor a group-as-target stereotype affected significantly gaming performance, or game-related self-efficacy, self-esteem and competency beliefs. Findings from Experiment 2 reveal further that females' gaming performance and associated self-perceptions were not impacted significantly by an in-group or out-group source of stereotype threat. The discussion turns to potential explanations for these findings, proposing that females may not perceive negative gender-gaming stereotypes to be an accurate representation of their personal or social group's gaming ability. We also discuss the implications of the experimental design and difficulty, as well as the potential for domain identification to moderate performance outcomes under stereotype threat.

  14. Applying the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Kaye, Linda K; McCann, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-target) or gender group's ability (group-as-target) or would be non-diagnostic of gaming ability (control). In Experiment 2, 90 females were primed that their performance would be judged by a group of other females (in-group source) or males (out-group source), or would be non-diagnostic of ability (control). Participants then completed a casual gaming task, as well as measures of competence beliefs, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings from Experiment 1 indicate that neither a self-as-target nor a group-as-target stereotype affected significantly gaming performance, or game-related self-efficacy, self-esteem and competency beliefs. Findings from Experiment 2 reveal further that females' gaming performance and associated self-perceptions were not impacted significantly by an in-group or out-group source of stereotype threat. The discussion turns to potential explanations for these findings, proposing that females may not perceive negative gender-gaming stereotypes to be an accurate representation of their personal or social group's gaming ability. We also discuss the implications of the experimental design and difficulty, as well as the potential for domain identification to moderate performance outcomes under stereotype threat.

  15. Improving Visual Threat Detection: Research to Validate the Threat Detection Skills Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    26 Threat Detection and Mitigation Strategies...quicker when identifying threats in relevant locations. This task utilized the Flicker paradigm (Rensink, O’Regan, & Clark, 1997; Scholl, 2000...the meaning and implication of threats, why cues were relevant, strategies used to detect and mitigate threats, and challenges when attempting to

  16. What About the Children? The Threat of Nuclear War and Our Responsibility to Preserve this Planet for Future Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Glenn W.

    Part of a global effort, this brochure was written to increase understanding of the threat nuclear war poses to children. Several issues are raised and briefly discussed, including (1) the present capacity for annihilating the next generation or ending human life on this planet, (2) the inadequacy of deterrence, (3) the suffering of children after…

  17. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  18. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours

  19. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments. PEPG 05-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    Stigma and school voucher threats under a revised 2002 Florida accountability law have positive impacts on student performance. Stigma and public school choice threats under the U.S. federal accountability law, No Child Left Behind, do not have similar effects in Florida. Significant impacts of stigma, when combined with the voucher threat, are…

  1. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, J.; Hakala, M.; Wanne, T.; Kantia, P.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    In-depth knowledge of the in situ stress state at the Olkiluoto site is critical for stability assessment both prior to and after deposition of spent nuclear fuel in order to understand and avoid potential damage to the rock at the site. Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE) was designed specifically for this purpose with three primary goals: establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level and act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. Phases 1 and 2 of POSE are outlined in WR 2012-60. The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are the same as the original objectives outlined above. This report outlines the execution and results of the third phase of the POSE experiment. The third phase of the experiment involved internally heating the third experimental hole (ONK-EH3) of the POSE niche in order to cause a symmetrical thermal stress increase around the hole due to the thermal expansion of rock. This thermomechanically induced stress increase, coupled with the estimated existing in situ stress state, should cause the maximum principal stress around the hole to exceed the predicted spalling strength of the rock around the hole. ONK-EH3 is located almost completely in pegmatitic granite. Four fractures near the top of the hole were mapped after boring ONK-EH3, and a tensile failure located at the contact between mica-rich gneiss and pegmatitic granite was observed 18 months after boring, prior to the experiment. Based on predictive calculations and the estimated in situ state of stress, the maximum principal stress magnitude should reach ca. 100 MPa when the temperature was just below 100 deg C after 12 weeks of heating. There were problems with the heater control unit at the beginning of the experiment, after which heating proceeded according to plan. The crack damage threshold of pegmatitic granite has been determined to be 85 ±17 MPa at Olkiluoto

  2. Technologies to counter aviation security threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Steve

    2017-11-01

    The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) makes TSA responsible for security in all modes of transportation, and requires that TSA assess threats to transportation, enforce security-related regulations and requirements, and ensure the adequacy of security measures at airports and other transportation facilities. Today, TSA faces a significant challenge and must address a wide range of commercial, military grade, and homemade explosives and these can be presented in an infinite number of configurations and from multiple vectors. TSA screens 2 million passengers and crew, and screens almost 5 million carry-on items and 1.2 million checked bags daily. As TSA explores new technologies for improving efficiency and security, those on the forefront of research and development can help identify unique and advanced methods to combat terrorism. Research and Development (R&D) drives the development of future technology investments that can address an evolving adversary and aviation threat. The goal is to rethink the aviation security regime in its entirety, and rather than focusing security at particular points in the enterprise, distribute security from the time a reservation is made to the time a passenger boards the aircraft. The ultimate objective is to reengineer aviation security from top to bottom with a continued focus on increasing security throughout the system.

  3. Relative Pose Estimation and Accuracy Verification of Spherical Panoramic Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Donghai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper improves the method of the traditional 5-point relative pose estimation algorithm, and proposes a relative pose estimation algorithm which is suitable for spherical panoramic images. The algorithm firstly computes the essential matrix, then decomposes the essential matrix to obtain the rotation matrix and the translation vector using SVD, and finally the reconstructed three-dimensional points are used to eliminate the error solution. The innovation of the algorithm lies the derivation of panorama epipolar formula and the use of the spherical distance from the point to the epipolar plane as the error term for the spherical panorama co-planarity function. The simulation experiment shows that when the random noise of the image feature points is within the range of pixel, the error of the three Euler angles is about 0.1°, and the error between the relative translational displacement and the simulated value is about 1.5°. The result of the experiment using the data obtained by the vehicle panorama camera and the POS shows that:the error of the roll angle and pitch angle can be within 0.2°, the error of the heading angle can be within 0.4°, and the error between the relative translational displacement and the POS can be within 2°. The result of our relative pose estimation algorithm is used to generate the spherical panoramic epipolar images, then we extract the key points between the spherical panoramic images and calculate the errors in the column direction. The result shows that the errors is less than 1 pixel.

  4. Regularization theory for ill-posed problems selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Thismonograph is a valuable contribution to thehighly topical and extremly productive field ofregularisationmethods for inverse and ill-posed problems. The author is an internationally outstanding and acceptedmathematicianin this field. In his book he offers a well-balanced mixtureof basic and innovative aspects.He demonstrates new,differentiatedviewpoints, and important examples for applications. The bookdemontrates thecurrent developments inthe field of regularization theory,such as multiparameter regularization and regularization in learning theory. The book is written for graduate and PhDs

  5. Drogue pose estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle autonomous aerial refueling system based on infrared vision sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjun; Duan, Haibin; Deng, Yimin; Li, Cong; Zhao, Guozhi; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling is a significant technology that can significantly extend the endurance of unmanned aerial vehicles. A reliable method that can accurately estimate the position and attitude of the probe relative to the drogue is the key to such a capability. A drogue pose estimation method based on infrared vision sensor is introduced with the general goal of yielding an accurate and reliable drogue state estimate. First, by employing direct least squares ellipse fitting and convex hull in OpenCV, a feature point matching and interference point elimination method is proposed. In addition, considering the conditions that some infrared LEDs are damaged or occluded, a missing point estimation method based on perspective transformation and affine transformation is designed. Finally, an accurate and robust pose estimation algorithm improved by the runner-root algorithm is proposed. The feasibility of the designed visual measurement system is demonstrated by flight test, and the results indicate that our proposed method enables precise and reliable pose estimation of the probe relative to the drogue, even in some poor conditions.

  6. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  7. Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation: a broad impact parasitological disease that still remains a significant challenge for the egg-laying industry in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigognault Flochlay, Annie; Thomas, Emmanuel; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations. The main objective of the current work was to review the factors contributing to this growing threat and to discuss their recent development in Europe. We conclude that effective and sustainable treatment approach to control poultry red mite infestation is urgently required, included integrated pest management.

  8. A Cyber Security Risk Assessment of Hospital Infrastructure including TLS/SSL and other Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Cyber threats traditionally target governments, financial institutions and businesses. However, of growing concern is the threat to healthcare organizations. This study conducts a cyber security risk assessment of a theoretical hospital environment, to include TLS/SSL, which is an encryption protocol for network communications, plus other physical, logical and human threats. Despite significant budgets in the UK for the NHS, the spend on cyber security appears worryingly low and many hospital...

  9. Hazard to man and the environment posed by the use of urban waste compost: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deportes, Isabelle; Benoit-Guyod, Jean-Louis [Gedexe, Meylan (France); Zmirou, Denis [Public Health Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Joseph Fourier University, La Tronche (France)

    1995-09-29

    This review presents the current state of knowledge on the relationship between the environment and the use of municipal waste compost in terms of health risk assessment. The hazards stem from chemical and microbiological agents whose nature and magnitude depend heavily on the degree of sorting and on the composting methods. Three main routes of exposure can be determined and are quantified in the literature: (1) The ingestion of soil/compost mixtures by children, mostly in cases of pica, can be a threat because of the amount of lead, chromium, cadmium, PCDD/F and fecal streptococci that can be absorbed; (2) Though concern about contamination through the food chain is weak when compost is used in agriculture, some authors anticipate accumulation of pollutants after several years of disposal, which might lead to future hazards; (3) Exposure is also associated with atmospheric dispersion of compost organic dust that convey microorganisms and toxicants. Data on hazard posed by organic dust from municipal composts to the farmer or the private user is scarce. To date, microorganisms are only measured at composting plants, thus raising the issue of extrapolation to environmental situations. Lung damage and allergies may occur because of organic dust, Gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. Further research is needed on the risk related to inhalation of chemical compounds

  10. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus does not pose a risk to blood recipient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Roger Y; Hackett, John; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Dorsey, Kerri; Wu, Yanyun; Zou, Shimian; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Schochetman, Gerald; Gao, Kui; Carrick, James M; Krysztof, David E; Stramer, Susan L

    2012-02-01

    When xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was first reported in association with chronic fatigue syndrome, it was suggested that it might offer a risk to blood safety. Thus, the prevalence of the virus among blood donors and, if present, its transmissibility by transfusion need to be defined. Two populations of routine blood donor samples (1435 and 13,399) were obtained for prevalence evaluations; samples from a linked donor-recipient repository were also evaluated. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to XMRV-related recombinant antigens and/or for XMRV RNA, using validated, high-throughput systems. The presence of antibodies to XMRV could not be confirmed among a total of 17,249 blood donors or recipients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-0.017%); 1763 tested samples were nonreactive for XMRV RNA (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.17%). Evidence of infection was absent from 109 recipients and 830 evaluable blood samples tested after transfusion of a total of 3741 blood components. XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV) markers are not present among a large population of blood donors and evidence of transfusion transmission could not be detected. Thus, these viruses do not currently pose a threat to blood recipient safety and further actions relating to XMRV and MLV are not justified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Addressing socioeconomic and political challenges posed by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Harindra Joseph; Klaic, Zvjezdana Bencetic

    2011-08-01

    NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Climate Change, Human Health and National Security; Dubrovnik, Croatia, 28-30 April 2011; Climate change has been identified as one of the most serious threats to humanity. It not only causes sea level rise, drought, crop failure, vector-borne diseases, extreme events, degradation of water and air quality, heat waves, and other phenomena, but it is also a threat multiplier wherein concatenation of multiple events may lead to frequent human catastrophes and intranational and international conflicts. In particular, urban areas may bear the brunt of climate change because of the amplification of climate effects that cascade down from global to urban scales, but current modeling and downscaling capabilities are unable to predict these effects with confidence. These were the main conclusions of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace and Security program. Thirty-two invitees from 17 counties, including leading modelers; natural, political, and social scientists; engineers; politicians; military experts; urban planners; industry analysts; epidemiologists; and health care professionals, parsed the topic on a common platform.

  12. Insider Threat to Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Rebecca Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    After completing this session, you should be able to: Describe the Insider Threat; Characterize the cyber insider threat; Describe preventive measures against the insider threat; Describe protective measures against the insider threat.

  13. Novelty Detection for Interactive Pose Recognition by a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gonzalez-Pacheco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Active robot learners take an active role in their own learning by making queries to their human teachers when they receive new data. However, not every received input is useful for the robot, and asking for non-informative inputs or asking too many questions might worsen the user's perception of the robot. We present a novelty detection system that enables a robot to ask labels for new stimuli only when they seem both novel and interesting. Our system separates the decision process into two steps: first, it discriminates novel from known stimuli, and second, it estimates if these stimuli are likely to happen again. Our approach uses the notion of curiosity, which controls the eagerness with which the robot asks questions to the user. We evaluate our approach in the domain of pose learning by training our robot with a set of pointing poses able to detect up to 84%, 79%, and 78% of the observed novelties in three different experiments. Our approach enables robots to keep learning continuously, even after training is finished. The introduction of the curiosity parameter allows tuning, for the conditions in which the robot should want to learn more.

  14. Probabilistic Mapping of Human Visual Attention from Head Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Veronese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective interaction between a human and a robot requires the bidirectional perception and interpretation of actions and behavior. While actions can be identified as a directly observable activity, this might not be sufficient to deduce actions in a scene. For example, orienting our face toward a book might suggest the action toward “reading.” For a human observer, this deduction requires the direction of gaze, the object identified as a book and the intersection between gaze and book. With this in mind, we aim to estimate and map human visual attention as directed to a scene, and assess how this relates to the detection of objects and their related actions. In particular, we consider human head pose as measurement to infer the attention of a human engaged in a task and study which prior knowledge should be included in such a detection system. In a user study, we show the successful detection of attention to objects in a typical office task scenario (i.e., reading, working with a computer, studying an object. Our system requires a single external RGB camera for head pose measurements and a pre-recorded 3D point cloud of the environment.

  15. Gaussian particle filter based pose and motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Determination of relative three-dimensional (3D) position, orientation, and relative motion between two reference frames is an important problem in robotic guidance, manipulation, and assembly as well as in other fields such as photogrammetry.A solution to pose and motion estimation problem that uses two-dimensional (2D) intensity images from a single camera is desirable for real-time applications. The difficulty in performing this measurement is that the process of projecting 3D object features to 2D images is a nonlinear transformation. In this paper, the 3D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimation providing six degrees-of-freedom motion and position values, using line features in image plane as measuring inputs and dual quaternion to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. A filtering method called the Gaussian particle filter (GPF) based on the particle filtering concept is presented for 3D pose and motion estimation of a moving target from monocular image sequences. The method has been implemented with simulated data, and simulation results are provided along with comparisons to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to show the relative advantages of the GPF. Simulation results showed that GPF is a superior alternative to EKF and UKF.

  16. Endogenous Pain Modulation Induced by Extrinsic and Intrinsic Psychological Threat in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Moss, Penny; Cheng, Tak Ho; Garnier, Alexandre; Wright, Anthony; Wand, Benedict M

    2018-03-01

    Many factors interact to influence threat perception and the subsequent experience of pain. This study investigated the effect of observing pain (extrinsic threat) and intrinsic threat of pain to oneself on pressure pain threshold (PPT). Forty socially connected pairs of healthy volunteers were threat-primed and randomly allocated to experimental or control roles. An experimental pain modulation paradigm was applied, with non-nociceptive threat cues used as conditioning stimuli. In substudy 1, the extrinsic threat to the experimental participant was observation of the control partner in pain. The control participant underwent hand immersion in noxious and non-noxious water baths in randomized order. Change in the observing participant's PPT from baseline to mid- and postimmersion was calculated. A significant interaction was found for PPT between conditions and test time (F 2,78  = 24.9, P Extrinsic and intrinsic threat of pain, in the absence of any afferent input therefore influences pain modulation. This may need to be considered in studies that use noxious afferent input with populations who show dysfunctional pain modulation. The effect on endogenous analgesia of observing another's pain and of threat of pain to oneself was investigated. Extrinsic as well as intrinsic threat cues, in the absence of any afferent input, increased pain thresholds, suggesting that mere threat of pain may initiate analgesic effects in traditional noxious experimental paradigms. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Threats to the Internal Validity of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Flannelly, Laura T; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2018-01-24

    The article defines, describes, and discusses the seven threats to the internal validity of experiments discussed by Donald T. Campbell in his classic 1957 article: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay, statistical regression, selection, and mortality. These concepts are said to be threats to the internal validity of experiments because they pose alternate explanations for the apparent causal relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable of an experiment if they are not adequately controlled. A series of simple diagrams illustrate three pre-experimental designs and three true experimental designs discussed by Campbell in 1957 and several quasi-experimental designs described in his book written with Julian C. Stanley in 1966. The current article explains why each design controls for or fails to control for these seven threats to internal validity.

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. Determining the Performances of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers in Problem Posing Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the problem posing strategies of pre-service primary school teachers in different problem posing situations (PPSs) and analysed the issues they encounter while posing problems. A problem posing task consisting of six PPSs (two free, two structured, and two semi-structured situations) was delivered to 40 participants.…

  20. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  1. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ASPECTS OF DEALING WITH THE CONTEMPORARY TERRORISM THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Poposka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent challenges in international security posed by two terrorist organizations, Al Qaeda and ISIS, have highlighted an urgent domestic and foreign policy challenge. Terrorism has been, for more than a decade, top headline in the world media, and the cost of terrorist activities is expressed in numerous human lives and enormous material damage. Yet to date, international organizations and governments have not been successful in the attempt to find a common definition or uniform approach. Up to now, the approaches towards terrorist activities differ from case to case. There is no single legal regime to deal with terrorist activities, and the legal regime is what gives the answer and the framework for the counter-terrorist activities of the security forces, in order to be able to deal with the threat. This paper will attempt to answer at least some of the dilemmas.

  2. The structure and economic significance of government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, when countries are facing difficulties in raising the amounts of revenue needed to cover the expenditure side of the budget, fiscal risks can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of public finance. This became particularly evident in the case of public enterprises and their liabilities, which often increased public debt because of difficulties in meeting their financial obligations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal risks from government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union in general. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the dynamics of the value and structure of government guarantees in Croatia in the period from 2009 to first half of 2015. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of government guarantees on direct public debt in the context of methodological changes in the registration of public debt.

  3. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  4. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Global threat reduction initiative (GTRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is a vital part of the global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. GTRI's unique mission to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites both in the United States and abroad directly addresses recommendations of the bipartisan 9/11 Commission. GTRI efforts are focused on the first line of defense, namely securing or removing vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at the source. The international community has promulgated guidance on the best practice on the technical and administrative aspects of radiological source security, and the GTRI seeks to provide technical assistance to national bodies and individual facilities to adopt this best practice. This presentation will discuss security concepts that are implemented by the GTRI in cooperation with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources Project. (author)

  6. Contraband and threat material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Dunn, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A pressing threat in modern society is the effective use of improvised explosive devices or IED's. One of the commonly used techniques to detect explosives is radiography. A primary drawback of this method is that humans are required in order to examine the image of each target. This requires trained personnel, who are subject to fatigue if many targets are being examined in rapid succession. Other trace element techniques generally require collection of samples from or near the surface of suspect targets. The signature-based radiation scanning (SBRS) technology has been developed to counter this threat. This technology can result in automated systems, requiring minimal operator involvement, that can rapidly identify IEDs from standoff. Preliminary research indicates that explosive samples of 5-10 kg or greater hidden in various targets can be detected from standoffs of more than a meter, with high sensitivity and high specificity. Many common explosives have similar concentrations of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (HCNO). As neutrons interact with HCNO materials, unique signatures are created based on the specific composition of the material. We collect signatures from the HCNO prompt and inelastically scattered gamma rays and from scattered neutrons. Two neutron detectors (one bare and one cadmium-covered) are used in order to provide some measure of the back-scattered neutron spectrum. A library of signature templates, based on signatures detected from known targets containing known explosives in various configurations, is created. Similar signatures can be collected for suspect targets. Then a template-matching technique is used to construct two figure-of-merit metrics. The values of these metrics can be used to differentiate between safe targets and IEDs. Laboratory tests have been conducted using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector and two europium-doped lithium-iodide neutron detectors (one bare and one covered with cadmium) are used to

  7. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-12-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, and a nullified condition. Results indicated that males in all three conditions performed similarly on a set of physics problems. Females in the nullified condition outperformed females in the explicit ST condition and females in the implicit and explicit conditions performed similarly. Males performed better than females in the implicit and explicit ST conditions, but male and female performance on the physics problems was not significantly different in the nullified condition. The implications of these findings for physics instruction and future research on gender differences in physics and ST in science are discussed.

  8. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  9. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.; Hakala, M.; Kantia, P.

    2014-02-01

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  10. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  11. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodriquez, Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  12. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  13. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  14. Information security practices emerging threats and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Ahmed; Woungang, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces novel research targeting technical aspects of protecting information security and establishing trust in the digital space. New paradigms, and emerging threats and solutions are presented in topics such as application security and threat management; modern authentication paradigms; digital fraud detection; social engineering and insider threats; cyber threat intelligence; intrusion detection; behavioral biometrics recognition; hardware security analysis. The book presents both the important core and the specialized issues in the areas of protection, assurance, and trust in information security practice. It is intended to be a valuable resource and reference for researchers, instructors, students, scientists, engineers, managers, and industry practitioners. .

  15. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA DENGAN METODE PROBLEM POSING BERBASIS PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Lia Susanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan metode Problem Posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania pada materi garis singgung lingkaran efektif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah peserta didik di SMP N 2 Pati. Sampel dalam penelitian ini diambil dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Variabel dalam penelitian ini yaitu keaktifan sebagai variabel independen dan prestasi belajar sebagai variabel dependen. Cara pengambilan data dengan lembar pengamatan dan tes. Data diolah dengan uji banding t dan uji pengaruh regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 secara statistik melebihi KKM (75. Dengan uji regresi linear sederhana diperoleh persamaan regresi ?=-15,847 + 1,194X dan R^2=0,829. Koefisien X merupakan bilangan positif sehingga keaktifan berpengaruh positif pada prestasi belajar sebesar 82,9%. Rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 dan rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas kontrol (72,91. Secara uji stastistik prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil analisis disimpulkan (1 pembelajaran mencapai tuntas belajar; (2 adanya pengaruh positif pada keaktifan terhadap prestasi belajar; dan (3 prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol; sehingga pembelajaran matematika dengan metode problem posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania merupakan pembelajaran yang efektif. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the learning of mathematics by Problem Posing method in a TeenZania laboratory based character education in circle tangent material effectively. The population in this study were students in SMP N 2 Pati. The sample in this study were drawn by cluster random sampling technique. The variables in this study is the activity as an independent variable and learning achievement as the dependent variable

  16. Lavrentiev regularization method for nonlinear ill-posed problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinh, Nguyen Van

    2002-10-01

    In this paper we shall be concerned with Lavientiev regularization method to reconstruct solutions x 0 of non ill-posed problems F(x)=y o , where instead of y 0 noisy data y δ is an element of X with absolut(y δ -y 0 ) ≤ δ are given and F:X→X is an accretive nonlinear operator from a real reflexive Banach space X into itself. In this regularization method solutions x α δ are obtained by solving the singularly perturbed nonlinear operator equation F(x)+α(x-x*)=y δ with some initial guess x*. Assuming certain conditions concerning the operator F and the smoothness of the element x*-x 0 we derive stability estimates which show that the accuracy of the regularized solutions is order optimal provided that the regularization parameter α has been chosen properly. (author)

  17. Pose Tracking Algorithm of an Endoscopic Surgery Robot Wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Yin, H L; Meng, Q

    2006-01-01

    In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out [2]. Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter

  18. Pose Tracking Algorithm of an Endoscopic Surgery Robot Wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Yin, H L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Meng, Q [Shanghai University of Electric Power (China)

    2006-10-15

    In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out [2]. Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter.

  19. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Cyber security threats in the power sector: Need for a domain specific regulatory framework in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda Kumar, V.; Pandey, Krishan K.; Punia, Devendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    India is poised to spend over USD 5.8 billion as part of the National Smart Grid Mission aimed to alleviate India's ailing power sector as part of its 12th Five year plan (2012–2017). The federal government sponsored Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (R-APDRP) is also focused on building ICT capability in the state electricity boards. Presently however, there is no power sector specific cyber security mandates or policies in India. The Stuxnet, Shamoon and Anonymous incidents have shown that cyber attacks can cause significant damage and pose a risk to National Critical Infrastructure. A lack of security planning as part of designing the Smart grids can potentially leave gaping holes in the country's power sector stability. The paper highlights key cyber security threats across the entire power sector value chain—from generation, to transmission and distribution. It is aimed at building the case for power sector specific cyber security regulations based on the experience of regulators in other critical infrastructure sectors like Banking and Telecom in India and power sector regulations internationally. - Highlights: • Cyber security in power sector is key to protecting national critical infrastructure. • Poor cyber security planning would impact the power sector in India. • A laissez-faire approach to cyber security in power sector may not yield results. • There is a need for power sector specific cyber security regulations

  1. A study of insider threat in nuclear security analysis using game theoretic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo-Nam; Yim, Man-Sung; Schneider, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Implications of an insider threat in nuclear security were quantitatively analyzed. • The analysis was based on of a hypothetical nuclear facility and using game theoretic approach. • Through a sensitivity analysis, vulnerable paths and important parameters were identified. • The methodology can be utilized to prioritize the implementation of PPS improvements in a facility. - Abstract: An Insider poses a greater threat to the security system of a nuclear power plant (NPP) because of their ability to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility, to bypass dedicated security measures. If an insider colludes with an external terrorist group, this poses a key threat to the safety-security interface. However, despite the importance of the insider threat, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively analyze an insider threat. This research examines the quantitative framework for investigating the implications of insider threat, taking a novel approach. Conventional tools assessing the security threats to nuclear facilities focus on a limited number of attack pathways. These are defined by the modeler and are based on simple probabilistic calculations. They do not capture the adversary’s intentions nor do they account for their response and adaptation to defensive investments. As an alternative way of performing physical protection analysis, this research explores the use of game theoretic modeling of Physical Protection Systems (PPS) analysis by incorporating the implications of an insider threat, to address the issues of intentionality and interactions. The game theoretic approach has the advantage of modeling an intelligent adversary and insider who has an intention to do harm and complete knowledge of the facility. Through a quantitative assessment and sensitivity analysis, vulnerable but important parameters in this model were identified. This made it possible to determine which insider threat is more important. The

  2. Experimental estimation of snare detectability for robust threat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Hannah J; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Durant, Sarah; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-02-01

    Hunting with wire snares is rife within many tropical forest systems, and constitutes one of the severest threats to a wide range of vertebrate taxa. As for all threats, reliable monitoring of snaring levels is critical for assessing the relative effectiveness of management interventions. However, snares pose a particular challenge in terms of tracking spatial or temporal trends in their prevalence because they are extremely difficult to detect, and are typically spread across large, inaccessible areas. As with cryptic animal targets, any approach used to monitor snaring levels must address the issue of imperfect detection, but no standard method exists to do so. We carried out a field experiment in Keo Seima Wildlife Reserve in eastern Cambodia with the following objectives: (1) To estimate the detection probably of wire snares within a tropical forest context, and to investigate how detectability might be affected by habitat type, snare type, or observer. (2) To trial two sets of sampling protocols feasible to implement in a range of challenging field conditions. (3) To conduct a preliminary assessment of two potential analytical approaches to dealing with the resulting snare encounter data. We found that although different observers had no discernible effect on detection probability, detectability did vary between habitat type and snare type. We contend that simple repeated counts carried out at multiple sites and analyzed using binomial mixture models could represent a practical yet robust solution to the problem of monitoring snaring levels both inside and outside of protected areas. This experiment represents an important first step in developing improved methods of threat monitoring, and such methods are greatly needed in southeast Asia, as well as in as many other regions.

  3. Reducing the Effect of Stereotype Threat: The Role of Coaction Contexts and Regulatory Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Dong, Xuanhao; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of competition and cooperation contexts, as well as regulatory fit, on reducing the negative influence of stereotype threat. Experiment 1 demonstrated that in high stereotype threat conditions, participants in the cooperation context scored significantly higher on a math test than those in the competition…

  4. Organizational Security Threats Related to Portable Data Storage Devices: Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant growth of portable devices capable of storing both personal data as well as sensitive organizational data. This growth of these portable devices has led to an increased threat of cyber-criminal activity. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of security threats to the data assets of organizations…

  5. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stere...

  7. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  8. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernandes Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  9. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  10. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  11. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  12. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  13. Prototyping of CBRN threat assessment system. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ina, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Maeno, Akihiro; Sakaue, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats, that is, CBRN threats have emerged. In order to support the Japan Self Defense Forces unit coping with the CBRN threats, it is important to take measures against these invisible threats. Our CBRN threat assessment system will make invisible CBRN threats visible. This report describes a prototyping of the CBRN threat assessment system (PHASE 1) carried out from fiscal year 2012-2014. (author)

  14. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  15. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  16. Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Gaydos

    Full Text Available Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA, British Columbia (Canada, and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as

  17. Hunted woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii show threat-sensitive responses to human presence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Papworth

    Full Text Available Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human hunting is likely to have a greater effect on prey populations as all human encounters should lead to predator avoidance, increasing stress and creating opportunity costs for exploited populations. We test the threat sensitivity hypothesis in wild Poeppigi's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, by presenting human models engaging in one of three behaviours "hunting", "gathering" or "researching". These experiments were conducted at two sites with differing hunting pressures. Visibility, movement and vocalisations were recorded and results from two sites showed that groups changed their behaviours after being exposed to humans, and did so in different ways depending on the behaviour of the human model. Results at the site with higher hunting pressure were consistent with predictions based on the threat sensitivity hypothesis. Although results at the site with lower hunting pressure were not consistent with the results at the site with higher hunting pressure, groups at this site also showed differential responses to different human behaviours. These results provide evidence of threat-sensitive predator avoidance in hunted primates, which may allow them to conserve both time and energy when encountering humans which pose no threat.

  18. Consequences of a changing CBRN threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medema, J.

    2009-01-01

    The OPCW now counts 186 member States. Member States that possessed chemical weapons (CW) are destroying those weapons, albeit at a slow pace. In the coming decade most, if not all, of the 100.000 + tons of CW from the previous century will have been destroyed. Of the 12± States, not part of the OPCW, four of them potentially have CW but their quantities are restricted to less than 1000 tons. About one kg of the more potent nerve agent or Mustard gas is required to produce on average one casualty amongst unprotected troops, 1000 tons potentially can produce 1 million casualties. Protection, passive chemical defense, is therefore mandatory. However, once a detection and protection system is in place, with a protection factor of say one thousand, the amount required to produce one casualty amongst troops in a military scenario becomes prohibitive. Furthermore, available CW quantities will have been reduced by pre-emptive airstrikes and the aggressor will have little chance to fully deploy his CW capability. The threat from massive CW with units facing several attacks per week has changed to incidental attacks on a smaller scale and with far lower frequency. This should have consequences for the chemical defense posture of the forces, Detection and protection are still required but the protection can have a lower capacity, less spares per individual. Because the number of incidents will be far lower it might be more cost effective to abandon contaminated equipment than to decontaminate it. As the number of CW casualties entering the military medical system will be small it might be better to find cures for diseases from biological weapons than to spent money on improved therapies for nerve agent or mustard. Although research in CW medical over the last 50 years was great, it has not produced a therapy for mustard or a significant improvement over the old therapy for nerve agent poisoning. With a declining CW threat the BW threat is on the rise, making a passive

  19. Artificial Intelligence: Threat or Boon to Radiologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Michael; Bryan, R Nick

    2017-11-01

    The development and integration of machine learning/artificial intelligence into routine clinical practice will significantly alter the current practice of radiology. Changes in reimbursement and practice patterns will also continue to affect radiology. But rather than being a significant threat to radiologists, we believe these changes, particularly machine learning/artificial intelligence, will be a boon to radiologists by increasing their value, efficiency, accuracy, and personal satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The STS-93 crew pose in front of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 crew pose in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following their landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. From left to right, they are Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins, and Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander.

  1. STS-93 Commander Collins poses in front of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins poses in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following her textbook landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander. Also on board were her fellow STS-93 crew members: Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  2. Real-time pose invariant logo and pattern detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Kottmann, Michal; Benesova, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    The detection of pose invariant planar patterns has many practical applications in computer vision and surveillance systems. The recognition of company logos is used in market studies to examine the visibility and frequency of logos in advertisement. Danger signs on vehicles could be detected to trigger warning systems in tunnels, or brand detection on transport vehicles can be used to count company-specific traffic. We present the results of a study on planar pattern detection which is based on keypoint detection and matching of distortion invariant 2d feature descriptors. Specifically we look at the keypoint detectors of type: i) Lowe's DoG approximation from the SURF algorithm, ii) the Harris Corner Detector, iii) the FAST Corner Detector and iv) Lepetit's keypoint detector. Our study then compares the feature descriptors SURF and compact signatures based on Random Ferns: we use 3 sets of sample images to detect and match 3 logos of different structure to find out which combinations of keypoint detector/feature descriptors work well. A real-world test tries to detect vehicles with a distinctive logo in an outdoor environment under realistic lighting and weather conditions: a camera was mounted on a suitable location for observing the entrance to a parking area so that incoming vehicles could be monitored. In this 2 hour long recording we can successfully detect a specific company logo without false positives.

  3. Compensating Pose Uncertainties through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolniakowski Adam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate for a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise, and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process. One of the open challenges is the need for the gripper to compensate for uncertainties inherent to the workcell, e.g. due to errors in calibration, inaccurate pose estimation from the vision system, or object deformation. In this paper, we present an analysis of gripper uncertainty compensating capabilities in a sample industrial object grasping scenario for a finger that was designed using an automated simulation-based geometry optimization method (Wolniakowski et al., 2013, 2015. We test the developed gripper with a set of grasps subjected to structured perturbation in a simulation environment and in the real-world setting. We provide a comparison of the data obtained by using both of these approaches. We argue that the strong correspondence observed in results validates the use of dynamic simulation for the gripper finger design and optimization.

  4. Mendalami Dasar-Dasar dalam Pengambilan Pose pada Pemotretan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Paulina Gunawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many activities and numerous objects in this universe, which make them interesting for photographers to explore as their masterpiece. One of the things that has been enjoyed and is always developing over time is the use of human as an object, whether as a candid photography or as a posing model in accordance to photographer's concept and theme. Using human being as an object is always popular among beginners and professional photographers. Even nowadays people often hold photo shoot as a media in many social network sites. And so if they understand the simple theories in basic knowledge of using human object, the results will be maximized, and of course, much more interesting. The more a photographer does his job, the better his experience is, and his work will develop. Thus, it makes him more alert to the situation and character of a model, which will then become more observant in predicting their outcome in photography.   

  5. The reduced-risk insecticide azadirachtin poses a toxicological hazard to stingless bee Partamona helleri (Friese, 1900) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Rodrigo Cupertino; Barbosa, Wagner Faria; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Lima, Maria Augusta Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale pesticide application poses a major threat to bee biodiversity by causing a decline in bee populations that, in turn, compromises ecosystem maintenance and agricultural productivity. Biopesticides are considered an alternative to synthetic pesticides with a focus on reducing potential detrimental effects to beneficial organisms such as bees. The production of healthy queen stingless bees is essential for the survival and reproduction of hives, although it remains unknown whether biopesticides influence stingless bee reproduction. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the biopesticide azadirachtin on the survival, behavior, morphology, development, and reproduction of queens of the stingless bee Partamona helleri (Friese, 1900). The neonicotinoid imidacloprid was used as a toxic reference standard. Queens were orally exposed in vitro to a contaminated diet (containing azadirachtin and imidacloprid) during development. Azadirachtin resulted in reduced survival, similarly to imidacloprid, altered development time, caused deformations, and reduced the size of the queens' reproductive organs. All of these factors could potentially compromise colony survival. Results from the present study showed azadirachtin posed a toxicological hazard to P. helleri queens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility, or...

  7. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. The past, present and future supernova threat to Earth's biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Martin

    2011-12-01

    A brief review of the threat posed to Earth's biosphere via near-by supernova detonations is presented. The expected radiation dosage, cosmic ray flux and expanding blast wave collision effects are considered, and it is argued that a typical supernova must be closer than ˜10-pc before any appreciable and potentially harmful atmosphere/biosphere effects are likely to occur. In contrast, the critical distance for Gamma-ray bursts is of order 1-kpc. In spite of the high energy effects potentially involved, the geological record provides no clear-cut evidence for any historic supernova induced mass extinctions and/or strong climate change episodes. This, however, is mostly a reflection of their being numerous possible (terrestrial and astronomical) forcing mechanisms acting upon the biosphere and the difficulty of distinguishing between competing scenarios. Key to resolving this situation, it is suggested, is the development of supernova specific extinction and climate change linked ecological models. Moving to the future, we estimate that over the remaining lifetime of the biosphere (˜2 Gyr) the Earth might experience 1 GRB and 20 supernova detonations within their respective harmful threat ranges. There are currently at least 12 potential pre-supernova systems within 1-kpc of the Sun. Of these systems IK Pegasi is the closest Type Ia pre-supernova candidate and Betelgeuse is the closest potential Type II supernova candidate. We review in some detail the past, present and future behavior of these two systems. Developing a detailed evolutionary model we find that IK Pegasi will likely not detonate until some 1.9 billion years hence, and that it affords absolutely no threat to Earth's biosphere. Betelgeuse is the closest, reasonably well understood, pre-supernova candidate to the Sun at the present epoch, and may undergo detonation any time within the next several million years. The stand-off distance of Betelgeuse at the time of its detonation is estimated to fall

  9. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  10. Establishing 'design basis threat' in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.; Naadland, E.; Reistad, O.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: INFCIRC 225 (Rev. 4) assumes that a state's physical protection system should be based on the state's evaluation of the threat, and that this should be reflected in the relevant legislation. Other factors should also be considered, including the state's emergency response capabilities and the existing and relevant measures of the state's system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. A design basis threat developed from an evaluation by the state of the threat of unauthorized removal of nuclear material and of sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities is an essential element of a state's system of physical protection. The state should continuously review the threat, and evaluate the implications of any changes in that threat for the required levels and the methods of physical protection. As part of a national design basis threat assessment, this paper evaluates the risk of nuclear or radiological terrorism and sabotage in Norway. Possible scenarios are presented and plausible consequences are discussed with a view to characterize the risks. The need for more stringent regulatory requirements will be discussed, together with the (positive) impact of improved systems and procedures of physical protection on nuclear emergency planning. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the design basis threat for different scenarios in order to systemize regulatory efforts to update the current legislation, requirement for operators' contingency planning, response efforts and the need for emergency exercises. (author)

  11. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Montes, J.; Flynn, W.; Huang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are to determine the in situ state of stress at Olkiluoto and the spalling strength of Olkiluoto rock, by internal heating of the experimental hole (ONK-EH3) using 8 vertically installed heaters. This report presents the results from the Acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring carried out around the third experimental hole of the POSE niche between November 2012 and May 2013. The experiment was monitored using an array of 24 transducers installed along 4 monitoring drillholes and data was automatically acquired and processed using the system installed at the niche by Applied Seismology Consultants in May 2012. Daily ultrasonic surveys were carried out between 14 th November 2012 and 21 st May 2013, monitoring the changes in transmission velocities of P and S-waves with an estimated error of ±2 m x s -1 (ASC, 2013). Changes in transmission velocities closely follow the evolution of the temperature profile in the hole wall. An increase in both P-and S-wave transmission velocities is observed at all depth levels and surveyed raypaths during the heating phase, with the highest changes observed in raypaths skimming the hole surface and depths between 2.33 m and 3.7 m. This observation indicates the closure of in situ and excavation-induced microcracks due to thermal stress. After the heaters were switched off, P-wave velocities show a marked decrease, in all raypaths reaching values below those measured at the start of the monitoring approximately 4 weeks after the heaters were switched off. The highest decrease was observed along raypaths surveying the region skimming the hole wall. This decrease below original background values indicates the induction of rock degradation as microcracking induced through the heating-cooling cycle. Changes in P- and S-wave transmission velocity were used to calculate changes in Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio along the different raypaths and depth levels. An overall

  12. The Threat Among Us: Insiders Intensify Aviation Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Katie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Aviation terrorism is powerful and symbolic, and will likely remain a staple target for terrorists aiming to inflict chaos and cause mass casualties similar to the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. The majority of international and domestic aviation terrorist attacks involves outsiders, or people who do not have direct access to or affiliation with a target through employment. However, several significant attacks and plots against the industry involved malicious employees motivated by suicide or devotion to a terrorist organization. Malicious insiders’ access and knowledge of aviation security, systems, networks, and infrastructure is valuable to terrorists, providing a different pathway for attacking the industry through the insider threat. Indicators and warnings of insider threats in these cases exist, providing insight into how security agencies, such as the Transportation Security Administration, can better predict and identify insider involvement. Understanding previous aviation insider threat events will likely aid in stimulating proactive security measures, rather than reactive responses. However, similar to traditional airport security measures, there are social, political, and economic challenges in protecting against the insider threat, including privacy concerns and cost-benefit analysis.

  13. Stereotype threat and social function in opioid substitution therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this

  14. Investigation of Problem-Solving and Problem-Posing Abilities of Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of multiple problem-solving skills on the problem-posing abilities of gifted and non-gifted students and to assess whether the possession of such skills can predict giftedness or affect problem-posing abilities. Participants' metaphorical images of problem posing were also explored. Participants were 20 gifted…

  15. Single-frame 3D human pose recovery from multiple views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body pose from multi-camera single-frame views. Pose recovery starts with a shape detection stage where candidate poses are generated based on hierarchical exemplar matching in the individual camera views. The hierarchy used in

  16. Multi-view 3D Human Pose Estimation in Complex Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a framework for unconstrained 3D human upper body pose estimation from multiple camera views in complex environment. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model texture adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery

  17. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs

  18. Neural Correlates of Threat Perception: Neural Equivalence of Conspecific and Heterospecific Mobbing Calls Is Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T.; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise [1]–[2]. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators [3]. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more “D” notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators [4]. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

  19. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  20. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  1. Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Domoff, Sarah E; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Hinman, Nova G; Davis, Alan K; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m². Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  2. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Carels

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group and source (i.e., the self or others. This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method: 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64 years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5 kg/m2. Results: Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat. Conclusion: Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

  3. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Patrick; Apaolaza, Vanessa; D'Souza, Clare; Echebarria, Carmen; Barrutia, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  4. Problems and Tools for the Detection of Threats to Personnel Security in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of threats negatively affecting the state and the development of human resources as well as the varieties of security threats is of particular importance in the theory and practice of personnel security measures. The purpose of the article is to identify and classify the ideas of the main threats to personnel security of the region (the research is carried out on the example of the Irkutsk region. On the basis of the content analysis of Russian regulatory legal acts and scientific publications, external and internal threats to personnel security of the region are highlighted. As a result, the list of threats to personnel security of the region consisting of 37 stands is composed. The political, economic, demographic, social, technical and technological, ecological, legal, ethnocultural forms of threats are demonstrated. The authors came to the conclusion that the internal threats to personnel security of the region (first of all socio-economic are dominant. An assessment of the urgency and relevance of the threats to the personnel security of the region is given. With the use of the technology of the hierarchical factorial analysis, the types of threats (factors of the lowest level were identified and their influence on the general level of the urgency of personnel security threats (a factor of the highest level is estimated. It is revealed that legal threats, as well as threats caused by the low labour potential of the region, have the most significant impact on the estimation of the urgency of threats. The study applies the following analysis methods — a content analysis, the analysis of linear and cross-distribution, hierarchical factor and correlation analysis. The analysis is based on the data of the expert survey conducted in the Irkutsk region (2015. To determine the relationship (coherence of the expert evaluations, the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is calculated. The received results can be used for studying

  5. Threats to information security in a highly organized system of the “Smart city”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurcheeva, G. I.; Denisov, V. V.; Khvorostov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses issues related to comprehensive development and introduction of technologies such as “Smart city”. The urgency of accelerating the development of such highly organized systems, primarily in terms of reducing threats to information security, is emphasized in the paper. In accordance with authors’ analysis of the composition and structure of the threats to information security, “Accessibility”, “Integrity” and “Confidentiality” are highlighted. Violation of any of them leads to harmful effects on the information and other system resources. The protection of “Accessibility” mobilizes one third of all efforts to ensure information security that must be taken into account when allocating protective actions. The threats associated with failure of the supporting infrastructure are also significantly reduced. But the threats associated with failures of the system itself and failures of users are clearly increasing. There is a high level of society and production informatization, and the threats to information security are changing accordingly.

  6. National Identification, Endorsement of Acculturation Ideologies and Prejudice: The Impact of the Perceived Threat of Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina Badea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the perceived threat of immigration affects the links between national identification, endorsement of assimilation or multiculturalism, and prejudice against immigrants in France. One hundred thirty-five French undergraduates completed a questionnaire measuring these factors. Path analysis showed that higher national identification increased perception of immigrants as a threat, which in turn predicted increased endorsement of assimilation for immigrants. The link between endorsement of assimilation and prejudice was not significant. In contrast, lower national identification decreased perception of immigrants as a threat and, in turn, increased endorsement of multiculturalism and reduced levels of prejudice. An alternative model specifying perception of threat as an outcome of preferences for multiculturalism or assimilation did not fit the data well. Results suggest that perceived threat from immigration is the key factor that guides the preferences of the majority group for acculturation ideologies and, through these preferences, shapes intergroup attitudes.

  7. Susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to fast transient threats: new challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sabath

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to transient threats has experienced a significant growth during the past ten years. Driven by the development in the area of non-lethal electromagnetic weapons it has become necessary to extend the classical set of transient threats, consisting of LEMP, ESD and NEMP, by a fast transient threat with an extreme bandwidth. The investigation of the susceptibility to those UWB threats, characterized by a bandwidth of more than a quarter of the center frequency, rise times of less than 200 ps and pulse durations in the ns regime, is of special interest. This paper presents an overview of current challenges of the hardening against UWB threats. It discusses recent research trends in transient susceptibility measurements, protection concepts and methods of analysis.

  8. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke

  9. Crowdsourcing for children : exploring threats and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.M.S.; Manojlovic, S.; Gavrilo, K.; Khan, J.V.; Hansson, K.; Aitamurto, T.; Ludwig, T.; Gupta, N.; Muller, M.

    2016-01-01

    Children are increasingly being engaged in product development, but they have yet to be introduced to the concept of crowdsourcing. Several opportunities and threats when designing a crowdsourcing platform specifically for children are proposed as topics for further discussion.

  10. 25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation...

  11. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  12. Children's Threats: When Are They Serious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental illness, such as depression, mania, psychosis, or bipolar disorder use of alcohol or illicit drugs disciplinary problems ... mental health professional with experience evaluating children and adolescents. Evaluation of any serious threat must be done ...

  13. Terrorism: Current and Long Term Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenkins, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Despite the high level of anxiety the American people are currently experiencing, we may still not fully comprehend the seriousness of the current and near-term threats we confront or the longer-term...

  14. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance About Antimicrobial Resistance Biggest Threats Emerging Drug ...

  15. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. 475. J. Biosci. ... pathogens and are of major global health concern. Recently, ..... cases among persons in 14 countries in Asia, the Middle ... of influenza, investment in pandemic vaccine research and.

  16. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  17. Inclusion of Premeditated Threats in the Safety Methodology for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanon, I.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade the global effort to prevent terrorism or to mitigate its harm, if prevention fails, has increased. The nuclear power community was involved in this effort trying to prevent terrorist attacks on NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). A natural extension of terror restraining is the prevention of any premeditated damage to the plant, including acts of state. The pre-feasibility study of an Israeli NPP, conducted by the Ministry of National Infrastructures, has identified the risk of hostile damage to the NPP as a major obstacle to the establishment of nuclear power in Israel, second only to the refusal of nuclear exporting nations to sell an NPP to Israelv. The General Director of the Ministry and the Head of the IAEC (Israeli Atomic Energy Commission) have approved continuation of the pre-feasibility study. This synopsis presents a study, regarding premeditated threats to NPPs, commissioned by the Ministry of National Infrastructures as part of the continuation. It focuses on the safety aspect of premeditated threats originating outside the plant, although a significant part of the analysis can be extended to other subjects such as theft or diversion of strategic materials. The study deals only with methodology and does not encompass specific threats or protection measures. Conclusions and recommendations and marked by bold italics Arial font. The theory of nuclear safety regarding non-premeditated safety events (equipment failures, human errors, natural events, etc.) is well developed. The study refers to these events and the theory attached to them as c lassical , distinguishing them from premeditated events. The study defines two postulates, related to premeditated threats: Correspondence – We should adopt the classical methodology whenever possible. Regulation – The safety of an NPP from premeditated threats requires examination, approval and inspection by a regulator. Key issues of the methodology with substantial differences from the

  18. Evaluative threat and ambulatory blood pressure: cardiovascular effects of social stress in daily experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy; Uchino, Bert N

    2012-11-01

    Physiological effects of social evaluation are central in models of psychosocial influences on physical health. Experimental manipulations of evaluative threat evoke substantial cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in laboratory studies, but only preliminary evidence is available regarding naturally occurring evaluative threats in daily life. In such nonexperimental ambulatory studies, it is essential to distinguish effects of evaluative threat from related constructs known to alter stress, such as ability perceptions and concerns about appearance. 94 married, working couples (mean age 29.2 years) completed a 1-day (8 a.m. to 10 p.m.) ambulatory blood pressure protocol with random interval-contingent measurements using a Suntech monitor and Palm Pilot-based measures of control variables and momentary experiences of social-evaluative threat, concerns about appearance, and perceived ability. In hierarchical analyses for couples and multiple measurement occasions (Proc Mixed; SAS) and controlling individual differences (BMI, age, income) and potential confounds (e.g., posture, activity), higher reports of social-evaluative threat were associated with higher concurrent systolic (estimate = .87, SE = .34) and diastolic blood pressure (estimate = 1.06; SE = .26), both p social-evaluative threat remained significant when perceived ability and appearance concerns were controlled. Naturally occurring social-evaluative threat during daily activity is associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Given associations between ambulatory blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease, the findings support conceptual models of threats to the social self as a potentially important influence on physical health.

  19. Self-Construal Priming Modulates Self-Evaluation under Social Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that Westerners evaluate themselves in an especially flattering way when faced with a social-evaluative threat. The current study first investigated whether East Asians also have a similar pattern by recruiting Chinese participants and using social-evaluative threat manipulations in which participants perform self-evaluation tasks while adopting different social-evaluative feedbacks (Experiment 1. Then further examined whether the different response patterns can be modulated by different types of self-construal by using social-evaluative threat manipulations in conjunction with a self-construal priming task (Experiment 2. The results showed that, as opposed to Westerners' pattern, Chinese participants rated themselves as having significantly greater above-average effect only when faced with the nonthreatening feedback but not the social-evaluative threat. More importantly, we found that self-construal modulated the self-evaluation under social-evaluative threat: following independent self-construal priming, participants tended to show a greater above-average effect when faced with a social-evaluative threat. However, this pattern in conjunction with a social threat disappeared after participants received interdependent self-construal priming or neutral priming. These findings suggest that the effects of social-evaluative threat on self-evaluation are not culturally universal and is strongly modulated by self-construal priming.

  20. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  1. A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD 20855 UNITED STATES steinberg@cubrc.org A model is presented for situation and threat assessment...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Subject Matter Expert (SME) Calspan-UB Research Center ( CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD...1 A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment Alan Steinberg CUBRC , Inc. steinberg@cubrc.org November, 2005 2 Objectives • Advance the state-of

  2. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  3. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  4. Insular threat associations within taxa worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Camille; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Céline

    2018-04-23

    The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions. Biological invasions, wildlife exploitation, and cultivation, either alone or in association, were found to be the three most important drivers of species extinction and decline on islands. Specifically, wildlife exploitation and cultivation are largely associated with the decline of threatened plants and terrestrial vertebrates, whereas biological invasions mostly threaten invertebrates and freshwater fish. Furthermore, biodiversity in the Indian Ocean and near the Asian coasts is mostly affected by wildlife exploitation and cultivation compared to biological invasions in the Pacific and Atlantic insular regions. We highlighted specific associations of threats at different scales, showing that the analysis of each threat in isolation might be inadequate for developing effective conservation policies and managements.

  5. Zika Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mittal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and microcephaly, respectively. The gravity of the fetal anomalies linked to ZIKV vertical transmission from the mother has prompted a discussion on whether to include ZIKV as a formal member of the TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and herpes] family of pathogens known to breach placental barriers and cause congenital disease in the fetus. The mechanisms of these complex phenotypes have yet to be fully described. As such, diagnostic tools are limited and no effective modalities are available to treat ZIKV. This article will review the recent advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection as well as diagnostic tests available to detect the infection. Due to the increase in incidence of ZIKV infections, there is an immediate need to develop new diagnostic tools and novel preventive as well as therapeutic modalities based on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease.

  6. Zika Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Nguyen, Desiree; Debs, Luca H.; Patel, Amit P.; Liu, George; Jhaveri, Vasanti M.; S. Kay, Sae-In; Mittal, Jeenu; Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Younis, Ramzi T.; Chapagain, Prem; Jayaweera, Dushyantha T.; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively. The gravity of the fetal anomalies linked to ZIKV vertical transmission from the mother has prompted a discussion on whether to include ZIKV as a formal member of the TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes] family of pathogens known to breach placental barriers and cause congenital disease in the fetus. The mechanisms of these complex phenotypes have yet to be fully described. As such, diagnostic tools are limited and no effective modalities are available to treat ZIKV. This article will review the recent advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection as well as diagnostic tests available to detect the infection. Due to the increase in incidence of ZIKV infections, there is an immediate need to develop new diagnostic tools and novel preventive as well as therapeutic modalities based on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:29276699

  7. [Evaluation of Educational Effect of Problem-Posing System in Nursing Processing Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keiko; Takano, Yasuomi; Yamakawa, Hiroto; Kaneko, Daisuke; Takai, Kiyako; Kodama, Hiromi; Hagiwara, Tomoko; Komatsugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The nursing processing study is generally difficult, because it is important for nursing college students to understand knowledge and utilize it. We have developed an integrated system to understand, utilize, and share knowledge. We added a problem-posing function to this system, and expected that students would deeply understand the nursing processing study through the new system. This system consisted of four steps: create a problem, create an answer input section, create a hint, and verification. Nursing students created problems related to nursing processing by this system. When we gave a lecture on the nursing processing for second year students of A university, we tried to use the creating problem function of this system. We evaluated the effect by the number of problems and the contents of the created problem, that is, whether the contents consisted of a lecture stage or not. We also evaluated the correlation between those and regular examination and report scores. We derived the following: 1. weak correlation between the number of created problems and report score (r=0.27), 2. significant differences between regular examination and report scores of students who created problems corresponding to the learning stage, and those of students who created problems not corresponding to it (P<0.05). From these results, problem-posing is suggested to be effective to fix and utilize knowledge in the lecture of nursing processing theory.

  8. Posed versus spontaneous facial expressions are modulated by opposite cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D; Pulusu, Vinay K

    2013-05-01

    Clinical research has indicated that the left face is more expressive than the right face, suggesting that modulation of facial expressions is lateralized to the right hemisphere. The findings, however, are controversial because the results explain, on average, approximately 4% of the data variance. Using high-speed videography, we sought to determine if movement-onset asymmetry was a more powerful research paradigm than terminal movement asymmetry. The results were very robust, explaining up to 70% of the data variance. Posed expressions began overwhelmingly on the right face whereas spontaneous expressions began overwhelmingly on the left face. This dichotomy was most robust for upper facial expressions. In addition, movement-onset asymmetries did not predict terminal movement asymmetries, which were not significantly lateralized. The results support recent neuroanatomic observations that upper versus lower facial movements have different forebrain motor representations and recent behavioral constructs that posed versus spontaneous facial expressions are modulated preferentially by opposite cerebral hemispheres and that spontaneous facial expressions are graded rather than non-graded movements. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  10. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; JANSSENS, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts. on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement...

  11. A Quantitative Threats Analysis for the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    example of the type of results generated, we estimated that the probability of the manatee population falling to less than 250 adults on either the Atlantic or Gulf coasts (from a current statewide population size of near 3300) within 100 years is 8.6%. Complete removal of the watercraft threat alone would reduce this risk to 0.4%; complete removal of the warm-water threat to 4.2%; removal of both threats would reduce the risk to 0.1%. The modeling approach we have taken also allows us to consider partial removal of threats, as well as removal of multiple threats simultaneously. We believe the measure we have proposed (probability of quasi-extinction over y years, with quasi-extinction defined as dropping below a threshold of z on either coast) is a suitable measure of status that integrates a number of the elements that are relevant to interpretation under the ESA (it directly integrates risk of extinction and reduction of range, and indirectly integrates loss of genetic diversity). But the identification of the time frame of interest and the tolerable risk of quasi-extinction are policy decisions, and an ecology-based quasi-extinction threshold has not yet been determined. We have endeavored to provide results over a wide range of these parameters to give decision-makers useful information to assess status. This assessment of threats suggests that watercraft-related mortality is having the greatest impact on manatee population growth and resilience. Elimination of this single threat would greatly reduce the probability of quasi-extinction. Loss of warm-water is also a significant threat, particularly over the long-term. Red tide and entanglement, while noticeable threats, have had less of an impact on the manatee population. The effect of water control structures may have already been largely mitigated. We did not, however, consider an exhaustive list of threats. Other threats (e.g., reduction of food resources due to storms and development) may play a

  12. Exotic mosquito threats require strategic surveillance and response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-12-14

    Mosquito-borne diseases caused by endemic pathogens such as Ross River, Barmah Forest and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses are an annual concern in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. More than a dozen mosquito species have been implicated in the transmission of these pathogens, with each mosquito occupying a specialised ecological niche that influences their habitat associations, host feeding preferences and the environmental drivers of their abundance. The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Monitoring Program provides an early warning system for potential outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease by tracking annual activity of these mosquitoes and their associated pathogens. Although the program will effectively track changes in local mosquito populations that may increase with a changing climate, urbanisation and wetland rehabilitation, it will be less effective with current surveillance methodologies at detecting or monitoring changes in exotic mosquito threats, where different surveillance strategies need to be used. Exotic container-inhabiting mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus pose a threat to NSW because they are nuisance-biting pests and vectors of pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. International movement of humans and their belongings have spread these mosquitoes to many regions of the world. In recent years, these two mosquitoes have been detected by the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources at local airports and seaports. To target the detection of these exotic mosquitoes, new trapping technologies and networks of surveillance locations are required. Additionally, incursions of these mosquitoes into urban areas of the state will require strategic responses to minimise substantial public health and economic burdens to local communities.

  13. Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as asymmetric weapons: the design basis threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, L.

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric warfare concepts relate well to the use of improvised chemical weapons against urban targets. Sources of information on toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and lists of high threat chemicals are available that point to likely choices for an attack. Accident investigations can be used as a template for attacks, and to judge the possible effectiveness of an attack using TICs. The results of a chlorine rail car accident in South Carolina, USA and the Russian military assault on a Moscow theater provide many illustrative points for similar incidents that mighty be carried out deliberately. Computer modeling of outdoor releases shows how an attack might take into consideration issues of stand-off distance and dilution. Finally, the preceding may be used to estimate with some accuracy the design basis threat posed by the used of TICs as weapons.(author)

  14. Using PLSI-U To Detect Insider Threats from Email Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolica, James; Peterson, Gilbert; Mills, Robert

    Despite a technology bias that focuses on external electronic threats, insiders pose the greatest threat to commercial and government organizations. Once information on a specific topic has gone missing, being able to quickly determine who has shown an interest in that topic can allow investigators to focus their attention. Even more promising is when individuals can be found who have an interest in the topic but who have never communicated that interest within the organization. An employee's interests can be discerned by data mining corporate email correspondence. These interests can be used to construct social networks that graphically expose investigative leads. This paper describes the use of Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing (PLSI) [4] extended to include users (PLSI-U) to determine topics that are of interest to employees from their email activity. It then applies PLSI-U to the Enron email corpus and finds a small number of employees (0.02%) who appear to have had clandestine interests.

  15. Polarizing news? Representations of threat and efficacy in leading US newspapers' coverage of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lauren; Hart, P Sol; Milosevic, Tijana

    2017-05-01

    This study examines non-editorial news coverage in leading US newspapers as a source of ideological differences on climate change. A quantitative content analysis compared how the threat of climate change and efficacy for actions to address it were represented in climate change coverage across The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and USA Today between 2006 and 2011. Results show that The Wall Street Journal was least likely to discuss the impacts of and threat posed by climate change and most likely to include negative efficacy information and use conflict and negative economic framing when discussing actions to address climate change. The inclusion of positive efficacy information was similar across newspapers. Also, across all newspapers, climate impacts and actions to address climate change were more likely to be discussed separately than together in the same article. Implications for public engagement and ideological polarization are discussed.

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by “Dirty Bomb”-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety...

  17. Creativity of Field-dependent and Field-independent Students in Posing Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlina, N.; Amin, S. M.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the creativity of elementary school students with different cognitive styles in mathematical problem-posing. The posed problems were assessed based on three components of creativity, namely fluency, flexibility, and novelty. The free-type problem posing was used in this study. This study is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. Data collections were conducted through written task and task-based interviews. The subjects were two elementary students. One of them is Field Dependent (FD) and the other is Field Independent (FI) which were measured by GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Further, the data were analyzed based on creativity components. The results show thatFD student’s posed problems have fulfilled the two components of creativity namely fluency, in which the subject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, and flexibility, in whichthe subject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas. Meanwhile,FI student’s posed problems have fulfilled all three components of creativity, namely fluency, in which thesubject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, flexibility, in which thesubject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas, and novelty, in which the subject posed problems that are purely the result of her own ideas and different from problems they have known.

  18. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective.

  19. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  20. Modulation of the startle reflex by heat pain: does threat play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Hofmann, C; Lautenbacher, S

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the startle reflex is potentiated by phasic, but not by tonic, heat pain, although the latter is seen as more strongly associated with emotional responses and more similar to clinical pain. The threat value of pain might be a decisive variable, which is not influenced alone by stimulus duration. This study aimed at comparing startle responses to tonic heat pain stimulation with varying degrees of threat. We hypothesized that the expectation of unpredictable temperature increases would evoke higher threat and thereby potentiate startle compared with the expectation of constant stimulation. Healthy, pain-free subjects (n = 40) underwent painful stimulation in two conditions (low/high threat) in balanced order. The only difference between the two conditions was that in the high-threat condition 50% of the trials were announced to include a short further noxious temperature increase at the end. Startle tones were presented prior to this temperature increase still in the phase of anticipation. We observed startle potentiation in the high-threat compared with the low-threat condition, but only in those participants who took part first in the high-threat condition. Habituation could not account for these findings, as we detected no significant decline of startle responses in the course of both conditions. Our results suggest that subjective threat might indeed be decisive for the action of pain on startle; the threat level appears not only influenced by actual expectations but also by previous experiences with pain as threatening or not. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  1. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed.

  2. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  3. Prevention and preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges from smuggled or illegally transported radioactive sources with malevolent intention of causing potential threats to the society are much higher to those potential radiological emergencies from misplaced, orphan or lost radioactive sources. Large number of radioactive sources world over is transported for its application in various fields. The emergency preparedness and response system is less developed for potential radiological emergencies caused by them compared to those at nuclear facilities which are kept in readiness to respond to any kind of emergency. After the terrorist attack on WTC of 2001, there is significant concern world over about the malicious use of nuclear and other radioactive material. This calls for prevention of stealing/smuggling of radioactive materials and improving the emergency response system. Use of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) are considered as possible radiological and nuclear threats, can lead to large area contamination in addition to the injuries caused by blast and thermal effects. (author)

  4. The threat from creationism to the rational teaching of biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATHEL CORNISH-BOWDEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Most biologists outside the USA and a few other countries, like Australia and Canada, are under the impression that the threat to the teaching of biology represented by creationism does not concern them directly. This is unfortunately no longer true: the recent growth of creationism, especially in its pseudo-scientific manifestation known as "intelligent design", has been obvious in several countries of Western Europe, especially the UK, Germany and Poland, and it is beginning to be noticeable in Brazil, and maybe elsewhere in Latin America. The problem is complicated by the fact that there are not just two possibilities, evolution and creationism, because creationism comes in various incompatible varieties. Turkey is now a major source of creationist propaganda outside the USA, and is especially significant in relation to its influence on Muslim populations in Europe. The time for biologists to address the creationist threat is now

  5. Work-related threats and violence in human service sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Hogh, Annie; Biering, Karin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social w......BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho...... rewards at work, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts and low organizational justice had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related threats. Furthermore, high emotional demands, low predictability, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work......-family conflicts, low supervisor quality and low support from nearest supervisor had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related violence. Finally, across the four sectors both similar and different associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence...

  6. Avoidance of a moving threat in the common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon): rapid tracking by body motion and eye use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Tidhar; Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Baydach, Yossi; Katzir, Gadi

    2016-08-01

    A chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) on a perch responds to a nearby threat by moving to the side of the perch opposite the threat, while bilaterally compressing its abdomen, thus minimizing its exposure to the threat. If the threat moves, the chameleon pivots around the perch to maintain its hidden position. How precise is the body rotation and what are the patterns of eye movement during avoidance? Just-hatched chameleons, placed on a vertical perch, on the side roughly opposite to a visual threat, adjusted their position to precisely opposite the threat. If the threat were moved on a horizontal arc at angular velocities of up to 85°/s, the chameleons co-rotated smoothly so that (1) the angle of the sagittal plane of the head relative to the threat and (2) the direction of monocular gaze, were positively and significantly correlated with threat angular position. Eye movements were role-dependent: the eye toward which the threat moved maintained a stable gaze on it, while the contralateral eye scanned the surroundings. This is the first description, to our knowledge, of such a response in a non-flying terrestrial vertebrate, and it is discussed in terms of possible underlying control systems.

  7. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  8. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Krejtz, Izabela; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement – namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed. PMID:29666599

  9. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bedyńska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement – namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed.

  10. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Krejtz, Izabela; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement - namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed.

  11. Perbedaan Keterampilan Pemecahan Masalah pada Pembelajaran Fisika Menggunakan Metode Problem Posing dan Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Adetya; Hartini, Sri; An'nur, Syubhan

    2015-01-01

    Teachers should be able to choose the method of learning that can help students in learning physics, namely the method of problem posing and problem solving method. The purposes of this study are : (1) describe the learning physics skills by using problem posing method, (2) describe the learning physics skills by using problem solving method, and (3) know difference between learning physics skills by using problem posing method and problem solving method in class XI of Science SMAN 6 Banjarma...

  12. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  13. Teach it Yourself - Fast Modeling of Industrial Objects for 6D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Thomas; Rajeeth Savarimuthu, Thiusius; Glent Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vision system that allows a human to create new 3D models of novel industrial parts by placing the part in two different positions in the scene. The two shot modeling framework generates models with a precision that allows the model to be used for 6D pose estimation wi....... In addition, the models are applied in a pose estimation application, evaluated with 37 different scenes with 61 unique object poses. The pose estimation results show a mean translation error on 4.97 mm and a mean rotation error on 3.38 degrees....

  14. Adulterated and Counterfeit Male Enhancement Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Pose a Real Threat to the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElAgouri, Ghada; Elnoweam, Ola; Aboelazayem, Samar; Farouk, ElMohanad; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2016-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction prevalence globally is noticeably high. This is accompanied by an increase in the use of nutraceuticals for male enhancement. However, the global market is invaded by counterfeit and adulterated nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a therapeutic claim. The objective of this article is to review male enhancement nutraceuticals worldwide with respect to claim, adulterants, and safety. The definition of such products is variable across countries. Thus, the registration procedures differ as well. This facilitates the manipulation of the process, which leads to widespread adulterated and counterfeit products without control. The tele-advertisement and Internet pharmacies aided the widespread sale of male enhancement nutraceuticals, unfortunately, the spurious ones. Finally, based on literature, most of these products were found to be adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and mislabeled as being natural. These products represent a major health hazard for consumers due to lack of clear regulations.

  15. Potential Threats Posed by New or Emerging Marine Biotoxins in UK Waters and Examination of Detection Methodologies Used for Their Control: Cyclic Imines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Davidson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic imines (CIs are a group of phytoplankton produced toxins related to shellfish food products, some of which are already present in UK and European waters. Their risk to shellfish consumers is poorly understood, as while no human intoxication has been definitively related to this group, their fast acting toxicity following intraperitoneal injection in mice has led to concern over their human health implications. A request was therefore made by UK food safety authorities to examine these toxins more closely to aid possible management strategies. Of the CI producers only the spirolide producer Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known to exist in UK waters at present but trends in climate change may lead to increased risk from other organisms/CI toxins currently present elsewhere in Europe and in similar environments worldwide. This paper reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of CIs and CI-producing phytoplankton, together with testing methodologies. Chemical, biological and biomolecular methods are reviewed, including recommendations for further work to enable effective testing. Although the focus here is on the UK, from a strategic standpoint many of the topics discussed will also be of interest in other parts of the world since new and emerging marine biotoxins are of global concern.

  16. How Do Environmental Issues Contribute to Regional Instability? and Which Regions Will Pose the Greatest Threat to U.S. Security as a Result of Environmental Degredation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schantz, Blair

    1998-01-01

    .... The primary objective of this research is to determine and define how environmental issues contribute to regional political, economic or physical instability and then apply this definition to the regions of the world...

  17. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  18. Exploring factors affecting shareholders’ funds within the conflict of interest posed by the executives of the company

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between several factors and the shareholders’ funds within the conflict of interest posed by the executives of the company in 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE). Management decision on corporate performance may affect shareholders’ funds under manager-shareholders conflict arising from asymmetric information. We found a significant relationship between provisions and shareholders’ funds. Furthermore, we also found financial distres...

  19. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. The Threat of Aerobic Vaginitis to Pregnancy and Neonatal Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaambo, Eveline; Africa, Charlene W J

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an endogenous opportunistic infection brought about by the disruption of the normal vaginal microbiota. Its early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy may reduce the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this review was to report on the aerobic bacteria most prevalent in AV and to provide evidence of the threat of untreated AV on pregnancy outcomes. More than 300 papers on preterm delivery were extracted from several research domains and filtered to include only AV-associated bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Group B streptococci and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Due to the diverse sample groups, study techniques and outcomes, a meta-analysis was not conducted. The review revealed that the association of AV with adverse pregnancy outcomes has not been as widely researched as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and needs further investigation. Furthermore, the frequent misdiagnosis of AV coupled with the emerging antimicrobial resistance associated with bacteria implicated in AV and neonatal nosocomial infections pose a problem for prophylaxis and treatment to reduce the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  1. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  2. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingshott, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  3. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  4. Groupthink: A Significant Threat to the Homeland Security of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    discerned in the group’s deliberations? (Do the prime symptoms pervade the planning discussions?) • Were the conditions that foster the groupthink syndrome ...wholly inappropriate, such as when they were assigned to a flight filled with tourists headed to warm vacation locations.157 This requirement was...explosive devices at the officers. Some exploded while others failed to detonate. Amid the chaos, the Watertown officers, who were within their own

  5. Lead-poisoned wildfowl in Spain: a significant threat for human consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Serratosa, Jordi; Thomas, Vernon G

    2002-12-01

    Each year, 1.2 million Spanish hunters and shooters discharge 6,000 t of lead shot, of which 30-50 t are deposited in wetlands of this European country. Waterfowl may accidentally ingest lead pellets in these aquatic habitats and become fatally lead poisoned. It has been estimated that 50,000 birds die from this cause in Spain each year, but many more are chronically affected. Most of them are species that can be hunted legally, and the lead toxicosis enhances their susceptibility to being killed by hunting. Consequently, about 30,000 waterfowl hunters and their families, especially children, are at risk from secondary lead ingestion from these poisoned birds. The consumption of a single liver (often eaten in Spain) from any waterfowl shot in this country may result in the direct uptake of 0.01-2.3 mg of lead in 40.4% of cases. This is based on the percentage of 411 analyzed waterfowl having liver lead contents over 0.5 mg kg(-1) wet weight, the maximum lead level in poultry offal that current EU regulations permit. Therefore, health management authorities should draw urgent attention to this environmental problem that presents such an established risk to human health.

  6. Coconut lethal yellowing diseases: a phytoplasma threat to palms of global economic and social significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurr M Geoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of Bogia Coconut Syndrome in Papua New Guinea is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late 19th century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the 20th century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems.

  7. Coconut Lethal Yellowing Diseases: A Phytoplasma Threat to Palms of Global Economic and Social Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Johnson, Anne C; Ash, Gavin J; Wilson, Bree A L; Ero, Mark M; Pilotti, Carmel A; Dewhurst, Charles F; You, Minsheng S

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems.

  8. Coconut Lethal Yellowing Diseases: A Phytoplasma Threat to Palms of Global Economic and Social Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M.; Johnson, Anne C.; Ash, Gavin J.; Wilson, Bree A. L.; Ero, Mark M.; Pilotti, Carmel A.; Dewhurst, Charles F.; You, Minsheng S.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems. PMID:27833616

  9. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  10. The impact of Stereotype Threat on the simulated driving performance of older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, Mélanie; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Mihnea

    2013-01-01

    Older drivers are perceived as being dangerous and overly cautious by other drivers. We tested the hypothesis that this negative stereotype has a direct influence on the performance of older drivers. Based on the Stereotype Threat literature, we predicted that older driving performance would be altered after exposure to a Stereotype Threat. Sixty-one older drivers aged 65 and above completed a simulated driving assessment course. Prior to testing, half of the participants were told that the objective of the study was to investigate why older adults aged 65 and above were more implicated in on-road accidents (Stereotype Threat condition) and half were showed a neutral statement. Results confirmed that exposure to the threat significantly altered driving performance. Older adults in the Stereotype Threat condition made more driving mistakes than those in the control group. Interestingly, under a Stereotype Threat condition, older adults tended to commit more speeding infractions. We also observed that domain identification (whether driving is deemed important or not) moderated the impact of the threat. Taken together, these results support recent older drivers' performance models suggesting that the interaction between individual and social factors need to be considered when examining older drivers' performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the potential threat landscape of a proposed reintroduction site for carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Page

    Full Text Available This study provides a framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing carnivores into an area, using African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus as an example. The Great Fish River Nature Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, has been identified as a potential reserve to reintroduce wild dogs, and we applied this framework to provide a threat assessment of the surrounding area to determine potential levels of human-wildlife conflict. Although 56% of neighbouring landowners and local communities were positive about a wild dog reintroduction, data collected from questionnaire surveys revealed that human-wild dog conflict is a potential threat to wild dog survival in the area. Additional potential threats include diseases, snaring, poaching and hunting wild dogs for the use of traditional medicine. A threat index was developed to establish which properties harboured the greatest threats to wild dogs. This index was significantly influenced by the respondent's first language (isiXhosa had more positive indices, education level (poorer education was synonymous with more positive threat indices, land use (wildlife ranching being the most negative and land tenure (community respondents had more positive indices than private landowners. Although threats are present, they can be effectively mitigated through strategies such as carnivore education programs, vaccination campaigns and anti-snare patrols to promote a successful reintroduction of this endangered canid.

  12. Assessing the potential threat landscape of a proposed reintroduction site for carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Samantha K; Parker, Daniel M; Peinke, Dean M; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing carnivores into an area, using African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) as an example. The Great Fish River Nature Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, has been identified as a potential reserve to reintroduce wild dogs, and we applied this framework to provide a threat assessment of the surrounding area to determine potential levels of human-wildlife conflict. Although 56% of neighbouring landowners and local communities were positive about a wild dog reintroduction, data collected from questionnaire surveys revealed that human-wild dog conflict is a potential threat to wild dog survival in the area. Additional potential threats include diseases, snaring, poaching and hunting wild dogs for the use of traditional medicine. A threat index was developed to establish which properties harboured the greatest threats to wild dogs. This index was significantly influenced by the respondent's first language (isiXhosa had more positive indices), education level (poorer education was synonymous with more positive threat indices), land use (wildlife ranching being the most negative) and land tenure (community respondents had more positive indices than private landowners). Although threats are present, they can be effectively mitigated through strategies such as carnivore education programs, vaccination campaigns and anti-snare patrols to promote a successful reintroduction of this endangered canid.

  13. Key issues in body armour: threats, materials and design

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will examine the mechanics and materials of body armour in military, police and some security related applications to protect the wearer from penetrative threats. These threats will include battlefield threats such as shell fragments and high velocity bullets, and threats to law enforcement personnel such as handgun bullets and knives. Regardless of whether the threat is a high velocity bullet, or a knife, the essential requirements of body armour are the same; first an interacti...

  14. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  15. Parents' perceptions of skin cancer threat and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alexander D; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Dellavalle, Robert P; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.

  16. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-06

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling.

  17. 'Do lead rubber aprons pose an infection risk?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, Helen; Strudwick, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to establish whether infection control measures were being undertaken sufficiently on lead rubber aprons within a diagnostic imaging department in the east of England. This study involved the swabbing of a sample of 15 lead rubber aprons used within different areas of the department. Swabs were taken from the area on the underside of the shoulders and from the front of the apron. Each apron was firstly swabbed to determine the current level of microorganism contamination (determination of baseline data) and then again after recommended cleaning with detergent and water (the production of a standard). Comparisons were then made between the number of microorganisms' present (colony forming units/cm 2 ) pre and post-cleaning at each location. Additionally, post-cleaning data was compared for each location. All aprons were found to be contaminated with microorganisms, those identified were Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus, Diphtheroids and some fungal spores. No Methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were identified. Recommended cleaning with detergent and water was found to significantly reduce the amount of microorganisms present (the detergent used was Hospec general purpose neutral liquid detergent). Comparisons of the sample sites found that the front of the apron had lower levels of microorganism contamination post-cleaning than the site at the underside of the shoulders. The results suggest that the lead rubber aprons were not being cleaned sufficiently which has infection control implications for the department. In order for cross contamination to be kept to a minimum an effective infection control policy needs to be employed and this should be to carry out regular cleaning with detergent and water which has been shown can significantly reduce contamination.

  18. Evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstaff, Joanne L; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) infects many domestic and wildlife species across Europe. Transmission from wildlife species to cattle complicates the control of disease in cattle. By determining the level of TB hazard for which a given wildlife species is responsible, the potential for transmission to the cattle population can be evaluated. We undertook a quantitative review of TB hazard across Europe on a country-by-country basis for cattle and five widely-distributed wildlife species. Cattle posed the greatest current and potential TB hazard other cattle for the majority of countries in Europe. Wild boar posed the greatest hazard of all the wildlife species, indicating that wild boar have the greatest ability to transmit the disease to cattle. The most common host systems for TB hazards in Europe are the cattle-deer-wild boar ones. The cattle-roe deer-wild boar system is found in 10 countries, and the cattle-red deer-wild boar system is found in five countries. The dominance of cattle with respect to the hazards in many regions confirms that intensive surveillance of cattle for TB should play an important role in any TB control programme. The significant contribution that wildlife can make to the TB hazard to cattle is also of concern, given current population and distribution increases of some susceptible wildlife species, especially wild boar and deer, and the paucity of wildlife TB surveillance programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is Attribute-Based Zero-Shot Learning an Ill-Posed Strategy?

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim; Cisse, Moustapha; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    One transfer learning approach that has gained a wide popularity lately is attribute-based zero-shot learning. Its goal is to learn novel classes that were never seen during the training stage. The classical route towards realizing this goal is to incorporate a prior knowledge, in the form of a semantic embedding of classes, and to learn to predict classes indirectly via their semantic attributes. Despite the amount of research devoted to this subject lately, no known algorithm has yet reported a predictive accuracy that could exceed the accuracy of supervised learning with very few training examples. For instance, the direct attribute prediction (DAP) algorithm, which forms a standard baseline for the task, is known to be as accurate as supervised learning when as few as two examples from each hidden class are used for training on some popular benchmark datasets! In this paper, we argue that this lack of significant results in the literature is not a coincidence; attribute-based zero-shot learning is fundamentally an ill-posed strategy. The key insight is the observation that the mechanical task of predicting an attribute is, in fact, quite different from the epistemological task of learning the “correct meaning” of the attribute itself. This renders attribute-based zero-shot learning fundamentally ill-posed. In more precise mathematical terms, attribute-based zero-shot learning is equivalent to the mirage goal of learning with respect to one distribution of instances, with the hope of being able to predict with respect to any arbitrary distribution. We demonstrate this overlooked fact on some synthetic and real datasets. The data and software related to this paper are available at https://mine. kaust.edu.sa/Pages/zero-shot-learning.aspx. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  20. Is Attribute-Based Zero-Shot Learning an Ill-Posed Strategy?

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2016-09-03

    One transfer learning approach that has gained a wide popularity lately is attribute-based zero-shot learning. Its goal is to learn novel classes that were never seen during the training stage. The classical route towards realizing this goal is to incorporate a prior knowledge, in the form of a semantic embedding of classes, and to learn to predict classes indirectly via their semantic attributes. Despite the amount of research devoted to this subject lately, no known algorithm has yet reported a predictive accuracy that could exceed the accuracy of supervised learning with very few training examples. For instance, the direct attribute prediction (DAP) algorithm, which forms a standard baseline for the task, is known to be as accurate as supervised learning when as few as two examples from each hidden class are used for training on some popular benchmark datasets! In this paper, we argue that this lack of significant results in the literature is not a coincidence; attribute-based zero-shot learning is fundamentally an ill-posed strategy. The key insight is the observation that the mechanical task of predicting an attribute is, in fact, quite different from the epistemological task of learning the “correct meaning” of the attribute itself. This renders attribute-based zero-shot learning fundamentally ill-posed. In more precise mathematical terms, attribute-based zero-shot learning is equivalent to the mirage goal of learning with respect to one distribution of instances, with the hope of being able to predict with respect to any arbitrary distribution. We demonstrate this overlooked fact on some synthetic and real datasets. The data and software related to this paper are available at https://mine. kaust.edu.sa/Pages/zero-shot-learning.aspx. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  1. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Erik Klonek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT, threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT, threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI—an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation—can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group. We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions. As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk. Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  2. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonek, Florian E; Güntner, Amelie V; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals' self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) - an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation - can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients' verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents' level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients' expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents' verbal threats and change recipients' verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  3. Advances in Stereotype Threat Research on African Americans: Continuing Challenges to the Validity of Its Role in the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been significant advances in stereotype threat research on African Americans. The current article reviews general issues of internal validity and external validity (or generalizability) beyond college laboratories in stereotype threat studies, and as they are revealed specifically in the context of advances in…

  4. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  5. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  6. Portunes: analyzing multi-domain insider threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    The insider threat is an important problem in securing information systems. Skilful insiders use attack vectors that yield the greatest chance of success, and thus do not limit themselves to a restricted set of attacks. They may use access rights to the facility where the system of interest resides,

  7. 'NRBC' threat: is this concept still valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    About 10 years ago, after the Sarin attack in Tokyo, the world discover that terrorists could use again radio-nuclear, chemical or biological agents to launch attacks, just to cause terror and disruption of western economies. This has forged the acronym 'NRBC'. In terms of likelihood, nuclear and radiological attacks could be considered among the most easy to prepare, and some possible acts are listed in this paper. A considerable amount of work has been prepared for the preparedness against radio-nuclear attacks, during the last 3 years, by World Health Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Atomic Energy Agency (AEN) as well as by the International Commission of Radio Protection (ICRP). A series of documents have been issued from international cooperation. These documents shows specificities to the R/N threat in terms of health consequences, that make this threat less prone to international cooperative efforts than biological threats. In addition, the Ministers of Health of the G7 countries have created an 'Global Health Security Initiative' (GHSI) in 2002 to anticipate crisis such as the anthrax problem, or other possible NRBC threats

  8. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated

  9. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merillat, Bethany D.; Corrigan, Diane G.; Harper, Brian E.

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests student performance may be negatively influenced by stereotype threat, "being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (Steele and Aronson in "J Personal Soc Psychol" 69(5):797, 1995). However, studies have also found that educating students about stereotype…

  10. Cyber threat intelligence exchange: A growing requirement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, Namosha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rise of cyber-attacks has become a growing challenge. Cyber space has become a battleground of threats ranging from malware to phishing, spam and password theft. Cybersecurity solutions mainly try to take a defensive stance and build a...

  11. Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    .... interests abroad, and against Western countries. But many believe that the Al Qaeda organization and its leadership are no longer as relevant to assessing the global Islamic terrorist threat as they were on September 11, 2001. Some believe U.S...

  12. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  13. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both

  14. Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA’s results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic

  15. Plutonium - how great is the terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    The terrorists' problems in stealing the plutonium and fabricating the device are measured against the likely effects of its explosion. Alternatives are discussed and it is concluded that there are many easier ways of killing a large number of people. It is considered impossible to guard absolutely against all possible terrorist threats of mass murder. (U.K.)

  16. The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Wilders established the Party for Freedom (PVV), in 2005 with a strong anti-immigration agenda. The party believes Judeo-Christian and humanist ...Allied administration of post-WWI Europe. Right-wing movements of the 60’s and 80’s were a response to an existential threat during the Cold War rather

  17. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST…

  18. Identity threat at work: how social identity threat and situational cues contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C

    2014-10-01

    Significant disparities remain between racial and ethnic minorities' and Whites' experiences of American workplaces. Traditional prejudice and discrimination approaches explain these gaps in hiring, promotion, satisfaction, and well-being by pointing to the prejudice of people within organizations such as peers, managers, and executives. Grounded in social identity threat theory, this theoretical review instead argues that particular situational cues-often communicated by well-meaning, largely unprejudiced employees and managers-signal to stigmatized groups whether their identity is threatened and devalued or respected and affirmed. First, we provide an overview of how identity threat shapes the psychological processes of racial and ethnic minorities by heightening vigilance to certain situational cues in the workplace. Next, we outline several of these cues and their role in creating and sustaining perceptions of identity threat (or safety). Finally, we provide empirically grounded suggestions that organizations may use to increase identity safety among their employees of color. Taken together, the research demonstrates how situational cues contribute to disparate psychological experiences for racial and ethnic minorities at work, and suggests that by altering threatening cues, organizations may create more equitable, respectful, and inclusive environments where all people may thrive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Making 2D face recognition more robust using AAMs for pose compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Peter; Munster, Ruud; Moro-Ellenberger, Stephanie; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of pose in 2D face recognition is widely acknowledged. Commercial systems are limited to near frontal face images and cannot deal with pose deviations larger than 15 degrees from the frontal view. This is a problem, when using face recognition for surveillance applications in which

  20. Integrating Worked Examples into Problem Posing in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ju-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Ling; Lan, Yu-Feng; Jeng, Yoau-Chau

    2013-01-01

    Most students always lack of experience and perceive difficult regarding problem posing. The study hypothesized that worked examples may have benefits for supporting students' problem posing activities. A quasi-experiment was conducted in the context of a business mathematics course for examining the effects of integrating worked examples into…

  1. Analyzing Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Fraction Knowledge Structures through Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine pre-service primary teachers' knowledge structures of fraction through problem posing activities. A total of 90 pre-service primary teachers participated in this study. A problem posing test consisting of two questions was used and the participants were asked to generate as many as problems based on the…

  2. An Investigation of Eighth Grade Students' Problem Posing Skills (Turkey Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    To pose a problem refers to the creative activity for mathematics education. The purpose of the study was to explore the eighth grade students' problem posing ability. Three learning domains such as requiring four operations, fractions and geometry were chosen for this reason. There were two classes which were coded as class A and class B. Class A…

  3. Body-part templates for recovery of 2D human poses under occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Poel, Mannes; Perales, F.J.; Fisher, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Detection of humans and estimation of their 2D poses from a single image are challenging tasks. This is especially true when part of the observation is occluded. However, given a limited class of movements, poses can be recovered given the visible body-parts. To this end, we propose a novel template

  4. Teachers Implementing Mathematical Problem Posing in the Classroom: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study about how a teacher educator shared knowledge with teachers when they worked together to implement mathematical problem posing (MPP) in the classroom. It includes feasible methods for getting practitioners to use research-based tasks aligned to the curriculum in order to encourage children to pose mathematical problems.…

  5. Problem-Posing in Education: Transformation of the Practice of the Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, L. D. R.; Caron-Ruffino, M.; Rodrigues, R. A. P.; Vendrusculo, D. M. S.; Takayanagui, A. M. M.; Zago, M. M. F.; Mendes, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the use of a problem-posing model in health education. The model based on the ideas of Paulo Freire is presented. Four innovative experiences of teaching-learning in environmental and occupational health and patient education are reported. Notes that the problem-posing model has the capability to transform health-education practice.…

  6. The Effects of Problem Posing on Student Mathematical Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Roslinda; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to meta-synthesize research findings on the effectiveness of problem posing and to investigate the factors that might affect the incorporation of problem posing in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The eligibility criteria for inclusion of literature in the meta-analysis was: published between 1989 and 2011,…

  7. Cosmic bombardment V: Threat object-dispersing approaches to active planetary defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E.; Wood, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ishikawa, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hyde, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-05-24

    Earth-impacting comets and asteroids with diameters {approx}0.03 - 10 km pose the greatest threats to the terrestrial biosphere in terms of impact frequency-weighted impact consequences, and thus are of most concern to designers of active planetary defenses. Specific gravitational binding energies of such objects range from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -2} J/gm, and are small compared with the specific energies of 1x10{sup 3} to 3x10{sup 3} J/gm required to vaporize objects of typical composition or the specific energies required to pulverize them, which are 10{sup -1} to 10 J/gm. All of these are small compared to the specific kinetic energy of these objects in the Earth- centered frame, which is 2x10{sup 5} to 2x10{sup 6} J/gm. The prospect naturally arises of negating all such threats by deflecting, pulverizing or vaporizing the objects. Pulverization-with-dispersal is an attractive option of reasonable defensive robustness. Examples of such equipments - which employ no explosives of any type - are given. Vaporization is the maximally robust defensive option, and may be invoked to negate threat objects not observed until little time is left until Earth-strike, and pulverization-with-dispersal has proven inadequate. Physically larger threats may be vaporized with nuclear explosives. No contemporary technical means of any kind appear capable of directly dispersing the -100 km diameter scale Charon- class cometary objects recently observed in the outer solar system, although such objects may be deflected to defensively useful extents. Means of implementing defenses of each of these types are proposed for specificity, and areas for optimization noted. Biospheric impacts of threat object debris are briefly considered, for bounding purposes. Experiments are suggested on cometary and asteroidal objects.

  8. Scaling range sizes to threats for robust predictions of risks to biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David A; Akçakaya, H Resit; Murray, Nicholas J

    2018-04-01

    Assessments of risk to biodiversity often rely on spatial distributions of species and ecosystems. Range-size metrics used extensively in these assessments, such as area of occupancy (AOO), are sensitive to measurement scale, prompting proposals to measure them at finer scales or at different scales based on the shape of the distribution or ecological characteristics of the biota. Despite its dominant role in red-list assessments for decades, appropriate spatial scales of AOO for predicting risks of species' extinction or ecosystem collapse remain untested and contentious. There are no quantitative evaluations of the scale-sensitivity of AOO as a predictor of risks, the relationship between optimal AOO scale and threat scale, or the effect of grid uncertainty. We used stochastic simulation models to explore risks to ecosystems and species with clustered, dispersed, and linear distribution patterns subject to regimes of threat events with different frequency and spatial extent. Area of occupancy was an accurate predictor of risk (0.81<|r|<0.98) and performed optimally when measured with grid cells 0.1-1.0 times the largest plausible area threatened by an event. Contrary to previous assertions, estimates of AOO at these relatively coarse scales were better predictors of risk than finer-scale estimates of AOO (e.g., when measurement cells are <1% of the area of the largest threat). The optimal scale depended on the spatial scales of threats more than the shape or size of biotic distributions. Although we found appreciable potential for grid-measurement errors, current IUCN guidelines for estimating AOO neutralize geometric uncertainty and incorporate effective scaling procedures for assessing risks posed by landscape-scale threats to species and ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The effect of problem posing and problem solving with realistic mathematics education approach to the conceptual understanding and adaptive reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rengga; Slamet, Isnandar; Budiyono

    2017-12-01

    One of the difficulties of students in learning mathematics is on the subject of geometry that requires students to understand abstract things. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of learning model Problem Posing and Problem Solving with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning in learning mathematics. This research uses a kind of quasi experimental research. The population of this research is all seventh grade students of Junior High School 1 Jaten, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The test of the research hypothesis was analyzed by using t-test. The results of this study indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' conceptual understanding significantly in mathematics learning. In addition tu, the results also showed that the model of Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' adaptive reasoning significantly in learning mathematics. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing and Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on the subject of geometry so as to improve conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  10. Coupled bias-variance tradeoff for cross-pose face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Annan; Shan, Shiguang; Gao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Subspace-based face representation can be looked as a regression problem. From this viewpoint, we first revisited the problem of recognizing faces across pose differences, which is a bottleneck in face recognition. Then, we propose a new approach for cross-pose face recognition using a regressor with a coupled bias-variance tradeoff. We found that striking a coupled balance between bias and variance in regression for different poses could improve the regressor-based cross-pose face representation, i.e., the regressor can be more stable against a pose difference. With the basic idea, ridge regression and lasso regression are explored. Experimental results on CMU PIE, the FERET, and the Multi-PIE face databases show that the proposed bias-variance tradeoff can achieve considerable reinforcement in recognition performance.

  11. Trajectory Planning with Pose Feedback for a Dual-Arm Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high precision path tracking for a dual-arm space robot, a trajectory planning method with pose feedback is proposed to be introduced into the design process in this paper. Firstly, pose error kinematic models are derived from the related kinematics and desired pose command for the end-effector and the base, respectively. On this basis, trajectory planning with pose feedback is proposed from a control perspective. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed trajectory planning algorithm can guarantee that pose error converges to zero exponentially for both the end-effector and the base when the robot is out of singular configuration. Compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm can lead to higher precision path tracking for the end-effector. Furthermore, the algorithm renders the system good anti-interference property for the base. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory planning algorithm.

  12. A Support System for the Electric Appliance Control Using Pose Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kunihito; Hongo, Hitoshi

    In this paper, we propose an electric appliance control support system for aged and bedridden people using pose recognition. We proposed a pose recognition system that distinguishes between seven poses of the user on the bed. First, the face and arm regions of the user are detected by using the skin color. Our system focuses a recognition region surrounding the face region. Next, the higher order local autocorrelation features within the region are extracted. The linear discriminant analysis creates the coefficient matrix that can optimally distinguish among training data from the seven poses. Our algorithm can recognize the seven poses even if the subject wears different clothes and slightly shifts or slants on the bed. From the experimental results, our system achieved an accuracy rate of over 99 %. Then, we show that it possibles to construct one of a user-friendly system.

  13. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  14. Application of Shape Similarity in Pose Selection and Virtual Screening in CSARdock2014 Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2016-06-27

    To evaluate the applicability of shape similarity in docking-based pose selection and virtual screening, we participated in the CSARdock2014 benchmark exercise for identifying the correct docking pose of inhibitors targeting factor XA, spleen tyrosine kinase, and tRNA methyltransferase. This exercise provides a valuable opportunity for researchers to test their docking programs, methods, and protocols in a blind testing environment. In the CSARdock2014 benchmark exercise, we have implemented an approach that uses ligand 3D shape similarity to facilitate docking-based pose selection and virtual screening. We showed here that ligand 3D shape similarity between bound poses could be used to identify the native-like pose from an ensemble of docking-generated poses. Our method correctly identified the native pose as the top-ranking pose for 73% of test cases in a blind testing environment. Moreover, the pose selection results also revealed an excellent correlation between ligand 3D shape similarity scores and RMSD to X-ray crystal structure ligand. In the virtual screening exercise, the average RMSD for our pose prediction was found to be 1.02 Å, and it was one of the top performances achieved in CSARdock2014 benchmark exercise. Furthermore, the inclusion of shape similarity improved virtual screening performance of docking-based scoring and ranking. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) between experimental activities and docking scores for 276 spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors was found to be 0.365 but reached 0.614 when the ligand 3D shape similarity was included.

  15. Addressing the psychosocial and communication challenges posed by radiological/nuclear terrorism: key developments since NCRP Report No. 138.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2005-11-01

    One of the most innovative aspects of NCRP Report No. 138 (Management of Terrorist Incidents Involving Radioactive Material) was the high priority it accorded to psychosocial and communication issues. While previous discussions of radiological and nuclear terrorism had occasionally referred to these topics, NCRP Report No. 138 was the first report of its kind to recognize the profound challenges posed by these issues and to place them at the heart of preparedness and response efforts. In the years since the report's release, a host of important developments have taken place in relation to psychosocial and communication issues. This paper reviews key changes and advances in five broad areas: (1) training exercises, (2) policy and guidance development, (3) findings on hospital and clinician needs, (4) survey research on public perceptions of radiological terrorism, and (5) risk communication for radiological and nuclear terrorism situations. The article concludes with a discussion of continuing psychosocial and communication challenges, including critical areas needing further attention as the nation moves to meet the threat of terrorism involving radioactive materials.

  16. Predictive Validity of Explicit and Implicit Threat Overestimation in Contamination Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer S.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the predictive validity of explicit and implicit measures of threat overestimation in relation to contamination-fear outcomes using structural equation modeling. Undergraduate students high in contamination fear (N = 56) completed explicit measures of contamination threat likelihood and severity, as well as looming vulnerability cognitions, in addition to an implicit measure of danger associations with potential contaminants. Participants also completed measures of contamination-fear symptoms, as well as subjective distress and avoidance during a behavioral avoidance task, and state looming vulnerability cognitions during an exposure task. The latent explicit (but not implicit) threat overestimation variable was a significant and unique predictor of contamination fear symptoms and self-reported affective and cognitive facets of contamination fear. On the contrary, the implicit (but not explicit) latent measure predicted behavioral avoidance (at the level of a trend). Results are discussed in terms of differential predictive validity of implicit versus explicit markers of threat processing and multiple fear response systems. PMID:24073390

  17. The Threat Effect of Active Labor Market Programs: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect......., with the participants in all cases being unemployed individuals in receipt of benefit of some kind during their tenure of unemployment. Seven of these studies have been included in a meta-analysis: The meta-analysis, which has been carried out using a random effects model to account for heterogeneity, indicated...

  18. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message.

  19. Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: how coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Arielle M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, the concern about being judged in light of negative stereotypes, causes underperformance in evaluative situations. However, less is known about how coping with stereotypes can aggravate underperformance over time. We propose a model in which ongoing stereotype threat experiences threaten a person's sense of self-integrity, which in turn prompts defensive avoidance of stereotype-relevant situations, impeding growth, achievement, and well-being. We test this model in an important but understudied population: the physically disabled. In Study 1, blind adults reporting higher levels of stereotype threat reported lower self-integrity and well-being and were more likely to be unemployed and to report avoiding stereotype-threatening situations. In Study 2's field experiment, blind students in a compensatory skill-training program made more progress if they had completed a values-affirmation, an exercise that bolsters self-integrity. The findings suggest that stereotype threat poses a chronic threat to self-integrity and undermines life outcomes for people with disabilities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. The emerging threat of domestic terrorism: a systematic review of evolving needs, threats, and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The domestic terrorist threat in the United States is active and complex, with ongoing threats from violent left- and right-wing extremist groups, and radicalization and recruitment efforts by international terrorist groups. In response, domestic intelligence agencies, at all levels of government, have instituted reforms and improvements since 9/11, but there are still gaps in information-sharing and community engagement. For example, ...