WorldWideScience

Sample records for pose safety risk

  1. Risks posed by large seismic events in the gold mining districts of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available buildings are considered vulnerable to damage by large seismic events, posing safety and financial risks. It is recommended that an earthquake engineer inspect the building stock and review the content and enforcement of building codes. Appropriate training...

  2. Enrichment and assessment of the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu Y; Shen, Ya X; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Hao F

    2017-04-16

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of human activity on heavy metals in a typical arid urban area of China and assess human health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 (particles <1.0 μm in diameter) for different people. In this paper, Changji (Xinjiang, China) was selected as the study area, and samples were collected from March 2014 to March 2015. A total 14 elements in PM 1 were quantified using ICP-MS. An enrichment factor (EF) was used to assess the influence of human activity on the contamination of these metals. The results indicated that Mn was not enriched; Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Tl, and V were slightly enriched; Mo, Pb, and Sb were moderately enriched; and Ag, As, and Cd were strongly enriched. To assess the health risks associated with inhaling PM 1 , the risk assessment code and loss in life expectancy based on the individual metals were calculated. The results showed that the elements Ag, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V in PM 1 posed low levels of non-carcinogenic risks, but these metals may still pose risks to certain susceptible populations. In addition, the results also showed that As, Co, and Cr posed an appreciable carcinogenic risk, while Cd and Ni posed low levels of carcinogenic risk. The total predicted loss of life expectancy caused by the three metals As, Co, and Ni was 63.67 d for the elderly, 30.95 d for adult males, 26.62 d for adult females, and 48.22 d for children. Therefore, the safety of the elderly and children exposed to PM 1 should be given more attention than the safety of adults. The results from this study demonstrate that the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China should be examined.

  3. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus does not pose a risk to blood recipient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Roger Y; Hackett, John; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Dorsey, Kerri; Wu, Yanyun; Zou, Shimian; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Schochetman, Gerald; Gao, Kui; Carrick, James M; Krysztof, David E; Stramer, Susan L

    2012-02-01

    When xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was first reported in association with chronic fatigue syndrome, it was suggested that it might offer a risk to blood safety. Thus, the prevalence of the virus among blood donors and, if present, its transmissibility by transfusion need to be defined. Two populations of routine blood donor samples (1435 and 13,399) were obtained for prevalence evaluations; samples from a linked donor-recipient repository were also evaluated. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to XMRV-related recombinant antigens and/or for XMRV RNA, using validated, high-throughput systems. The presence of antibodies to XMRV could not be confirmed among a total of 17,249 blood donors or recipients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-0.017%); 1763 tested samples were nonreactive for XMRV RNA (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.17%). Evidence of infection was absent from 109 recipients and 830 evaluable blood samples tested after transfusion of a total of 3741 blood components. XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV) markers are not present among a large population of blood donors and evidence of transfusion transmission could not be detected. Thus, these viruses do not currently pose a threat to blood recipient safety and further actions relating to XMRV and MLV are not justified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Assessing exposure risks for freshwater tilapia species posed by mercury and methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Jun; You, Shu-Han; Yang, Ying-Fei; How, Chun Ming; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-08-01

    Waterborne and dietborne exposures of freshwater fish to mercury (Hg) in the forms of inorganic (Hg(II)) and organic (methylmercury or MeHg) affect their growth, development, and reproduction. However, an integrated mechanistic risk model framework to predict the impact of Hg(II)/MeHg on freshwater fish is lacking. Here, we integrated biokinetic, physiological and biogeographic data to calibrate and then establish key risk indices-hazardous quotient and exceedance risk-for freshwater tilapia species across geographic ranges of several major rivers in Taiwan. We found that Hg(II) burden was highest in kidney followed by gill, intestine, liver, blood, and muscle. Our results showed that Hg was less likely to pose mortality risk (mortality rate less than 5 %) for freshwater tilapia species. However, Hg is likely to pose the potential hazard to aquatic environments constrained by safety levels for aquatic organisms. Sensitivity analysis showed that amount of Hg accumulated in tilapia was most influenced by sediment uptake rate. Our approach opens up new possibilities for predicting future fish population health with the impacts of continued Hg exposure to provide information on which fish are deemed safe for human consumption.

  5. The risks to miners, mines, and the public posed by large seismic events in the gold mining districts of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available are incorporating the risks of seismicity in their disaster management plans, and Johannesburg is urged to do likewise. Some buildings are considered vulnerable to damage by large seismic events, posing safety and financial risks....

  6. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  7. PRA has many faces - can the safety goal be well-posed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargmann, H.

    1983-01-01

    The question is discussed whether probabilistic reliability problems can, principally, be well-posed in practical situations. The problem is reduced to the question whether an underlying probabilistic experiment which is, essentially, the set of outcomes can be precisely specified such that the solution of the problem is unique. Upon reexamination of a classical paradox due to Bertrand and consideration of a typical problem of structural reliability we conclude that the possibility of well-posing a reliability problem should be considered illusory, for fundamental reasons which are inherent in practical situations. In particular, it should not be assumed that a quantitative safety goal could be verified. Generally, a probabilistic assessment should be considered as a quantitative method for establishing rational results which should, however, not be viewed as quantitative measures but as qualitative guides

  8. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Do Not Use Infant Sleep Positioners Due to the Risk of Suffocation Share ... to top Safety Advice for Putting Babies to Sleep NEVER use infant sleep positioners. Using this type ...

  9. N reactor individual risk comparison to quantitative nuclear safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Rainey, T.E.; Zentner, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A full-scope level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been completed for N reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided the technical leadership for this work, using the state-of-the-art NUREG-1150 methodology developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The main objectives of this effort were to assess the risks to the public and to the on-site workers posed by the operation of N reactor, to identify changes to the plant that could reduce the overall risk, and to compare those risks to the proposed NRC and DOE quantitative safety goals. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and SNL for individual health risk evaluation, its results, and a comparison to the NRC safety objectives and the DOE nuclear safety guidelines. The N reactor results, are also compared with the five NUREG-1150 nuclear plants. Only internal events are compared here because external events are not yet reported in the current draft NUREG-1150. This is the first full-scope level III PRA study with a detailed quantitative safety goal comparison performed for DOE production reactors

  10. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations

  11. Metals and metalloids in PM10 in Nandan County, Guangxi, China, and the health risks posed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guanghui; Song, Bo; Xia, Deshang; Yang, Zijie; Wang, Fopeng

    2018-03-16

    Intense mining, smelting, and tailing activities of polymetallic ore deposits have affected the environment in Nandan County, Guangxi, China. Samples of particulates with aerodynamic diameters low or equal 10 μm (PM 10 ) were collected in Nandan County to investigate the concentrations of and health risks posed by 17 metals and metalloids in the PM 10 . The metal and metalloid concentrations were lower than those found in other industrial cities. The mean Cr concentration was 7.48 ng/m 3 . Significant higher metal and metalloid concentrations were found in PM 10 from mining areas (Dachang and Chehe) than from the control area (Liuzhai) (p metalloids in PM 10 at all the sites were low, but the non-carcinogenic risks posed to children by all the metals and metalloids together exceeded the safe level (i.e., risk value > 1). The carcinogenic risks posed by Cd, Ni, and Pb were negligible at all sites, while As, Co, and Cr posed potential carcinogenic risks to the residents.

  12. Assessing the risk posed by high-turbidity water to water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Liao, Chung-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the risk of insufficient water supply posed by high-turbidity water. Several phenomena can pose risks to the sufficiency of a water supply; this study concerns risks to water treatment plants from particular properties of rainfall and raw water turbidity. High-turbidity water can impede water treatment plant operations; rainfall properties can influence the degree of soil erosion. Thus, water turbidity relates to rainfall characteristics. Exceedance probabilities are presented for different rainfall intensities and turbidities of water. When the turbidity of raw water is higher than 5,000 NTU, it can cause operational problems for a water treatment plant. Calculations show that the turbidity of raw water at the Ban-Sin water treatment plant will be higher than 5,000 NTU if the rainfall intensity is larger than 165 mm/day. The exceedance probability of high turbidity (turbidity >5,000 NTU) in the Ban-Sin water treatment plant is larger than 10%. When any water treatment plant cannot work regularly, its ability to supply water to its customers is at risk.

  13. Payload Safety: Risk and Characteristic-Based Control of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou, Seraphin Chally; Saad, Maarouf

    2013-09-01

    In the last decade progress has been made to assist organizations that are developing payloads intended for flight on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or Space Shuttle. Collaboration programs for comprehensive risk assessment have been initiated between the U.S. and the European Union to generate requirements and data needed to comply with payloads safety and to perform risk assessment and controls guidance. Yet, substantial research gaps remain, as do challenges in the translation of these research findings to control for exposure to nanoscale material payloads, and the health effects. Since nanomaterial structures are different from traditional molecules, some standard material properties can change at size of 50nm or less. Changes in material properties at this scale challenge our understanding of hazards posed by nanomaterial payloads in the ISS realistic exposure conditions, and our ability to anticipate, evaluate, and control potential health issues, and safety. The research question addressed in this framework is: what kind of descriptors can be developed for nanomaterial payloads risks assessment? Methods proposed incorporate elements of characteristic- based risk an alysis: (1) to enable characterization of anthropogenic nanomaterials which can result in incidental from natural nanoparticles; and (2) to better understand safety attributes in terms of human health impacts from exposure to varying types of engineered nanomaterials.

  14. Comparison of Safety Margin Generation Concepts in Image Guided Radiotherapy to Account for Daily Head and Neck Pose Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Markus; Stoiber, Eva Maria; Grimm, Sarah; Debus, Jürgen; Bendl, Rolf; Giske, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of head and neck tumors allows a precise conformation of the high-dose region to clinical target volumes (CTVs) while respecting dose limits to organs a risk (OARs). Accurate patient setup reduces translational and rotational deviations between therapy planning and therapy delivery days. However, uncertainties in the shape of the CTV and OARs due to e.g. small pose variations in the highly deformable anatomy of the head and neck region can still compromise the dose conformation. Routinely applied safety margins around the CTV cause higher dose deposition in adjacent healthy tissue and should be kept as small as possible. In this work we evaluate and compare three approaches for margin generation 1) a clinically used approach with a constant isotropic 3 mm margin, 2) a previously proposed approach adopting a spatial model of the patient and 3) a newly developed approach adopting a biomechanical model of the patient. All approaches are retrospectively evaluated using a large patient cohort of over 500 fraction control CT images with heterogeneous pose changes. Automatic methods for finding landmark positions in the control CT images are combined with a patient specific biomechanical finite element model to evaluate the CTV deformation. The applied methods for deformation modeling show that the pose changes cause deformations in the target region with a mean motion magnitude of 1.80 mm. We found that the CTV size can be reduced by both variable margin approaches by 15.6% and 13.3% respectively, while maintaining the CTV coverage. With approach 3 an increase of target coverage was obtained. Variable margins increase target coverage, reduce risk to OARs and improve healthy tissue sparing at the same time.

  15. Mitigation of the threat posed to transfusion by donors traveling to Zika-affected areas: a Canadian risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; O'Brien, Sheila F; Grégoire, Yves; Fearon, Margaret; Devine, Dana

    2017-10-01

    The recent spread of the Zika virus to the Americas and the recognition that it can cause severe disease in the developing fetus has prompted the adoption of measures to mitigate the risk that this virus might pose to transfusion safety. In nonendemic countries, the risk to transfusion results from donors traveling to an endemic region. Canada implemented a 21-day temporary deferral for prospective donors who traveled to such regions. We present the rationale for this policy, including a quantitative risk assessment supported by a Monte Carlo simulation. The model considered the following parameters, each with specified values and ranges: the probability that a donor recently returned from a Zika-endemic region, the duration of travel to this region, the daily risk of acquiring Zika while in an endemic region, and the incubation and viremic periods. We ran the simulation 20 times, each with 10 million iterations. In the absence of any travel deferral, 32 donors (range, 20-46 donors) would be able to donate while still being at risk of transmitting Zika, corresponding to a rate of 1:312,500 (range, 1:217,000 to 1:500,000). None of these donors would be viremic beyond 21 days after returning from their travel, with a risk estimated at less than 1:200,000,000. A 21-day temporary travel deferral offers an extremely wide margin of safety for the possible transmission of Zika by a donation obtained from someone who recently returned from a country where the virus is circulating. © 2017 AABB.

  16. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements

  17. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pipeline integrity risk to public safety, property, or the environment, the Associate Administrator may issue an order requiring the operator of the facility to take necessary corrective action. Such action... existence of a condition that poses a pipeline integrity risk to public safety, property, or the environment...

  18. Risk and safety perception on urban and rural roads: Effects of environmental features, driver age and risk sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jolene A; Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J

    2017-10-03

    impact changes; however, the effect was larger for urban environments. There were also effects of object type, with certain objects rated as consistently more safety relevant. In urban scenes, changes involving pedestrians were rated significantly more hazardous than all other objects, and in rural scenes, changes involving animals were rated as significantly more hazardous. Notably, hazard ratings were found to be higher in urban compared with rural driving environments, even when changes were matched between environments. This study demonstrates that drivers perceive rural roads as less risky than urban roads, even when similar scenarios occur in both environments. Age did not affect hazard ratings. Instead, the findings suggest that the assessment of risk posed by hazards is influenced more by individual differences in risk sensitivity. This highlights the need for driver education to account for appraisal of hazards' risk and relevance, in addition to hazard detection, when considering factors that promote road safety.

  19. Winners, losers, and posers: The effect of power poses on testosterone and risk-taking following competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristopher M; Apicella, Coren L

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The effect of postural power displays (i.e. power poses) on hormone levels and decision-making has recently been challenged. While Carney et al. (2010) found that holding brief postural displays of power leads to increased testosterone, decreased cortisol and greater economic risk taking, this failed to replicate in a recent high-powered study (Ranehill et al. 2015). It has been put forward that subtle differences in social context may account for the differences in results. Power displays naturally occur within the context of competitions, as do changes in hormones, and researchers have yet to examine the effects of poses within this ecologically relevant context. Using a large sample of 247 male participants, natural winners and losers of a physical competition were randomly assigned to hold a low, neutral or high-power postural display. We found no main effect of pose type on testosterone, cortisol, risk or feelings of power. Winners assigned to a high-power pose had a relative, albeit small, rise in testosterone compared to winners who held neutral or low-power poses. For losers, we found little evidence that high-power poses lead to increased testosterone relative to those holding neutral or low-powered poses. If anything, the reverse was observed - losers had a reduction in testosterone after holding high-power poses. To the extent that changes in testosterone modulate social behaviors adaptively, it is possible that the relative reduction in testosterone observed in losers taking high-powered poses is designed to inhibit further "winner-like" behavior that could result in continued defeat and harm. Still, effects were small, multiple comparisons were made, and the results ran counter to our predictions. We thus treat these conclusions as preliminary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceptions about safety and risks in gender-based violence research: implications for the ethics review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    Does research on gender-based violence (GBV) pose greater than minimal risk to researchers and participants? This question needs to be understood particularly in light of hesitancy by Institutional Review Boards to approve research on GBV. The safety and risks of doing GBV studies and the implications for the ethical review process have not been a focus of much research. This qualitative study collected data through in-depth interviews with 12 experienced GBV researchers from various countries and a desk review. This paper explores researchers' interpretation of and meanings of the safety recommendations as provided in the WHO guidelines and whether there is empirical evidence on the presence of risks and safety concerns unique to GBV research. Informants raised a number of safety concerns about GBV research, yet in the interviews there were very few examples of problems having occurred, possibly because of the precautions applied. This paper argues that the notion that GBV studies carry greater than minimal risk when ethics precautions are followed is based on speculation, not evidence. It highlights the need for empirical evidence to support assertions of risk in research.

  1. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: 1. Risk-based safety indicators: Typology of risk-based indicators (RBIs); Tools for defining RBIs; Requirements for the PSA model; Data sources for RBIs; Types of risks monitored; RBIs and operational safety indicators; Feedback from operating experience; PSO model modification for RBIs; RBI categorization; RBI assessment; RBI applications; Suitable RBI applications. 2. Proposal for risk-based indicators: Acquiring information from operational experience; Method of acquiring safety relevance coefficients for the systems from a PSA model; Indicator definitions; On-line indicators. 3. Annex: Application of RBIs worldwide. (P.A.)

  2. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  3. Application of risk-based methodologies to prioritize safety resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Hosler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) started a program entitled risk-based prioritization in 1992. The purpose of this program is to provide generic technical support to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost control using state-of-the-art risk methods. The approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. Specifically, those items or events that have high risk significance would receive the most attention, while those with little risk content would command fewer resources. As quantified in a companion paper,close-quote the potential O ampersand M cost reduction inherent in this approach is very large. Furthermore, risk-based methods should also lead to safety improvements. This paper outlines the way that the EPRI technical work complements the technical, policy, and regulatory initiatives taken by others in the industry and provides an example of the approach as used to prioritize motor-operated valve (MOV) testing in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letter 89-10

  4. Roy's safety-first portfolio principle in financial risk management of disastrous events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei Choi; Wong, Hoi Ying; Li, Duan

    2012-11-01

    Roy pioneers the concept and practice of risk management of disastrous events via his safety-first principle for portfolio selection. More specifically, his safety-first principle advocates an optimal portfolio strategy generated from minimizing the disaster probability, while subject to the budget constraint and the mean constraint that the expected final wealth is not less than a preselected disaster level. This article studies the dynamic safety-first principle in continuous time and its application in asset and liability management. We reveal that the distortion resulting from dropping the mean constraint, as a common practice to approximate the original Roy's setting, either leads to a trivial case or changes the problem nature completely to a target-reaching problem, which produces a highly leveraged trading strategy. Recognizing the ill-posed nature of the corresponding Lagrangian method when retaining the mean constraint, we invoke a wisdom observed from a limited funding-level regulation of pension funds and modify the original safety-first formulation accordingly by imposing an upper bound on the funding level. This model revision enables us to solve completely the safety-first asset-liability problem by a martingale approach and to derive an optimal policy that follows faithfully the spirit of the safety-first principle and demonstrates a prominent nature of fighting for the best and preventing disaster from happening. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Safety Climate, Perceived Risk, and Involvement in Safety Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kouabenan , Dongo Rémi; Ngueutsa , Robert ,; Safiétou , Mbaye

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article examines the relationship between safety climate, risk perception and involvement in safety management by first-line managers (FLM). Sixty-three FLMs from two French nuclear plants answered a questionnaire measuring perceived workplace safety climate, perceived risk, and involvement in safety management. We hypothesized that a positive perception of safety climate would promote substantial involvement in safety management, and that this effect would be str...

  6. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk

  7. A Review and Comparative Analysis of Security Risks and Safety Measures of Mobile Health Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Scott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with a patient-centred model of healthcare, Mobile Health applications (mhealth apps provide convenient and equitable access to health and well-being resources and programs that can enable consumers to monitor their health related problems, understand specific medical conditions and attain personal fitness goals. This increase in access and control comes with an increase in risk and responsibility to identify and manage the associated risks, such as the privacy and security of consumers’ personal and health information. Based on a review of the literature, this paper identifies a set of risk and safety features for evaluating mHealth apps and uses those features to conduct a comparative analysis of the 20 most popular mHealth apps. The comparative analysis reveals that current mHealth apps do pose a risk to consumers. To address the safety and privacy concerns, recommendations to consumers and app developers are offered together with consideration of mHealth app future trends.

  8. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to the risks that hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines pose to the environment. In the Pipeline...

  9. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in...

  10. 75 FR 24402 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Tallas Island, Duluth, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Captain of the Port Duluth has determined this activity could pose significant risk to public safety and... Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to...

  11. 77 FR 2017 - Safety Zone; Ice Rescue Exercise; Green Bay, Dyckesville, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not concern an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children... the Port Sector Lake has determined that this ice rescue exercise will pose hazards to the public...

  12. The effect of risk perception on public preferences and willingness to pay for reductions in the health risks posed by toxic cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Peter D; Hanley, Nick; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Mearns, Kathryn; Tyler, Andrew N; Carvalho, Laurence; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2012-06-01

    Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria are an increasingly common occurrence in inland and coastal waters used for recreational purposes. These mass populations pose serious risks to human and animal health and impose potentially significant economic costs on society. In this study, we used contingent valuation (CV) methods to elicit public willingness to pay (WTP) for reductions in the morbidity risks posed by blooms of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in Loch Leven, Scotland. We found that 55% of respondents (68% excluding protest voters) were willing to pay for a reduction in the number of days per year (from 90, to either 45 or 0 days) that cyanobacteria pose a risk to human health at Loch Leven. The mean WTP for a risk reduction was UK£9.99-12.23/household/year estimated using a logistic spike model. In addition, using the spike model and a simultaneous equations model to control for endogeneity bias, we found the respondents' WTP was strongly dependent on socio-demographic characteristics, economic status and usage of the waterbody, but also individual-specific attitudes and perceptions towards health risks. This study demonstrates that anticipated health risk reductions are an important nonmarket benefit of improving water quality in recreational waters and should be accounted for in future cost-benefit analyses such as those being undertaken under the auspices of the European Union's Water Framework Directive, but also that such values depend on subjective perceptions of water-related health risks and general attitudes towards the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk management and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, K.

    2007-01-01

    Paper informs on the efforts to elaborate a feedback system for risk comprehensive evaluation and a system to improve structure safety foreseeing the possibility to control the latent risk, ensuring the qualitative evaluation of the safety level and improvement of safety culture in various branches of industry, first and foremost, in the electricity producing sector including the nuclear power industry [ru

  14. Risk analysis and safety rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1989-01-01

    Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied, and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of toxic chemicals in the environment. The report summarises the finding of 5 major technical reports which have been published in the NORD-series. The topics includes developments, uncertainties and limitations in probabilistic safety assessments, negligible risks, risk-cost trade-offs, optimisation of nuclear safety and radiation protection, and the role of risks in the decision making process. (author) 84 refs

  15. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  16. Radiation safety of soil moisture neutron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron probe measures sub-surface moisture in soil and other materials by means of high energy neutrons and a slow (thermal) neutron detector. Exposure to radiation, including neutrons, especially at high doses, can cause detrimental health effects. In order to achieve operational radiation safety, there must be compliance with protection and safety standards. The design and manufacture of commercially available neutron moisture gauges are such that risks to the health of the user have been greatly reduced. The major concern is radiation escape from the soil during measurement, especially under dry conditions and when the radius of influence is large. With appropriate work practices as well as good design and manufacture of gauges, recorded occupational doses have been well below recommended annual limits. It can be concluded that the use of neutron gauges poses not only acceptable health and safety risks but, in fact, the risks are negligible. Neutron gauges should not be classified as posing high potential health hazards. (author)

  17. The assessment of the safety and the radiological risks associated with the transport of radioactive wastes in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    2000-01-01

    Problems related to the handling, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive wastes (radwastes) are very important and the responsibility for the safe management of radioactive wastes for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. Safety and public welfare are to be considered within the radioactive waste management, particularly in the field of transportation because of the potential risk that it could pose to the public and to the environment. The IAEA regulations ensure safety in the transport of Radioactive Materials (RAM) by laying down detailed requirements, appropriate to the degree of hazard represented by the respective material, taking into account its form and quantity. Risk assessment provides a basis for routing radwastes and developing mitigation plans, prioritizing initiatives and enacting legislation to protect human beings and the environment. Factors such as shipment cost, distance, population exposed, environmental impacts or sensitivity, time in transit and infrastructure related issues, could be included in the terms of safety and risk. The paper presents risk assessment activities aimed to evaluate risk categories and the radiological consequences that may arise during normal (accident free) transport and those resulting from transport accidents involving waste shipments in Romania. (author)

  18. Prevention and control of food safety risks: the role of governments, food producers, marketers, and academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2007-01-01

    Food systems are rapidly changing as world population grows, increasing urbanization occurs, consumer tastes and preferences change and differ in various countries and cultures, large scale food production increases, and food imports and exports grow in volume and value. Consumers in all countries have become more insistent that foods available in the marketplace are of good quality and safe, and do not pose risks to them and their families. Publicity about food risk problems and related risks, including chemical and microbiological contamination of foods, mad-cow disease, avian flu, industrial chemical contamination all have made consumers and policy makers more aware of the need of the control of food safety risk factors in all countries. To discuss changes in food systems, and in consumer expectations, that have placed additional stress on the need for better control of food safety risks. Food producers, processors, and marketers have additional food law and regulations to meet; government agencies must increase monitoring and enforcement of adequate food quality and safety legislation and coordinate efforts between agriculture, health, trade, justice and customs agencies; and academia must take action to strengthen the education of competent food legislation administrators, inspectorate, and laboratory personnel for work in government and industry, including related food and food safety research . Both Government and the food industry must assure that adequate control programs are in place to control the quality and safety of all foods, raw or processed, throughout the food chain from production to final consumption. This includes appropriate laboratory facilities to perform necessary analysis of foods for risk and quality factors, and to carry out a wide range of food science, toxicological and related research.

  19. 78 FR 27304 - Safety Zone; Melrose Pyrotechnics Fireworks Display; Chicago Harbor, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 11. Indian Tribal... Pier in Chicago Harbor, Chicago, IL. The Captain of the Port, Lake Michigan, has determined that these fireworks displays will pose a significant risk to public safety and property. Such hazards include falling...

  20. 77 FR 63732 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may.... The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that this demolition project will pose a...

  1. 77 FR 70684 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 10. Indian Tribal... the Cline Avenue bridge in East Chicago, IN. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that this demolition project will pose a significant risk to public safety and property. Such...

  2. Evaluating fuel cycle safety for CITa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Reilly, H.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    A safety concern in the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) currently being designed in the U. S. is the accidental release of tritium. To evaluate the basis for that concern, an assessment of the risk to the public posed by CIT was conducted that made use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques. These include both frequency and consequence elements of risk. This analysis concluded that the tritium systems on the CIT could be designed and operated as planned with negligible safety impact, well within the established guidelines. (author)

  3. Learning from no-fault treatment injury claims to improve the safety of older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Katharine Ann

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand's treatment injury compensation claims data set provides an uncommon no-fault perspective of patient safety incidents. Analysis of primary care claims data confirmed medication as the leading threat to the safety of older patients in primary care and drew particular attention to the threat posed by antibiotics. For most injuries there was no suggestion of error. The no-fault perspective reveals the greatest threat to the safety of older patients in primary care to be, not error, but the risk posed by treatment itself. To improve patients' safety, in addition to reducing error, clinicians need to reduce patients' exposure to treatment risk, where appropriate. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. 77 FR 39638 - Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 10. Indian Tribal... be held on Lake Erie near Lake View, NY. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that fireworks launched proximate to a gathering of watercraft pose a significant risk to public safety and...

  5. Mitigating construction safety risks using prevention through design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Roca, Xavier; Fuertes, Alba

    2010-04-01

    Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made prior to work at construction sites can influence construction worker safety. However, it has also been argued that most architects and design engineers possess neither the knowledge of construction safety nor the knowledge of construction processes necessary to effectively perform Construction Hazards Prevention through Design (CHPtD). This paper introduces a quantitative methodology that supports designers by providing a way to evaluate the safety-related performance of residential construction designs using a risk analysis-based approach. The methodology compares the overall safety risk level of various construction designs and ranks the significance of the various safety risks of each of these designs. The methodology also compares the absolute importance of a particular safety risk in various construction designs. Because the methodology identifies the relevance of each safety risk at a particular site prior to the construction stage, significant risks are highlighted in advance. Thus, a range of measures for mitigating safety risks can then be implemented during on-site construction. The methodology is specially worthwhile for designers, who can compare construction techniques and systems during the design phase and determine the corresponding level of safety risk without their creative talents being restricted. By using this methodology, construction companies can improve their on-site safety performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward introduction of risk informed safety regulation. Nuclear Safety Commission taskforce's interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Safety Commission's taskforce on 'Introduction of Safety Regulation Utilizing Risk Information' completed the interim report on its future subjects and directions in December 2005. Although current safety regulatory activities have been based on deterministic approach, this report shows the risk informed approach is expected to be very useful for making nuclear safety regulation and assurance activities reasonable and also for appropriate allocation of regulatory resources. For introduction of risk informed regulation, it also recommends pileups of experiences with gradual introduction and trial of the risk informed approach, improvement of plant maintenance rules and regulatory requirements utilizing risk information, and establishment of framework to assure quality of risk evaluation. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Risk management and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.; Novegno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Risk assessment, including probabilistic analyses, has made great progress over the past decade. In spite of the inherent uncertainties it has now become possible to utilize methods and results for decision making at various levels. This paper will, therefore, review risk management in industrial installations, risk management for energy safety policy and prospects of risk management in highly industrialized areas. (orig.) [de

  8. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process

  9. Mastery of risks and operating safety, risks and efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A proper management of ones risks consists in acting to exert prevention and protection capacities against the negative consequences of an event, but also by committing oneself into an offensive approach allowing to improve efficiency, quality and availability. Safety and efficiencies are mutual reinforcing goals aiming at ensuring the perenniality of industries and services. The implementation of a risk management approach in an industrial environment allows to reach a better reactiveness and to increase the efficiency of a system by the mastery of organization and processes. The activities in concern are those of industries and services: transports, energy and environment, automotive industry, petrochemistry, chemistry, food, space, health, defense industries, telecommunication, mining industry, information systems, textile industry, finances.. The topics approached during this meeting treat of: the relevance of risk-abatement resources with respect to risks criticality; the consistent management of uncertainties with respect to stakes; the mastery of components aging and the expression of aging-dependent availability, maintenance and safety policies; the expression of obsolescence-related renewing policies; the operating safety tools and methods applied to complex and computerized-controlled systems; the integration of social, organizational and human factors in technical decisions and companies management; transverse and global risk analysis and decision-aid approaches; the vigilance culture; crisis anticipation and management; the experience feedback on technical and organisational aspects; efficiency and risk mastery indicators; cost/benefit approach in risk management, and economic intelligence approaches. Nineteen presentations have been selected which deal with the mastery of risks and the operating safety at nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  10. Ecological risk analysis as a key factor in environmental safety system development in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovskaya, Y A; Bolsunovskaya, L M

    2015-01-01

    Due to specific natural and climatic conditions combined with human intervention, the Arctic is regarded as a highly sensitive region to any environmental pressures. Arctic projects require continuous environmental monitoring. This poses for the government of the Russian Federation (RF) a tremendous task concerning the formation and implementation of sustainable nature management policy within the international framework. The current article examines the basic constraints to the effective ecological safety system implementation in the Arctic region of the RF. The ecological risks and their effects which influence the sustainable development of the region were analyzed. The model of complex environmental safety system was proposed

  11. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  12. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  13. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  14. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Discussion about risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yeyi

    2008-01-01

    The article introduces the background and status quo of regulations on the nuclear safety in China, and points out the inadequacies existing with the current regulations. The author explains the risk-informed safety management concerning its development, status quo, and achievements made, in an attempt to make out the trend of improving regulations on the nuclear safety through risk-informed methods. Combining the U.S. development program of establishing risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety, the author narrates principles and features of the new regulations system, and provides suggestions for the promotion of risk-informed safety management and establishment of risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety. (author)

  16. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  17. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  18. Safety risks with investigational drugs: Pharmacy practices and perceptions in the veterans affairs health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jennifer L; Brown, Jamie N

    2015-06-01

    Rigorous practices for safe dispensing of investigational drugs are not standardized. This investigation sought to identify error-prevention processes utilized in the provision of investigational drug services (IDS) and to characterize pharmacists' perceptions about safety risks posed by investigational drugs. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to an audience of IDS pharmacists within the Veteran Affairs Health System. Multiple facets were examined including demographics, perceptions of medication safety, and standard processes used to support investigational drug protocols. Twenty-one respondents (32.8% response rate) from the Northeast, Midwest, South, West, and Non-contiguous United States participated. The mean number of pharmacist full-time equivalents (FTEs) dedicated to the IDS was 0.77 per site with 0.2 technician FTEs. The mean number of active protocols was 22. Seventeen respondents (81%) indicated some level of concern for safety risks. Concerns related to the packaging of medications were expressed, most notably lack of product differentiation, expiration dating, barcodes, and choice of font size or color. Regarding medication safety practices, the majority of sites had specific procedures in place for storing and securing drug supply, temperature monitoring, and prescription labeling. Repackaging bulk items and proactive error-identification strategies were less common. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported that an independent double check was not routinely performed. Medication safety concerns exist among pharmacists in an investigational drug service; however, a variety of measures have been employed to improve medication safety practices. Best practices for the safe dispensing of investigational medications should be developed in order to standardize these error-prevention strategies.

  19. A cost–benefit analysis of mitigation options for optimal management of risks posed by flow-like phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narasimhan, Harikrishna; Ferlisi, Settimio; Cascini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ) (Nathwani et al. in Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, 1997; Nathwani et al. in Engineering decisions for life quality: how safe is safe enough? Springer, London, 2009). A case study involving the cost–benefit analysis of selected packages of measures......Decisions associated with life safety risk management of natural hazards can involve significant potential consequences for public safety. Given possible limitations to available societal resources, it is therefore necessary to establish a clear and rational basis for the allocation of resources...... towards risk management. A viable approach for utilising life safety risk assessment in public safety decisions that are aimed at improving the welfare of the public and other stakeholders is described in this paper. This approach is conceptually based on the principles of the Life Quality Index (LQI...

  20. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  1. Risk as a target of safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.

    1986-01-01

    Job creation is not the idea behind the demand for risk studies to be intensified in safety research. Risks are not only a target safety research should investigate, they are a subject that actually can be most adequately investigated by safety research. Assuming a neutral position between irrational fears and interest-minded problem minimization, that is the central approach and the ethics of a safety scientist. The Babylonian confusion of terminology experienced after the Chernobyl accident is a good example proving the necessity of fostering the neutral professionalism in safety research. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, Rene' W. R.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Baka, Athanasia

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessme...... provided valuable insights, leading to further refinements and generating testable hypotheses. Their application to estimate the risk posed by the concurrent consumption of two potentially contaminated foods illustrates their power....

  4. Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, 'ensuring' plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is 'safe.' Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude

  5. Review of the Risks Posed to Drinking Water by Man-Made Nanoparticels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiede, K.; Westerhoff, P.; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    an estimate of the amount of exposure to a range of ENPs from drinking water as well as a relative qualitative risk of exposure to ENPs from drinking water compared to other routes. A range of metal, metal oxide and organic-based ENPs were identified that have the potential to contaminate drinking waters...... drinking waters. In order to address these concerns, the U.K. Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) has published a "Review of the risks posed to drinking water by man-made nanoparticles"(DWI 70/2/246). The study, which was funded by the Department for Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), was undertaken by the Food...... (such as ENPs that are produced in large quantities or are used in a free form) were identified and categorised. The classification was based on a categorisation framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products. A conservative approach was then used to estimate worst case...

  6. Concept of risk: risk assessment and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dissertation is a critical examination of risk assessment and its role in public policy. Nuclear power safety safety issues are selected as the primary source of illustrations and examples. The dissertation examines how risk assessment studies develop a concept of risk which becomes decisive for policy choices. Risk-assessment techniques are interpreted as instruments which secure an evaluation of risk which, in turn, figures prominently in technical reports on nuclear power. The philosophical critique is mounted on two levels. First, an epistemological critique surveys distinctions between the technical concept of risk and more familiar senses of risk. The critique shows that utilization of risk assessment re-structures the concept of risk. The technical concept is contrasted to the function of risk within a decision-maker's conceptual agenda and hierarchy of values. Second, an ethical critique exposes the value commitments of risk assessment recommendations. Although some of these values might be defended for policy decisions, the technical character of risk assessment obfuscates normative issues. Risk assessment is shown to be a form of factual enquiry which, nonetheless, represents a commitment to a specific selection of ethical and social values. Risk assessment should not be interpreted as a primary guide to decision unless the specific values incorporated into its concept of risk are stated explicitly and justified philosophically. Such a statement would allow value questions which have been sublimated by the factual tone of the analytic techniques to be debated on clear, social and ethical grounds

  7. Risk assessment of safety violations for coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Orsulaka; Vladislav Kecojevicb; Larry Graysona; Antonio Nietoa [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2010-09-15

    This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk assessment is performed, which allows determination of the frequency of occurrence of safety violations (through associated citations) as well as the consequences of them in terms of penalty assessments. Focus is on establishing risk matrices on citation experiences of mines, which can give early indication of emerging potentially serious problems. The resulting frequency, consequence and risk rankings present valuable tools for prioritising resource allocations, determining control strategies, and could potentially contribute to more proactive prevention of incidents and injuries.

  8. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of rail transportation safety and security....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route... establish that the route chosen by the carrier poses the least overall safety and security risk, the...

  9. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  10. Fuzzy-based Prioritization of Health, Safety, and Environmental Risks: The Case of a Large Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auob Mirsaeidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a fuzzy–based framework for the prioritization of health, safety and environment related risks posed against employees, working conditions, and process equipment in large gas refineries. The First Refinery at Pars Special Economic Energy Zone in South of Iran was taken as a case study. For this purpose, health, safety and environment related risks were determined based on the three criteria of impact severity, occurrence probability, and detect-ability using a questionnaire of 33 identified failures. The values obtained were processed by a so-called ‘contribution coefficient’. The results were then subjected to fuzzification and fuzzy rules were defined to calculate the risk level indices as the model outputs, which was then employed to facilitate the management decision-making process by prioritizing the management options. The prioritization values were then classified in six categories in the order of risk severity. Results revealed that failure in a combustion furnace had the highest rank while failure in the slug catcher ranked the lowest among the risk sources. It was also found that about 0.4% of the identified risks prioritized as “intolerable”, 79% as “major”, 20% as “tolerable”, and 0.7% as “minor”. Thus, most of the risks (more than 79% associated with the refinery has the potential of significant risks. The results indicated that the risk of the pollutant emissions from the combustion furnaces is the highest. Exposures to harmful physical, chemical, psychological, and ergonomic substances are the other risks, respectively.

  11. Development of an algorithm for assessing the risk to food safety posed by a new animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E M; Jenson, I; Jordan, D; Ward, M P

    2012-05-01

    An algorithm was developed as a tool to rapidly assess the potential for a new or emerging disease of livestock to adversely affect humans via consumption or handling of meat product, so that the risks and uncertainties can be understood and appropriate risk management and communication implemented. An algorithm describing the sequence of events from occurrence of the disease in livestock, release of the causative agent from an infected animal, contamination of fresh meat and then possible adverse effects in humans following meat handling and consumption was created. A list of questions complements the algorithm to help the assessors address the issues of concern at each step of the decision pathway. The algorithm was refined and validated through consultation with a panel of experts and a review group of animal health and food safety policy advisors via five case studies of potential emerging diseases of cattle. Tasks for model validation included describing the path taken in the algorithm and stating an outcome. Twenty-nine per cent of the 62 experts commented on the model, and one-third of those responding also completed the tasks required for model validation. The feedback from the panel of experts and the review group was used to further develop the tool and remove redundancies and ambiguities. There was agreement in the pathways and assessments for diseases in which the causative agent was well understood (for example, bovine pneumonia due to Mycoplasma bovis). The stated pathways and assessments of other diseases (for example, bovine Johne's disease) were not as consistent. The framework helps to promote objectivity by requiring questions to be answered sequentially and providing the opportunity to record consensus or differences of opinion. Areas for discussion and future investigation are highlighted by the points of diversion on the pathway taken by different assessors. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Safety regulations: Implications of the new risk perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, T.; Ylönen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current safety regulations for industrial activities are to a large extent functionally oriented and risk-based (informed), expressing what to achieve rather than the means and solutions needed. They are founded on a probability-based perspective on risk, with the use of risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria and tolerability limits. In recent years several risk researchers have argued for the adoption of some new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is defined, the point being to better reflect the knowledge, and lack of knowledge, dimension of risk. The Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority has recently implemented such a perspective. The new ISO standard 31000 is based on a similar thinking. In this paper we discuss the implications of these perspectives on safety regulation, using the oil & gas and nuclear industries as illustrations. Several suggestions for how to develop the current safety regulations in line with the ideas of the new risk perspectives are outlined, including some related to the use of risk acceptance criteria (tolerability limits). We also point to potential obstacles and incentives that the larger societal and institutional setting may impose on industry as regards the adoption of the new risk perspectives. - Highlights: • Some new types of risk perspectives have been promoted. • They have been implemented for example by the Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority. • The paper studies the implication of these perspectives on the risk regulation. • Suggestions for how to develop the regulations are provided • Obstacles and incentives for the implementation of the perspectives are pointed to.

  13. Reducing the risk, managing safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Fire safety in healthcare premises has always been a challenge to those that discharge this duty. Statutory compliance should be a matter of course, but in an ever increasingly challenged NHS, even this is not a given. While the NHS is driven by managing very complex risk to deliver cutting edge healthcare, providers cannot be risk averse. Which risk, however, takes priority? Here Peter Aldridge, fire and corporate services manager at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, and Secretary to the National Association of Healthcare Fire Officers (NAHFO)--which will this month and next jointly stage fire safety seminars with IHEEM; see page 8--considers the key issues, with input from a fire officer at a leading mental health and community Trust.

  14. Issues regarding Risk Effect Analysis of Digitalized Safety Systems and Main Risk Contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors of safety-critical digital systems affect overall plant risk. In order to assess this risk effect, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required. This article aims to provide an overview of the issues when developing a risk model and demonstrate their effect on plant risk quantitatively. Research activities in Korea for addressing these various issues, such as the software failure probability and the fault coverage of self monitoring mechanism are also described. The main risk contributors related to the digitalized safety system were determined in a quantitative manner. Reactor protection system and engineered safety feature component control system designed as part of the Korean Nuclear I and C System project are used as example systems. Fault-tree models were developed to assess the failure probability of a system function which is designed to generate an automated signal for actuating both of the reactor trip and the complicated accident-mitigation actions. The developed fault trees were combined with a plant risk model to evaluate the effect of a digitalized system's failure on the plant risk. (authors)

  15. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  16. Safety methodology and risk targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    In assessing the potential safety concerns of fusion, the experience from other energy sources lead to a variety of safety assessment approaches. The available approaches are: (1) The maximum possible accident approach; (2) The maximum credible accident approach; (3) The probabilistic total risk assessment. In the first approach, the mechanistic development of the events leading to the safety concern is ignored. Instead, the total radioactivity of the plant is assumed accessible to the public. Such an approach is obviously conservative and unrealistic. In the second approach a selection is made among the most severe of the possible accidents, and the progression of the accident is modeled as mechanistically as possible. In this case, the passive and active accident mitigation capabilities of the plant are taken into consideration. The result is expected to be that none or only a fraction of the total radioactivity can be released to the public. The adverse effect of this approach is to concentrate attention on a particular accident class, and perhaps not allow for other classes, a judgement that may later become undesirable. The probabilistic risk assessment requires the safety analysts to consider all classes of accidents and estimate both the probabilities of their occurrences and their consequences. Thus, the plant design in fact is subjected to a thorough investigation and the impact of alterations in design can be reflected in the total risk estimate. The disadvantage of this approach lies in the absence of well defined acceptable risk criteria as well as the large effect of public perception factors on the accepted risk. This paper will review the impact of application of these approaches in determination of the level of protection needed against activation product release to the atmosphere. (author)

  17. Big Data Risk Analysis for Rail Safety?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gulijk, Coen; Hughes, Peter; Figueres-Esteban, Miguel; Dacre, Marcus; Harrison, Chris; HUD; RSSB

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists believe that the enormous amounts of data in the internet will unchain a management revolution of uncanny proportions. Yet, to date, the potential benefit of this revolution is scantily investigated for safety and risk management. This paper gives a brief overview of a research programme that investigates how the new internet-driven data-revolution could benefit safety and risk management for railway safety in the UK. The paper gives a brief overview the current activities...

  18. Risk communication activities toward nuclear safety in Tokai: your safety is our safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, T.

    2007-01-01

    As several decades have passed since the construction of nuclear power plants began, residents have become gradually less interested in nuclear safety. The Tokai criticality accident in 1909, however, had roused residents in Tokai-Mura to realize that they live with nuclear technology risks. To prepare a field of risk communication, the Tokai-Mura C 3 project began as a pilot research project supported by NISA. Alter the project ended, we are continuing risk. communication activities as a non-profit organisation. The most important activity of C 3 project is the citizen's inspection programme for nuclear related facilities. This programme was decided by participants who voluntarily applied to the project. The concept of the citizen's inspection programme is 'not the usual facility tours'. Participants are involved from the planning stage and continue to communicate with workers of the inspected nuclear facility. Since 2003, we have conducted six programmes for five nuclear related organisations. Participants evaluated that radiation protection measures were near good but there were some problems concerning the worker's safety and safety culture, and proposed a mixture of advice based on personal experience. Some advice was accepted and it did improve the facility's safety measures. Other suggestions were not agreed upon by nuclear organisations. The reason lies in the difference of concept between the nuclear expert's 'safety' and the citizen's 'safety'. Residents do not worry about radiation only, but also about the facility's safety as a whole including the worker's safety. They say, 'If the workers are not safe, you also are unable to protect us'. Although the disagreement remained, the participants and the nuclear industry learned much about each other. Participating citizens received a substantial amount of knowledge about the nuclear industry and its safety measures, and feel the credibility and openness of the nuclear industry. On the other hand, the nuclear

  19. On the Regulation of Life Safety Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    . Starting point is taken in a short outline of what is considered to comprise the present best practice rationale for life safety and health risk regulation. Thereafter, based on selected principal examples from different application areas, inconsistencies in present best practice risk quantification...... absolute level of individual life safety risk subject to assessment of acceptability. It is highlighted that a major cause of inconsistency in risk quantifications and comparisons originates from the fact that present regulations partly address societal activities and partly address applied technologies...

  20. Safety and security risk assessments--now demystified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    Safety/security risk assessments no longer need to spook nor baffle healthcare safety/security managers. This grid template provides at-at-glance quick lookup of the possible threats, the affected people and things, a priority ranking of these risks, and a workable solution for each risk. Using the standard document, spreadsheet, or graphics software already available on your computer, you can easily use a scientific method to produce professional looking risk assessments that get quickly understood by both senior managers and first responders alike!

  1. The safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Safety Fundamental publication sets out basic objectives, concepts and principles for ensuring safety that can be used both by the IAEA in its international assistance operations and by Member States in their national nuclear programmes. These Safety Fundamentals apply primarily to those nuclear installations in which the stored energy developed in certain situations could potentially results in the release of radioactive material from its designated location with the consequent risk of radiation exposure of people. These principles are applicable to a broad range of nuclear installations, but their detailed application will depend on the particular technology and the risks posed by it. In addition to nuclear power plants, such installations may include: research reactors and facilities, fuel enrichment, manufacturing and reprocessing plants; and certain facilities for radioactive waste treatment and storage

  2. Assessment of the Safety of Some On-The-Shelf Canned Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is also the possibility of these organisms posing food safety issues and pharmaceutical risks in case of possible out break, assayed through plasmid profiling of the culture-dependent isolates. A major concern in this study is the lack of adherence to food safety regulations. The products still been marketed on the ...

  3. Measuring and managing safety at Wahleach Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, G. M.; Cattanach, J. D.; Hartford, D. N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Safety improvements recently implemented at the Wahleach Dam were described as one of the first instances in international dam safety practice where risk concepts have been used in conjunction with acceptable risk criteria to evaluate safety of a dam relative to required level of safety. Erosion was identified as the greatest threat to the safety of the dam. In addressing the deficiencies B.C. Hydro formulated a process which advocates a balanced level of safety,i.e. the probability of failure multiplied by the consequences of failure, integrated over a range of initiators. If the risk posed by the dam is lower than a 'tolerable' risk, the dam is considered to be safe enough. In the case of the Wahleach Dam, the inflow design flood (IDF) was selected to be about one half of the probable maximum flow (PMF), hence it was more likely than not that the spillway could pass floods up to and including the PMF. By accepting the determined level of risk, expenditures of several million dollars for design and construction of dam safety improvements were made redundant. Another byproduct of this new concept of risk assessment was the establishment of improved life safety protection by means of an early warning system for severe floods through the downstream community and emergency authorities. 3 refs., 5 tabs

  4. The infectious disease blood safety risk of Australian hemochromatosis donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.

  5. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Suk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  6. Drug and alcohol crash risk : traffic safety facts : research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While the extent of use of alcohol by drivers and the risks posed by alcohol use have been well known for many decades, relatively little has been known about the use of other drugs by drivers and the associated risks. However, drug-impaired driving ...

  7. Health IT for Patient Safety and Improving the Safety of Health IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrabi, Farah; Ong, Mei-Sing; Coiera, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Alongside their benefits health IT applications can pose new risks to patient safety. Problems with IT have been linked to many different types of clinical errors including prescribing and administration of medications; as well as wrong-patient, wrong-site errors, and delays in procedures. There is also growing concern about the risks of data breach and cyber-security. IT-related clinical errors have their origins in processes undertaken to design, build, implement and use software systems in a broader sociotechnical context. Safety can be improved with greater standardization of clinical software and by improving the quality of processes at different points in the technology life cycle, spanning design, build, implementation and use in clinical settings. Oversight processes can be set up at a regional or national level to ensure that clinical software systems meet specific standards. Certification and regulation are two mechanisms to improve oversight. In the absence of clear standards, guidelines are useful to promote safe design and implementation practices. Processes to identify and mitigate hazards can be formalised via a safety management system. Minimizing new patient safety risks is critical to realizing the benefits of IT.

  8. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose

  9. Probability and uncertainty in nuclear safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate-Cornell, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, we examine some problems posed by the use of probabilities in Nuclear Safety decisions. We discuss some of the theoretical difficulties due to the collective nature of regulatory decisions, and, in particular, the calibration and the aggregation of risk information (e.g., experts opinions). We argue that, if one chooses numerical safety goals as a regulatory basis, one can reduce the constraints to an individual safety goal and a cost-benefit criterion. We show the relevance of risk uncertainties in this kind of regulatory framework. We conclude that, whereas expected values of future failure frequencies are adequate to show compliance with economic constraints, the use of a fractile (e.g., 95%) to be specified by the regulatory agency is justified to treat hazard uncertainties for the individual safety goal. (orig.)

  10. Mastery of risks and operational safety, risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Creating socially useful richness is certainly the prime reason for companies to exist. Reaching this always moving target leads to seize opportunities and to take risks at the same time. For companies, risks and opportunities are two indissociable factors. Any decision making has to deal with an uncertain environment with random events of technological, economical, biological, human, environmental or natural origin. Because of the fear of uncertainty, risk acts as a brake to initiatives. In front of this problem, companies have to adopt a prevention policy based on a global and systemic approach, by identifying, evaluating, quantifying, sorting, mastering and managing unwanted events and by communicating about the way to treat them. In front of uncertainties, the operational safety, thanks to its methods and tools, supplies an incomparable contribution in the form of an help to any decision made with uncertainties. Operational safety contributes to the evaluation of costs and makes more realistic the economical estimations by taking into account the foreseeable and unforeseeable risks. The mastery of unwanted events, of their stakes and uncertainties, allows companies to carry out their projects in non-determined contexts and in a competitive environment. This colloquium concerns all socio-economical actors: industrialists, investors, decision makers, university and laboratory staffs, etc., who need a better evaluation of risks for a better mastery of their decisions in all sectors of activity. Seventeen papers of this conference, dealing with safety analysis and risk assessment at nuclear facilities and at other energy-related facilities, have been selected for Inis. (J.S.)

  11. Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L

    2013-03-01

    In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Risk monitor - a tool for operational safety assessment risk monitor - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, M.; Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment has become a key tool as on today to identify and understand Nuclear Power Plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. Risk Monitor is a PC based tool, which computes the real time safety level and assists plant personnel to manage day-to-day activities. Risk Monitor is a PC based user friendly software tool used for modification and re-analysis of a nuclear Power plant. Operation of Risk Monitor is based on PSA methods for assisting in day to day applications. Risk Monitoring programs can assess the risk profile and are used to optimize the operation of Nuclear Power Plants with respect to a minimum risk level over the operating time. This report presents the background activities of Risk Monitor, its application areas and the step by step procedure for the user.to interact with the software. This software can be used with the PSA model of any Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  13. Risk concepts in UK nuclear safety decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighton, P.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of risk as understood in the UK, with particular reference to the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in nuclear safety decision making. The way 'risk' appears in UK fundamental legislation means that the concept cannot be limited to evaluation of numerical probabilities of physical harm. Rather the focus is on doing all that is reasonably practicable to reduce risks: this entails applying relevant good practice and then seeking further safety measures until the money, time and trouble required are grossly disproportionate to the residual risk. PSA is used to inform rather than dictate such decisions. This approach is reinforced by considering how far any practical PSA can be said to measure risk. The behaviour of complex socio-technical systems such as nuclear power stations does not meet the conditions under which probability theory can be applied in an absolutely objective statistical sense. Risk is not an intrinsic real property of such systems. Rather PSA is a synthesis of data and subjective expert judgements, dependent on the extent of detailed knowledge of the plant. There are many other aspects of engineering judgement involved in safety decisions which cannot be so captured. (author)

  14. Risk based limits for Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    OSR limits are designed to protect the assumptions made in the facility safety analysis in order to preserve the safety envelope during facility operation. Normally, limits are set based on ''worst case conditions'' without regard to the likelihood (frequency) of a credible event occurring. In special cases where the accident analyses are based on ''time at risk'' arguments, it may be desirable to control the time at which the facility is at risk. A methodology has been developed to use OSR limits to control the source terms and the times these source terms would be available, thus controlling the acceptable risk to a nuclear process facility. The methodology defines a new term ''gram-days''. This term represents the area under a source term (inventory) vs time curve which represents the risk to the facility. Using the concept of gram-days (normalized to one year) allows the use of an accounting scheme to control the risk under the inventory vs time curve. The methodology results in at least three OSR limits: (1) control of the maximum inventory or source term, (2) control of the maximum gram-days for the period based on a source term weighted average, and (3) control of the maximum gram-days at the individual source term levels. Basing OSR limits on risk based safety analysis is feasible, and a basis for development of risk based limits is defensible. However, monitoring inventories and the frequencies required to maintain facility operation within the safety envelope may be complex and time consuming

  15. Safety risk management of underground engineering in China: Progress, challenges and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihu Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Underground construction in China is featured by large scale, high speed, long construction period, complex operation and frustrating situations regarding project safety. Various accidents have been reported from time to time, resulting in serious social impact and huge economic loss. This paper presents the main progress in the safety risk management of underground engineering in China over the last decade, i.e. (1 establishment of laws and regulations for safety risk management of underground engineering, (2 implementation of the safety risk management plan, (3 establishment of decision support system for risk management and early-warning based on information technology, and (4 strengthening the study on safety risk management, prediction and prevention. Based on the analysis of the typical accidents in China in the last decade, the new challenges in the safety risk management for underground engineering are identified as follows: (1 control of unsafe human behaviors; (2 technological innovation in safety risk management; and (3 design of safety risk management regulations. Finally, the strategies for safety risk management of underground engineering in China are proposed in six aspects, i.e. the safety risk management system and policy, law, administration, economy, education and technology.

  16. University building safety index measurement using risk and implementation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Arumsari, F.; Maryani, A.

    2018-04-01

    Many high rise building constructed in several universities in Indonesia. The high-rise building management must provide the safety planning and proper safety equipment in each part of the building. Unfortunately, most of the university in Indonesia have not been applying safety policy yet and less awareness on treating safety facilities. Several fire accidents in university showed that some significant risk should be managed by the building management. This research developed a framework for measuring the high rise building safety index in university The framework is not only assessed the risk magnitude but also designed modular building safety checklist for measuring the safety implementation level. The safety checklist has been developed for 8 types of the university rooms, i.e.: office, classroom, 4 type of laboratories, canteen, and library. University building safety index determined using risk-implementation matrix by measuring the risk magnitude and assessing the safety implementation level. Building Safety Index measurement has been applied in 4 high rise buildings in ITS Campus. The building assessment showed that the rectorate building in secure condition and chemical department building in beware condition. While the library and administration center building was in less secure condition.

  17. EFFICIENT QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JUMP PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic framework for efficient quantitative risk assessment from the simplest general risk, combining three parameters (contamination, exposure, and dose response) in a Kataoka safety-first model and a Poisson probability representing the uncertainty effect or jump processes associated with food safety. Analysis indicates that incorporating jump processes in food safety risk assessment provides more efficient cost/risk tradeoffs. Nevertheless, increased margin of safety...

  18. Toward risk assessment 2.0: Safety supervisory control and model-based hazard monitoring for risk-informed safety interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favarò, Francesca M.; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a staple in the engineering risk community, and it has become to some extent synonymous with the entire quantitative risk assessment undertaking. Limitations of PRA continue to occupy researchers, and workarounds are often proposed. After a brief review of this literature, we propose to address some of PRA's limitations by developing a novel framework and analytical tools for model-based system safety, or safety supervisory control, to guide safety interventions and support a dynamic approach to risk assessment and accident prevention. Our work shifts the emphasis from the pervading probabilistic mindset in risk assessment toward the notions of danger indices and hazard temporal contingency. The framework and tools here developed are grounded in Control Theory and make use of the state-space formalism in modeling dynamical systems. We show that the use of state variables enables the definition of metrics for accident escalation, termed hazard levels or danger indices, which measure the “proximity” of the system state to adverse events, and we illustrate the development of such indices. Monitoring of the hazard levels provides diagnostic information to support both on-line and off-line safety interventions. For example, we show how the application of the proposed tools to a rejected takeoff scenario provides new insight to support pilots’ go/no-go decisions. Furthermore, we augment the traditional state-space equations with a hazard equation and use the latter to estimate the times at which critical thresholds for the hazard level are (b)reached. This estimation process provides important prognostic information and produces a proxy for a time-to-accident metric or advance notice for an impending adverse event. The ability to estimate these two hazard coordinates, danger index and time-to-accident, offers many possibilities for informing system control strategies and improving accident prevention and risk mitigation

  19. Safety analysis and risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Colwell, R.G.; Dickey, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) provides guidance to the safety analyst at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in the preparation of safety analyses and risk assessments. Although the older guidance (the Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide) continues to be used for updating the Final Safety Analysis Reports developed in the mid-1980s, this new guidance is used with all new authorization basis documents. With the mission change at RFETS came the need to establish new authorization basis documents for its facilities, whose functions had changed. The methodology and databases for performing the evaluations that support the new authorization basis documents had to be standardized, to avoid the use of different approaches and/or databases for similar accidents in different facilities. This handbook presents this new standardized approach. The handbook begins with a discussion of the requirements of the different types of authorization basis documents and how to choose the one appropriate for the facility to be evaluated. It then walks the analyst through the process of identifying all the potential hazards in the facility, classifying them, and choosing the ones that need to be analyzed further. It then discusses the methods for evaluating accident initiation and progression and covers the basic steps in a safety analysis, including consequence and frequency binning and risk ranking. The handbook lays out standardized approaches for determining the source terms of the various accidents (including airborne release fractions, leakpath factors, etc.), the atmospheric dispersion factors appropriate for Rocky Flats, and the methods for radiological and chemical consequence assessments. The radiological assessments use a radiological open-quotes templateclose quotes, a spreadsheet that incorporates the standard values of parameters, whereas the chemical assessments use the standard codes ARCHIE and ALOHA

  20. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  1. Nuclear station safety standardization from a risk concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a method of standardizing safety-system reliability on an entirely new basis: all hypothetical accidents are approximated as groups, for each of which one proposes permissible frequencies on the basis of the risk concept. In this risk concept, the ''average person'' is a person living near a nuclear station or working in it, who is of average age, average state of health, and so on. Therefore, the risk can be found by summing the estimated individual risks for a particular group in the population followed by division by the number of people in that group. Basic assumptions in deriving permissible safety-system reliability are presented. Estimated permissible failure probabilities are given to illustrate the proposed method and to refine the initial data. The probabilities may also be used to lay down the reliability requirements for safety systems in particular nuclear stations on the risk basis

  2. Applications of nuclear safety probabilistic risk assessment to nuclear security for optimized risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, S.K.; Harvey, S.B. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Critical infrastructure assets such as nuclear power generating stations are potential targets for malevolent acts. Probabilistic methodologies can be applied to evaluate the real-time security risk based upon intelligence and threat levels. By employing this approach, the application of security forces and other protective measures can be optimized. Existing probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) methodologies and tools employed. in the nuclear industry can be adapted to security applications for this purpose. Existing PSA models can also be adapted and enhanced to consider total plant risk, due to nuclear safety risks as well as security risks. By creating a Probabilistic Security Model (PSM), safety and security practitioners can maximize the safety and security of the plant while minimizing the significant costs associated with security upgrades and security forces. (author)

  3. Internationalisation in Road Transport of Goods in Norway: Safety Outcomes, Risk Factors and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor-Olav Nævestad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU promotes a gradual lifting of restrictions on foreign hauliers involved in domestic road transport of goods (cabotage, and liberalization of the current road cabotage rules may further increase the proportion of foreign heavy goods vehicles (HGVs on Norwegian roads. The aims of the present study are to: (1 Examine the safety outcomes of increasing internationalisation in (Norwegian road transport of goods; and (2 Discuss the importance of potential risk factors related to increasing proportions of foreign HGVs on Norwegian roads. We use four data sources to shed light on the aims. Results show that foreign HGVs account for 6% of the average domestic transport in Norway, and 11% of the HGVs involved in personal injury accidents. Additionally, foreign HGVs have a three times higher risk of single vehicle accidents, and twice the risk of head-on collisions. Foreign HGV drivers also seem more likely to trigger fatal accidents. We conclude that two risk factors seem to be important: (1 experience with/competence on Norwegian roads and (2 winter driving. Thus, the safety challenge is not that the drivers are foreign, but that they to some extent lack experience with, and competence on, the Norwegian road networks and the challenges that these roads may pose (e.g., narrow roads with high gradients, many curves, snow and ice. Previous research from other countries has also found that lacking experience with national road networks is an important risk factor. Given our results on risk factors, we may hypothesize that if foreign HGV drivers get more experience and education on Norwegian driving conditions, then increased internationalization could perhaps be of less concern in road safety. When discussing the higher accident risk and lower experience of foreign HGV drivers in Norway, it is important to note that the reason for foreign HGV drivers, working for foreign hauliers, to drive in Norway is that there are customers of the

  4. Safety control and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable probability of major accidents in nuclear power is very small, and can not be determined from direct empirical evidence. Therefore, control of the level of safety is a complex problem. The difficulty is related to the fact that a variable, 'safety', which is not accessible to direct measurement, is to be tightly controlled. Control, therefore, depends on a systematic, analytical prediction of the target state, i.e., the level of safety, from indirect evidence. From a control theoretic point of view this means that safety is controlled by a system which includes openloop as well as closed loop control paths. The aim of the paper is to take a general systems view on the complex mechanisms involved in the control of safety of industrial installations like nuclear power. From this, the role of probabilistic risk analysis is evaluated and needs for further development discussed. (author)

  5. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Stian [Section for Control Systems, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Stian.Ruud@dnv.com; Mikkelsen, Age [Section for Lifting Appliances, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Age.Mikkelsen@dnv.com

    2008-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented.

  6. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Stian; Mikkelsen, Age

    2008-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented

  7. Tolerability of risk, safety assessment principles and their implications for probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.J.F.; Campbell, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper gives a regulatory view of probabilistic safety assessment as seen by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and in the light of the general regulatory risk aims set out in the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) The tolerability of risk from nuclear power stations (TOR) and in Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants (SAPs), prepared by NII on behalf of the HSE. Both of these publications were revised and republished in 1992. This paper describes the SAPs, together with the historical background, the motivation for review, the effects of the Sizewell and Hinkley Point C public inquiries, changes since the original versions, comparison with international standards and use in assessment. For new plant, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is seen as an essential tool in balancing the safety of the design and in demonstrating compliance with TOR and the SAPs. (Author)

  8. [Post-marketing drug safety-risk management plan(RMP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Asami; Hori, Akiko

    2013-03-01

    The Guidance for Risk Management Plan(RMP)was released by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in April 2012. The RMP consists of safety specifications, pharmacovigilance plans and risk minimization action plans. In this paper, we outline post-marketing drug safety operations in PMDA and the RMP, with examples of some anticancer drugs.

  9. Risk, fear and public safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1981-04-01

    Part 1 of the paper advocates a rational approach to public safety based on unbiassed quantitative assessment of overall risks and benefits of any technological activity. It shows that improved safety should be attainable at less cost than is the case at present. Part 2 offers an explanation of why so little has been achieved in this direction and outlines the major errors in present practices. Part 3 suggests what might realistically be done towards the achievement of some of the possible benefits. Factors which are important in the study of safety and evidence supporting the arguments are discussed in six appendices. It is urged that the scientific and technological community should improve its understanding of safety as a specialization and should endeavour to lead rather than follow in our present political system

  10. Categorization of reactor safety issues from a risk perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to identify and rank reactor safety and risk issues identified from past Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and other safety analyses. Because of the varied scope of these analyses, the list of issues may be incomplete. Nevertheless, those studies comprised ordered analyses to whatever their respective depths; hence, they warranted scrutiny for whatever insights they could reveal with respect to issue importance. The top-ranked issues in terms of their contribution to the uncertainty in risk are described in some detail. All of these risk issues are compared to the generic safety issues for completeness and omissions

  11. Overview of Risk Mitigation for Safety-Critical Computer-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a high-level overview of a general strategy to mitigate the risks from threats to safety-critical computer-based systems. In this context, a safety threat is a process or phenomenon that can cause operational safety hazards in the form of computational system failures. This report is intended to provide insight into the safety-risk mitigation problem and the characteristics of potential solutions. The limitations of the general risk mitigation strategy are discussed and some options to overcome these limitations are provided. This work is part of an ongoing effort to enable well-founded assurance of safety-related properties of complex safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems by developing an effective capability to model and reason about the safety implications of system requirements and design.

  12. Risk based maintenance to increase safety and decrease costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Risk-Based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants for the last eight years by a team working through the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD). System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the Probabilistic Risk Analysis or Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed to meet the Individual Plant Evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for the Maintenance Rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low risk-significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. Pilot studies on risk-based testing indicate that about 60% of pumps and 25 to 30% of valves in plants are high safety-significant The reduction in inspection and testing reduces the person-rem exposure and resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publications by the ASME CRTD which are referenced. (author)

  13. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  14. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components

  15. Safety Goal, Multi-unit Risk and PSA Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon-Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The safety goal is an answer of each country to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'. Table 1 shows some examples of the safety goal. However, many countries including Korea do not have the official safety goal for NPPs up to now since the establishment of safety goal is not just a technical issue but a very complex socio-technical issue. In establishing the safety goal for nuclear facilities, we have to consider various factors including not only technical aspects but also social, cultural ones. Recently, Korea is trying to establish the official safety goal. In this paper, we will review the relationship between the safety goal and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). We will also address some important technical issues to be considered in establishing the safety goal for NPPs from PSA point of view, i.e. a multi-unit risk issue and the uncertainty of PSA. In this paper, we reviewed some issues related to the safety goal and PSA. We believe that the safety goal is to be established in Korea considering the multi-unit risk. In addition, the relationship between the safety goal and PSA should be also defined clearly since PSA is the only way to answer to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'.

  16. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  17. Risk and safety in the nuclear industry and conventional norms of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1977-01-01

    The societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters (e. g., expected benefit, intensity of effect) are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP (as low as practiable) levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities

  18. Applications of probabilistic risk analysis in nuclear criticality safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Many documents have been prepared that try to define the scope of the criticality analysis and that suggest adding probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to the deterministic safety analysis. The report of the US Department of Energy (DOE) AL 5481.1B suggested that an accident is credible if the occurrence probability is >1 x 10 -6 /yr. The draft DOE 5480 safety analysis report suggested that safety analyses should include the application of methods such as deterministic safety analysis, risk assessment, reliability engineering, common-cause failure analysis, human reliability analysis, and human factor safety analysis techniques. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) report NRC SG830.110 suggested that major safety analysis methods should include but not be limited to risk assessment, reliability engineering, and human factor safety analysis. All of these suggestions have recommended including PRA in the traditional criticality analysis

  19. Safety vs. reputation: risk controversies in emerging policy networks regarding school safety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, J.; Kingma, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with risk controversies in emerging policy networks regarding school safety in the Netherlands. It offers a grounded account of the interpretations of school risks and safety measures by the various stakeholders of the policy network, in particular, schools, local government and

  20. Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

  1. Living with risk: a management question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, Ben J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Public authorities started to be really involved in risk management of hazardous materials some 30 years ago. Recent developments have led to fresh attention for this matter and many further developments are underway. The history of risk management and safety regulation is one of strongly variable interest, forgotten lessons and rude awakenings. The impetus exerted by accidents is short lived. Safety cases become documents to satisfy regulation rather than instruments to reduce risk. Deregulation, privatisation, and outsourcing pose new challenges to safety and risk management. Some of the unfortunate side effects have already become apparent. This invariably leads to the next disaster, which will have a striking resemblance to the previous one when abstracted from the immediate technological context. Lessons can be learned if we really want. The question remains: 'Do we?'

  2. Risk measures in living probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Niemelae, I.

    1993-05-01

    The main objectives of the study are: to define risk measures and suggested uses of them in various living PSA applications for the operational safety management and to describe specific model features required for living PSA applications. The report is based on three case studies performed within the Nordic research project Safety Evaluation by Use of Living PSA and Safety Indicators. (48 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.)

  3. Risk-informed, performance-based safety-security interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowca, B.; Eltawila, F.

    2012-01-01

    Safety-security interface is a term that is used as part of the commercial nuclear power security framework to promote coordination of the many potentially adverse interactions between plant security and plant safety. Its object is to prevent the compromise of either. It is also used to describe the concept of building security into a plant's design similar to the long standing practices used for safety therefore reducing the complexity of the operational security while maintaining or enhancing overall security. With this in mind, the concept of safety-security interface, when fully implemented, can influence a plant's design, operation and maintenance. It brings the approach use for plant security to one that is similar to that used for safety. Also, as with safety, the application of risk-informed techniques to fully implement and integrate safety and security is important. Just as designers and operators have applied these techniques to enhance and focus safety, these same techniques can be applied to security to not only enhance and focus the security but also to aid in the implementation of effective techniques to address the safety-security interfaces. Implementing this safety-security concept early within the design process can prevent or reduce security vulnerabilities through low cost solutions that often become difficult and expensive to retrofit later in the design and/or post construction period. These security considerations address many of the same issues as safety in ensuring that the response of equipment and plant personnel are adequate. That is, both safety and security are focused on reaching safe shutdown and preventing radiological release. However, the initiation of challenges and the progression of actions in response these challenges and even the definitions of safe shutdown can be considerably different. This paper explores the techniques and limitations that are employed to fully implement a risk-informed, safety-security interface

  4. Safety in relation to risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1985-01-01

    The proper definition and quantification of human safety is discussed and from this basis the historical development of our present very high standard of safety is traced. It is shown that increased safety is closely associated with increased wealth, and the quantitative relationship between then is derived from different sources of evidence. When this factor is applied to the production of wealth by industry, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the asserted risks by orders of magnitude. It is concluded that present policies and attitudes in respect to the safety of industry may be diametrically wrong. (orig.) [de

  5. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  6. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  7. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  8. Comparison of Country Risk, Sustainability and Economic Safety Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankeviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Country Risk Index, European Economic Sustainability Index as well as for Economic Security Index were made and the results of EU country ranking based on three criteria were provided. Furthermore, the data for the Baltic States was summarised and the corresponding index of consistency for random judgments was evaluated.

  9. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators' gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years. Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1 the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2 that the responsible government agencies in Australia support

  10. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of risk assessment and safety analysis in integrated safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niall, R.; Hunt, M.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    To ensure that the design and operation of both nuclear and non- nuclear hazardous facilities is acceptable, and meets all societal safety expectations, a rigorous deterministic and probabilistic assessment is necessary. An approach is introduced, founded on the concept of an ''Integrated Safety Assessment.'' It merges the commonly performed safety and risk analyses and uses them in concert to provide decision makers with the necessary depth of understanding to achieve ''adequacy.'' 3 refs., 1 fig

  12. Risk and safety in the nuclear industry and conventional norms of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    In the present study the societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce the radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities. It is also shown that the incremental safety investments needed to further reduce the radiation doses in the environment during normal and continuous operation of nuclear plants are extravagantly high as compared to safety investments in other human activities and in other facets of human life. Considering that there is a limit to the economic means available, societal expenditures for reducing risks should by spread, as much as possible, over all human activities to get the maximum return from investments. (B.G.)

  13. Tiered guidance for risk-informed environmental health and safety testing of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Zachary A.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Poda, Aimee R.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Moser, Robert D.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Harmon, Ashley; Plourde, Kenton; Haines, Christopher D.; Steevens, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Provided the rapid emergence of novel technologies containing engineered nanomaterials, there is a need to better understand the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanotechnologies before wide-scale deployment. However, the unique properties of nanomaterials and uncertainty regarding applicable test methods have led to a lack of consensus regarding the collection and evaluation of data related to hazard and exposure potentials. Often, overly conservative approaches to characterization and data collection result in prolonged, unfocused, or irrelevant testing, which increases costs and delays deployment. In this paper, we provide a novel testing guidance framework for determining whether a nanotechnology has the potential to release material with nano-specific parameters that pose a risk to humans or the environment. The framework considers methods to categorize nanotechnologies by their structure and within their relevant-use scenarios to inform testing in a time- and resource-limited reality. Based on the precedent of dredged sediment testing, a five-tiered approach is proposed in which opportunities are presented to conclude testing once sufficient risk-related information has been collected, or that the technology in question does not require nano-specific scrutiny. A series of screening stages are suggested, covering relevant aspects including size, surface area, distribution, unique behaviors, and release potential. The tiered, adaptive guidance approach allows users to concentrate on collecting the most relevant data, thus accelerating technology deployment while minimizing risk

  14. 77 FR 50593 - Safety Zone; Seafood Festival Fireworks Display, Marquette, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Seafood Festival Fireworks Display, Marquette, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... the Annual Marquette Seafood Festival. The Captain of the Port, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, has determined that the Marquette Seafood Festival Fireworks Display will pose significant risks to the public...

  15. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Nam; Szilard, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system's 'loading' and its 'capacity', plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons

  16. Demonstration of Risk Profiling for promoting safety in SME´s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the risks and potential risks that may lead to accidents. It aims to look at how to improve risk assessment within SMEs for the benefit of all staff. Design/methodology/approach – The research included results from a Dutch project which...... identifies accident risks and safety barriers that are presented in a huge database and risk calculator. The method was first to develop a simple way of accessing this enormous amount of data, second, to develop a tool to observe risks and safety barriers in SMEs and to investigate the usefulness...... of the developed tools in real life, third, to collect data on risks and safety barriers in SMEs for two occupations by following 20 people for three days each and to create a risk profile for each occupations. Findings – The result is a simple way to go through all types of risks for accidents – a tool for risk...

  17. Atomic risk insurance. Risk policy, safety production and expertise in Germany and the USA 1945 - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the following chapters: (I) Between threat and promise: Political change and the corporate perception, the burden of the atomic bomb, promise of nuclear energy risk criticism in the pre-ecological phase, nuclear risk as investment restraint; (II) Risk policy at the insurability limit: hazard knowledge, safety production and insurance expertise in the German nuclear policy (1955-1962); (III) Risk policy beyond the catastrophe, insurability interpretation, concepts and conflicts (1957-1968); (IV) Scandalization of risk policy: safety production, confidence and expertise in the nuclear controversial debate (1969 - 1979); (V) Nuclear risk policy and the challenge of the ''risk society'' (1975-1986); (VI) From safety production to hazard probe: atomic energy And the change of insurance.

  18. RiskSOAP: Introducing and applying a methodology of risk self-awareness in road tunnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-05-01

    Complex socio-technical systems, such as road tunnels, can be designed and developed with more or less elements that can either positively or negatively affect the capability of their agents to recognise imminent threats or vulnerabilities that possibly lead to accidents. This capability is called risk Situation Awareness (SA) provision. Having as a motive the introduction of better tools for designing and developing systems that are self-aware of their vulnerabilities and react to prevent accidents and losses, this paper introduces the Risk Situation Awareness Provision (RiskSOAP) methodology to the field of road tunnel safety, as a means to measure this capability in this kind of systems. The main objective is to test the soundness and the applicability of RiskSOAP to infrastructure, which is advanced in terms of technology, human integration, and minimum number of safety requirements imposed by international bodies. RiskSOAP is applied to a specific road tunnel in Greece and the accompanying indicator is calculated twice, once for the tunnel design as defined by updated European safety standards and once for the 'as-is' tunnel composition, which complies with the necessary safety requirements, but calls for enhancing safety according to what EU and PIARC further suggest. The derived values indicate the extent to which each tunnel version is capable of comprehending its threats and vulnerabilities based on its elements. The former tunnel version seems to be more enhanced both in terms of it risk awareness capability and safety as well. Another interesting finding is that despite the advanced tunnel safety specifications, there is still room for enriching the safe design and maintenance of the road tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating risk management and safety culture in a framework for risk informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Operators and regulators of nuclear power plants agree on the importance of maintaining safety and controlling accident risks. Effective safety and risk management requires treatment of both technical and organizational components. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides tools for technical risk management. However, organizational factors are not treated in PRA, but are addressed using different approaches. To bring both components together, a framework of Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is needed. The objective tree structure of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a promising approach to combine both elements. Effective collaboration involving regulatory and industry groups is needed to accomplish the integration. (author)

  20. Proposal for the improvement of IRD safety culture based on risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, L.A.; Ferreira, P.R.R.; Silveira, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    The Safety Culture (SC) is a concept about the relationship of individuals and organizations towards the safety in a specific activity. Any organization that carries out activities with risks has a SC, even at minimum levels. People perceive different types of radiation risks in very different ways, therefore, to identify and to analysis of the possible radiation risks resulting from normal operation or accident conditions is an important issue in order to improve the SC in organization. The main is to present guidelines for the improvement of the safety culture in the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD through on risk-based approach. The methodology proposed here is: A) select a division of the IRD for case study; B) assess the level of the 10 culture safety basic elements of the IRD division selected; C) conduct a survey of the hazards and risks associated with the various activities developed by the division; D) reassess the level of the 10 basic elements of CS; And E) analyze the results and correlate the impact of risk knowledge on safety culture improvement. The expected result is improvement the safety and of safety culture by understanding of radiation risks and hazards relating to work and to the working environment; and thus enforce a collective commitment to safety by teams and individuals and raise the safety culture to higher levels. (author)

  1. Proposal for the improvement of IRD safety culture based on risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L.A.; Ferreira, P.R.R. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (DIRAD/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silveira, C.S., E-mail: laguiar@ird.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DRS/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Safety Culture (SC) is a concept about the relationship of individuals and organizations towards the safety in a specific activity. Any organization that carries out activities with risks has a SC, even at minimum levels. People perceive different types of radiation risks in very different ways, therefore, to identify and to analysis of the possible radiation risks resulting from normal operation or accident conditions is an important issue in order to improve the SC in organization. The main is to present guidelines for the improvement of the safety culture in the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD through on risk-based approach. The methodology proposed here is: A) select a division of the IRD for case study; B) assess the level of the 10 culture safety basic elements of the IRD division selected; C) conduct a survey of the hazards and risks associated with the various activities developed by the division; D) reassess the level of the 10 basic elements of CS; And E) analyze the results and correlate the impact of risk knowledge on safety culture improvement. The expected result is improvement the safety and of safety culture by understanding of radiation risks and hazards relating to work and to the working environment; and thus enforce a collective commitment to safety by teams and individuals and raise the safety culture to higher levels. (author)

  2. Discussion on the safety production risk managmeent of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Luo Yun; Hu Penghua; Zhu Disi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the modern safety risk management theories and according to the actual situation, risk management for work safety in uranium mines is discussed from three aspects: risk identification,risk analysis and evaluation, and risk control. Referring to the '4M(Men,Machine,Medium,Management) factors' and 'Three types of hazards' theory, the classification of uranium mine accidents and risk factors are analyzed. In addition, the types and evaluation indexes of major risks of uranium mines as well as the 'spot, line, area' model of risk identification and analysis and the 'hierarchical' risk control mechanism are also studied. (authors)

  3. Therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient: safety planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Wortzel, Hal S

    2014-05-01

    This column is the fourth in a series describing a model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. Previous columns presented an overview of the therapeutic risk management model, provided recommendations for how to augment risk assessment using structured assessments, and discussed the importance of risk stratification in terms of both severity and temporality. This final column in the series discusses the safety planning intervention as a critical component of therapeutic risk management of suicide risk. We first present concerns related to the relatively common practice of using no-suicide contracts to manage risk. We then present the safety planning intervention as an alternative approach and provide recommendations for how to use this innovative strategy to therapeutically mitigate risk in the suicidal patient.

  4. Risk assessment of safety data link and network communication in digital safety feature control system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Kwang Seop; Jung, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety data communication risk assessment framework and quantitative scheme were proposed. • Fault-tree model of ESFAS unavailability due to safety data communication failure was developed. • Safety data link and network risk were assessed based on various ESF-CCS design specifications. • The effect of fault-tolerant algorithm reliability of safety data network on ESFAS unavailability was assessed. - Abstract: As one of the safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs), the Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) employs safety data link and network communication for the transmission of safety component actuation signals from the group controllers to loop controllers to effectively accommodate various safety-critical field controllers. Since data communication failure risk in the ESF-CCS has yet to be fully quantified, the ESF-CCS employing data communication systems have not been applied in NPPs. This study therefore developed a fault tree model to assess the data link and data network failure-induced unavailability of a system function used to generate an automated control signal for accident mitigation equipment. The current aim is to provide risk information regarding data communication failure in a digital safety feature control system in consideration of interconnection between controllers and the fault-tolerant algorithm implemented in the target system. Based on the developed fault tree model, case studies were performed to quantitatively assess the unavailability of ESF-CCS signal generation due to data link and network failure and its risk effect on safety signal generation failure. This study is expected to provide insight into the risk assessment of safety-critical data communication in a digitalized NPP instrumentation and control system.

  5. Nuclear safety risk control in the outage of CANDU unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingliang; Zheng Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fuel remains in the core during the outage of CANDU unit, but there are still nuclear safety risks such as reactor accidental criticality, fuel element failure due to inability to properly remove residual heat. Furthermore, these risks are aggravated by the weakening plant system configuration and multiple cross operations during the outage. This paper analyzes the phases where there are potential nuclear safety risks on the basis of the typical critical path arrangement of the outage of Qinshan NPP 3 and introduces a series of CANDU-specific risk control measures taken during the past plant outages to ensure nuclear safety during the unit outage. (authors)

  6. Occupational safety and health management and risk governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, A.; Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in new technologies, substances and new ways of working make it necessary to look beyond traditional methods of risk management. General drivers to emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) risks are: globalisation; demographic changes; technical innovations; changes in risk

  7. Understanding Risk Tolerance and Building an Effective Safety Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, David

    2018-01-01

    Estimates range from 65-90 percent of catastrophic mishaps are due to human error. NASA's human factors-related mishaps causes are estimated at approximately 75 percent. As much as we'd like to error-proof our work environment, even the most automated and complex technical endeavors require human interaction... and are vulnerable to human frailty. Industry and government are focusing not only on human factors integration into hazardous work environments, but also looking for practical approaches to cultivating a strong Safety Culture that diminishes risk. Industry and government organizations have recognized the value of monitoring leading indicators to identify potential risk vulnerabilities. NASA has adapted this approach to assess risk controls associated with hazardous, critical, and complex facilities. NASA's facility risk assessments integrate commercial loss control, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Process Safety, API (American Petroleum Institute) Performance Indicator Standard, and NASA Operational Readiness Inspection concepts to identify risk control vulnerabilities.

  8. Estimating and controlling workplace risk: an approach for occupational hygiene and safety professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffel, Michael W; Birkner, Lawrence R

    2002-07-01

    The protection of people and physical assets is the objective of health and safety professionals and is accomplished through the paradigm of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of risks in the occupational environment. Risk assessment concepts are not only used by health and safety professionals, but also by business and financial planners. Since meeting health and safety objectives requires financial resources provided by business and governmental managers, the hypothesis addressed here is that health and safety risk decisions should be made with probabilistic processes used in financial decision-making and which are familiar and recognizable to business and government planners and managers. This article develops the processes and demonstrates the use of incident probabilities, historic outcome information, and incremental impact analysis to estimate risk of multiple alternatives in the chemical process industry. It also analyzes how the ethical aspects of decision-making can be addressed in formulating health and safety risk management plans. It is concluded that certain, easily understood, and applied probabilistic risk assessment methods used by business and government to assess financial and outcome risk have applicability to improving workplace health and safety in three ways: 1) by linking the business and health and safety risk assessment processes to securing resources, 2) by providing an additional set of tools for health and safety risk assessment, and 3) by requiring the risk assessor to consider multiple risk management alternatives.

  9. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  10. Using the Job Demands-Resources model to investigate risk perception, safety climate and job satisfaction in safety critical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Mearns, Kathryn; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Eid, Jarle

    2011-10-01

    Using the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the relationship between risk perception as a job demand and psychological safety climate as a job resource with regard to job satisfaction in safety critical organizations. In line with the JD-R model, it was hypothesized that high levels of risk perception is related to low job satisfaction and that a positive perception of safety climate is related to high job satisfaction. In addition, it was hypothesized that safety climate moderates the relationship between risk perception and job satisfaction. Using a sample of Norwegian offshore workers (N = 986), all three hypotheses were supported. In summary, workers who perceived high levels of risk reported lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas this effect diminished when workers perceived their safety climate as positive. Follow-up analyses revealed that this interaction was dependent on the type of risks in question. The results of this study supports the JD-R model, and provides further evidence for relationships between safety-related concepts and work-related outcomes indicating that organizations should not only develop and implement sound safety procedures to reduce the effects of risks and hazards on workers, but can also enhance other areas of organizational life through a focus on safety. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  11. Are classical process safety concepts relevant to nanotechnology applications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyotte, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The answer to the question posed by the title of this paper is yes - with adaptation to the specific hazards and challenges found in the field of nanotechnology. The validity of this affirmative response is demonstrated by relating key process safety concepts to various aspects of the nanotechnology industry in which these concepts are either already practised or could be further applied. This is accomplished by drawing on the current author's experience in process safety practice and education as well as a review of the relevant literature on the safety of nanomaterials and their production. The process safety concepts selected for analysis include: (i) risk management, (ii) inherently safer design, (iii) human error and human factors, (iv) safety management systems, and (v) safety culture.

  12. Risk management for industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novogno, A.

    1989-01-01

    The catastrophic accidents which have occurred in the last decade, in both developed and developing countries, have drawn the attention of decision-makers in the safety area to the urgent necessity to assess and manage risks from hazardous industrial activities which are concentrated in large industrialized areas. The aim of this paper is to review experience gained in conducting studies in the area of 'comparisons of risks in energy systems' and on the practical application of 'cost effectiveness of risk reduction analysis among different energy systems' (case studies). It is also the aim of the paper to discuss and propose a general framework for defining an 'integrated approach' to risk assessment and management in highly industrialized regions within a country. (author)

  13. Physicians' and nurses' perceptions of patient safety risks in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källberg, Ann-Sofie; Ehrenberg, Anna; Florin, Jan; Östergren, Jan; Göransson, Katarina E

    2017-07-01

    The emergency department has been described as a high-risk area for errors. It is also known that working conditions such as a high workload and shortage off staff in the healthcare field are common factors that negatively affect patient safety. A limited amount of research has been conducted with regard to patient safety in Swedish emergency departments. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge about clinicians' perceptions of patient safety risks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe emergency department clinicians' experiences with regard to patient safety risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 physicians and 10 registered nurses from two emergency departments. Interviews were analysed by inductive content analysis. The experiences reflect the complexities involved in the daily operation of a professional practice, and the perception of risks due to a high workload, lack of control, communication and organizational failures. The results reflect a complex system in which high workload was perceived as a risk for patient safety and that, in a combination with other risks, was thought to further jeopardize patient safety. Emergency department staff should be involved in the development of patient safety procedures in order to increase knowledge regarding risk factors as well as identify strategies which can facilitate the maintenance of patient safety during periods in which the workload is high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: Addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2011-01-01

    North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars to make them more robust in accidents generally increases their weight thereby reducing their capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. This paper presents a generalized tank car safety design optimization model that addresses this tradeoff. The optimization model enables evaluation of each element of tank car safety design, independently and in combination with one another. We present the optimization model by identifying a set of Pareto-optimal solutions for a baseline tank car design in a bicriteria decision problem. This model provides a quantitative framework for a rational decision-making process involving tank car safety design enhancements to reduce the risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  15. Managing risk in healthcare: understanding your safety culture using the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianne

    2009-03-01

    To provide sufficient information about the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF) to allow healthcare professionals to assess its potential usefulness. The assessment of safety culture is an important aspect of risk management, and one in which there is increasing interest among healthcare organizations. Manchester Patient Safety Framework offers a theory-based framework for assessing safety culture, designed specifically for use in the NHS. The framework covers multiple dimensions of safety culture, and five levels of safety culture development. This allows the generation of a profile of an organization's safety culture in terms of areas of relative strength and challenge, which can be used to identify focus issues for change and improvement. Manchester Patient Safety Framework provides a useful method for engaging healthcare professionals in assessing and improving the safety culture in their organization, as part of a programme of risk management.

  16. A risk-informed perspective on deterministic safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the deterministic safety analysis (DSA) approach to nuclear safety is examined from a risk-informed perspective. One objective of safety analysis of a nuclear power plant is to demonstrate via analysis that the risks to the public from events or accidents that are within the design basis of the power plant are within acceptable levels with a high degree of assurance. This nuclear safety analysis objective can be translated into two requirements on the risk estimates of design basis events or accidents: the nominal risk estimate to the public must be shown to be within acceptable levels, and the uncertainty in the risk estimates must be shown to be small on an absolute or relative basis. The DSA approach combined with the defense-in-depth (DID) principle is a simplified safety analysis approach that attempts to achieve the above safety analysis objective in the face of potentially large uncertainties in the risk estimates of a nuclear power plant by treating the various uncertainty contributors using a stylized conservative binary (yes-no) approach, and applying multiple overlapping physical barriers and defense levels to protect against the release of radioactivity from the reactor. It is shown that by focusing on the consequence aspect of risk, the previous two nuclear safety analysis requirements on risk can be satisfied with the DSA-DID approach to nuclear safety. It is also shown the use of multiple overlapping physical barriers and defense levels in the traditional DSA-DID approach to nuclear safety is risk-informed in the sense that it provides a consistently high level of confidence in the validity of the safety analysis results for various design basis events or accidents with a wide range of frequency of occurrence. It is hoped that by providing a linkage between the consequence analysis approach in DSA with a risk-informed perspective, greater understanding of the limitation and capability of the DSA approach is obtained. (author)

  17. Theories of risk and safety: what is their relevance to nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Hannah

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to review key theories of risk and safety and their implications for nursing. The concept of of patient safety has only recently risen to prominence as an organising principle in healthcare. The paper considers the wider social context in which contemporary concepts of risk and safety have developed. In particular it looks at sociological debates about the rise of risk culture and the risk society and their influence on the patient safety movement. The paper discusses three bodies of theory which have attempted to explain the management of risk and safety in organisations: normal accident theory, high reliability theory, and grid-group cultural theory. It examine debates between these theories and their implications for healthcare. It discusses reasons for the dominance of high reliability theory in healthcare and its strengths and limitations. The paper suggest that high reliability theory has particular difficulties in explaining some aspects of organisational culture. It also suggest that the implementation of high reliability theory in healthcare has involved over reliance on numerical indicators. It suggests that patient safety could be improved by openness to a wider range of theoretical perspectives.

  18. What Butterfly Effect? The Contextual Differences in Public Perceptions of the Health Risk Posed by Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Stoutenborough

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most difficult aspects of persuading the public to support climate change policy is the lack of recognition that climate change will likely have a direct impact on an individual’s life. Anecdotal evidence and arguments within the media suggest that those who are skeptical of climate change are more likely to believe that the negative externalities associated with climate change will be experienced by others, and, therefore, are not a concern to that individual. This project examines public perceptions of the health risk posed by climate change. Using a large national public opinion survey of adults in the United States, respondents were asked to evaluate the health risk for themselves, their community, the United States, and the world. The results suggest that individuals evaluate the risk for each of these contexts differently. Statistical analyses are estimated to identify the determinants of each risk perception to identify their respective differences. The implications of these findings on support for climate change policy are discussed.

  19. Draft evidence report : traumatic brain injury and commercial motor vehicle driver safety (comprehensive review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    Purpose of this evidence report is to address several key questions posed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration : Key question 1: What is the impact of traumatic brain injury on crash risk/driving performance? Key question 2: What factor...

  20. Formal safety assessment based on relative risks model in ship navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Shenping [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: sphu@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Fang Quangen [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: qgfang@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Xia Haibo [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: hbxia@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Xi Yongtao [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: xiyt@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn

    2007-03-15

    Formal safety assessment (FSA) is a structured and systematic methodology aiming at enhancing maritime safety. It has been gradually and broadly used in the shipping industry nowadays around the world. On the basis of analysis and conclusion of FSA approach, this paper discusses quantitative risk assessment and generic risk model in FSA, especially frequency and severity criteria in ship navigation. Then it puts forward a new model based on relative risk assessment (MRRA). The model presents a risk-assessment approach based on fuzzy functions and takes five factors into account, including detailed information about accident characteristics. It has already been used for the assessment of pilotage safety in Shanghai harbor, China. Consequently, it can be proved that MRRA is a useful method to solve the problems in the risk assessment of ship navigation safety in practice.

  1. Formal safety assessment based on relative risks model in ship navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shenping; Fang Quangen; Xia Haibo; Xi Yongtao

    2007-01-01

    Formal safety assessment (FSA) is a structured and systematic methodology aiming at enhancing maritime safety. It has been gradually and broadly used in the shipping industry nowadays around the world. On the basis of analysis and conclusion of FSA approach, this paper discusses quantitative risk assessment and generic risk model in FSA, especially frequency and severity criteria in ship navigation. Then it puts forward a new model based on relative risk assessment (MRRA). The model presents a risk-assessment approach based on fuzzy functions and takes five factors into account, including detailed information about accident characteristics. It has already been used for the assessment of pilotage safety in Shanghai harbor, China. Consequently, it can be proved that MRRA is a useful method to solve the problems in the risk assessment of ship navigation safety in practice

  2. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An approach for risk informed safety culture assessment for Canadian nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important components of effective safety and risk management for nuclear power stations is a healthy safety culture. DNV has developed an approach for risk informed safety culture assessment that combines two complementary paradigms for safety and risk management: loss prevention - for preventing and intervening in accidents; and critical function management - for achieving safety and performance goals. Combining these two paradigms makes it possible to provide more robust systems for safety management and to support a healthy safety culture. This approach is being applied to safety culture assessment in partnership with a Canadian nuclear utility. (author)

  4. The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors' influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of consumer rights protection and the level of legal protection of consumer rights on the risk spread of food safety. This model contributes to the explicit investigation of the influence relationship among supply-demand factors, the regulation behavioral choice of government, the behavioral choice of food supply chain members and food safety risk spread. And this paper provides a new viewpoint for considering food safety risk spread in the food supply chain, which has a great reference for food safety management.

  5. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  6. Quantitative risk assessment of digitalized safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hym Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jun [UNIST, Ulasn (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A report published by the U.S. National Research Council indicates that appropriate methods for assessing reliability are key to establishing the acceptability of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in safety-critical plants such as NPPs. Since the release of this issue, the methodology for the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems has been studied. However, there is still no widely accepted method. Kang and Sung found three critical factors for safety assessment of digital systems: detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, software reliability quantification, and network communication risk. In reality the various factors composing digitalized I and C systems are not independent of each other but rather closely connected. Thus, from a macro point of view, a method that can integrate risk factors with different characteristics needs to be considered together with the micro approaches to address the challenges facing each factor.

  7. Research on Occupational Safety, Health Management and Risk Control Technology in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu-Jie; Cao, Qing-Gui; Yu, Kai; Wang, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2018-04-26

    This paper studies the occupational safety and health management methods as well as risk control technology associated with the coal mining industry, including daily management of occupational safety and health, identification and assessment of risks, early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks, etc.; also, a B/S mode software (Geting Coal Mine, Jining, Shandong, China), i.e., Coal Mine Occupational Safety and Health Management and Risk Control System, is developed to attain the aforementioned objectives, namely promoting the coal mine occupational safety and health management based on early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks. Furthermore, the practical effectiveness and the associated pattern for applying this software package to coal mining is analyzed. The study indicates that the presently developed coal mine occupational safety and health management and risk control technology and the associated software can support the occupational safety and health management efforts in coal mines in a standardized and effective manner. It can also control the accident risks scientifically and effectively; its effective implementation can further improve the coal mine occupational safety and health management mechanism, and further enhance the risk management approaches. Besides, its implementation indicates that the occupational safety and health management and risk control technology has been established based on a benign cycle involving dynamic feedback and scientific development, which can provide a reliable assurance to the safe operation of coal mines.

  8. Bayesian-network-based safety risk analysis in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Limao; Wu, Xianguo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J.; Zhong, Jingbing; Lu, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systemic decision support approach for safety risk analysis under uncertainty in tunnel construction. Fuzzy Bayesian Networks (FBN) is used to investigate causal relationships between tunnel-induced damage and its influential variables based upon the risk/hazard mechanism analysis. Aiming to overcome limitations on the current probability estimation, an expert confidence indicator is proposed to ensure the reliability of the surveyed data for fuzzy probability assessment of basic risk factors. A detailed fuzzy-based inference procedure is developed, which has a capacity of implementing deductive reasoning, sensitivity analysis and abductive reasoning. The “3σ criterion” is adopted to calculate the characteristic values of a triangular fuzzy number in the probability fuzzification process, and the α-weighted valuation method is adopted for defuzzification. The construction safety analysis progress is extended to the entire life cycle of risk-prone events, including the pre-accident, during-construction continuous and post-accident control. A typical hazard concerning the tunnel leakage in the construction of Wuhan Yangtze Metro Tunnel in China is presented as a case study, in order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and its application potential. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages between FBN and fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) as risk analysis tools is also conducted. The proposed approach can be used to provide guidelines for safety analysis and management in construction projects, and thus increase the likelihood of a successful project in a complex environment. - Highlights: • A systemic Bayesian network based approach for safety risk analysis is developed. • An expert confidence indicator for probability fuzzification is proposed. • Safety risk analysis progress is extended to entire life cycle of risk-prone events. • A typical

  9. The Concepts of Risk, Safety, and Security: Applications in Everyday Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max; Möller, Niklas; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2016-02-01

    The concepts of risk, safety, and security have received substantial academic interest. Several assumptions exist about their nature and relation. Besides academic use, the words risk, safety, and security are frequent in ordinary language, for example, in media reporting. In this article, we analyze the concepts of risk, safety, and security, and their relation, based on empirical observation of their actual everyday use. The "behavioral profiles" of the nouns risk, safety, and security and the adjectives risky, safe, and secure are coded and compared regarding lexical and grammatical contexts. The main findings are: (1) the three nouns risk, safety, and security, and the two adjectives safe and secure, have widespread use in different senses, which will make any attempt to define them in a single unified manner extremely difficult; (2) the relationship between the central risk terms is complex and only partially confirms the distinctions commonly made between the terms in specialized terminology; (3) whereas most attempts to define risk in specialized terminology have taken the term to have a quantitative meaning, nonquantitative meanings dominate in everyday language, and numerical meanings are rare; and (4) the three adjectives safe, secure, and risky are frequently used in comparative form. This speaks against interpretations that would take them as absolute, all-or-nothing concepts. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment of Health and Safety Approach JSA (Job Safety Analysis) in Plantation Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, Muchamad; Ragil Suryoputro, Muhammad; Tiya Novitasari, Adi

    2017-06-01

    Plantation company needed to identify hazard and perform risk assessment as an Identification of Hazard and Risk Assessment Crime and Safety which was approached by using JSA (Job Safety Analysis). The identification was aimed to identify the potential hazards that might be the risk of workplace accidents so that preventive action could be taken to minimize the accidents. The data was collected by direct observation to the workers concerned and the results were recorded on a Job Safety Analysis form. The data were as forklift operator, macerator worker, worker’s creeper, shredder worker, workers’ workshop, mechanical line worker, trolley cleaning workers and workers’ crepe decline. The result showed that shredder worker value was 30 and had the working level with extreme risk with the risk value range was above 20. So to minimize the accidents could provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) which were appropriate, information about health and safety, the company should have watched the activities of workers, and rewards for the workers who obey the rules that applied in the plantation.

  11. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to 'Power Poses'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body ( n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body ( n = 22), two expansive, high power poses ( n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses ( n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  12. Scenario-targeted toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in a soil posing unacceptable environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Etxebarria, J; Boatti, L; Marigómez, I

    2015-09-01

    Lanestosa is a chronically polluted site (derelict mine) where the soil (Lanestosa (LA) soil) exceeds screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe) for Zn, Pb and Cd. A scenario-targeted toxicity assessment was carried out on the basis of a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with selected test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates and with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. Besides, the toxicity profile was compared with that of the mine runoff (RO) soil and of a fresh artificially polluted soil (LAAPS) resembling LA soil pollutant profile. Extractability studies in LA soil revealed that Pb, Zn and Cd were highly available for exchange and/or release into the environment. Indeed, Pb and Zn were accumulated in earthworms and LA soil resulted to be toxic. Soil respiration, V. fischeri, vegetative and developmental cycles of D. discoideum and survival and juvenile production of E. fetida were severely affected. These results confirmed that LA soil had unacceptable environmental risk and demanded intervention. In contrast, although Pb and Zn concentrations in RO soil revealed also unacceptable risk, both metal extractability and toxicity were much lower than in LA soil. Thus, within the polluted site, the need for intervention varied between areas that posed dissimilar risk. Besides, since LAAPS, with a high exchangeable metal fraction, was the most toxic, ageing under in situ natural conditions seemingly contributed to attenuate LA soil risk. As a whole, combining multi-endpoint bioassays with scenario-targeted analysis (including leaching and ageing) provides reliable risk assessment in soils posing unacceptable environmental risk according to SVs, which is useful to optimise the required intervention measures.

  13. An alternative approach to risk rank chemicals on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Donnachie, Rachel L; Sumpter, John P; Jürgens, Monika D; Moeckel, Claudia; Pereira, M Gloria

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new and unbiased method of risk ranking chemicals based on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment. The study ranked 12 metals, 23 pesticides, 11 other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 13 pharmaceuticals, 10 surfactants and similar compounds and 2 nanoparticles (total of 71) of concern against one another by comparing their median UK river water and median ecotoxicity effect concentrations. To complement this, by giving an assessment on potential wildlife impacts, risk ranking was also carried out by comparing the lowest 10th percentile of the effects data with the highest 90th percentile of the exposure data. In other words, risk was pared down to just toxicity versus exposure. Further modifications included incorporating bioconcentration factors, using only recent water measurements and excluding either lethal or sub-lethal effects. The top ten chemicals, based on the medians, which emerged as having the highest risk to organisms in UK surface waters using all the ecotoxicity data were copper, aluminium, zinc, ethinylestradiol (EE2), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), triclosan, manganese, iron, methomyl and chlorpyrifos. By way of contrast, using current UK environmental quality standards as the comparator to median UK river water concentrations would have selected 6 different chemicals in the top ten. This approach revealed big differences in relative risk; for example, zinc presented a million times greater risk then metoprolol and LAS 550 times greater risk than nanosilver. With the exception of EE2, most pharmaceuticals were ranked as having a relatively low risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Adolescents, risk situations and road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Falcón, Carmen; Gil García, Eugenia; Romo Avilés, Nuria

    2010-09-01

    Describe the risk behaviour relationships with road safety in adolescents. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Madrid and Andalusia Regions, representative samples. The sample included 3,612 in secondary school pupils from Madrid (n=1708) and Andalusia (n=1904). The survey was carried out during May and June 2007. The data collected included sociodemographic areas (age, sex, grade, father's profession, birth place, etc.) and risk situation and behaviour (risk behaviour as driver or passenger). 16.2% of the adolescents have been involved in a dangerous situation with motorcycles during the last year. 16.7% never use a helmet when riding a motorcycle and 62% do not wear one when riding a bicycle on the road; 17.4% frequently ride a motorcycle over the speed limit and 24.5% when driving a car. There are significant differences regarding sex, grade and region (Madrid or Andalusia). There are four factors which explain 62% of the variance: drug factor, speed factor, security factor and passenger factor. Two of these have twice the probability of having a dangerous situation when riding a motorcycle: drug factor (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.77-2.18) and the speed factor ((OR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.92-2.36). Adolescents in higher grades and living in Andalusia were less road safety conscious. This pattern should be taken into account when designing preventive actions in Road Safety Education. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 65000 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... Use (ETASU) before CDER's Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee (DSaRM). The Agency plans...

  16. 78 FR 30929 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ...] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... (REMS) with elements to assure safe use (ETASU) before its Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory...

  17. Development of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There are four parts in the structure of RiskA. User input part lets users input the PSA model and some necessary data by GUI or model transformation tool. In calculation engine part, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, importance analysis and failure mode and effects analysis are supplied. User output part outputs the analysis results, user customized reports and some other data. The last part includes reliability database, some other common tools and help documents. • RiskA has several advanced features. Extensible framework makes it easy to add any new functions, making RiskA to be a large platform of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. It is very fast to analysis fault tree in RiskA because many advanced algorithm improvement were made. Many model formats can be imported and exported, which made the PSA model in the commercial software can be easily transformed to adapt RiskA platform. Web-based co-modeling let several users in different places work together whenever they are online. • The comparison between RiskA and other mature PSA codes (e.g. CAFTA, RiskSpectrum, XFTA) has demonstrated that the calculation and analysis of RiskA is correct and efficient. Based on the development of this code package, many applications of safety and reliability analysis of some research reactors and nuclear power plants were performed. The development of RiskA appears to be of realistic and potential value for academic research and practical operation safety management of nuclear power plants in China and abroad. - Abstract: PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) software, the indispensable tool in nuclear safety assessment, has been widely used. An integrated reliability and PSA program named RiskA has been developed by FDS Team. RiskA supplies several standard PSA modules including fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, failure mode and effect analysis and reliability

  18. Bridging the Divide between Safety and Risk Management for your Project or Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will bridge the divide between these separate but overlapping disciplines and help explain how to use Risk Management as an effective management decision support tool that includes safety. Risk Management is an over arching communication tool used by management to prioritize and effectively mitigate potential problems before they concur. Risk Management encompasses every kind of potential problem that can occur on a program or project. Some of these are safety issues such as hazards that have a specific likelihood and consequence that need to be controlled and included to show an integrated picture of accepted) mitigated, and residual risk. Integrating safety and other assurance disciplines is paramount to accurately representing a program s or projects risk posture. Risk is made up of several components such as technical) cost, schedule, or supportability. Safety should also be a consideration for every risk. The safety component can also have an impact on the technical, cost, and schedule aspect of a given risk. The current formats used for communication of safety and risk issues are not consistent or integrated. The presentation will explore the history of these disciplines, current work to integrate them, and suggestions for integration for the future.

  19. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Botha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.

  20. Model-Driven Development of Safety Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain

    2017-01-01

    We describe the use of model-driven development for safety assurance of a pioneering NASA flight operation involving a fleet of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) flying beyond visual line of sight. The central idea is to develop a safety architecture that provides the basis for risk assessment and visualization within a safety case, the formal justification of acceptable safety required by the aviation regulatory authority. A safety architecture is composed from a collection of bow tie diagrams (BTDs), a practical approach to manage safety risk by linking the identified hazards to the appropriate mitigation measures. The safety justification for a given unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operation can have many related BTDs. In practice, however, each BTD is independently developed, which poses challenges with respect to incremental development, maintaining consistency across different safety artifacts when changes occur, and in extracting and presenting stakeholder specific information relevant for decision making. We show how a safety architecture reconciles the various BTDs of a system, and, collectively, provide an overarching picture of system safety, by considering them as views of a unified model. We also show how it enables model-driven development of BTDs, replete with validations, transformations, and a range of views. Our approach, which we have implemented in our toolset, AdvoCATE, is illustrated with a running example drawn from a real UAS safety case. The models and some of the innovations described here were instrumental in successfully obtaining regulatory flight approval.

  1. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  2. Safety of light water reactors. Risks of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veser, Anke; Schlueter, Franz-Hermann; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Paesler-Sauer, Juergen; Kessler, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    The book on the safety of light-water reactors includes the following chapters: Part I: Physical and technical safety concept of actual German and future European light-water reactors: (1) Worldwide operated nuclear power plants in 2011, (2) Some reactor physical fundamentals. (3) Nuclear power plants in Germany. (4) Radioactive exposure due to nuclear power plants. (5) Safety concept of light-water reactors. (6) Probabilistic analyses and risk studies. (7) Design of light-water reactors against external incidents. (8) Risk comparison of nuclear power plants and other energy systems. (9) Evaluation of risk studies using the improved (new) safety concept for LWR. (19) The severe reactor accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Part II: Safety of German LWR in case of a postulated aircraft impact. (11) Literature. (12) Review of requirements and actual design. (13) Incident scenarios. (14) Load approach for aircraft impact. (15) Demonstration of the structural behavior in case of aircraft impact. (16) Special considerations. (17) Evaluation of the safety state of German and foreign nuclear power plants. Part III: ROSOS as example for a computer-based decision making support system for the severe accident management. (19) Literature. (20) Radiological fundamentals, accident management, modeling of the radiological situation. (21) The decision making support system RODOS. (22) RODOS and the Fukushima accident. (23) Recent developments in the radiological emergency management in the European frame.

  3. "You're dealing with an emotionally charged individual...": an industry perspective on the challenges posed by medical tourists' informal caregiver-companions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Victoria; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2013-07-26

    Patients engage in medical tourism when they privately obtain a medical care abroad. Previous research shows that many medical tourists travel abroad with friends and family members who provide support and assistance. Meanwhile, very little is known about this important stakeholder group, referred to here as caregiver-companions. In this article we examine the challenges that can be posed by caregiver-companions and the overall practice of informal caregiving in medical tourism from an industry perspective. Specifically, we report on the findings of interviews conducted with international patient coordinators (IPCs) who work at destination facilities. IPCs come into regular contact with caregiver-companions in their professional positions and thus are ideally suited to comment on trends they have observed among this stakeholder group as well as the challenges they can pose to medical tourists, health workers, and facilities. We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with 21 IPCs from 16 different facilities across nine countries. Topics probed in the interviews included caregiver-companion roles, IPCs' and others' interaction with caregiver-companions, and potential health and safety risks posed to medical tourists and caregiver-companions. Thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts was employed. Although most participants encouraged medical tourists to travel with a caregiver-companion, many challenges associated with caregiver-companions were identified. Three themes best characterize the challenges that emerged: (1) caregiver-companions require time, attention and resources; (2) caregiver-companions can disrupt the provision of quality care; and (3) caregiver-companions can be exposed to risks. IPCs pointed out that caregiver-companions may, for example, have a negative impact on the patient through cost of accompaniment or inadequate care provision. Caregiver-companions may also create unanticipated or extra work for IPCs, as additional clients and by

  4. 77 FR 75176 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... being rescheduled due to the postponement of the October 29-30, 2012, Drug Safety and Risk Management... Committee: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  5. Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminbakhsh, Saman; Gunduz, Murat; Sonmez, Rifat

    2013-09-01

    The inherent and unique risks on construction projects quite often present key challenges to contractors. Health and safety risks are among the most significant risks in construction projects since the construction industry is characterized by a relatively high injury and death rate compared to other industries. In construction project management, safety risk assessment is an important step toward identifying potential hazards and evaluating the risks associated with the hazards. Adequate prioritization of safety risks during risk assessment is crucial for planning, budgeting, and management of safety related risks. In this paper, a safety risk assessment framework is presented based on the theory of cost of safety (COS) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The main contribution of the proposed framework is that it presents a robust method for prioritization of safety risks in construction projects to create a rational budget and to set realistic goals without compromising safety. The framework provides a decision tool for the decision makers to determine the adequate accident/injury prevention investments while considering the funding limits. The proposed safety risk framework is illustrated using a real-life construction project and the advantages and limitations of the framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  7. Preparing Safety Cases for Operating Outside Prescriptive Fatigue Risk Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa; Mangie, Jim; Wu, Lora; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, Leigh; Phillips, Adrienne

    2017-07-01

    Transport operators seeking to operate outside prescriptive fatigue management regulations are typically required to present a safety case justifying how they will manage the associated risk. This paper details a method for constructing a successful safety case. The method includes four elements: 1) scope (prescriptive rules and operations affected); 2) risk assessment; 3) risk mitigation strategies; and 4) monitoring ongoing risk. A successful safety case illustrates this method. It enables landing pilots in 3-pilot crews to choose the second or third in-flight rest break, rather than the regulatory requirement to take the third break. Scope was defined using a month of scheduled flights that would be covered (N = 4151). These were analyzed in the risk assessment using existing literature on factors affecting fatigue to estimate the maximum time awake at top of descent and sleep opportunities in each break. Additionally, limited data collected before the new regulations showed that pilots flying at landing chose the third break on only 6% of flights. A prospective survey comparing subjective reports (N = 280) of sleep in the second vs. third break and fatigue and sleepiness ratings at top of descent confirmed that the third break is not consistently superior. The safety case also summarized established systems for fatigue monitoring, risk assessment and hazard identification, and multiple fatigue mitigation strategies that are in place. Other successful safety cases have used this method. The evidence required depends on the expected level of risk and should evolve as experience with fatigue risk management systems builds.Gander P, Mangie J, Wu L, van den Berg M, Signal L, Phillips A. Preparing safety cases for operating outside prescriptive fatigue risk management regulations. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):688-696.

  8. How to interpret safety critical failures in risk and reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvik, Jon Tømmerås; Signoret, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Management of safety systems often receives high attention due to the potential for industrial accidents. In risk and reliability literature concerning such systems, and particularly concerning safety-instrumented systems, one frequently comes across the term ‘safety critical failure’. It is a term associated with the term ‘critical failure’, and it is often deduced that a safety critical failure refers to a failure occurring in a safety critical system. Although this is correct in some situations, it is not matching with for example the mathematical definition given in ISO/TR 12489:2013 on reliability modeling, where a clear distinction is made between ‘safe failures’ and ‘dangerous failures’. In this article, we show that different interpretations of the term ‘safety critical failure’ exist, and there is room for misinterpretations and misunderstandings regarding risk and reliability assessments where failure information linked to safety systems are used, and which could influence decision-making. The article gives some examples from the oil and gas industry, showing different possible interpretations of the term. In particular we discuss the link between criticality and failure. The article points in general to the importance of adequate risk communication when using the term, and gives some clarification on interpretation in risk and reliability assessments.

  9. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  10. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  11. Impediments for the application of risk-informed decision making in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    2001-01-01

    A broad application of risk-informed decision making in the regulation of safety of nuclear power plants is hindered by the lack of quantitative risk and safety standards as well as of precise instruments to demonstrate an appropriate safety. An additional severe problem is associated with the difficulty to harmonize deterministic design requirements and probabilistic safety assessment. The problem is strengthened by the vulnerability of PSA for subjective influences and the potential of misuse. Beside this scepticism the nuclear community is encouraged to intensify the efforts to improve the quality standards for probabilistic safety assessments and their quality assurance. A prerequisite for reliable risk-informed decision making processes is also a well-defined and transparent relationship between deterministic and probabilistic safety approaches. (author)

  12. Aviation Risk and Safety Management : Methods and Applications in Aviation Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) decision to require aviation organizations to adopt Safety Management Systems poses a major problem especially for small and medium sized aviation companies. The complexity of regulations overstrains the aviation stakeholders who seek to fully advantage from them but have no clear guidance. The aim of the book is to show the implementation of such a new system with pragmatic effort in order to gain a gradation for smaller operators. This ...

  13. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H.; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002–0.21, Cd 0.03–0.25, Cr < 0.09–0.38, Cu 1.8–8.7, Ni < 0.23–0.62, Pb 0.05–1.56, and Zn 10–86. Generally, elemental concentrations in the crops do not reflect soil concentrations, nor exceed legal standards for Cd and Pb in food. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated from soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion. - Highlights: • We measured trace metal concentrations in urban soil and vegetables. • We calculated hazard quotients (HQs) to determine the human health risk. • Consumption of urban vegetables does not result in HQs exceeding unity. • Unintentional ingestion of contaminated soil causes a risk to the human health. - Consumption of vegetables grown in Copenhagen does not pose a risk to the human health, while unintentional ingestion of contaminated soil remains a risk factor with respect to lead

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, William E.; Blandford, Edward; Kim, Lance

    2009-01-01

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public

  16. Nuclear safety culture and integrated risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    A primary focus of nuclear safety is the prevention of large releases of radioactivity in the case of low-probability severe accidents. An analysis of the anatomy of nuclear (Chernobyl, Three Mile Island Unit 2) and nonnuclear (Challenger, Bhopal, Piper Alpha, etc.) severe accidents yields four broad categories of root causes: human (operating crew response), machine (design with its basic flaws), media (natural phenomena, operational considerations, political environment, commercial pressures, etc.)-providing triggering events, and management (basic organizational safety culture flaws). A strong management can minimize the contributions of humans, machines, and media to the risk arising from the operation of hazardous facilities. One way that management can have a powerful positive influence is through the establishment of a proper safety culture. The term safety culture is used as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Safety Advisory Group

  17. Risk allocation approach to reactor safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcek, O.; Temme, M.I.; Derby, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a risk allocation technique used for determining nuclear power plant design reliability requirements. The concept of risk allocation-optimum choice of safety function reliabilities under a maximum risk constraint - is described. An example of risk allocation is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology

  18. Managing the risks of legacy radioactive sources from a security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Mark; Murray, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The safety and security risk posed by highly radioactive, long-lived sources at the end of their normal use has not been consistently well-managed in previous decades. The Brazilian Cs-137 accident in 1986 and the Thailand Co-60 accident in 2000 are prime examples of the consequences that ensue from the loss of control of highly dangerous sources after their normal use. With the new international emphasis on security of radioactive sources throughout their life cycle, there is now further incentive to address the management of risks posed by legacy, highly dangerous radioactive sources. The ANSTO South-East Asia Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project has identified, and is addressing, a number of legacy situations that have arisen as a result of inadequate management practices in the past. Specific examples are provided of these legacy situations and the lessons learned for managing the consequent safety and security risk, and for future complete life-cycle management of highly radioactive sources. (author)

  19. Identification and risk assessment of unknown contaminants migrating from Food Contact Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieke, Eelco Nicolaas

    The exposure of humans to possibly thousands of chemical compounds through food poses a health risk that is questioning our ability to ensure high standards for food safety. Food contact materials (FCM) are a major source of extraneous chemical compounds in food, yet not much knowledge is available...... interpretations. Risk prioritization is successful in classifying estimated risk based on predicted exposure and predicted hazard, and is valuable for to preliminary RA studies. The overarching strategy in this study shows that explorative techniques are valuable tools to help ensure food safety in the future...

  20. Assessing Risk-Based Performance Indicators in Safety-Critical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    TONT Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes framework for a multidisciplinary nuclear risk and safety assessment by modeling uncertainty and combining diverse evidence provided in such a way that it could be used to represent an entire argument about a system's dependability. The identified safety issues are being treated by means of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The behavior simulation of power plant in thepresence of risk factors is analyzed from the vulnerability, risk and functional safety viewpoints, hi...

  1. Lead and Cadmium: Priorities for action from UNEP’s perspective for addressing risks posed by these two heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP has been focusing on actions with regard to lead and cadmium since 2001 when the work of the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV was initiated. The development and finalization of the reviews of scientific information on lead and cadmium facilitated discussions among Governments in relation to the need for global action with regard to these heavy metals. UNEP continues to address priority areas for focusing to reduce risks posed by lead and cadmium. The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint (GAELP is a clear example for addressing those risks; however more work is expected to be done in relation to these key issues.

  2. Safety risk assessment for vertical concrete formwork activities in civil engineering construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair G F; Gambatese, John A

    2014-01-01

    The construction sector has one of the worst occupational health and safety records in Europe. Of all construction tasks, formwork activities are associated with a high frequency of accidents and injuries. This paper presents an investigation of the activities and related safety risks present in vertical formwork for in-situ concrete construction in the civil engineering sector. Using the methodology of staticized groups, twelve activities and ten safety risks were identified and validated by experts. Every safety risk identified in this manner was quantified for each activity using binary methodology according to the frequency and severity scales developed in prior research. A panel of experts was selected according to the relevant literature on staticized groups. The results obtained show that the activities with the highest risk in vertical formwork tasks are: Plumbing and leveling of forms, cutting of material, handling materials with cranes, and climbing or descending ladders. The most dangerous health and safety risks detected were falls from height, cutting and overexertion. The research findings provide construction practitioners with further evidence of the hazardous activities associated with concrete formwork construction and a starting point for targeting worker health and safety programmes.

  3. How employees perceive risks and safety in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barny, M.-H.; Brenot, J.; Moreau, A.

    1992-01-01

    Employees of the French centre of Saclay have been interviewed twice in November 1984 and March 1987 about their risks at the workplace, their views on safety, their protective attitudes, and also about the Chernobyl accident in the second survey. Perceived risks are compared, safety measures and protection teams are judged, importance of the Chernobyl accident is appreciated. Differences in perception between the various professional groups are pointed out. The main results are briefly presented hereafter. (author)

  4. TWRS safety and technical integration risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety and Technical Integration (STI) programmatic risk management program are to assess, analyze, and handle risks associated with TWRS STI responsibilities and to communicate information about the actions being taken and the results to enable decision making. The objective of this TWRS STI Risk Management Plan is to communicate a consistent approach to risk management that will be used by the organization

  5. Assessment of Health, Safety and Environmental Risks of Zahedan City Gasoline Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Far

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and determine the health, safety and environmental status of fuel stations in Zahedan. In this study, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA method was used for risk assessment in accordance with the HSE guidelines, national and international standards and laws. In this cross-sectional study, 2 governmental stations and 6 active private stations were evaluated after the necessary coordination with the relevant units. As a result of risk assessment, 27 health risks, 55 safety risks and 22 environmental risks were identified. From among all the identified risks, 67 risks had a Risk Priority Number (RPN of less than 91, 31 risks had an RPN ranging between 91 and 201, and 6 risks had an RPN of over 201. The findings of the study indicated that compliance with the HSE requirements was 51.85%, in the area of health, 47.57% in the area of safety and 27.45% in the environmental area. Overall compliance with the HSE requirements was 42.54%. In order to distribute fuel considering health, reducing risk and increasing compliance with the requirements for safety improvement, health and environmental conditions of fuel supplies are essential.

  6. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  7. Discounting the value of safety: effects of perceived risk and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Taylor, Matthew A; Wirth, Oliver

    2013-09-01

    Although falls from heights remain the most prevalent cause of fatalities in the construction industry, factors impacting safety-related choices associated with work at heights are not completely understood. Better tools are needed to identify and study the factors influencing safety-related choices and decision making. Using a computer-based task within a behavioral economics paradigm, college students were presented a choice between two hypothetical scenarios that differed in working height and effort associated with retrieving and donning a safety harness. Participants were instructed to choose the scenario in which they were more likely to wear the safety harness. Based on choice patterns, switch points were identified, indicating when the perceived risk in both scenarios was equivalent. Switch points were a systematic function of working height and effort, and the quantified relation between perceived risk and effort was described well by a hyperbolic equation. Choice patterns revealed that the perceived risk of working at heights decreased as the effort to retrieve and don a safety harness increased. Results contribute to the development of computer-based procedure for assessing risk discounting within a behavioral economics framework. Such a procedure can be used as a research tool to study factors that influence safety-related decision making with a goal of informing more effective prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  9. Risk prediction, safety analysis and quantitative probability methods - a caveat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    Views are expressed on the use of quantitative techniques for the determination of value judgements in nuclear safety assessments, hazard evaluation, and risk prediction. Caution is urged when attempts are made to quantify value judgements in the field of nuclear safety. Criteria are given the meaningful application of reliability methods but doubts are expressed about their application to safety analysis, risk prediction and design guidances for experimental or prototype plant. Doubts are also expressed about some concomitant methods of population dose evaluation. The complexities of new designs of nuclear power plants make the problem of safety assessment more difficult but some possible approaches are suggested as alternatives to the quantitative techniques criticized. (U.K.)

  10. Telecommuting: Occupational health considerations for employee health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M L

    2000-06-01

    1. Information technology has moved "work" out of a centralized location. Employees who telecommute pose significant challenges and considerations for the practice of occupational health nursing. 2. Employer and employee benefits associated with telecommuting are reportedly associated with high levels of job satisfaction. However, the occupational health and safety risks of this new work environment need to be fully assessed and understood. 3. The ergonomic controls to minimize the risk of repetitive motion injuries are the same for both office and home locations. Additional attention need to be paid to implementing risk controls for other physical hazards and psychosocial considerations, as well as personal safety and security issues. 4. The scope of occupational health nursing practice needs to remain dynamic, recognizing the impact new technologies have on the workplace, to continue to meet the needs of the changing workplace.

  11. A model for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risikko, Tanja; Mäkinen, Tiina M; Påsche, Arvid; Toivonen, Liisa; Hassi, Juhani

    2003-05-01

    Cold conditions increase health and safety risks at work in several ways. The effects of cold have not been sufficiently taken into consideration in occupational safety and health practices. A systematic model and methods were developed for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces. The development work was performed, in a context-bound manner, in pilot industries and workplaces. The model can be integrated into the company's occupational health and safety management system, such as OHSAS 18001. The cold risks are identified and assessed by using a checklist. The preventive measures are systematically planned in a written form specifically produced for cold workplaces. It includes the organisational and technical preventive measures, protective clothing and personal protective equipment, as well as training and information of the personnel. According to the model, all the workers, foremen, occupational safety personnel and occupational health care personnel are trained to recognise the cold risks and to conduct preventive actions. The developed model was evaluated in the context of cold outdoor (construction) and indoor work (fish processing), and by occupational health and safety professionals. According to the feedback, the model and methods were easy to use after a one-day introduction session. The continuum between the cold risk assessment and management worked well, although there was some overlap in the documentation. The cold risk management model and its methods form an essential part of ISO CD 15743 Strategy for risk assessment, management and work practice in cold environments.

  12. Patient safety risk factors in minimally invasive surgery : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Ter Kuile, M.; Dankelman, J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to adapt and validate a patient safety (PS) framework for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as a first step in understanding the clinical relevance of various PS risk factors in MIS. Eight patient safety risk factor domains were identified using frameworks from a systems

  13. The role of color sorting machine in reducing food safety risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Kecskes-Nagy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is the very difficult problem how we can decrease food safety risks in the product, which was polluted in process of cropping. According to professional literature almost the prevention is considered as an exclusive method to keep below safe level the content of DON toxin. The source of food safety in food chain is that the primary products suit the food safety requirements. It is a very difficult or sometimes it is not possible to correct food safety risk factors - which got into the products during cultivation - in the course of processing. Such factor is fusariotoxin in fodder and bread wheat. DON toxin is the most frequent toxin in cereals. The objective of the searching was to investigate, if it is possible to decrease DON toxin content of durum wheat and to minimize the food safety risk by application milling technology with good production practice and technological conditions. The samples were taken in the first phase of milling technology just before and after color sorting. According to measuring results Sortex Z+ optical sorting decreased DON toxin content of wheat. This mean that the food safety risks can be reduced by Sortex Z+ optical sorting machine. Our experiments proved if there is color sorting in the cleaning process preceding the milling of wheat then a part of the grain of wheat infected by Fusarium sp. can be selected. This improves the food safety parameters of given lot of wheat and decrease the toxin content. The flour made from contaminated grains of wheat can be a serious food safety risk. We would like to support scientifically the technical development of milling technology with our experimental data. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  14. Safety Analysis (SA) of the decontamination facility, Building 419, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1980-01-01

    This safety analysis was performed for the Manager, Plant Services at LLNL and fulfills the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. The analysis was based on field inspections, document review, computer calculations, and extensive input from Waste Management personnel. It was concluded that the maximum quantities of radioactive materials that safety procedures allow to be handled in this building do not pose undue risks on- or off-site even in postulated severe accidents. Risk from the various hazards at this facility vary from low to moderate as specified in DOE Order 5481.1. Recommendations are made for improvements that will reduce risks even further

  15. Food, Risk and Politics: Scare, scandal and crisis - insights into the risk politics of food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Ed J.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about the risk politics of food safety. Food-related risks regularly grab the headlines in ways that threaten reasoned debate and obstruct sensible policy making. The author explains why this is the case. He goes on to make the case for a properly informed and fully open public debate about food safety issues. He argues that this is the true antidote to the politics of scare, scandal and crisis.\\ud \\ud The book skilfully weaves together the many different threads of food safety a...

  16. Using a quantitative risk register to promote learning from a patient safety reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, James G; Caplan, Robert A; Campos, John S; Dreis, David F; Furman, Cathie

    2015-02-01

    Patient safety reporting systems are now used in most health care delivery organizations. These systems, such as the one in use at Virginia Mason (Seattle) since 2002, can provide valuable reports of risk and harm from the front lines of patient care. In response to the challenge of how to quantify and prioritize safety opportunities, a risk register system was developed and implemented. Basic risk register concepts were refined to provide a systematic way to understand risks reported by staff. The risk register uses a comprehensive taxonomy of patient risk and algorithmically assigns each patient safety report to 1 of 27 risk categories in three major domains (Evaluation, Treatment, and Critical Interactions). For each category, a composite score was calculated on the basis of event rate, harm, and cost. The composite scores were used to identify the "top five" risk categories, and patient safety reports in these categories were analyzed in greater depth to find recurrent patterns of risk and associated opportunities for improvement. The top five categories of risk were easy to identify and had distinctive "profiles" of rate, harm, and cost. The ability to categorize and rank risks across multiple dimensions yielded insights not previously available. These results were shared with leadership and served as input for planning quality and safety initiatives. This approach provided actionable input for the strategic planning process, while at the same time strengthening the Virginia Mason culture of safety. The quantitative patient safety risk register serves as one solution to the challenge of extracting valuable safety lessons from large numbers of incident reports and could profitably be adopted by other organizations.

  17. Toward a Safety Risk-Based Classification of Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend of growing interest and demand for greater access of unmanned aircraft (UA) to the National Airspace System (NAS) as the ongoing development of UA technology has created the potential for significant economic benefits. However, the lack of a comprehensive and efficient UA regulatory framework has constrained the number and kinds of UA operations that can be performed. This report presents initial results of a study aimed at defining a safety-risk-based UA classification as a plausible basis for a regulatory framework for UA operating in the NAS. Much of the study up to this point has been at a conceptual high level. The report includes a survey of contextual topics, analysis of safety risk considerations, and initial recommendations for a risk-based approach to safe UA operations in the NAS. The next phase of the study will develop and leverage deeper clarity and insight into practical engineering and regulatory considerations for ensuring that UA operations have an acceptable level of safety.

  18. A risk informed safety classification for a Nordic NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenkaelae, K.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes a study to develop a safety classification proposal or classi- fication recommendations based on risks for selected equipment of a nuclear power plant. The application plant in this work is Loviisa NPP unit 1. The safety classification proposals are to be considered as an exercise in this pilot study and do not necessarily represent final proposals in a real situation. Comparisons to original safety classifications and technical specifications were made. The study concludes that it is possible to change safety classes or safety signifi- cances as considered in technical specifications and in in-service-inspections into both directions without endangering the safety or even by improving the safety. (au)

  19. Risk perception, risk management and safety assessment: what can governments do to increase public confidence in their vaccine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E; Smith, Jennifer; Appleton, Mary

    2012-09-01

    For decades vaccine program managers and governments have devoted many resources to addressing public vaccine concerns, vaccine risk perception, risk management and safety assessment. Despite ever growing evidence that vaccines are safe and effective, public concerns continue. Education and evidence based scientific messages have not ended concerns. How can governments and programs more effectively address the public's vaccine concerns and increase confidence in the vaccine safety system? Vaccination hesitation has been attributed to concerns about vaccine safety, perceptions of high vaccine risks and low disease risk and consequences. Even when the public believes vaccines are important for protection many still have concerns about vaccine safety. This overview explores how heuristics affect public perception of vaccines and vaccine safety, how the public finds and uses vaccine information, and then proposes strategies for changes in the approach to vaccine safety communications. Facts and evidence confirming the safety of vaccines are not enough. Vaccine beliefs and behaviours must be shaped. This will require a shift in the what, when, how and why of vaccine risk and benefit communication content and practice. A change to a behavioural change strategy such as the WHO COMBI program that has been applied to disease eradication efforts is suggested. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparison of integrated safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, Dennis R.; Mattern, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted a comparison of two standard tools for risk informing the regulatory process, namely, the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA). PRA is a calculation of risk metrics, such as Large Early Release Frequency (LERF), and has been used to assess the safety of all commercial power reactors. ISA is an analysis required for fuel cycle facilities (FCFs) licensed to possess potentially critical quantities of special nuclear material. A PRA is usually more detailed and uses more refined models and data than an ISA, in order to obtain reasonable quantitative estimates of risk. PRA is considered fully quantitative, while most ISAs are typically only partially quantitative. The extension of PRA methodology to augment or supplant ISAs in FCFs has long been considered. However, fuel cycle facilities have a wide variety of possible accident consequences, rather than a few surrogates like LERF or core damage as used for reactors. It has been noted that a fuel cycle PRA could be used to better focus attention on the most risk-significant structures, systems, components, and operator actions. ISA and PRA both identify accident sequences; however, their treatment is quite different. ISA's identify accidents that lead to high or intermediate consequences, as defined in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 70, and develop a set of Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS) to assure adherence to performance criteria. PRAs identify potential accident scenarios and estimate their frequency and consequences to obtain risk metrics. It is acceptable for ISAs to provide bounding evaluations of accident consequences and likelihoods in order to establish acceptable safety; but PRA applications usually require a reasonable quantitative estimate, and often obtain metrics of uncertainty. This paper provides the background, features, and methodology associated with the PRA and ISA. The differences between the

  1. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  2. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The art of problem posing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    1990-01-01

    Updated and expanded, this second edition satisfies the same philosophical objective as the first -- to show the importance of problem posing. Although interest in mathematical problem solving increased during the past decade, problem posing remained relatively ignored. The Art of Problem Posing draws attention to this equally important act and is the innovator in the field. Special features include: * an exploration ofthe logical relationship between problem posing and problem solving * a special chapter devoted to teaching problem posing as a separate course * sketches, drawings, diagrams, and cartoons that illustrate the schemes proposed * a special section on writing in mathematics.

  4. A preliminary approach to quantifying the overall environmental risks posed by development projects during environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Sam; Chadès, Iadine

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is used globally to manage the impacts of development projects on the environment, so there is an imperative to demonstrate that it can effectively identify risky projects. However, despite the widespread use of quantitative predictive risk models in areas such as toxicology, ecosystem modelling and water quality, the use of predictive risk tools to assess the overall expected environmental impacts of major construction and development proposals is comparatively rare. A risk-based approach has many potential advantages, including improved prediction and attribution of cause and effect; sensitivity analysis; continual learning; and optimal resource allocation. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to quantify the likelihood and consequence of non-compliance of new projects based on the occurrence probabilities of a set of expert-defined features. The BBN incorporates expert knowledge and continually improves its predictions based on new data as it is collected. We use simulation to explore the trade-off between the number of data points and the prediction accuracy of the BBN, and find that the BBN could predict risk with 90% accuracy using approximately 1000 data points. Although a further pilot test with real project data is required, our results suggest that a BBN is a promising method to monitor overall risks posed by development within an existing EIA process given a modest investment in data collection.

  5. Risk management for existing energy facilities. A global approach to numerical safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate-Cornell, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a structured set of numerical safety goals for risk management of existing energy facilities. The rationale behind these safety goals is based on principles of equity and economic efficiency. Some of the issues involved when using probabilistic risk analyses results for safety decisions are discussed. A brief review of existing safety targets and open-quotes floating numbersclose quotes is presented, and a set of safety goals for industrial risk management is proposed. Relaxation of these standards for existing facilities, the relevance of the lifetime of the plant, the treatment of uncertainties, and problems of failure dependencies are discussed briefly. 17 refs., 1 fig

  6. “You’re dealing with an emotionally charged individual…”: an industry perspective on the challenges posed by medical tourists’ informal caregiver-companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients engage in medical tourism when they privately obtain a medical care abroad. Previous research shows that many medical tourists travel abroad with friends and family members who provide support and assistance. Meanwhile, very little is known about this important stakeholder group, referred to here as caregiver-companions. In this article we examine the challenges that can be posed by caregiver-companions and the overall practice of informal caregiving in medical tourism from an industry perspective. Specifically, we report on the findings of interviews conducted with international patient coordinators (IPCs) who work at destination facilities. IPCs come into regular contact with caregiver-companions in their professional positions and thus are ideally suited to comment on trends they have observed among this stakeholder group as well as the challenges they can pose to medical tourists, health workers, and facilities. Methods We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with 21 IPCs from 16 different facilities across nine countries. Topics probed in the interviews included caregiver-companion roles, IPCs’ and others’ interaction with caregiver-companions, and potential health and safety risks posed to medical tourists and caregiver-companions. Thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts was employed. Results Although most participants encouraged medical tourists to travel with a caregiver-companion, many challenges associated with caregiver-companions were identified. Three themes best characterize the challenges that emerged: (1) caregiver-companions require time, attention and resources; (2) caregiver-companions can disrupt the provision of quality care; and (3) caregiver-companions can be exposed to risks. IPCs pointed out that caregiver-companions may, for example, have a negative impact on the patient through cost of accompaniment or inadequate care provision. Caregiver-companions may also create unanticipated or extra work for IPCs, as

  7. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-09-15

    Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding safety and production risks in rail engineering planning and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R; Ryan, Brendan; Schock, Alex; Ferreira, Pedro; Smith, Stuart; Pitsopoulos, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Much of the published human factors work on risk is to do with safety and within this is concerned with prediction and analysis of human error and with human reliability assessment. Less has been published on human factors contributions to understanding and managing project, business, engineering and other forms of risk and still less jointly assessing risk to do with broad issues of 'safety' and broad issues of 'production' or 'performance'. This paper contains a general commentary on human factors and assessment of risk of various kinds, in the context of the aims of ergonomics and concerns about being too risk averse. The paper then describes a specific project, in rail engineering, where the notion of a human factors case has been employed to analyse engineering functions and related human factors issues. A human factors issues register for potential system disturbances has been developed, prior to a human factors risk assessment, which jointly covers safety and production (engineering delivery) concerns. The paper concludes with a commentary on the potential relevance of a resilience engineering perspective to understanding rail engineering systems risk. Design, planning and management of complex systems will increasingly have to address the issue of making trade-offs between safety and production, and ergonomics should be central to this. The paper addresses the relevant issues and does so in an under-published domain - rail systems engineering work.

  9. N Reactor updated safety analysis report, NUSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    An update of the N Reactor safety analysis is presented to reconfirm that the continued operation does not pose undue risk to DOE personnel and property, the public, or the environment. A reanalysis of LOCA and reactivity transients utilizing current codes and methods is made. The principal aspects of the overall submission, a general description, and site characteristics including geography and demography, nearby industrial, transportation and military facilities, meteorology, hydraulic engineering, and geology and seismology are described

  10. Communicating on risk and safety in terms of awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    'Safety awareness' is proposed as a possibly constructive concept for the purpose of promoting initiatives in nuclear safety work and gaining improved understanding when communicating on nuclear safety. Safety is thus conceived as resulting essentially from and actually constituting awareness of critical factors in regard of safety. The concept aims specifically at promoting the view of 'safety' as 'awareness of required conditions for being in control of risk'. It aims as well at making clearer sense in calling for constant improvement of safety, according to practice in a safety culture. This proposed view would be expected to lead to applying the usual types of safety criteria but offers the merit of attracting due attention to 'awareness goals' in process oriented safety management which are fundamental to maintaining and improving safety. Applications are discussed in regard of communicating on nuclear safety between decision-makers and the general public, developing and maintaining safety culture, integrating specialist expert contributions in over-all safety assessment, setting safety goals and using safety indicators

  11. The Research on Safety Management Information System of Railway Passenger Based on Risk Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenmin; Jia, Yuanhua

    2018-01-01

    Based on the risk management theory and the PDCA cycle model, requirements of the railway passenger transport safety production is analyzed, and the establishment of the security risk assessment team is proposed to manage risk by FTA with Delphi from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The safety production committee is also established to accomplish performance appraisal, which is for further ensuring the correctness of risk management results, optimizing the safety management business processes and improving risk management capabilities. The basic framework and risk information database of risk management information system of railway passenger transport safety are designed by Ajax, Web Services and SQL technologies. The system realizes functions about risk management, performance appraisal and data management, and provides an efficient and convenient information management platform for railway passenger safety manager.

  12. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A holistic approach to control process safety risks: Possible ways forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasman, H.J.; Knegtering, B.; Rogers, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pursuing process safety in a world of continuously increasing requirements is not a simple matter. Keeping balance between producing quality and volume under budget constraints while maintaining an adequate safety level proves time and time again a difficult task given that evidently major accidents cannot be avoided. Lack of resilience from an organizational point of view to absorb unwanted and unforeseen disturbances has in recent years been put forward as a major cause, while organizational erosive drift is shown to be responsible for complacency and degradation of safety attitude. A systems approach to safety provides a new paradigm with the promise of new comprehensive tools. At the same time, one realizes that risk assessment will fall short of identifying and quantifying all possible scenarios. First, human error is in most assessments not included. It is even argued that determining human failure probability by decomposing it to basic elements of error is not possible. Second, the crux of the systemic approach is that safety is an emergent property, which means the same holds for the technological aspect: risk is not fully predictable from failure of components. By surveying and applying recent literature, besides analysing, this paper proposes a way forward by considering resilience of a socio-technical system both from an organizational and a technical side. The latter will for a large part be determined by the plant design. Sufficient redundancy and reserve shall be kept to preserve sufficient resilience, but the question that rises is how. Available methods are risk assessment and process simulation. It is helpful that the relation between risk and resilience analysis has been recently defined. Also, in a preliminary study the elements of resilience of a process have become listed. In the latter, receiving and interpreting weak signals to boost situational awareness plays an important role. To maintain alertness on the functioning of a safety management

  14. Inherent Risk or Risky Decision? Coach's Failure to Use Safety Device an Assumed Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Mark A.; Bochicchio, Kristi Schoepfer

    2013-01-01

    The court examined whether a coach's failure to implement a safety device during pitching practice enhanced the risk to the athlete or resulted in a suboptimal playing condition, in the context of the assumption of risk doctrine.

  15. X-ray examinations pose little risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray examinations account for about 15 per cent of Finns' radiation exposure and for roughly one out of a hundred deaths from cancer. The risk is small when compared to other risks in life and to the health benefits obtained from the examinations. About 4.1 million x-ray examinations were conducted in Finland in 1995, i.e. an average of 0.8 examinations per inhabitant. The mean effective dose was about 0.67 mSv per examination and about 0.54 mSv per inhabitant. Natural background radiation causes an annual radiation dose of approximately 3 mSv per person. Examinations of bones and soft tissues accounted for the highest number of x-ray images, roughly 2.1 million, of which half were examinations of the extremities. Some 1.3 million x-ray images were taken of the pulmonary organs, most of them being examinations of the lungs. Computed tomography and examinations of the gastrointestinal tract accounted for about 130,000 images each. To assess the radiation risk involved in x-ray examinations, we need knowledge or an estimate of the radiation doses of organs sensitive to radiation. Efficient calculation methods are available for this purpose. (orig.)

  16. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review paper was to determine the best sanitation health risk and safety planning approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was achieved by reviewing the concept of sanitation safety planning as a tool. The review adopted exploratory research approach and used secondary data ...

  17. Pose Self-Calibration of Stereo Vision Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; Martín, David; Armingol, José María; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2016-09-14

    Nowadays, intelligent systems applied to vehicles have grown very rapidly; their goal is not only the improvement of safety, but also making autonomous driving possible. Many of these intelligent systems are based on making use of computer vision in order to know the environment and act accordingly. It is of great importance to be able to estimate the pose of the vision system because the measurement matching between the perception system (pixels) and the vehicle environment (meters) depends on the relative position between the perception system and the environment. A new method of camera pose estimation for stereo systems is presented in this paper, whose main contribution regarding the state of the art on the subject is the estimation of the pitch angle without being affected by the roll angle. The validation of the self-calibration method is accomplished by comparing it with relevant methods of camera pose estimation, where a synthetic sequence is used in order to measure the continuous error with a ground truth. This validation is enriched by the experimental results of the method in real traffic environments.

  18. Pose Self-Calibration of Stereo Vision Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; Martín, David; Armingol, José María; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, intelligent systems applied to vehicles have grown very rapidly; their goal is not only the improvement of safety, but also making autonomous driving possible. Many of these intelligent systems are based on making use of computer vision in order to know the environment and act accordingly. It is of great importance to be able to estimate the pose of the vision system because the measurement matching between the perception system (pixels) and the vehicle environment (meters) depends on the relative position between the perception system and the environment. A new method of camera pose estimation for stereo systems is presented in this paper, whose main contribution regarding the state of the art on the subject is the estimation of the pitch angle without being affected by the roll angle. The validation of the self-calibration method is accomplished by comparing it with relevant methods of camera pose estimation, where a synthetic sequence is used in order to measure the continuous error with a ground truth. This validation is enriched by the experimental results of the method in real traffic environments. PMID:27649178

  19. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-04-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks.

  20. Improving ICU risk management and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielty, Lucy Ann

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a study which aimed to develop and validate an assessment method for the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 80001-1 (IEC, 2010) standard (the Standard); raise awareness; improve medical IT-network project risk management processes; and improve intensive care unit patient safety. Design/methodology/approach An assessment method was developed and piloted. A healthcare IT-network project assessment was undertaken using a semi-structured group interview with risk management stakeholders. Participants provided feedback via a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was undertaken. Findings The assessment method was validated as fit for purpose. Participants agreed (63 per cent, n=7) that assessment questions were clear and easy to understand, and participants agreed (82 per cent, n=9) that the assessment method was appropriate. Participant's knowledge of the Standard increased and non-compliance was identified. Medical IT-network project strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the risk management processes were identified. Practical implications The study raised awareness of the Standard and enhanced risk management processes that led to improved patient safety. Study participants confirmed they would use the assessment method in future projects. Originality/value Findings add to knowledge relating to IEC 80001-1 implementation.

  1. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Russ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP. How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  2. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Karen

    2010-09-01

    In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP). How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  3. Managing health and safety risks: Implications for tailoring health and safety management system practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, D R; Haas, E J

    2016-01-01

    As national and international health and safety management system (HSMS) standards are voluntarily accepted or regulated into practice, organizations are making an effort to modify and integrate strategic elements of a connected management system into their daily risk management practices. In high-risk industries such as mining, that effort takes on added importance. The mining industry has long recognized the importance of a more integrated approach to recognizing and responding to site-specific risks, encouraging the adoption of a risk-based management framework. Recently, the U.S. National Mining Association led the development of an industry-specific HSMS built on the strategic frameworks of ANSI: Z10, OHSAS 18001, The American Chemistry Council's Responsible Care, and ILO-OSH 2001. All of these standards provide strategic guidance and focus on how to incorporate a plan-do-check-act cycle into the identification, management and evaluation of worksite risks. This paper details an exploratory study into whether practices associated with executing a risk-based management framework are visible through the actions of an organization's site-level management of health and safety risks. The results of this study show ways that site-level leaders manage day-to-day risk at their operations that can be characterized according to practices associated with a risk-based management framework. Having tangible operational examples of day-to-day risk management can serve as a starting point for evaluating field-level risk assessment efforts and their alignment to overall company efforts at effective risk mitigation through a HSMS or other processes.

  4. Safety management and public spaces: restoring balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David J; Ball-King, Laurence

    2013-05-01

    Since 2000, the reputation of health and safety in the United Kingdom has been tarnished, so much so that it has become the subject of both a media circus and a government inquiry. This not only threatens the worthy goals of health and safety, but also impacts upon the associated tool of risk assessment itself such that "risk assessment" is increasingly seen by the public at large as a term inviting ridicule, even abuse. The main thrust of the government's examination of health and safety has been its concern that safety requirements were placing a disproportionate burden on business. However, there is another source of discontent, which is public chagrin over the impact of injury control measures upon life beyond the conventional workplace, in particular upon the public spaces that people frequent in their leisure time and on the activities they engage in there. This article provides a perspective on this second dimension of the crisis in confidence. It describes how many U.K. agencies with responsibilities for a wide portfolio of public amenities ranging from the provision of play spaces for the young to the management of publicly accessible countryside, the maintenance of urban and rural trees, the stewardship of sites of cultural heritage, and the pursuit of outdoor educational activities have responded to some conflicts posed to their services by the new safety culture. It concludes with a discussion of implications for the management of public space and for risk assessment itself. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  6. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  7. Selection of tolerable risk criteria for dam safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.M.; Hartford, D.N.D.; MacDonald, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment has received increasing attention in recent years as a means of aiding decision making on dams by providing systematic and rational methods for dealing with risk and uncertainty. Risk assessment is controversial and decisions affecting risk to life are the most controversial. Tolerable criteria, based on the risks that society is prepared to accept in order to avoid excessive costs, set bounds within which risk-based decisions may be made. The components of risk associated with dam safety are addressed on an individual basis and criteria established for each component, thereby permitting flexibility in the balance between component risk and avoiding the problems of placing a monetary value on life. The guiding principle of individual risk is that dams do not impose intolerable risks on any individual. A risk to life of 1 in 10 4 per annum is generally considered the maximum tolerable risk. When considering societal risk, the safety of a dam should be proportional to the consequences of its failure. Risks of financial losses beyond the corporation's ability to finance should be so low as to be considered negligible. 17 refs., 3 figs

  8. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  9. Nursing involvement in risk and patient safety management in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Vázquez, Valle; García-López, Ana; López-Sauras, Susana; Turón Alcaine, José María

    Patient safety and quality of care in a highly complex healthcare system depends not only on the actions of professionals at an individual level, but also on interaction with the environment. Proactive risk management in the system to prevent incidents and activities targeting healthcare teams is crucial in establishing a culture of safety in centres. Nurses commonly lead these safety strategies. Even though safety incidents are relatively infrequent in primary care, since the majority are preventable, actions at this level of care are highly effective. Certification of services according to ISO standard 9001:2008 focuses on risk management in the system and its use in certifying healthcare centres is helping to build a safety culture amongst professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

  11. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  12. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently.

  13. A preliminary approach to quantifying the overall environmental risks posed by development projects during environmental impact assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Nicol

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA is used globally to manage the impacts of development projects on the environment, so there is an imperative to demonstrate that it can effectively identify risky projects. However, despite the widespread use of quantitative predictive risk models in areas such as toxicology, ecosystem modelling and water quality, the use of predictive risk tools to assess the overall expected environmental impacts of major construction and development proposals is comparatively rare. A risk-based approach has many potential advantages, including improved prediction and attribution of cause and effect; sensitivity analysis; continual learning; and optimal resource allocation. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a Bayesian belief network (BBN to quantify the likelihood and consequence of non-compliance of new projects based on the occurrence probabilities of a set of expert-defined features. The BBN incorporates expert knowledge and continually improves its predictions based on new data as it is collected. We use simulation to explore the trade-off between the number of data points and the prediction accuracy of the BBN, and find that the BBN could predict risk with 90% accuracy using approximately 1000 data points. Although a further pilot test with real project data is required, our results suggest that a BBN is a promising method to monitor overall risks posed by development within an existing EIA process given a modest investment in data collection.

  14. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  15. 77 FR 43517 - Safety Zone; Flying Magazine Air Show, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... proximate to a gathering of watercraft and personnel pose a significant risk to public safety and property...; then south to 44[deg]00'36'' N, 088[deg]30'16'' W; then west returning to the point of origin (NAD 83... substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States...

  16. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  17. Report on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) quality assurance in utilization of risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Recently in Japan, introduction of nuclear safety regulations using risk information such as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been considered and utilization of risk information in the rational and practical measures on safety assurance has made a progress to start with the operation or inspection area. The report compiled results of investigation and studies of PSA quality assurance in risk-informed activities in the USA. Relevant regulatory guide and standard review plan as well as issues and recommendations were reviewed for technical adequacy and advancement of probabilistic risk assessment technology in risk-informed decision making. Useful and important information to be referred as issues in PSA quality assurance was identified. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation

  19. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  1. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety...... and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include......In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers' food concern...

  2. Evaluating health risks posed by heavy metals to humans consuming blood cockles (Anadara granosa) from the Upper Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudsandee, Suntorn; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Limpanont, Yanin; Mingkhwan, Ratchaneekorn; Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2017-06-01

    There is global concern about heavy metal contamination in the environment. Adverse health effects can be caused by heavy metals in contaminated food and water. Therefore, environmental monitoring studies and risk assessments should be conducted periodically. In this study, we measured levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in blood cockles (Anadara granosa) collected from three locations in the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Hazard quotients and hazard indices were calculated to evaluate the health risks posed by heavy metals in consumed blood cockles. Heavy metal concentrations in all of the blood cockle samples were lower than the relevant food standards. The hazard quotients and hazard indices were heavy metals in blood cockles over a human lifetime.

  3. Safety report on WWR-S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Kaisler, L.; Listik, E.

    1981-04-01

    The present Safety Report of the WWR-S reactor summarizes findings obtained during the trial and partially also permanent operation of the reactor after two stages of its reconstruction implemented between 1974 and 1976. Most data are presented necessary for assessing probable risks of possible accident conditions whose consequences pose health hazards to individuals of the population, radiation personnel and the facilities themselves. Attention is devoted to the description of the locality, to components and systems, heat removal from the core, design aspects, the quality of new and old parts of the technological circuits, the systems of protection and control, the emergency core cooling system, the problems of radiation safety, and to the safety analyses of the abnormal states envisaged. The Report was compiled with regard to IAEA and CMEA recommendations concerning safe operation of research reactors and to the recommendations and binding decisions of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  4. An Autopsy Checklist: A Monitor of Safety and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkrum, Michael James; Kent, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Any autopsy has safety and risk management issues, which can arise in the preautopsy, autopsy, and postautopsy phases. The London Health Sciences Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Autopsy Checklist was developed to address these issues. The current study assessed 1 measure of autopsy safety: the effectiveness of the checklist in documenting pathologists' communication of the actual or potential risk of blood-borne infections to support staff. Autopsy checklists for cases done in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. The frequency of communication, as recorded in checklists, by pathologists to staff of previously diagnosed blood-borne infections (hepatitis B/C and human immunodeficiency virus) or the risk of infection based on lifestyle (eg, intravenous drug abuse) was tabulated. These data were compared with medical histories of the deceased and circumstances of their deaths described in the final autopsy reports. Information about blood-borne infections was recorded less frequently in the checklists compared with the final reports. Of 4 known human immunodeficiency virus cases, there was no checklist documentation in 3. All 11 hand injuries were documented. None of these cases had known infectious risks. The Autopsy Checklist is a standardized means of documenting safety and risk issues arising during the autopsy process, but its effectiveness relies on accurate completion.

  5. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) technology to improve outage safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken an aggressive program, called ORAM (Outage Risk Assessment and Management), to provide utilities with tools and technology to assist in managing risk during the planning and conduct of outages. The ORAM program consists of the following 6 steps: i) Perform utility surveys and visits on shutdown risk management needs, ii) Perform probabilistic shutdown safety assessments (PSSAs) to identify generic insights that can be incorporated into risk management guidelines and identify selected areas for the development of contingency actions, iii) Develop risk management guidelines (RMG's) that provide a systematic approach to the planning and conduct of outages from a safety perspective. Incorporate insights from the shutdown safety assessments and other operating experience into the RMG's. iv) Develop selected contingency actions including a thermalhydraulic tool kit to address higher risk time periods and activities identified in the shutdown safety assessments, v) Develop computer software that integrates all of the above capability into an easy to use tool for effective shutdown operation management for utilities, vi) Provide assistance in the transfer of this technology and the application of these tools. This paper briefly describes the technical approach and tools developed under EPRI's ORAM program and its applications for improving outage safety and economics. (author)

  6. Health, Safety and Environmental Risk Assessment in Laboratory Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ”Exposing to danger” or in other words, “risk” is a process which is led to an uncertain result in every field. Project risks are uncertain contingent events or situations that if they occur will have positive or negative effects on project’s objectives. Todays, research and educational process and more complicated and the professional risk management become much more difficult, as a result. .Material and Method: In this research, the health and safety issues have been studied and analyzed using ISO 14121 and the environmental issues by EMEA to determine the risk level separately for research laboratories and to prioritize corrective measure in each field (school. .Result: The finding in this study showed that from all the main risks within the rage of 38-86 percent have been decreased. Moreover average of the risk level for the health, safety and environment cases showed a significant decrease (Pvalue<0.0001 by implement controlling and protective countermeasures compariy to the priority state without any measures. . Conclusion: The risk assessment with hazards control strategy based on ISO 14121 is a compatible method in laboratory site as universities and other reasearch sites.

  7. Development of Risk Assessment Matrix for NASA Engineering and Safety Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.; Moses, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study, which had as its principal goal the development of a sufficiently detailed 5 x 5 Risk Matrix Scorecard. The purpose of this scorecard is to outline the criteria by which technical issues can be qualitatively and initially prioritized. The tool using this score card has been proposed to be one of the information resources the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) takes into consideration when making decisions with respect to incoming information on safety concerns across the entire NASA agency. The contents of this paper discuss in detail each element of the risk matrix scorecard, definitions for those elements and the rationale behind the development of those definitions. This scorecard development was performed in parallel with the tailoring of the existing Futron Corporation Integrated Risk Management Application (IRMA) software tool. IRMA was tailored to fit NESC needs for evaluating incoming safety concerns and was renamed NESC Assessment Risk Management Application (NAFMA) which is still in developmental phase.

  8. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies’ inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeman, Cassandra D.; Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D.; Satterfield, Terre A.; Holden, Patricia A.; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2012-01-01

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders’ perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated “lack of information” as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders’ reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  9. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies' inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Cassandra D.; Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D.; Satterfield, Terre A.; Holden, Patricia A.; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2012-03-01

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated "lack of information" as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-01-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse. - Highlights: • PAHs build-up on road surfaces varies with traffic and land use conditions. • RDS characteristics and PAH composition were considered in ecological risk assessment. • ΣPAH concentration attached to RDS cannot represent their overall ecological risk. • Higher percentage of 5–6 rings PAHs can pose higher ecological risk. • TC exerts more important influences on 5–6 rings PAHs build-up compared with TV.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Liu, An [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China)

    2016-09-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse. - Highlights: • PAHs build-up on road surfaces varies with traffic and land use conditions. • RDS characteristics and PAH composition were considered in ecological risk assessment. • ΣPAH concentration attached to RDS cannot represent their overall ecological risk. • Higher percentage of 5–6 rings PAHs can pose higher ecological risk. • TC exerts more important influences on 5–6 rings PAHs build-up compared with TV.

  12. Risk perception, safety goals and regulatory decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Deciding on 'how safe is safe enough?' includes value judgements with implications of an ethical and political nature. As regulators are accountable to governments, parliaments and the general public, regulatory decision-making should be characterized by transparency with respect to how such value judgements are reflected in risk assessments and regulatory decisions. Some approaches in this respect are discussed in the paper, based on more than fifteen years of experience in nuclear regulatory decision-making. Issues discussed include: (1) risk profiles and safety goals associated with severe reactor accidents--individual health risks, societal risks and risk of losing investments; (2) risk profile-based licensing of the Swedish SFR final disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

  13. Nuclear safety in light water reactors severe accident phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2011-01-01

    This vital reference is the only one-stop resource on how to assess, prevent, and manage severe nuclear accidents in the light water reactors (LWRs) that pose the most risk to the public. LWRs are the predominant nuclear reactor in use around the world today, and they will continue to be the most frequently utilized in the near future. Therefore, accurate determination of the safety issues associated with such reactors is central to a consideration of the risks and benefits of nuclear power. This book emphasizes the prevention and management of severe accidents to teach nuclear professionals

  14. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  15. Protection of environment, health and safety using risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, G [Ghafari Associates, Inc. 17101 Michegan Avenue Dearborn, MI 48126-2736 (United States); Kummler, R H [Department of Chemical engineering Wayne Stae University Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); louvar, J [Research Services Basf Corporation Wyandotte, MI 48192 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Section 304 of the 1990 clean air amendments (CAAA) directed the US occupational safety and health administration (OSFA) to develop a chemical process safety standard to protect workers on-site from accidents involving hazardous substances. OSHA issued 29 CFR 1910.119, process safety management of Highly hazardous chemicals (PSM) in 1992. Section 112 r of the CAAA further mandated that a standard be developed to protect the environment from accidental releases of hazardous substances. The US environmental protection agency (EPA) proposed such a standard in 1993 (58 Fr 54190) and revised their proposal in 1995). The final rule for risk management and accidental release prevention is more comprehensive and extensive than OSHA`s PSM standard. In this paper we will discuss the concepts of both programs, the classes of substances that would trigger a facility`s need for compliance and review the regulations for risk management.

  16. Protection of environment, health and safety using risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, G.; Kummler, R.H.; louvar, J.

    1996-01-01

    Section 304 of the 1990 clean air amendments (CAAA) directed the US occupational safety and health administration (OSFA) to develop a chemical process safety standard to protect workers on-site from accidents involving hazardous substances. OSHA issued 29 CFR 1910.119, process safety management of Highly hazardous chemicals (PSM) in 1992. Section 112 r of the CAAA further mandated that a standard be developed to protect the environment from accidental releases of hazardous substances. The US environmental protection agency (EPA) proposed such a standard in 1993 (58 Fr 54190) and revised their proposal in 1995). The final rule for risk management and accidental release prevention is more comprehensive and extensive than OSHA's PSM standard. In this paper we will discuss the concepts of both programs, the classes of substances that would trigger a facility's need for compliance and review the regulations for risk management

  17. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.

    2010-01-01

    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...... and value of the QPS assessment for EFSA and to explain its principles such as the unambiguous identity of a taxonomic unit, the body of knowledge including potential safety concerns and how these considerations lead to a list of biological agents recommended for QPS which EFSA keeps updated through...

  18. Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

    2014-11-01

    As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

  19. Use of risk information to safety regulation. Fabrication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    A procedure of ISA (Integrated Safety Analysis) for uranium fuel fabrication/enrichment facilities has been under the development aiming to utilize risk information for safety regulations in this project. Activities in the fiscal year 2012 are summarized in the paper. There are two major activities in the year. First one is a study on ISA procedure for external events such as earthquakes. Second one is that for chemical consequences such as UF6 and HF. Other than the activities a fundamental study on a policy of utilizing risk information was conducted. The outline and results are provided in the chapter 1 and 2 respectively. (author)

  20. Establishment of safety goal and its quantification based on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Ken

    2017-01-01

    We must clarify the safety objectives sought by society in securing the safety of nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants. For that purpose, it is useful to utilize risk assessment. Quantitative methods including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are superior in terms of scientific rationality and quantitative performance compared with conventional deterministic methods, and able to indicate an objective numerical value of safety level. Consequently, quantitative methods can enhance the transparency, consistency, compliance, predictability, and explanatory power of regulatory decisions toward business operators and citizens. Business operators can explain the validity of their own safety assurance activities to regulators and citizens. The goal to be secured becomes clear by incorporating the safety goal into the specific performance goal required for the nuclear power plant from the viewpoint of deep safeguard, and it becomes easy to evaluate the effectiveness of the safety measures. It helps us greatly in judging and selecting the appropriateness of safety measures. It should be noted: the fact that the result of implementing the PRA satisfies the safety goal is not a sufficient condition in the sense of guaranteeing complete safety but a necessary condition. The nuclear power field is a region with large uncertainty, and research/efforts for accuracy improvement and evaluation validity will be required continuously. (A.O.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging: hazard, risk and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Suri, S.; Singh, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hazard and risk associated with magnetic resonance imaging is a matter of concern. In 1982, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA issued guidelines to Hospital's Investigational Review Board (IRBs) in 'Guidelines for Evaluating Electromagnetic Exposure Risks for Trials of Clinical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)'. In 1997, the Berufsgenossenschaft (BG), professional association for precision engineering and electronics of Germany, in their preliminary proposal for safety limits extended their concerns on static magnetic field. Owing to both time varying and static magnetic fields applied in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) this became of immediate concern to user community to assess the potential hazard and risk associated with the NMR system

  2. Pose Self-Calibration of Stereo Vision Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basam Musleh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, intelligent systems applied to vehicles have grown very rapidly; their goal is not only the improvement of safety, but also making autonomous driving possible. Many of these intelligent systems are based on making use of computer vision in order to know the environment and act accordingly. It is of great importance to be able to estimate the pose of the vision system because the measurement matching between the perception system (pixels and the vehicle environment (meters depends on the relative position between the perception system and the environment. A new method of camera pose estimation for stereo systems is presented in this paper, whose main contribution regarding the state of the art on the subject is the estimation of the pitch angle without being affected by the roll angle. The validation of the self-calibration method is accomplished by comparing it with relevant methods of camera pose estimation, where a synthetic sequence is used in order to measure the continuous error with a ground truth. This validation is enriched by the experimental results of the method in real traffic environments.

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  4. Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be greater than those experienced during an operational lifetime of a facility. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities and as well as during accidents. The risk assessment method was developed by using risk matrix and fuzzy inference logic, on the basis of the radiological and non-radiological hazards for a decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility. Fuzzy inference of radiological and non-radiological hazards performs a mapping from radiological and non-radiological hazards to risk matrix. Defuzzification of radiological and non-radiological hazards is the conversion of risk matrix and priorities to the maximum criterion method and the mean criterion method. In the end, a composite risk assessment methodology, to rank the risk level on radiological and non-radiological hazards of the decommissioning tasks and to prioritize on the risk level of the decommissioning tasks, by simultaneously combining radiological and non-radiological hazards, was developed.

  5. Evaluation of severe accident safety system value based on averting financial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, S.W.; Benjamin, A.S.; Bennett, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program is being performed to benchmark the risks from nuclear power plants and to assess the benefits and impacts of a set of severe accident safety features. This paper describes the program in general and presents some preliminary results. These results include estimates of the financial risks associated with the operation of six reference plants and the value of severe accident prevention and mitigation safety systems in averting these risks. The results represent initial calculations and will be iterated before being used to support NRC decisions

  6. Insight into "Calculated Risk": An Application to the Prioritization of Emerging Infectious Diseases for Blood Transfusion Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslo, R E J; Oei, W; Janssen, M P

    2017-09-01

    Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics. So what is the relative importance of various disease and transmission characteristics, and how are these influenced by the degree of uncertainty associated with their actual values? We identified the likelihood of transmission by blood transfusion, the presence of an asymptomatic phase of infection, prevalence of infection, and the disease impact as the main characteristics of the perceived risk of disease transmission by blood transfusion. A group of experts in the field of infectious diseases and blood transfusion ranked sets of (hypothetical) diseases with varying degrees of uncertainty associated with their disease characteristics, and used probabilistic inversion to obtain probability distributions for the weight of each of these risk characteristics. These distribution weights can be used to rank both existing and newly emerging infectious diseases with (partially) known characteristics. Analyses show that in case there is a lack of data concerning disease characteristics, it is the uncertainty concerning the asymptomatic phase and the disease impact that are the most important drivers of the perceived risk. On the other hand, if disease characteristics are well established, it is the prevalence of infection and the transmissibility of the disease by blood transfusion that will drive the perceived risk. The risk prioritization model derived provides an easy to obtain and rational expert assessment of the relative importance of

  7. Risk assessment and safety regulations in offshore oil and gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management of which risk assessment is part, and safety regulations are common in the offshore oil and gas industry management system. The process of conducting risk assessment is mostly a challenge for operational personnel assigned to perform this function. The most significant problem is the decision to use ...

  8. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  9. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  10. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, M. Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • An integrated framework is developed to optimize risk reduction. • A negative binomial regression model is developed to analyze accident-cause-specific railcar derailment probability. • A Pareto-optimality technique is applied to determine the lowest risk given any level of resource. • A multi-attribute decision model is developed to determine the optimal amount of investment for risk reduction. • The models could aid the government and rail industry in developing cost-efficient risk reduction policy and practice. -- Abstract: Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation.

  11. Validation of risk-based performance indicators: Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Usher, J.L.; Oden, N.

    1989-10-01

    This report describes and applies a process for validating a model for a risk-based performance indicator. The purpose of the risk-based indicator evaluated, Safety System Function Trend (SSFT), is to monitor the unavailability of selected safety systems. Interim validation of this indicator is based on three aspects: a theoretical basis, an empirical basis relying on statistical correlations, and case studies employing 25 plant years of historical data collected from five plants for a number of safety systems. Results using the SSFT model are encouraging. Application of the model through case studies dealing with the performance of important safety systems shows that statistically significant trends in, and levels of, system performance can be discerned which thereby can provide leading indications of degrading and/or improving performances. Methods for developing system performance tolerance bounds are discussed and applied to aid in the interpretation of the trends in this risk-based indicator. Some additional characteristics of the SSFT indicator, learned through the data-collection efforts and subsequent data analyses performed, are also discussed. The usefulness and practicality of other data sources for validation purposes are explored. Further validation of this indicator is noted. Also, additional research is underway in developing a more detailed estimator of system unavailability. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Risk-informed decision making a keystone in advanced safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, M.

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has provided extremely valuable complementary insight, perspective, comprehension, and balance to deterministic nuclear reactor safety assessment. This integrated approach of risk-informed management and decision making has been called Risk-Informed Decision Making (RIDM). RIDM provides enhanced safety, reliability, operational flexibility, reduced radiological exposure, and improved fiscal economy. Applications of RIDM continuously increase. Current applications are in the areas of design, construction, licensing, operations, and security. Operational phase safety applications include the following: technical specifications improvement, risk-monitors and configuration control, maintenance planning, outage planning and management, in-service inspection, inservice testing, graded quality assurance, reactor oversight and inspection, inspection finding significance determination, operational events assessment, and rulemaking. Interestingly there is a significant spectrum of approaches, methods, programs, controls, data bases, and standards. The quest of many is to assimilate the full compliment of PSA and RIDM information and to achieve a balanced international harmony. The goal is to focus the best of the best, so to speak, for the benefit of all. Accordingly, this presentation will address the principles, benefits, and applications of RIDM. It will also address some of the challenges and areas to improve. Finally it will highlight efforts by the IAEA and others to capture the international thinking, experience, successes, challenges, and lessons in RIDM. (authors)

  13. RISK-INFORMED BALANCING OF SAFETY, NONPROLIFERATION, AND ECONOMICS FOR THE SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-10-20

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  14. Risk-Informed Balancing Of Safety, Nonproliferation, And Economics For The SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  15. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J.; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-01-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO 2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However

  16. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO(2) and ZnO in sunscreens. However

  17. Reducing risks and increasing safety in everyday life: the role of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enander, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: in social science risk research more attention has been paid to examining how people in general perceive risks than to how they perceive possible measures to reduce risks and to increase their own safety. The latter area is, however, becoming increasingly important to understand, particularly in the light of current emphasis on individual responsibility in risk prevention and emergency preparedness. For example, in Sweden a major effort to increase safety awareness among the general public and to increase knowledge and skills in a number of safety-related areas is at present being planned. This effort is being undertaken as a cooperative effort between different authorities and institutions and is coordinated by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. The intentions behind this and similar programmes raise a number of questions concerning how people view risks and safety measures in their own immediate environment. Knowledge of the factors affecting willingness to take precautions is important in the design of communication and information. The factors which are of significance may be risk-related and concern perceptions of personal risk, but may also be related to attitudes an beliefs concerning different precautionary measures, to perception of social norms and conventions as well as to personal experiences and values. This paper presents some data concerning views and actions among lay groups in relation to reducing risks and increasing safety. Factors affecting these views are discussed in the light of previous research and of empirical data from some recent studies. (author)

  18. Risk investigation for safety assessment of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.; Hoertner, H.; Kersting, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most important results of the technical system investigations for Phase B of the German Risk Study and the insight gained from them are discussed in connection with the risk analyses in judging the safety-related design. The results of the German Precursor Study for the Biblis A and B plants are given. There is also a comparison of the German with more recent American risk analyses. (DG) [de

  19. Health risks posed to infants in rural China by exposure to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Li-Rong; Zheng, Ming-Hui; Li, Jing-Guang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yong-Ning; Qiao, Lin; Tian, Qi-Chang; Huang, Hui-Ting; Liu, Wen-Bin; Su, Gui-Jin; Liu, Guo-Rui

    2017-06-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of synthetic chemicals found widely in environmental matrices. Short-chain CPs (SCCPs) are candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention. There should be great concern about human exposure to SCCPs. Data on CP concentrations in human breast milk is scarce. This is the first study in which background SCCP and medium-chain CP (MCCP) body burdens in the general rural population of China have been estimated and health risks posed to nursing infants by CPs in breast milk assessed. The concentrations of 48 SCCP and MCCP formula congeners were determined in 24 pooled human milk samples produced from 1412 individual samples from eight provinces in 2007 and 16 provinces in 2011. The samples were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The median SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 303 and 35.7ngg -1 lipid weight, respectively, for the 2007 samples and 360 and 45.4ngg -1 lipid weight, respectively, for the 2011 samples. The C 10 and C 14 homologs were the dominant CP carbon-chain-length groups, contributing 51% and 82% of the total SCCP and MCCP concentrations, respectively. There are probably multiple CP sources to the general Chinese population and numerous exposure pathways. The median estimated daily SCCP and MCCP intakes for nursing infants were 1310 and 152ngkg -1 d -1 , respectively, in 2007 and 1520 and 212ngkg -1 d -1 , respectively, in 2011. SCCPs do not currently pose significant risks to infants in China. However, it is necessary to continuously monitor CP concentrations and health risks because CP concentrations in Chinese human breast milk are increasing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk-informed regulation: handling uncertainty for a rational management of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    A risk-informed regulatory approach implies that risk insights be used as supplement of deterministic information for safety decision-making purposes. In this view, the use of risk assessment techniques is expected to lead to improved safety and a more rational allocation of the limited resources available. On the other hand, it is recognized that uncertainties affect both the deterministic safety analyses and the risk assessments. In order for the risk-informed decision making process to be effective, the adequate representation and treatment of such uncertainties is mandatory. In this paper, the risk-informed regulatory framework is considered under the focus of the uncertainty issue. Traditionally, probability theory has provided the language and mathematics for the representation and treatment of uncertainty. More recently, other mathematical structures have been introduced. In particular, the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is here illustrated as a generalized framework encompassing probability theory and possibility theory. The special case of probability theory is only addressed as term of comparison, given that it is a well known subject. On the other hand, the special case of possibility theory is amply illustrated. An example of the combination of probability and possibility for treating the uncertainty in the parameters of an event tree is illustrated

  1. Risk-informed approaches to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashchenko, V.N.; Zlochevskij, V.V.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Ingenious risk-informed methods to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste are proposed in the paper. Probabilistic norms on lethal outcomes and reliability of safety barriers are used as safety criteria. Based on the probability measures, it is established that ecological safety conditions are met for the standard criterion of lethal outcomes

  2. 75 FR 23782 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  4. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards R n for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: R n = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of R n are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  5. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  6. The Identification of Xenobiotics in the New UK Context of Drinking Water Safety Planning and Related Environmental Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, C. R.; Keirle, R. S.; Lobley, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent European environmental legislation (the Water Framework Directive, the Environmental Liability Directive, and the REACH Regulation) should provide better protection of terrestrial water bodies but their focus is on the more conspicuous pollutants, as opposed to the large number of xenobiotic micro-pollutants that are increasingly being detected in the urban water cycle. The development of Drinking Water Safety Plans (DWSPs), as promoted by the World Health Organization, utilises a proactive risk assessment-risk management approach that necessarily should include micro-pollutants, although currently in the UK micro-pollutants have largely been ignored. The generic assessment of the risks posed by micro-pollutants is proposed and will require a consensus on analytical screening methods, sampling points and frequencies, and a method for prioritising concern, and would enable DWSPs to take fuller account of the risks posed

  7. Personnel Risks in Ensuring Safety of Medical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern strategies of management of the organization require the formation of special management approaches based on the analysis of the mechanisms and processes of the organization of medical activities related to possible risks in activity of medical personnel. Based on international experience and own research the authors have identified features of a system of management of personnel risk in medical activities, examined approaches showing the sequence and contents of the main practical activities of the formation, maintenance and development of the system of management of personnel risks. Emphasized is the need for further research and implementation of the system of management of personnel risk in health care organizations. Study and assessment of personnel risks affecting the security of medical activities aimed at the development of the system of personnel risk management, development of a system of identification and monitoring of HR risk indicators with a purpose to improve institutional management and increase efficiency of activity of medical organizations. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, method of statistical processing of information. Results: approaches to predict the occurrence and development of personnel risks have been reviewed and proposed. Conclusions and Relevance: patient safety is a global issue affecting countries at all levels of development. Each year, the WHO identifies a number of systemic and technical aspects and trends in the field of patient safety related to actions of medical workers. Existing imbalances in the staffing of the health system of the Russian Federation increase the probability of potential risks in medical practice. The personnel policy of healthcare of the Russian Federation requires further improvement and

  8. Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Budhi Utami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.

  9. Safety from physical viewpoint: ''two-risk model in multiple risk problem''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'Min, I.I.; Akimov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the problem of safety provision for people and environment within the framework of a certain socio-economic system (SES) as a problem of managing a great number of interacting risks characterizing numerous hazards (natural, manmade, social, economic once, etc.) inherent in the certain SES has been discussed. From the physical point of view, it can be considered a problem of interaction of many bodies which has no accurate mathematical solution even if the laws of interaction of this bodies are known. In physics, to solve this problem, an approach based on the reduction of the above-mentioned problem of the problem of two-body interaction which can be solved accurately in mathematics has been used. The report presents a similar approach to the problem of risk management in the SES. This approach includes the subdivision of numerous hazards inherent within the framework of the SES into two classes of hazards, so that each of the classes could be considered an integrated whole one, each of them being characterized by the appropriate risk. Consequently, problem of 'multiple-risk' management (i.e. the problem of many bodies, as represented in physics) can be reduced to the 'two-risk' management problem (that is, to the problem two-bodies). Within the framework of the two-risk model the optimization of costs to reduce the two kinds of risk, that is, the risk inherent in the SES as a whole, as well as the risk potentially provoked by lots of activities to be introduced in the SES economy has been described. The model has made it possible to formulate and prove the theorem of equilibrium in risk management. Using the theorem, a relatively simple and practically applicable procedure of optimizing the threshold costs to reduce diverse kinds of risk has been elaborated. The procedure provides to assess the minimum value of the cost that can be achieved regarding the socio-economic factors typical of the SES under discussion. The aimed

  10. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS and RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard

  12. Identification and evaluation of priorities in the business process of a risk or safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Kuei-Yung; Thekdi, Shital A.; Lambert, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Agencies are increasingly following principles and guidelines for the coordination of risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication in large-scale programs. In particular, there is a challenge to comply with the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) memorandum “Updated Principles for Risk Analysis” among other guidelines. This paper demonstrates a systemic approach to achieve compliance of a risk program with administrative and organizational principles and guidelines for risk analysis. The paper suggests three canonical questions as the mission of such a program: (i) what sources of risks are to be managed by the program, (ii) how should multiple risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication activities be administered and coordinated, and what should be the basis for resource allocation to these activities, and (iii) how will the performance of the program be monitored and evaluated. The paper demonstrates a re-prioritization of policy initiatives of the program based on emergent and future conditions. The approach is useful to agencies implementing risk or safety organizational guidelines such as those of the OMB, the US Government Accountability Office, the US Department of Homeland Security, the US Department of Defense, and others. This paper will be of interest to risk managers; agencies; and risk and safety analysts engaged in the conception, implementation, and evaluation of risk or safety programs. - Highlights: ► We develop a systemic approach for management of a risk or safety program. ► The approach includes business process models and policy prioritization. ► The results support organizations to implement risk and safety programs.

  13. Advanced reactor concepts and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    The need for some consistency in the terms used to describe the evolution of methods for ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors has been identified by the IAEA. This is timely since there appears to be a danger that the precision of many valuable words is being diluted and that a new jargon may appear that will confuse rather than aid the communication of important but possibly diverse philosophies and concepts. Among the difficulties faced by the nuclear industry is promoting and gaining a widespread understanding of the risks actually posed by nuclear reactors. In view of the importance of communication to both the public and to the technical community generally, the starting point for the definition of terms must be with dictionary meanings and common technical usage. The nuclear engineering community should use such words in conformance with the whole technical world. This paper addresses many of the issues suggested in the invitation to meet and also poses some additional issues for consideration. Some examples are the role of the operator in either enhancing or degrading safety and how the meaning or interpretation of the word 'safety' can be expected to change during the next few decades. It is advantageous to use criteria against which technologies and ongoing operating performance can be judged provided that the criteria are generic and not specific to particular reactor concepts. Some thoughts are offered on the need to frame the criteria carefully so that innovative solutions and concepts are fostered, not stifled

  14. A Framework for School Safety and Risk Management: Results from a Study of 18 Targeted School Shooters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Ann Marie C.; Graham, Lemuel W.; Farrell, Melissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Targeted violence continues to pose a threat to school safety. Reported here are the results of a study of 18 cases of school shooters from 1996 to 2012. Variables examined are individual factors and behaviors, family dynamics, and triggering events. Results indicate the need for expanded school-based mental health services, threat assessment, and…

  15. Bowtie Risk Management methodology and Modern Nuclear Safety Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilizastigui Pérez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Report (SR) plays a crucial role within the nuclear licensing regime as the principal means for demonstrating the adequacy of safety analysis for a nuclear facility to ensure that it can be constructed, operated, maintained, shut down, and decommissioned safely and in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. It serves as the basis for granting authorizations for the commencement of the main stages of the facility’s life cycle as well as decision-making processes related to safety. Historically, the majority of nuclear safety reports have operated under rather prescriptive regimes, with emphasis placed on demonstrations of the robustness of the facility’s design (design safety) against prescriptive technical requirements set by the regulatory body, and less attention paid to demonstrating the adequacy and effectiveness of Operator’s management system for managing risks to daily operation.

  16. Risk-based evaluation tool for safety-related maintenance involving scaffolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.; Azizi, M.; Massman, M.

    1988-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed a general concern that transient materials in and around safety systems at nuclear power plants represent a seismic safety hazard to the plant, in particular, the uncontrolled use of scaffolding during maintenance activities. Currently, most plants perform a seismic safety analysis for all uses of scaffolding near safety-related equipment to determine appropriate tie-down locations, scaffolding reinforcements, etc. This is both time-consuming and, for the most part, unnecessary. A workable engineering solution based on risk analysis techniques has been developed and is being used at the Palo Verde nuclear generating station (PVNGS)

  17. Nuclear power plants: Results of recent safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, E.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions deal with the problems posed by low radiation doses, with the information currently available from analyses of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and with risk assessments in connection with nuclear power plant accidents. Other points of interest include latest results on fission product release from reactor core or reactor building, advanced atmospheric dispersion models for incident and accident analyses, reliability studies on safety systems, and assessment of fire hazard in nuclear installations. The various contributions are found as separate entries in the database. (DG) [de

  18. Risk Communication: A Key for Fostering a More Resilient Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only triggered by natural events combined with technical failures, but was a human induced disaster. From the bitter lessons, we have learned that human and organizational factors associated with emergency planning, response and decision-making for nuclear safety need to be more carefully reviewed and enhanced. Elements of social sciences, especially, risk management and risk communication here play a key role. Risk communication is an established concept within risk analysis frameworks. It is a vital tool to convey the meaning of scientific assessment and risk management, share safety related information, and exchange views and values amongst varying stakeholder groups. Risk communication aims at building trust through this process and human interactions. However, it would not be an overstatement that the essence of risk communication is not fully understood. As a result, it is either partially integrated into risk management practice or remains unconducive. The marginalisation of risk communication is observed in a variety of risk communication practices, or more evidently, in perception gaps between lays and experts about risks.

  19. [Occupational risks among public safety and security forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candura, S M; Verni, P; Minelli, C M; Rosso, G L; Cappelli, M I; Strambi, S; Martellosio, V

    2006-01-01

    The present paper tries to identify the occupational risk factors (physical, chemical, biological, psychological), variable depending on jobs and tasks, to which the heterogeneous public safety/security workers are exposed. The fight against criminality and public order maintenance imply (sometimes fatal) traumatic risks, and expose to psychophysical and sensorial tiring, unfavourable macro- and microclimatic conditions, the risk of baropathy (air navigation, underwater activities), noise (generated by firearms and several other sources), vibrations and shakings (automatic weapons, transport vehicles), the risk of electric injury, ionizing (X and gamma rays) and non-inonizing (ultraviolet rays, microwaves and radiofrequencies, electromagnetic fields) radiations. Chemical hazards include carbon monoxide and other combustion products (fires, urban traffic), substances released in chemical accidents, tear gases, lead (firing grounds, metal works, environmental pollution), solvents, lubrificants and cutting oils (mechanic repair and maintenance), laboratory materials and reagents, irritant and/or sensitizing agents contained in gloves. The main biological risks are tetanus, blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), aerogenous diseases (e.g., tuberculosis, Legionnaire's disease, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis), dog- or horse-transmitted zoonosis. Finally, emotional, psychosomatic and behavioural stress-related disorders (e.g., burn-out syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder) are typically frequent. The presence of numerous and diversified hazards among public safety/security forces imposes the adoption of occupational medicine measures, including risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, personal protective devices, sanitary surveillance and biological monitoring, clinical interventions (diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of occupational accidents and illnesses), prompt medico-legal evaluation of occupational

  20. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2005-12-01

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently

  1. Clinical risk management and patient safety education for nurses: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2007-04-01

    Nurses have a pivotal role to play in clinical risk management (CRM) and promoting patient safety in health care domains. Accordingly, nurses need to be prepared educationally to manage clinical risk effectively when delivering patient care. Just what form the CRM and safety education of nurses should take, however, remains an open question. A recent search of the literature has revealed a surprising lack of evidence substantiating models of effective CRM and safety education for nurses. In this paper, a critical discussion is advanced on the question of CRM and safety education for nurses and the need for nurse education in this area to be reviewed and systematically researched as a strategic priority, nationally and internationally. It is a key contention of this paper that without 'good' safety education research it will not be possible to ensure that the educational programs that are being offered to nurses in this area are evidence-based and designed in a manner that will enable nurses to develop the capabilities they need to respond effectively to the multifaceted and complex demands that are inherent in their ethical and professional responsibilities to promote and protect patient safety and quality care in health care domains.

  2. Foreign-funded M&A Poses No Threatto China’s Economic Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志乐

    2007-01-01

    Foreign funded M■A(Mergers ■ Acquisitions) activity is becoming increasingly common in China.In this article Wang Zhile assesses the effects and risks associated with M■A,finding that foreign funded M■A activity is immensely beneficial to China and poses no threat to economic security.

  3. Proactive safety management in health care : towards a broader view of risk analysis, error recovery, and safety culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, M.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors occur frequently. The harm and additional costs associated with those errors ask for effective safety management. According to the objective of minimal patient harm, safety management in health care should be proactive; that is, risks should be anticipated and reduced before patients

  4. The safety of risk or the risk of safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Waarts, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Safety is nowadays one of the main items on the agenda during the planning, realisation and management of most large-scale projects, particularly in infrastructure and building projects in intensively used areas such as multiple use of land projects. It is vital that safety aspects are properly

  5. Improved Safety Margin Characterization of Risk from Loss of Offsite Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Original intent: The original intent of this task was “support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characteristic (RISMC) methodology in order” “to address … efficiency of computation so that more accurate and cost-effective techniques can be used to address safety margin characterizations” (S. M. Hess et al., “Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization,” Procs. ICONE17, Brussels, July 2009, CD format). It was intended that “in Task 1 itself this improvement will be directed toward upon the very important issue of Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) events,” more specifically toward the challenge of efficient computation of the multidimensional nonrecovery integral that has been discussed by many previous contributors to the theory of nuclear safety. It was further envisioned that “three different computational approaches will be explored,” corresponding to the three subtasks listed below; deliverables were tied to the individual subtasks.

  6. Combining Front Vehicle Detection with 3D Pose Estimation for a Better Driver Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistant systems enhance traffic safety and efficiency. The accurate 3D pose of a front vehicle can help a driver to make the right decision on the road. We propose a novel real-time system to estimate the 3D pose of the front vehicle. This system consists of two parallel threads: vehicle rear tracking and mapping. The vehicle rear is first identified in the video captured by an onboard camera, after license plate localization and foreground extraction. The 3D pose estimation technique is then employed with respect to the extracted vehicle rear. Most current 3D pose estimation techniques need prior models or a stereo initialization with user cooperation. It is extremely difficult to obtain prior models due to the varying appearance of vehicles' rears. Moreover, it is unsafe to ask for drivers' cooperation when a vehicle is running. In our system, two initial keyframes for stereo algorithms are automatically extracted by vehicle rear detection and tracking. Map points are defined as a collection of point features extracted from the vehicle's rear with their 3D information. These map points are inferences that relate the 2D features detected in following vehicles' rears with the 3D world. The relative 3D pose of the onboard camera to the front vehicle rear is then estimated through matching the map points with point features detected on the front vehicle rear. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system by testing on real-time and synthesized videos. In order to make the experimental analysis visible, we demonstrated an estimated 3D pose through augmented reality, which needs accurate and real-time 3D pose estimation.

  7. Risk and Work Configuration Management as a Function of Integrated Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lana Buehrer; Michele Kelly; Fran Lemieux; Fred Williams

    2007-01-01

    National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), has established a work management program and corresponding electronic Facilities and Operations Management Information System (e-FOM) to implement Integrated Safety Management (ISM). The management of work scopes, the identification of hazards, and the establishment of implementing controls are reviewed and approved through electronic signatures. Through the execution of the program and the implementation of the electronic system, NSTec staff work within controls and utilize feedback and improvement process. The Integrated Work Control Manual further implements the five functions of ISM at the Activity level. By adding the Risk and Work Configuration Management program, NSTec establishes risk acceptance (business and physical) for liabilities within the performance direction and work management processes. Requirements, roles, and responsibilities are specifically identified in the program while e-FOM provides the interface and establishes the flowdown from the Safety Chain to work and facilities management processes to company work-related directives, and finally to Subject Matter Expert concurrence. The Program establishes, within the defined management structure, management levels for risk identification, risk mitigation (controls), and risk acceptance (business and physical) within the Safety Chain of Responsibility. The Program also implements Integrated Safeguards and Security Management within the NSTec Safety Chain of Responsibility. Once all information has been entered into e-FOM, approved, and captured as data, the information becomes searchable and sortable by hazard, location, organization, mitigating controls, etc

  8. Drugged Driving: Increased Traffic Risks Involving Licit and Illicit Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…

  9. Human health and safety risks management in underground coal mines using fuzzy TOPSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdevari, Satar, E-mail: satar.mahdevari@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriar, Kourosh [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfahanipour, Akbar [Industrial Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    The scrutiny of health and safety of personnel working in underground coal mines is heightened because of fatalities and disasters that occur every year worldwide. A methodology based on fuzzy TOPSIS was proposed to assess the risks associated with human health in order to manage control measures and support decision-making, which could provide the right balance between different concerns, such as safety and costs. For this purpose, information collected from three hazardous coal mines namely Hashouni, Hojedk and Babnizu located at the Kerman coal deposit, Iran, were used to manage the risks affecting the health and safety of their miners. Altogether 86 hazards were identified and classified under eight categories: geomechanical, geochemical, electrical, mechanical, chemical, environmental, personal, and social, cultural and managerial risks. Overcoming the uncertainty of qualitative data, the ranking process is accomplished by fuzzy TOPSIS. After running the model, twelve groups with different risks were obtained. Located in the first group, the most important risks with the highest negative effects are: materials falling, catastrophic failure, instability of coalface and immediate roof, firedamp explosion, gas emission, misfire, stopping of ventilation system, wagon separation at inclines, asphyxiation, inadequate training and poor site management system. According to the results, the proposed methodology can be a reliable technique for management of the minatory hazards and coping with uncertainties affecting the health and safety of miners when performance ratings are imprecise. The proposed model can be primarily designed to identify potential hazards and help in taking appropriate measures to minimize or remove the risks before accidents can occur. - Highlights: • Risks associated with health and safety of coal miners were investigated. • A reliable methodology based on Fuzzy TOPSIS was developed to manage the risks. • Three underground mines in Kerman

  10. Human health and safety risks management in underground coal mines using fuzzy TOPSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdevari, Satar; Shahriar, Kourosh; Esfahanipour, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The scrutiny of health and safety of personnel working in underground coal mines is heightened because of fatalities and disasters that occur every year worldwide. A methodology based on fuzzy TOPSIS was proposed to assess the risks associated with human health in order to manage control measures and support decision-making, which could provide the right balance between different concerns, such as safety and costs. For this purpose, information collected from three hazardous coal mines namely Hashouni, Hojedk and Babnizu located at the Kerman coal deposit, Iran, were used to manage the risks affecting the health and safety of their miners. Altogether 86 hazards were identified and classified under eight categories: geomechanical, geochemical, electrical, mechanical, chemical, environmental, personal, and social, cultural and managerial risks. Overcoming the uncertainty of qualitative data, the ranking process is accomplished by fuzzy TOPSIS. After running the model, twelve groups with different risks were obtained. Located in the first group, the most important risks with the highest negative effects are: materials falling, catastrophic failure, instability of coalface and immediate roof, firedamp explosion, gas emission, misfire, stopping of ventilation system, wagon separation at inclines, asphyxiation, inadequate training and poor site management system. According to the results, the proposed methodology can be a reliable technique for management of the minatory hazards and coping with uncertainties affecting the health and safety of miners when performance ratings are imprecise. The proposed model can be primarily designed to identify potential hazards and help in taking appropriate measures to minimize or remove the risks before accidents can occur. - Highlights: • Risks associated with health and safety of coal miners were investigated. • A reliable methodology based on Fuzzy TOPSIS was developed to manage the risks. • Three underground mines in Kerman

  11. Problems of making decisions with account of risk and safety factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larichev, O I

    1987-01-01

    New trends in making decisions on accidents when using large-scale technologies-NPPs, chemical plants etc., are considered. Three main directions in the investigations in this field are distinguished. One of them consists in risk measuring (its perception by people, ways of its quantitative determination). The second direction consists in increasing the safety of large-scale production systems. Here the following questions are considered: risk assessment (the safety standard statement), site selection for new systems, man-machine interaction problems, development of safer technologies, cost benefit safety analysis. The third direction is connected with the problem of accidents and their analysis. This direction includes considering the reasons and process of the accident development, preparing for the possible accidents, monitoring under extreme conditions, accident effect analysis.

  12. Problems of making decisions with account of risk and safety factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larichev, O.I.

    1987-01-01

    New trends in making decisions on accidents when using large-scale technologies-NPPs, chemical plants etc., are considered. Three main directions in the investigations in this field are distinguished. One of them consists in risk measuring (its perception by people, ways of its quantitative determination). The second direction consists in increasing the safety of large-scale production systems. Here the following questions are considered: risk assessment (the safety standard statement), site selection for new systems, man-machine interaction problems, development of safer technologies, cost benefit safety analysis. The third direction is connected with the problem of accidents and their analysis. This direction includes considering the reasons and process of the accident development, preparing for the possible accidents, monitoring under extreme conditions, accident effect analysis

  13. An integrated risk sensing system for geo-structural safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W. Huang; D.M. Zhang; B.M. Ayyub

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, geo-structures are experiencing a rapid development in China. The potential risks inherent in the huge amount of construction and asset operation projects in China were well managed in the major project, i.e. the project of Shanghai Yangtze tunnel in 2002. Since then, risk assessment of geo-structures has been gradually developed from a qualitative manner to a quantitative manner. However, the current practices of risk management have been paid considerable attention to the assessment, but little on risk control. As a result, the responses to risks occurrences after a comprehensive assessment are basically too late. In this paper, a smart system for risk sensing incorporating the wireless sensor network (WSN) on-site visualization techniques and the resilience-based repair strategy was proposed. The merit of this system is the real-time monitoring for geo-structural performance and dynamic pre-warning for safety of on-site workers. The sectional convergence, joint opening, and seepage of segmental lining of shield tunnel were monitored by the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based sensors. The light emitting diode (LED) coupling with the above WSN system was used to indicate different risk levels on site. By sensing the risks and telling the risks in real time, the geo-risks could be controlled and the safety of geo-structures could be assured to a certain degree. Finally, a resilience-based analysis model was proposed for designing the repair strategy by using the measured data from the WSN system. The application and efficiency of this system have been validated by two cases including Shanghai metro tunnel and underwater road tunnel.

  14. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beuzekom Martie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that

  15. Workplace road safety risk management: An investigation into Australian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, more than 30% of the traffic volume can be attributed to work-related vehicles. Although work-related driver safety has been given increasing attention in the scientific literature, it is uncertain how well this knowledge has been translated into practice in industry. It is also unclear how current practice in industry can inform scientific knowledge. The aim of the research was to use a benchmarking tool developed by the National Road Safety Partnership Program to assess industry maturity in relation to risk management practices. A total of 83 managers from a range of small, medium and large organisations were recruited through the Victorian Work Authority. Semi-structured interviews aimed at eliciting information on current organisational practices, as well as policy and procedures around work-related driving were conducted and the data mapped onto the benchmarking tool. Overall, the results demonstrated varying levels of maturity of risk management practices across organisations, highlighting the need to build accountability within organisations, improve communication practices, improve journey management, reduce vehicle-related risk, improve driver competency through an effective workplace road safety management program and review organisational incident and infringement management. The findings of the study have important implications for industry and highlight the need to review current risk management practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Challenges of Safety Culture: No more risk!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Melnikova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to A. Maslow’s [1] hierarchy of human needs the need for safety and security is a priority for mankind. The concept ‘safety culture’ appeared only in 1986, when theChernobyldisaster made the whole world muse upon human relationship with technology [2]. This global catastrophe was a caution, but not for everyone. Potent academic systems and elaborated instruments of a huge economical value have been invoked in maintaining the satisfaction of biogenetic needs, whereas any manual on safety topic has not been issued yet. Even such progressive communities as the European Union, elaborating long-term strategic decisions, do not find clear and reasonable principles that would encourage to choose safe technologies with respect to present and future generations. Giving way to the ostensible effectiveness of centralized technologies such as equipment, communication, energetic that are well-disposed to big business, the majority of politicians and even scientists are not able to estimate the risk that is programmed in the choice of dangerous and insecure technical decisions. It is not still realized that none of the technologies is worth a human life or safety.The level of social maturity is a factor stipulating the merge of two concepts ‘safety’ and „a person“. At the time when industrial priorities were dominant the concept ‘safety techniques’ had been used putting stress on peculiarities of working with technical devices and on the ways manpower could be adjusted to them. Later the term ‘Safety of labour’ appeared. It drew attention to the labour process and its peculiarities. The assimilation of European culture has determined the introduction of the notion ‘personnel safety and health’ to labour relations. The postindustrial stage of humanity development brings the new understanding of major values. Individual is now identified as a personality as well as human life is understood as the major value. The natural

  17. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  18. Safety Politics and Risk Perceptions in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    Abstract The book deals with the analysis of work hazards and safety in industrial enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia, Southeast Asia. It traces the development of this theme of conflict within the context constituted by state, labour market and labour-management relations in Malaysia. The book...... and safety, when compared with the influence of local conditions? What kind of process develops, as local theory about work hazards are formed among workers. And, which are the opportunities for changing working environment institutions in Malaysia? The first part of the book discusses traditions...... by the state from Burawoy, Beronius, and Adesina about production politics and social relations in the labour process provides an integrated perspective on individual risk perceptions, safety practices in enterprises, and government regulation. The empirical data were collected during the period 1989...

  19. A quantitative approach to the risk perception associated with nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective risk perception associated with nuclear safety is hard-wired into the general public psyche; but as real as this 'feels', and as much as it requires to be respected in a democracy, misguided risk perception on nuclear safety can create its own perils for humans. The objective of this paper is to create a better understanding of the phenomena of risk perception associated with nuclear safety presented by journalistic media. It will attempt to quantify the manifestation of risk perception associated with nuclear safety by providing comparison between the media coverage of nuclear and industrial accidents of similar magnitude. It will utilise the Fog Index, a mathematical formula that defines the readability of an article, allowing for an unbiased numerical comparison on 'readability' to be derived. Fog Index is expressed as: Fog Index = 0.4(N/S + 100*L/N), where N is the number of words in the article, S is the number of sentences and L is the number of words with 3 syllables or more. To provide consistency, the medium chosen to compare industrial accidents are reports extracted from 'The Times' newspaper, written at the time of the accidents and concerning Chernobyl and Bhopal disasters. 'The Times' is respected newspaper, written for a knowledgeable audience who have an in-depth interest in the news from the UK and abroad; subsequently this causes it to have a relatively high Fog index, compared to its tabloid counterparts. The higher the Fog Index, the more education the reader requires to fully understand the article, a Fog Index of 12 is the limit for the majority of the general public. Research found that reporting of nuclear safety accidents has a Fog Index of approximately 14 while it was only of 10 for Bhopal accident. These values go someway in demonstrating that the complexity of media information on nuclear safety transferred via journalistic media is beyond what can reasonably be expected to be

  20. The role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, Ajit; Professor, Visiting

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment by examining the reasons for human-based error. The need for more emphasis on producing engineers with good engineering judgement is described. The progress in quantifying the role of safety culture and organizational factors in risk assessment studies is summarized

  1. Improved Safety Margin Characterization of Risk from Loss of Offsite Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Original intent: The original intent of this task was ''support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characteristic (RISMC) methodology in order'' ''to address ... efficiency of computation so that more accurate and cost-effective techniques can be used to address safety margin characterizations'' (S. M. Hess et al., ''Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization,'' Procs. ICONE17, Brussels, July 2009, CD format). It was intended that ''in Task 1 itself this improvement will be directed toward upon the very important issue of Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) events,'' more specifically toward the challenge of efficient computation of the multidimensional nonrecovery integral that has been discussed by many previous contributors to the theory of nuclear safety. It was further envisioned that ''three different computational approaches will be explored,'' corresponding to the three subtasks listed below; deliverables were tied to the individual subtasks.

  2. Application of risk assessment in upgrading safety and quality of radiochemical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.; Hightower, J.R.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1990-01-01

    A Comprehensive Safety Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP) was commenced by the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to achieve excellence in the safety and quality of its operations and condition of its facilities. In the course of conducting CSAUP, a number of issues of concern were identified. The safety risk of these issues has been assessed, and planned actions were prepared for those issues that require corrective actions or improvement/upgrading. The planned actions were evaluated on consideration for the uniqueness of Chem Tech facilities and operations to determine the risks (high, moderate or low) involved by failure to implement the actions. The risk was defined in terms of the frequency and severity of impact. Priority of categorized actions was based on the urgency of the actions. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. HySTAR: the hydrogen safety training and risk workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the output of the software package HySTAR, the Hydrogen Safety, Training and Risk Workplace. This is the software output of the CTFA, Canadian Hydrogen Safety Program projects. It shows the Hydrogen Virtual Interactive Expert Workplace, a guide for permitting and code enforcement for officials and other parties involved in approving hydrogen energy facilities. It also shows the Hydrogen Codes and Standards Report (Site Level) as well as Hydrogen Distances and Clearances Report

  4. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  5. A Practical Risk Assessment Methodology for Safety-Critical Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project proposes a Practical Risk Assessment Methodology (PRAM) for analyzing railroad accident data and assessing the risk and benefit of safety-critical train control systems. This report documents in simple steps the algorithms and data input...

  6. 75 FR 17417 - Joint Meeting of the Arthritis Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...] Joint Meeting of the Arthritis Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory... Arthritis Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. This meeting was... Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee would be held on May 12, 2010. On page 10490, in the...

  7. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety; Programa de geracao termonuclear: seus riscos e segurancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-07-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process.

  8. Knowledge management and safety compliance in a high-risk distributed organizational system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressgård, Leif Jarle

    2014-06-01

    In a safety perspective, efficient knowledge management is important for learning purposes and thus to prevent errors from occurring repeatedly. The relationship between knowledge exchange among employees and safety behavior may be of particular importance in distributed organizational systems where similar high-risk activities take place at several locations. This study develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship between knowledge exchange systems usage, knowledge exchange in the organizational system, and safety compliance. The operational context of the study is petroleum drilling and well operations involving distributed high-risk activities. The hypotheses are tested by use of survey data collected from a large petroleum operator company and eight of its main contractors. The results show that safety compliance is influenced by use of knowledge exchange systems and degree of knowledge exchange in the organizational system, both within and between units. System usage is the most important predictor, and safety compliance seems to be more strongly related to knowledge exchange within units than knowledge exchange between units. Overall, the study shows that knowledge management is central for safety behavior.

  9. mHealth and mobile medical Apps: a framework to assess risk and promote safer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-09-15

    The use of mobile medical apps by clinicians and others has grown considerably since the introduction of mobile phones. Medical apps offer clinicians the ability to access medical knowledge and patient data at the point of care, but several studies have highlighted apps that could compromise patient safety and are potentially dangerous. This article identifies a range of different kinds of risks that medical apps can contribute to and important contextual variables that can modify these risks. We have also developed a simple generic risk framework that app users, developers, and other stakeholders can use to assess the likely risks posed by a specific app in a specific context. This should help app commissioners, developers, and users to manage risks and improve patient safety.

  10. Risks and safety perception. IPSN barometer october 1999. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    An opinion investigation was realized in october 1999 by the IPSN to know the public opinion concerning the risks and safety perception. Five subjects were treated: the public care subjects (social and environment); the science and scientists image; the food risks; the opinion on the nuclear activities (interveners ability and credibility, nuclear controversy, radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents); the french people cares about the risks. The methodology and the analysis of the poll results are detailed. Tables of data investigation are also included. (A.L.B.)

  11. Use of reliability engineering tools in safety and risk assessment of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Amanda Laureano; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Marques, Raíssa Oliveira; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: amandaraso@hotmail.com, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    Safety, reliability and availability are fundamental criteria in design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as nuclear power plants. Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments of such facilities are required by regulatory authorities in order to meet licensing regulations, contributing to assure safety, as well as reduce costs and environmental impacts. Probabilistic Risk Assessment has become an important part of licensing requirements of the nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the world. Risk can be defined as a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of accident sequence frequencies (or probabilities) and their consequences. Risk management is a systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to identify, analyze, plan, implement, control, communicate and document risks. Several tools and computer codes must be combined, in order to estimate both probabilities and consequences of accidents. Event Tree Analysis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD), and Markov models are examples of evaluation tools that can support the safety and risk assessment for analyzing process systems, identifying potential accidents, and estimating consequences. Because of complexity of such analyzes, specialized computer codes are required, such as the reliability engineering software develop by Reliasoft® Corporation. BlockSim (FTA, RBD and Markov models), RENO (ETA and consequence assessment), Weibull++ (life data and uncertainty analysis), and Xfmea (qualitative risk assessment) are some codes that can be highlighted. This work describes an integrated approach using these tools and software to carry out reliability, safety, and risk assessment of nuclear facilities, as well as, and application example. (author)

  12. Use of reliability engineering tools in safety and risk assessment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Amanda Laureano; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Marques, Raíssa Oliveira; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Safety, reliability and availability are fundamental criteria in design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as nuclear power plants. Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments of such facilities are required by regulatory authorities in order to meet licensing regulations, contributing to assure safety, as well as reduce costs and environmental impacts. Probabilistic Risk Assessment has become an important part of licensing requirements of the nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the world. Risk can be defined as a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of accident sequence frequencies (or probabilities) and their consequences. Risk management is a systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to identify, analyze, plan, implement, control, communicate and document risks. Several tools and computer codes must be combined, in order to estimate both probabilities and consequences of accidents. Event Tree Analysis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD), and Markov models are examples of evaluation tools that can support the safety and risk assessment for analyzing process systems, identifying potential accidents, and estimating consequences. Because of complexity of such analyzes, specialized computer codes are required, such as the reliability engineering software develop by Reliasoft® Corporation. BlockSim (FTA, RBD and Markov models), RENO (ETA and consequence assessment), Weibull++ (life data and uncertainty analysis), and Xfmea (qualitative risk assessment) are some codes that can be highlighted. This work describes an integrated approach using these tools and software to carry out reliability, safety, and risk assessment of nuclear facilities, as well as, and application example. (author)

  13. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  14. Efficient improvement of nuclear power plant safety by reorganization of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods for piping welded portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Takashi; Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Suyama, Takeshi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Morota, Hidetsugu; Kojima, Sigeo; Mizuno, Yoshinobu [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In this work, risk information was used to evaluate the safety importance of piping welded portions which were important for plant operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. There are two types of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods, namely the ASME method and the EPRI method. Since both methods have advantages and disadvantages, elements of each method were combined and reorganized. Considerations included whether the degradation mechanisms would be objectively evaluated and whether plant safety would be efficiently improved. The most objective and efficient method was as follows. Piping failure potential is quantitatively and objectively evaluated for failure with probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and for other degradation mechanisms with empirical failure rates, and conditional core damage probability (CCDP) is calculated with PSA. This method reduces the inspected segment numbers to 1/4 of the deterministic method and increases the ratio of risk, which is covered by the inspected segments, to total risk from 80% of the deterministic method to 95%. Piping inspection numbers decreased for safety injection systems that were required the inspections by the deterministic method. Piping inspections were required for part of main feed water and main steam systems that were not required the inspections by the deterministic method. (author)

  15. BARC-risk monitor- a tool for operational safety assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Babar, A.K.; Hadap, Nikhil

    2000-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment has become a key tool as on today to identify and understand nuclear power plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. Risk monitor is a PC based tool, which computes the real time safety level and assists plant personnel to manage day-to-day activities. Risk monitor is a PC based user friendly software tool used for modification and re-analysis of a nuclear power plant. Operation of risk monitor is based on PSA methods for assisting in day to day applications. Risk monitoring programs can assess the risk profile and are used to optimise the operation of nuclear power plants with respect to a minimum risk level over the operating time. This report presents the background activities of risk monitor, its application areas and also gives the status of such tools in international scenarios. The software is based on the PSA model of Kaiga generating station and would be applicable to similar design configuration. (author)

  16. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies' inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeman, Cassandra D. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Sociology (United States); Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Satterfield, Terre A. [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States); Holden, Patricia A. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: harthorn@cns.ucsb.edu [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated 'lack of information' as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  17. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  18. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2015-12-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men's health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of thirteen researchers and health and safety stakeholders completed a critical literature review examining the intersection between masculinities and men's workplace health and safety in order to: (i) account for research previously undertaken in this area; (ii) identify themes that may inform our understanding of masculinity and workplace health and safety and; (iii) identify research and practice gaps in relation to men's workplace health and safety. In this paper we present key themes from this review. Recommendations are made regarding: (i) how to define gender; (ii) how to attend to and identify how masculinities may influence workers' identities, perceptions of occupational risks and how institutionalized practices can reinforce norms of masculinity; (iii) the importance of considering how masculinities may intersect with other variables (e.g. historical context, age, class, race, geographical location) and; (iv) the added significance of present-day labour market forces on men's occupational health and safety.

  19. Risk assessment of computer-controlled safety systems for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.; Bruske, S.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of fusion reactor systems and the need to display, analyze, and react promptly to large amounts of information during reactor operation will require a number of safety systems in the fusion facilities to be computer controlled. Computer software, therefore, must be included in the reactor safety analyses. Unfortunately, the science of integrating computer software into safety analyses is in its infancy. Combined plant hardware and computer software systems are often treated by making simple assumptions about software performance. This method is not acceptable for assessing risks in the complex fusion systems, and a new technique for risk assessment of combined plant hardware and computer software systems has been developed. This technique is an extension of the traditional fault tree analysis and uses structured flow charts of the software in a manner analogous to wiring or piping diagrams of hardware. The software logic determines the form of much of the fault trees

  20. Genetically Modified Foods: A Brief Overview of the Risk Assessment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Paige E

    2016-02-18

    Billions of people worldwide are unable to meet their daily micro nutritional needs. Genetically modified (GM) foods, while initially developed to tolerate herbicides and resist disease and insects, have the potential to help alleviate this issue that is currently posing a serious public health concern. However, there is a negative public perception surrounding GM foods, calling for more research regarding the risks that GM foods could pose to the public, specifically on the topics of allergenicity and gene transfer. The risk assessments of GM foods should be performed on a case-by-case basis, by a process outlined by the WHO. The goal of determining food safety is to obtain reasonable certainty that under normal levels of consumption, there will be no harm to people. Current research has shown that GM foods do not cause increased allergenicity or have a meaningful risk of gene transfer to people. GM foods should become publicly accepted products that can bring significant benefit to people at risk of under nutrition.

  1. A 3S Risk ?3SR? Assessment Approach for Nuclear Power: Safety Security and Safeguards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Robert; Reinhardt, Jason Christian; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Williams, Adam David

    2017-11-01

    Safety-focused risk analysis and assessment approaches struggle to adequately include malicious, deliberate acts against the nuclear power industry's fissile and waste material, infrastructure, and facilities. Further, existing methods do not adequately address non- proliferation issues. Treating safety, security, and safeguards concerns independently is inefficient because, at best, it may not take explicit advantage of measures that provide benefits against multiple risk domains, and, at worst, it may lead to implementations that increase overall risk due to incompatibilities. What is needed is an integrated safety, security and safeguards risk (or "3SR") framework for describing and assessing nuclear power risks that can enable direct trade-offs and interactions in order to inform risk management processes -- a potential paradigm shift in risk analysis and management. These proceedings of the Sandia ePRA Workshop (held August 22-23, 2017) are an attempt to begin the discussions and deliberations to extend and augment safety focused risk assessment approaches to include security concerns and begin moving towards a 3S Risk approach. Safeguards concerns were not included in this initial workshop and are left to future efforts. This workshop focused on four themes in order to begin building out a the safety and security portions of the 3S Risk toolkit: 1. Historical Approaches and Tools 2. Current Challenges 3. Modern Approaches 4. Paths Forward and Next Steps This report is organized along the four areas described above, and concludes with a summary of key points. 2 Contact: rforres@sandia.gov; +1 (925) 294-2728

  2. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  3. A risk characterization of safety research areas for integral fast reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Tibbrook, R.W.; Wei, T.Y.; Wright, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of integral fast reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure to critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR safety and related base technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorities

  4. A risk characterization of safety research areas for Integral Fast Reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure of critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR Safety and related Base Technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorites

  5. Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

  6. Acceptable risk in reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.; Shinozuka, M.; Shah, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Acceptable risk is defined in terms of its five basic parameters: the hazard or problem; the probability of occurrence; the consequence; the possible alternative actions; and the value system of the community or the society. The problem of consistency in design at a site and between differing sites is discussed and solutions are suggested. Techniques for consistent deterministic and probabilistic setting limits and design standards are illustrated using data from AEC Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400. The influence of level of consequence is discussed and a general methodology for decision analysis in resource allocation problem is briefly introduced and illustrated. The concept of acceptable risk is put in a quantitative format that can be used by engineers and planners. Bayesian statistical methods are introduced to develop the methodologies

  7. MANAGEMENT PROCESS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK IN THE NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Akwu, Ifeoma Claris

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the state of health and safety risk management practices in the building sector of the construction industry with the objective to examine the health and safety risk management processes adopted by the construction industry in Nigeria; the study adopted the survey and case study research design. It employed the use of Delphi’s technique in the distribution of questionnaire and made use of chi-square analytical technique for the analysis of gathered data. The findings reveal...

  8. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim

    2015-01-01

    action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health. Scope and approach The advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring the safety of food chemicals, allergens, ingredients and microorganisms were...

  9. Food Safety Management in a Global Environment: The Role of Risk Assessment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Pila, Joaquin; Jimeno, Vicente; Manzano, Amparo; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Mar Fernandez, Maria Del

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment models are playing a minor role in the development of the new EU legal framework for food safety. There is a tendency of the EU institutions to apply the precautionary principle versus the predisposition of the USA institutions to rely on risk analysis. This paper provides a comparison of the role played by quantitative risk assessment models in the development of new policies on food safety in the EU and in the USA, focusing on a study case: the supply chain of s...

  10. HSE assessment of explosion risk analysis in offshore safety cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brighton, P.W.M.; Fearnley, P.J.; Brearley, I.G. [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

    1995-12-31

    In the past two years HSE has assessed around 250 Safety Cases for offshore oil and gas installations, building up a unique overview of the current state of the art on fire and explosion risk assessment. This paper reviews the explosion risk methods employed, focusing on the aspects causing most difficulty for assessment and acceptance of Safety Cases. Prediction of overpressures in offshore explosions has been intensively researched in recent years but the justification of the means of prevention, control and mitigation of explosions often depends on much additional analysis of the frequency and damage potential of explosions. This involves a number of factors, the five usually considered being: leak sizes; gas dispersion; ignition probabilities; the frequency distribution of explosion strength; and the prediction of explosion damage. Sources of major uncertainty in these factors and their implications for practical risk management decisions are discussed. (author)

  11. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  12. Safety targets and public risk perceptions in the nuclear field - technical treadmill or institutional responses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1989-01-01

    The context of our treatment of risk perceptions and safety targets is the apparently wide gap between expert judgements of 'objective risks' and public perceptions of those risks. In the nuclear field the latter appear to so multiply the objective risks as seen by the experts, as to make safety targets vastly too strict (whether for routine discharges or for large accidents), thus design extravagantly expensive on any 'rational' criteria. In recent years the nuclear industry has come to terms more with the public perceptions problem, and has accepted that it is legitimate to exercise different, more severe and costly safety standards in the nuclear field if that is what society wants, as it appears to do. Whilst retaining the conviction that this is scientifically unwarranted, the industry has therefore reconciled itself somewhat to more stringent technical safety targets. (author)

  13. Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Melissa C; Carpenter, Calvin B; Colby, Lesley A

    2017-06-01

    Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards. This article will review responsibilities for institutional oversight of occupational health and safety for research involving biologic hazards.

  14. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  15. Diabetes management and hypoglycemia in safety sensitive jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, See-Muah; Koh, David; Chui, Winnie Kl; Sum, Chee-Fang

    2011-03-01

    The majority of people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are in the working age group in developing countries. The interrelationship of diabetes and work, that is, diabetes affecting work and work affecting diabetes, becomes an important issue for these people. Therapeutic options for the diabetic worker have been developed, and currently include various insulins, insulin sensitizers and secretagogues, incretin mimetics and enhancers, and alpha glucosidase inhibitors. Hypoglycemia and hypoglycaemic unawareness are important and unwanted treatment side effects. The risk they pose with respect to cognitive impairment can have safety implications. The understanding of the therapeutic options in the management of diabetic workers, blood glucose awareness training, and self-monitoring blood glucose will help to mitigate this risk. Employment decisions must also take into account the extent to which the jobs performed by the worker are safety sensitive. A risk assessment matrix, based on the extent to which a job is considered safety sensitive and based on the severity of the hypoglycaemia, may assist in determining one's fitness to work. Support at the workplace, such as a provision of healthy food options and arrangements for affected workers will be helpful for such workers. Arrangements include permission to carry and consume emergency sugar, flexible meal times, self-monitoring blood glucose when required, storage/disposal facilities for medicine such as insulin and needles, time off for medical appointments, and structured self-help programs.

  16. The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors? influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of c...

  17. Occupational Health and Safety: reflection on potential risks and the safety handling of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Frederico Bernardo Lenz e Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every day the nanotechnology, that refers to a field whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale working with nanometric structures (<100 nm, is more present in the development of products and industrial processes. The particle manipulation of nanometric structures has created opportunities in the development of new products and materials. However, synthesis, handling, storage, stabilization and the incorporation of these materials, with nanometric dimensions, demand a new perspective of analysis and evaluation of old manufacturing processes, procedures and industrial devices, in order to guarantee collective and individual protection to workers and society. With the increasing of scale and production of nanoestrutuctured materials, a big part of labour community starts to be in contact with different nanomaterials (forms and ways. In this work the main aspects and involved risks of manufacture, storage, synthesis, stabilization and incorporation of nanomaterials on new products are evaluated in order to reduce, decrease and eliminate chemical, physical and biological risks for the employees. A bibliographic review was conducted about risk, safety and nanotechnology based on available English literature focusing safety and environmental agencies from different countries such as USA, Canada, EU (France, UK, Germany, Den-mark, Australia and Japan.

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-8 - Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety. 257.3-8 Section 257.3-8... and Practices § 257.3-8 Safety. (a) Explosive gases. The concentration of explosive gases generated by... shall not pose a hazard to the safety of persons or property from fires. This may be accomplished...

  19. Can stress in farm animals increase food safety risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Marcos H

    2009-09-01

    All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.

  20. Risk-targeted safety distance of reinforced concrete buildings from natural-gas transmission pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Paola; Parisi, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Natural-gas pipeline accidents mostly result in major damage even to buildings located far away. Therefore, proper safety distances should be observed in land use planning to ensure target safety levels for both existing and new buildings. In this paper, a quantitative risk assessment procedure is presented for the estimation of the annual probability of direct structural damage to reinforced concrete buildings associated with high-pressure natural-gas pipeline explosions. The procedure is based on Monte Carlo simulation and takes into account physical features of blast generation and propagation, as well as damage to reinforced concrete columns. The natural-gas jet release process and the flammable cloud size are estimated through SLAB one-dimensional integral model incorporating a release rate model. The explosion effects are evaluated by a Multi-Energy Method. Damage to reinforced concrete columns is predicted by means of pressure–impulse diagrams. The conditional probability of damage was estimated at multiple pressure–impulse levels, allowing blast fragility surfaces to be derived at different performance limit states. Finally, blast risk was evaluated and allowed the estimation of minimum pipeline-to-building safety distances for risk-informed urban planning. The probabilistic procedure presented herein may be used for performance-based design/assessment of buildings and to define the path of new natural-gas pipeline networks. - Highlights: • The safety of buildings against blast loads due to pipeline accidents is assessed. • A probabilistic risk assessment procedure is presented for natural-gas pipelines. • The annual risk of collapse of reinforced concrete building columns is evaluated. • Monte Carlo simulation was carried out considering both pipeline and column features. • A risk-targeted safety distance is proposed for blast strength class 9.

  1. Concentrations of and health risks posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans around industrial sites in Hebei Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Sintering and steel production as the main emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may affect environment and human health. The concentrations, profiles, and distributions of PCDD/Fs in soil samples from around four typical sintering and steel production...... plants in Hebei Province, China, were determined. Forty-six soil samples were collected at distances from 500 to 9000 m from industrial plant chimneys. The concentrations of total 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the soil samples from sites A, B, C, and D were in the range 11-130, 13-284, 2...... will be exposed to low amounts of PCDD/Fs in soil from around the industrial sites, and this exposure will pose potential health risks for the local population living at distances of less than 1000 m from nearest stack but will have no high health risks for people living further away. These results...

  2. Taking up national safety alerts to improve patient safety in hospitals: The perspective of healthcare quality and risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Schwappach, David

    2016-01-01

    National safety alert systems publish relevant information to improve patient safety in hospitals. However, the information has to be transformed into local action to have an effect on patient safety. We studied three research questions: How do Swiss healthcare quality and risk managers (qm/rm(1)) see their own role in learning from safety alerts issued by the Swiss national voluntary reporting and analysis system? What are their attitudes towards and evaluations of the alerts, and which types of improvement actions were fostered by the safety alerts? A survey was developed and applied to Swiss healthcare risk and quality managers, with a response rate of 39 % (n=116). Descriptive statistics are presented. The qm/rm disseminate and communicate with a broad variety of professional groups about the alerts. While most respondents felt that they should know the alerts and their contents, only a part of them felt responsible for driving organizational change based on the recommendations. However, most respondents used safety alerts to back up their own patient safety goals. The alerts were evaluated positively on various dimensions such as usefulness and were considered as standards of good practice by the majority of the respondents. A range of organizational responses was applied, with disseminating information being the most common. An active role is related to using safety alerts for backing up own patient safety goals. To support an active role of qm/rm in their hospital's learning from safety alerts, appropriate organizational structures should be developed. Furthermore, they could be given special information or training to act as an information hub on the issues discussed in the alerts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Blood Safety: Modeling the Transfusion-Transmission Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Philip; Gambhir, Manoj; Cheng, Allen C; McQuilten, Zoe K; Seed, Clive R; Wood, Erica M

    2017-07-01

    While the transfusion-transmission (TT) risk associated with the major transfusion-relevant viruses such as HIV is now very low, during the last 20 years there has been a growing awareness of the threat to blood safety from emerging infectious diseases, a number of which are known to be, or are potentially, transfusion transmissible. Two published models for estimating the transfusion-transmission risk from EIDs, referred to as the Biggerstaff-Petersen model and the European Upfront Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT), respectively, have been applied to several EIDs in outbreak situations. We describe and compare the methodological principles of both models, highlighting their similarities and differences. We also discuss the appropriateness of comparing results from the two models. Quantitating the TT risk of EIDs can inform decisions about risk mitigation strategies and their cost-effectiveness. Finally, we present a qualitative risk assessment for Zika virus (ZIKV), an EID agent that has caused several outbreaks since 2007. In the latest and largest ever outbreak, several probable cases of transfusion-transmission ZIKV have been reported, indicating that it is transfusion-transmissible and therefore a risk to blood safety. We discuss why quantitative modeling the TT risk of ZIKV is currently problematic. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, D N; Leggat, P A

    1999-09-01

    , unnecessary risk-taking and avoidable injury. This retrospective study has shown that attacks on tourists by wild mammals in South Africa are an uncommon cause of injury and death. Sensible precautions to minimize this risk include remaining in a secure motor vehicle or adequately fenced precincts while in the vicinity of large mammals, rigidly observing nature reserve instructions, never approaching animals that appear ill, malnourished, displaying aggressive behavior traits or female wild mammals with young, and demanding adequately trained and experienced game rangers when embarking on walking trails. Any behavior that might be construed as antagonistic and which could provoke an attack by large mammals should be avoided (e.g., driving directly at a lion). Visitors need to be informed of classic signs of aggression, in particular in elephants, which will allow timely avoidance measures to be taken. The risk-enhancing effect of excessive alcohol intake is undesirable in the game reserve setting, as is driving at high speed after dusk in areas where hippos graze. Local advice on personal safety in wildlife reserves and the credentials of trail guides should be obtained from lodge or reserve management, tourism authorities or the travel industry prior to travel to game reserves.

  5. External flood probabilistic safety analysis of a coastal NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisharady, Ajai S.; Chakraborty, M.K.; Acharya, Sourav; Roshan, A.D.; Bishnoi, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    External events pose a definitive challenge to safety of NPP, solely due to their ability to induce common cause failures. Flooding incidents at Le Blayais NPP, France, Fort Calhoun NPP, USA and Fukushima Daiichi have pointed to the importance of external flooding as an important contributor to NPP risk. A methodology developed for external flood PSA of a coastal NPP vulnerable to flooding due to tsunami, cyclonic storm and intense local precipitation is presented in this paper. Different tasks for EFPSA has been identified along with general approach for completing each task

  6. Results of the Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of internal events for heavy water production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinnes, S.P.; Cramer, D.S.; Logan, V.E.; Topp, S.V.; Smith, J.A.; Brandyberry, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is being performed for the Savannah River site (SRS) production reactors. The Level 1 PRA for the K Reactor has been completed and includes the assessment of reactor systems response to accidents and estimates of the severe core melt frequency (SCMF). The internal events spectrum includes those events related directly to plant systems and safety functions for which transients or failures may initiate an accident. The SRS PRA has three principal objectives: improved understanding of SRS reactor safety issues through discovery and understanding of the mechanisms involved. Improved risk management capability through tools for assessing the safety impact of both current standard operations and proposed revisions. A quantitative measure of the risks posed by SRS reactor operation to employees and the general public, to allow comparison with declared goals and other societal risks

  7. Safe patient care - safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, Michael

    2013-12-13

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization's maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization's safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team trainings into their

  8. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum

  9. Safety in psychiatric inpatient care: The impact of risk management culture on mental health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemon, Allie; Jenkins, Emily; Bungay, Vicky

    2017-10-01

    The discourse of safety has informed the care of individuals with mental illness through institutionalization and into modern psychiatric nursing practices. Confinement arose from safety: out of both societal stigma and fear for public safety, as well as benevolently paternalistic aims to protect individuals from self-harm. In this paper, we argue that within current psychiatric inpatient environments, safety is maintained as the predominant value, and risk management is the cornerstone of nursing care. Practices that accord with this value are legitimized and perpetuated through the safety discourse, despite evidence refuting their efficacy, and patient perspectives demonstrating harm. To illustrate this growing concern in mental health nursing care, we provide four exemplars of risk management strategies utilized in psychiatric inpatient settings: close observations, seclusion, door locking and defensive nursing practice. The use of these strategies demonstrates the necessity to shift perspectives on safety and risk in nursing care. We suggest that to re-centre meaningful support and treatment of clients, nurses should provide individualized, flexible care that incorporates safety measures while also fundamentally re-evaluating the risk management culture that gives rise to and legitimizes harmful practices. © 2017 The Authors Nursing Inquiry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Improved safety culture and labor-management relations attributed to changing at-risk behavior process at Union Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Changing At-Risk Behavior (CAB) is a safety process that is being conducted at Union Pacifics San Antonio Service Unit (SASU) with the aim of improving road and yard safety. CAB is an example of a proactive safety risk-reduction method called Clea...

  11. Multi-task pose-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-03-01

    Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.

  12. Exemplar-based human action pose correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Deng, Ke; Bai, Xiang; Leyvand, Tommer; Guo, Baining; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-07-01

    The launch of Xbox Kinect has built a very successful computer vision product and made a big impact on the gaming industry. This sheds lights onto a wide variety of potential applications related to action recognition. The accurate estimation of human poses from the depth image is universally a critical step. However, existing pose estimation systems exhibit failures when facing severe occlusion. In this paper, we propose an exemplar-based method to learn to correct the initially estimated poses. We learn an inhomogeneous systematic bias by leveraging the exemplar information within a specific human action domain. Furthermore, as an extension, we learn a conditional model by incorporation of pose tags to further increase the accuracy of pose correction. In the experiments, significant improvements on both joint-based skeleton correction and tag prediction are observed over the contemporary approaches, including what is delivered by the current Kinect system. Our experiments for the facial landmark correction also illustrate that our algorithm can improve the accuracy of other detection/estimation systems.

  13. Understanding human and organisational factors - Nuclear safety and at-risk organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses human and organisational factors which are present at different moments of the lifetime of an at-risk installation (from design to dismantling). At-risk organisations are considered as firstly human systems, and the objective is then to highlight individual and collective mechanisms in these organisations. Several questions are addressed, notably the origins of at-risk behaviour, and the reasons of the repetition of errors by these organisations. A first chapter, while referring to examples, addresses the human dimension of safety: human and organisational factors as obstacles, normal accidents (Three Mile Island), accidents in high-reliability organisations (Chernobyl), identification of root causes (Tokai-mura), and social-technical approach to safety (Fukushima). By also referring to examples, the second chapter addresses how to analyse at-risk organisations: individual behaviours (case of naval and air transport accidents), team coordination (a fire, the Challenger accident), and organisational regulation (organisations forms and routines, explosion of BP Texas City, explosion of Columbia)

  14. 76 FR 63929 - Joint Meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee and the Dermatologic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ...] Joint Meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee and the Dermatologic and... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committees: Drug Safety and Risk Management... Safe Use (ETASU) before its Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee (DSaRM). On December 1...

  15. Risk management: integration of social and technical risk variables into safety assessments of LWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnage, J.J.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A risk management methodology is developed here to formalize the acceptability levels of commercial LWR power plants via the estimation of risk levels acceptable to the public and the integration of such estimates into risk-benefit analysis. Utility theory is used for developing preference models based on value trade-offs among multiple objectives and uncertainties about the impact of alternatives. The method involves reducing the various variables affecting safety acceptability decisions to a single function that provides a metric for acceptability levels. The function accomondates for technical criteria related to design and licensing decisions, as well as public reactions to certain choices

  16. Agency perspectives on food safety for the products of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, H J; Jones, K M; Rudenko, L

    2012-08-01

    Animal biotechnology represents one subset of tools among a larger set of technologies for potential use to meet increasing world demands for food. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer continue to make positive contributions in food animal production. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performed a comprehensive risk assessment to identify potential food consumption or animal health risks associated with animal cloning, an emerging ART. At that time, FDA concluded that animal cloning posed no unique risks either to animal health or to food consumption, and food from animal clones and their sexually reproduced offspring required no additional federal regulation beyond that applicable to conventionally bred animals of the species examined. At this time, no new information has arisen that would necessitate a change in FDA's conclusions on food from animal clones or their sexually reproduced offspring. Use of recombinant DNA technologies to produce genetically engineered (GE) animals represents another emerging technology with potential to impact food animal production. In its regulation of GE animals, FDA follows a cumulative, risk-based approach to address scientific questions related to the GE animals. FDA evaluates data and information on the safety, effectiveness and stability of the GE event. FDA carries out its review at several levels (e.g. molecular biology, animal safety, food safety, environmental safety and claim validation). GE animal sponsors provide data to address risk questions for each level. This manuscript discusses FDA's role in evaluation of animal cloning and GE animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tabares L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  18. The use of a basic safety investment model in a practical risk management context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Hiriart, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    We consider a basic model in economic safety analysis: a firm is willing to invest an amount x in safety measures to avoid an accident A, which in the case of occurrence, leads to a loss of size L. The probability of an accident is a function of x. The optimal value of x is determined by minimizing the expected costs. In the paper, we re-examine this model by adopting a practical risk/safety management perspective. We question how this model can be used for guiding the firm and regulators in determining the proper level of investment in safety. Attention is given to issues like how to determine the probability of an accident and how to take into account uncertainties that extend beyond the expected value. It is concluded that the model, with suitable extensions and if properly implemented, provides a valuable decision support tool. By focusing on investment levels and stimulating thereby the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures, the model is considered particularly useful in risk reduction (ALARP) processes. - Highlights: → It is shown how to use a basic investment model in a practical risk management setting. → The model may be a valuable decision support tool if properly implemented. → It guides decision makers on risk reduction and how to determine what is ALARP. → The model stimulates the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures.

  19. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed in-service inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.

    2001-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less that 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components, to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components, to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure, and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits from past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for WWER plant design. (author)

  20. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed In-Service Inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.; Doumont, C.

    2000-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less than 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used: to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components; to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components; to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure; and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits of past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for VVER plant design. (author)

  1. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  2. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Marek L; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Aberer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment) of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin...... attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO), representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk...... associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access...

  3. Presentation of a Software Method for Use of Risk Assessment in Building Fire Safety Measure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koohpaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The property loss and physical injuries due to fire events in buildings demonstrate the necessity of implementation of efficient and performance based fire safety measures. Effective and high efficiency protection is possible when design and selection of protection measures are based on risk assessment. This study aims at presenting a software method to make possible selection and design of building fire safety measures based upon quantitative risk assessment and building characteristics. Methods: based on “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineer (FRAME” a program in MATLB software was written. The first section of this program, according to the FRAME method and based on the specification of a building, calculates the potential risk and acceptable risk level. In the second section, according to potential risk, acceptable risk level and the fire risk level that user want, program calculate concession of protective factor for that building.Results: The prepared software make it possible to assign the fire safety measure based on quantitative risk level and all building specifications. All calculations were performed with 0.001 of precision and the accuracy of this software was assessed with handmade calculations. During the use of the software if an error occurs in calculations, it can be distinguished in the output. Conclusion: Application of quantitative risk assessment is a suitable tool for increasing of efficiency in designing and execution of fire protection measure in building. With using this software the selected fire safety measure would be more efficient and suitable since the selection of fire safety measures performed on risk assessment and particular specification of a building. Moreover fire risk in the building can be managed easily and carefully.

  4. [Communication on health and safety risk control in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses communication as a technology for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, within the context of a "risk society". As a component of Risk Analysis, risk communication is a technology that appears in risk literature, with well defined objectives, principles and models. These aspects are described and the difficulties are stressed, taking into consideration the multiple rationales related to risks in the culture and the many different aspects of risk regulation and control in the so-called "late modernity". Consideration is also given to the complexity of the communications process, guided by theoretical and methodological discussions in the field. In order to understand the true value of the communications field for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, this paper also offers an overview of communication theories that support discussions of this matter, proposing a critical approach to models that include the dimensions of power and culture in the context of a capitalist society.

  5. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men’s health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of...

  6. A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T.S.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

  7. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient safety in primary care: a survey of general practitioners in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensing Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care encompasses many different clinical domains and patient groups, which means that patient safety in primary care may be equally broad. Previous research on safety in primary care has focused on medication safety and incident reporting. In this study, the views of general practitioners (GPs on patient safety were examined. Methods A web-based survey of a sample of GPs was undertaken. The items were derived from aspects of patient safety issues identified in a prior interview study. The questionnaire used 10 clinical cases and 15 potential risk factors to explore GPs' views on patient safety. Results A total of 68 GPs responded (51.5% response rate. None of the clinical cases was uniformly judged as particularly safe or unsafe by the GPs. Cases judged to be unsafe by a majority of the GPs concerned either the maintenance of medical records or prescription and monitoring of medication. Cases which only a few GPs judged as unsafe concerned hygiene, the diagnostic process, prevention and communication. The risk factors most frequently judged to constitute a threat to patient safety were a poor doctor-patient relationship, insufficient continuing education on the part of the GP and a patient age over 75 years. Language barriers and polypharmacy also scored high. Deviation from evidence-based guidelines and patient privacy in the reception/waiting room were not perceived as risk factors by most of the GPs. Conclusion The views of GPs on safety and risk in primary care did not completely match those presented in published papers and policy documents. The GPs in the present study judged a broader range of factors than in previously published research on patient safety in primary care, including a poor doctor-patient relationship, to pose a potential threat to patient safety. Other risk factors such as infection prevention, deviation from guidelines and incident reporting were judged to be less relevant than by policy

  9. Patient safety in primary care: a survey of general practitioners in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Sander; Verstappen, Wim; Wensing, Michel

    2010-01-21

    Primary care encompasses many different clinical domains and patient groups, which means that patient safety in primary care may be equally broad. Previous research on safety in primary care has focused on medication safety and incident reporting. In this study, the views of general practitioners (GPs) on patient safety were examined. A web-based survey of a sample of GPs was undertaken. The items were derived from aspects of patient safety issues identified in a prior interview study. The questionnaire used 10 clinical cases and 15 potential risk factors to explore GPs' views on patient safety. A total of 68 GPs responded (51.5% response rate). None of the clinical cases was uniformly judged as particularly safe or unsafe by the GPs. Cases judged to be unsafe by a majority of the GPs concerned either the maintenance of medical records or prescription and monitoring of medication. Cases which only a few GPs judged as unsafe concerned hygiene, the diagnostic process, prevention and communication. The risk factors most frequently judged to constitute a threat to patient safety were a poor doctor-patient relationship, insufficient continuing education on the part of the GP and a patient age over 75 years. Language barriers and polypharmacy also scored high. Deviation from evidence-based guidelines and patient privacy in the reception/waiting room were not perceived as risk factors by most of the GPs. The views of GPs on safety and risk in primary care did not completely match those presented in published papers and policy documents. The GPs in the present study judged a broader range of factors than in previously published research on patient safety in primary care, including a poor doctor-patient relationship, to pose a potential threat to patient safety. Other risk factors such as infection prevention, deviation from guidelines and incident reporting were judged to be less relevant than by policy makers.

  10. Nuclear risk and communication: the essential role of safety authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautin, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: whether concerning mad cow disease, asbestos, nuclear, OGM or now, dioxin in French meat, public health risks have been making the headlines of newspapers for a while. And, firms whose activity is associated with these risks are in effect in the defendants box. Therefore, communicating becomes difficult: their word is suspect and, debates quite rapidly exceed the firm competencies to become a socio-cultural conflict. This paper explores in nuclear fields the essential role of safety authorities in such communication cases. Our surveys and the comparative case study between the pipe at La Hague and 'contaminated' nuclear transports in France are eloquent: the messages of nuclear firms is perceived through their image of a State within the State built from the past and reinforced by the negative prism of the news. Regular and technical arguments (the respect of norms) entertain the debate rather than hush it. That is why we could infer an objective, and independent opinion is required, one different from the firm, the public and ministries: its role of referee could allow a constructive dialog between the public and the firm. Risk communication nature and efficiency depend on that (cf. the diagram). As a solution, we think about a legitimate authority organization identified by the public first, but by other actors as well. From the public point of view, if we see the place of pressure groups (e.g. Greenpeace) in the debate as a measure of the lack of trust in the independence of safety authorities, we can infer that it is a reaffirmation of democracy which is demanded by the French public, which could be satisfied with powerful safety authorities. That is why safety authorities have an essential role to play, beyond this of control, in nuclear risk communication towards the public. Diagram: communication path between a nuclear firm and the public during conflict. (author)

  11. Review insights on the probabilistic risk assessment for the Limerick Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    In recognition of the high population density around the Limerick Generating Station site and the proposed power level, the Philadelphia Electric Company, in response to NRC staff requests, conducted and submitted between March 1981 and November 1983 a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) on internal event contributors and a severe accident risk assessment on external event contributors to assess risks posed by operation of the plant. The applicant has developed perspectives using PRA models on the safety profile of the Limerick plant and has altered the plant design to reduce accident vulnerabilities identified in these PRAs. The staff's review of the Limerick PRA has particularly emphasized the dominant accident sequences and the resulting insights into demonstration of compliance with regulatory requirments, unique design features and major plant vulnerabilities to assess the need for any additional measures to further improve the safety of the LGS. The staff's review insights and PRA safety review conclusions are presented in this report

  12. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  13. Risk analysis methods: their importance for safety assessment of practices using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, C; Vilaragut, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Guillen, A.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, M.; McDonnell, J.D.; Papadopulos, S.; Pereira, P.P.; Goncalvez, M.; Morales, J.; Larrinaga, E.; Lopez Morones, R.; Sanchez, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Sanchez, C.; Somoano, F.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation safety has been based for many years on verification of compliance with regulatory requirements, codes of practice and international standards, which can be considered prescriptive methods. Accident analyses have been published, lessons have been learned and safety assessments have incorporated the need to check whether a facility is ready to avoid accidents similar to the reported ones. These approaches can be also called 'reactive methods'. They have in common the fundamental limitation of being restricted to reported experience, but do not take into account other potential events, which were never published or never happened, i.e. latent risks. Moreover, they focus on accident sequences with major consequences and low probability but may not pay enough attention to other sequences leading to lower, but still significant consequences with higher probability. More proactive approaches are, therefore, needed, to assess risk in radiation facilities. They aim at identifying all potential equipment faults and human error, which can lead to predefined unwanted consequences and are based on the general risk equation: Risk = Probability of occurrence of an accidental sequence * magnitude of the consequences. In this work, a review is given of the experience obtained by the countries of the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Organizations, by applying proactive methods to radiotherapy practice. In particular, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) used for external beam treatments with linear electron accelerators and two studies, on cobalt 60 therapy and brachytherapy using the risk-matrix approach are presented. The work has identified event sequences, their likelihood of occurrence, the consequences, the efficiency of interlocks and control checks and the global importance in terms of overall risk, to facilitate decision making and implementation of preventive measures. A comparison is presented of advantages and limitations of

  14. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  15. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  16. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues

  17. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues.

  18. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  19. Food safety in the domestic environment: the effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Maarten J; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Asselt, Esther D; de Jong, Aarieke E I; Frewer, Lynn J; de Jonge, Rob

    2008-02-01

    The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information interventions were designed and tested on participant motivation and intentions to cook more safely. Based on these self-reported measures, the intervention supported by the emotion "disgust" was selected as the most promising information intervention. Its effect on microbial cross-contamination was tested by recruiting a set of participants who prepared a salad with chicken breast fillet carrying a known amount of tracer bacteria. The amount of tracer that could be recovered from the salad revealed the transfer and survival of Campylobacter and was used as a measure of hygiene. This was introduced into an existing risk model on Campylobacter in the Netherlands to assess the effect of the information intervention both at the level of exposure and the level of human disease risk. We showed that the information intervention supported by the emotion "disgust" alone had no measurable effect on the health risk. However, when a behavioral cue was embedded within the instruction for the salad preparation, the risk decreased sharply. It is shown that a transdisciplinary approach, involving research on risk perception, microbiology, and risk assessment, is successful in evaluating the efficacy of an information intervention in terms of human health risks. The approach offers a novel tool for science-based risk management in the area of food safety.

  20. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  1. Use of risk information to safety regulation. Reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    A procedure of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a reprocessing facility has been under the development aiming to utilize risk information for safety regulations in this project. Activities in the fiscal year 2012 are summarized in the paper. A major activity is a fundamental study on a concept of serious accidents, requirements of serious accident management, and a policy of utilizing risk information for fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Other than the activity a study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials at a serious accident in a reprocessing facility has been conducted. The outline and results are provided in the chapter 1 and 2 respectively. (author)

  2. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  3. Radiation safety assessment of cobalt 60 external beam radiotherapy using the risk-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, C; Vilaragut, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Guillen, A.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, M.; McDonnell, J.D.; Papadopulos, S.; Pereira, P.P.; Goncalvez, M.; Morales, J.; Larrinaga, E.; Lopez Morones, R.; Sanchez, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Sanchez, C.; Somoano, F.

    2008-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is the only practice in which humans are placed directly in a radiation beam with the intention to deliver a very high dose. This is why safety in radiotherapy is very critical, and is a matter of interest to both radiotherapy departments and regulatory bodies. Accidental exposures have occurred throughout the world, thus showing the need for systematic safety assessments, capable to identify preventive measures and to minimize consequences of accidental exposure. Risk-matrix is a systematic approach which combines the relevant event features to assess the overall risk of each particular event. Once an event sequence is identified, questions such as how frequent the event, how severe the potential consequences and how reliable the existing safety measures are answered in a risk-matrix table. The ultimate goal is to achieve that the overall risk for events with severe consequences should always be low o very low. In the present study, the risk-matrix method has been applied to an hypothetical radiotherapy department, which could be equivalent to an upper level hospital of the Ibero American region, in terms of safety checks and preventive measures. The application of the method has identified 76 event sequences and revealed that the hypothetical radiotherapy department is sufficiently protected (low risk) against them, including 23 event sequences with severe consequences. The method has revealed that the risk of these sequences could grow to high level if certain specific preventive measures were degraded with time. This study has identified these preventive measures, thus facilitating a rational allocation of resources in regular controls to detect any loss of reliability. The method has proven to have an important practical value and is affordable at hospital level. The elaborated risk-matrix can be easily adapted to local circumstances, in terms of existing controls and safety measures. This approach can help hospitals to identify

  4. Safety issues and updates under MR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Kyung Ah, E-mail: bellenina@daum.net

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Unexpected biological effects can occur within stronger magnetic fields. • MR safety for MR conditional items is not guaranteed beyond the tested conditions. • Updated knowledge about MR-related safety is important for a safe MR environment. - Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a useful imaging tool with superior soft tissue contrast for diagnostic evaluation. The MR environments poses unique risks to patients and employees differently from ionizing radiation exposure originated from computed tomography and plain x-ray films. The technology associated with MR system has evolved continuously since its introduction in the late 1970s. MR systems have advanced with static magnetic fields, faster and stronger gradient magnetic fields and more powerful radiofrequency transmission coils. Higher field strengths of MR offers greater signal to noise capability and better spatial resolution, resulting in better visualization of anatomic detail, with a reduction in scan time. With the rapid evolution of technology associated with MR, we encounter new MR-related circumstances and unexpected dangerous conditions. A comprehensive update of our knowledge about MR safety is necessary to prevent MR-related accidents and to ensure safety for patients and staff associated with MR. This review presents an overview about MR-related safety issues and updates.

  5. Contrasting safety assessments of a runway incursion scenario: Event sequence analysis versus multi-agent dynamic risk modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeve, Sybert H.; Blom, Henk A.P.; Bakker, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the safety literature it has been argued, that in a complex socio-technical system safety cannot be well analysed by event sequence based approaches, but requires to capture the complex interactions and performance variability of the socio-technical system. In order to evaluate the quantitative and practical consequences of these arguments, this study compares two approaches to assess accident risk of an example safety critical sociotechnical system. It contrasts an event sequence based assessment with a multi-agent dynamic risk model (MA-DRM) based assessment, both of which are performed for a particular runway incursion scenario. The event sequence analysis uses the well-known event tree modelling formalism and the MA-DRM based approach combines agent based modelling, hybrid Petri nets and rare event Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison addresses qualitative and quantitative differences in the methods, attained risk levels, and in the prime factors influencing the safety of the operation. The assessments show considerable differences in the accident risk implications of the performance of human operators and technical systems in the runway incursion scenario. In contrast with the event sequence based results, the MA-DRM based results show that the accident risk is not manifest from the performance of and relations between individual human operators and technical systems. Instead, the safety risk emerges from the totality of the performance and interactions in the agent based model of the safety critical operation considered, which coincides very well with the argumentation in the safety literature.

  6. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  7. [Patient safety in antibiotics administration: Risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda Palau, M; Pérez Juan, E

    To determine the level of risk in the preparation and administration of antibiotics frequently used in the Intensive Care Unit using a risk matrix. A study was conducted using situation analysis and literature review of databases, protocols and good practice guidelines on intravenous therapy, drugs, and their administration routes. The most used antibiotics in the ICU registered in the ENVIN-HELICS program from 1 April to 30 June 2015 were selected. In this period, 257 patients received antimicrobial treatment and 26 antibiotics were evaluated. Variables studied: A risk assessment of each antibiotic using the scale Risk Assessment Tool, of the National Patient Safety Agency, as well as pH, osmolarity, type of catheter recommended for administration, and compatibility and incompatibility with other antibiotics studied. Almost two-thirds (65.3%) of antibiotics had more than 3 risk factors (represented by a yellow stripe), with the remaining 34.7% of antibiotics having between 0 and 2 risk factors (represented by a green stripe). There were no antibiotics with 6 or more risk factors (represented by a red stripe). Most drugs needed reconstitution, additional dilution, and the use of part of the vial to administer the prescribed dose. More than half of the antibiotics studied had a moderate risk level; thus measures should be adopted in order to reduce it. The risk matrix is a useful tool for the assessment and detection of weaknesses associated with the preparation and administration of intravenous antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Bijleveld, Frits; Cardoso, João L

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the theoretical properties of various exposure measures used in road safety research (e.g. vehicle- and person-kilometres of travel, vehicle fleet, road length, driver population, time spent in traffic, etc.). Moreover, the existing methods for collecting disaggregate exposure data for risk estimates at national level are presented and assessed, including survey methods (e.g. travel surveys, traffic counts) and databases (e.g. national registers). A detailed analysis of the availability and quality of existing risk exposure data is also carried out. More specifically, the results of a questionnaire survey in the European countries are presented, with detailed information on exposure measures available, their possible disaggregations (i.e. variables and values), their conformity to standard definitions and the characteristics of their national collection methods. Finally, the potential of international risk comparisons is investigated, mainly through the International Data Files with exposure data (e.g. Eurostat, IRTAD, ECMT, UNECE, IRF, etc.). The results of this review confirm that comparing risk rates at international level may be a complex task, as the availability and quality of exposure estimates in European countries varies significantly. The lack of a common framework for the collection and exploitation of exposure data limits significantly the comparability of the national data. On the other hand, the International Data Files containing exposure data provide useful statistics and estimates in a systematic way and are currently the only sources allowing international comparisons of road safety performance under certain conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Peters, Valerie E; Weygandt, P Logan; Jimenez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro; O'Connor, Barry; Yabsley, Michael J; Garcia, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-06-01

    Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.

  10. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  11. Nuclear power plant safety - the risk of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.; Crancher, D.W.

    1975-08-01

    Although it is physically impossible for any nuclear plant to explode like an atom bomb, an accidental release of radioactive material into the environment is conceivable. Three factors reduce the probability of such releases, in dangerous quantities, to an extremely low level. Firstly, there are many safety features built into the plant including a leaktight containment building to prevent the escape of such material. Secondly, the quality of engineering and standards used are far more demanding than in conventional power engineering. Thirdly, strict government licensing and regulatory control is enforced at all phases from design through construction to operation. No member of the general public is known to have been injured or died as a result of any accident to a commercial nuclear power plant. Ten workers have died as a result of over-exposure to radiation from experimental reactors and laboratory work connected with the development of nuclear plant since 1945. Because of this excellent safety record the risk of serious accidents can only be estimated. On the basis of such estimates, the chance of an accident in a nuclear power reactor which could cause a detectable increase in the incidence of radiation-induced illnesses would be less than one chance in a million per year. In a typical highly industrialised society, such as the USA, the estimated risk of an individual being killed by such accidents, from one hundred operating reactors, is no greater than one chance in sixteen million per year. There are undoubtedly risks from reactor accidents but estimates of these risks show that they are considerably less than from other activities which are accepted by society. (author)

  12. Gender effects in young road users on road safety attitudes, behaviours and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Cordellieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.

  13. Remodeling Strategic Staff Safety and Security Risks Management in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday S. AKPAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined safety and security risk management in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The frequent attacks at workplace, especially schools, have placed safety and security in the front burner of discussion in both business and political circles. This therefore, forms the imperative for the conduct of this study. The work adopted a cross sectional survey research design and collected data from respondents who are security personnel of the University of Uyo. Analysis of data was done with simple percentage statistics while the research hypotheses were tested with mean and simple regression and correlation statistics. The findings of the study revealed that assassination, kidnappings and bombings were principal risk incidents threatening the safety and security of staff in University of Uyo. A significant positive relationship was found between the funding of security management and workers’ performance. It was discovered specifically that employment screening, regular training of security personnel, regular safety and security meetings and strategic security policy formation were the main strategies for managing safety and security in University of Uyo. The paper concluded that safety and security management and control involves every worker (management and staff of University of Uyo. It was recommended, among others, that management should be more committed to safety and security management in the University by means of making safety and security issues an integral part of University’s strategic plan and also by adopting the management line model – one form of management structure-where safety and security are located, with other general management responsibilities. This way, the resurgent cases of kidnapping, hired assassination, etc. would be reduced if not completely eradicated in the University.

  14. Depression, antidepressants and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda L; Lauzon, Vanessa L; Winbrock, Elise L; Li, Guohua; Chihuri, Stanford; Lee, Kelly C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review to review the reported associations of depression and antidepressants with motor vehicle crashes. A literature search for material published in the English language between January, 1995, and October, 2015, in bibliographic databases was combined with a search for other relevant material referenced in the retrieved articles. Retrieved articles were systematically reviewed for inclusion criteria: 19 epidemiological studies (17 case-control and 2 cohort studies) fulfilled the inclusion criteria by estimating the crash risk associated with depression and/or psychotropic medications in naturalistic settings. The estimates of the odds ratio (OR) of crash involvement associated with depression ranged from 1.78 to 3.99. All classes of antidepressants were reported to have side effects with the potential to affect driving safety. The majority of studies of antidepressant effects on driving reported an elevated crash risk, and ORs ranged from 1.19 to 2.03 for all crashes, and 3.19 for fatal crashes. In meta-analysis, depression was associated with approximately 2-fold increased crash risk (summary OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.39), and antidepressants were associated with approximately 40% increased crash risk (summary OR = 1.40; 95%CI, 1.18 to 1.66). Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, depression, antidepressants or the combination of depression and antidepressants may pose a potential hazard to driving safety. More research is needed to understand the individual contributions of depression and the medications used to treat depression.

  15. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered open-quotes necessaryclose quotes for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost

  16. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakzad, Nima, E-mail: nkhakzad@gmail.com [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Reniers, Genserik [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), Faculty of Applied Economics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Research Group CEDON, Campus Brussels, KULeuven, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network methodology has been developed to estimate the total probability of major accidents in chemical plants. • Total probability of accidents includes the probability of individual accidents and potential domino effects. • The methodology has been extended to calculate on-site and off-site risks. • The results of the risk analysis have been used in a multi-criteria decision analysis technique to risk-based design of chemical plants. - Abstract: Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  17. Perception of risks and safety. Results of the November 2001 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having recalled the themes present in the survey on the perception of risks and safety as far as nuclear energy is concerned, this report proposes an analysis of the obtained results. It discusses the current general concerns, the perception of risks (confidence, truth), the perception of technological and natural risks for the environment (hazardous installations, demand for environmental acceptability of installations, disasters), the opinions on nuclear activities (image, actors, control of these activities, possibility of a nuclear accident), and finally the risks associated with radon

  18. Cyber Security Risk Assessment for the KNICS Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. K.; Park, G. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Choi, J. G.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the Korea Nuclear I and C Systems Development (KNICS) project the platforms for plant protection systems are developed, which function as a reactor shutdown, actuation of engineered safety features and a control of the related equipment. Those are fully digitalized through the use of safety-grade programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and communication networks. In 2006 the Regulatory Guide 1.152 (Rev. 02) was published by the U.S. NRC and it describes the application of a cyber security to the safety systems in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Therefore it is required that the new requirements are incorporated into the developed platforms to apply to NPP, and a cyber security risk assessment is performed. The results of the assessment were input for establishing the cyber security policies and planning the work breakdown to incorporate them

  19. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim; Cockburn, Andrew; Dekant, Wolfgang; Hepburn, Paul; Houben, Geert F.; König, Jürgen; Nauta, Maarten; Schuermans, Jeroen; Bánáti, Diána

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundFood legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health.Scope and approachThe advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-ba...

  20. Current food safety management systems in fish-exporting companies require further improvements to adequately cope with contextual pressure: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onjong, Hillary Adawo; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2014-10-01

    Fish-processing plants still face food safety (FS) challenges worldwide despite the existence of several quality assurance standards and food safety management systems/s (FSMSs). This study assessed performance of FSMS in fish exporting sector considering pressure from the context in which they operate. A FSMS diagnostic tool with checklist was used to assess the context, FSMS, and FS output in 9 Kenyan fish exporting companies. Majority (67%) companies operated at moderate- to high-risk context but with an average performance in control and assurance activities. This situation could be insufficient to deal with ambiguity, uncertainty, and vulnerability issues in the context characteristics. Contextual risk posed by product characteristics (nature of raw materials) and chain environment characteristics was high. Risk posed by the chain environment characteristics, low power in supplier relationships, and low degree of authority in customer relationships was high. Lack of authority in relationship with suppliers would lead to high raw material risk situation. Even though cooling facilities, a key control activity, was at an advanced level, there was inadequate packaging intervention equipment which coupled with inadequate physical intervention equipment could lead to further weakened FSMS performance. For the fish companies to improve their FSMS to higher level and enhance predictability, they should base their FSMS on scientific information sources, historical results, and own experimental trials in their preventive, intervention, and monitoring systems. Specific suggestions are derived for improvements toward higher FSMS activity levels or lower risk levels in context characteristics. Weak areas in performance of control and assurance activities in export fish-processing sector already implementing current quality assurance guidelines and standards were studied taking into consideration contextual pressure wherein the companies operate. Important mitigation

  1. Diabetes Management and Hypoglycemia in Safety Sensitive Jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See-Muah Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are in the working age group in developing countries. The interrelationship of diabetes and work, that is, diabetes affecting work and work affecting diabetes, becomes an important issue for these people. Therapeutic options for the diabetic worker have been developed, and currently include various insulins, insulin sensitizers and secretagogues, incretin mimetics and enhancers, and alpha glucosidase inhibitors. Hypoglycemia and hypoglycaemic unawareness are important and unwanted treatment side effects. The risk they pose with respect to cognitive impairment can have safety implications. The understanding of the therapeutic options in the management of diabetic workers, blood glucose awareness training, and self-monitoring blood glucose will help to mitigate this risk. Employment decisions must also take into account the extent to which the jobs performed by the worker are safety sensitive. A risk assessment matrix, based on the extent to which a job is considered safety sensitive and based on the severity of the hypoglycaemia, may assist in determining one's fitness to work. Support at the workplace, such as a provision of healthy food options and arrangements for affected workers will be helpful for such workers. Arrangements include permission to carry and consume emergency sugar, flexible meal times, self-monitoring blood glucose when required, storage/disposal facilities for medicine such as insulin and needles, time off for medical appointments, and structured self-help rogams.

  2. Risk Management: Earning Recognition with an Automated Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberry, Linden; Strasburger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is a huge task that requires diligent oversight to avoid penalties, fines, or lawsuits. Add in the burden of limited resources that schools face today, and the challenge of meeting the required training, reporting, compliance, and other administrative issues associated with a safety program is almost insurmountable. Despite an…

  3. Risk perception in planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S K

    1987-01-01

    The general public's perception of the risks involved with hazardous industries is increasing, especially in countries that high environmental amenity characteristics. This increased public awareness of risk may be an important factor in the future of countries who produce a large quantity of petroleum and chemical products. However, existing decision-making processes for determining safety controls do not take sufficient account of the community perception of risk. Identification of perceived risk levels could contribute to the determination of safe land-use planning policies and practices. The objective of land-use planning for hazardous industries is to reduce the gap between the calculated or technical assessment of risk and the risk as perceived by the community. This also facilitates a balanced approach in the decision making process between meeting industry requirements and community concerns. The comprehensive analysis presented in this study, based on a questionnaire given to residents in each of the three study areas (Australia, Japan and Korea), focused on identifying and measuring the respondent's understanding of the risk posed by nearby hazardous industrial developments.

  4. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiassa, E.; Higgins, J.P.T.; Frampton, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimise biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all......Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods...... parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritising systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment....

  5. Risk-Based Predictive Maintenance for Safety-Critical Systems by Using Probabilistic Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based maintenance (RBM aims to improve maintenance planning and decision making by reducing the probability and consequences of failure of equipment. A new predictive maintenance strategy that integrates dynamic evolution model and risk assessment is proposed which can be used to calculate the optimal maintenance time with minimal cost and safety constraints. The dynamic evolution model provides qualified risks by using probabilistic inference with bucket elimination and gives the prospective degradation trend of a complex system. Based on the degradation trend, an optimal maintenance time can be determined by minimizing the expected maintenance cost per time unit. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated and demonstrated by a collision accident of high-speed trains with obstacles in the presence of safety and cost constrains.

  6. Stalking: A Multidimensional Framework for Assessment and Safety Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2015-09-03

    Despite the high prevalence of stalking and the risk of harm it poses to victims, arrest rates, prosecutions, and convictions for stalking continue to be low in the United States. The overall goal of this article is to introduce a multidimensional framework of stalking that adds to the current literature by (1) providing a conceptual framework consistent with legal elements of many stalking statutes to facilitate assessment, communication, documentation, and safety planning for stalking several victims; (2) introducing a more systematic way of assessing course of conduct and the context of fear in stalking situations in order to increase the understanding of cumulative fear for stalking victims; (3) emphasizing the aspects of stalking harm that go beyond violence and that show how harm from stalking accumulates over time including life sabotage; and (4) discussing 12 risk factors derived from the overall multidimensional framework that can be used to describe the big picture of stalking and to facilitate safety planning for victims. Implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. In prospect: role of safety assessment and risk regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novegno, A.; Askulaj, Eh.

    1987-01-01

    Problems of accident prevention in industry and power engineering are considered for the sake of environment and human health protection. Investigations into comparison of power system risks are conducted; based on the data obtained a possibility to control the risk has appeared. The IAEA provides an active assistance in realization of a program of coordinated investigations on the risk assessment using the cost-benefit method. For each NPP investigation into all types of its effect on the environment (risk for personnel and population under normal radioactivity releases and in case of accidents), is conducted. Two approaches to calculating the impacts of accidents at NPPs-'determination' one, based on the designed accident and safety probability evaluation exist. Regional approach appears to be the best one when solving the problems of risk control. Attention is paid to a joint project of the IAEA-UNO and WHO related to risk assessment and control for human health and environment protection at power and other complex commercial systems

  8. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  9. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  10. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baron

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1 characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2 microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3 motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  11. Application of a risk management system to improve drinking water safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Asoka

    2008-12-01

    The use of a comprehensive risk management framework is considered a very effective means of managing water quality risks. There are many risk-based systems available to water utilities such as ISO 9001 and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). In 2004, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality recommended the use of preventive risk management approaches to manage water quality risks. This paper describes the framework adopted by Yarra Valley Water for the development of its Drinking Water Quality Risk Management Plan incorporating HACCP and ISO 9001 systems and demonstrates benefits of Water Safety Plans such as HACCP. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  13. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pose Planning for the Feed Support System of FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-cable driven parallel manipulator and an A-B rotator in the feed support system of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST are adopted for realizing the position and pose of nine feeds. The six-cable driven parallel manipulator is a flexible mechanism, which may not be stably controlled due to a small cable tension. The A-B rotator is a rigid mechanism, and its stability and accuracy can be improved by small pose angle. Based on the different characteristics, a pose planning function is presented. The optimization target of the pose planning function is to get the smallest pose angle of the A-B rotator, and the constraint condition can reflect the controllability of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator. Then, the pose planning realization process of the feed support system is proposed. Based on the pose planning method, optimized pose angles of the feed support system for the nine feeds are obtained, which suggests that the pose angle of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator changes from 0° to 14° and the pose angle of the A-B rotator changes from 0° to 26.4°.

  15. Marked point process framework for living probabilistic safety assessment and risk follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjas, Elja; Holmberg, Jan

    1995-01-01

    We construct a model for living probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) by applying the general framework of marked point processes. The framework provides a theoretically rigorous approach for considering risk follow-up of posterior hazards. In risk follow-up, the hazard of core damage is evaluated synthetically at time points in the past, by using some observed events as logged history and combining it with re-evaluated potential hazards. There are several alternatives for doing this, of which we consider three here, calling them initiating event approach, hazard rate approach, and safety system approach. In addition, for a comparison, we consider a core damage hazard arising in risk monitoring. Each of these four definitions draws attention to a particular aspect in risk assessment, and this is reflected in the behaviour of the consequent risk importance measures. Several alternative measures are again considered. The concepts and definitions are illustrated by a numerical example

  16. Utilization of a risk matrix based on Probabilistic Safety Analysis to improve nuclear safety in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbe, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a systematic and comprehensive methodology to evaluate risks associated with a complex engineered technological entity. Risk in a PSA is defined as a feasible detrimental outcome of an initiator. Those initiators can be 'classical' transient as the loss of main feedwater, loss of the secondary heat sink, etc.. or accident (LOCA - Loss Of Coolant Accident, SGTR - Steam Generator Tube Rupture, LOOP - Loss Of Offsite Power, etc..) In a PSA, risk is characterized by two quantities: the magnitude (severity) of the possible adverse consequence, the likelihood (probability) of occurrence of each consequence. Consequences are expressed numerically (for this purpose: the core damage) and their likelihoods of occurrence are expressed as probabilities or frequencies (i.e., the number of occurrences or the probability of occurrence per unit time). The total risk is the expected loss: the sum of the products of the consequences multiplied by their probabilities. This lead to the parameter CDF: The Core Damage Frequency, which is expressed by unit of time. The main advantage of this risk calculation is to have a global, integrated, overview of the plants and their systems. This allows to have an objective and quantitative point of view on the importance of the equipments, human action, or common cause failures that can challenge the plant's safety. A total PSA model is divided in three levels: Level one, which consider the core damage; Level two, which consider the robustness of the containment; Level three, which consider the impact of the radiological release on the public. For the purpose of the risk matrix, a level one PSA is needed. The scope of a PSA model is important to have a good characterization of the plant's risk. The matrix makes more sense if you have a full scope level one model, containing, furthermore the internal events, the fire and flooding, but also seismic event (if relevant). Asymmetries are also classical in the

  17. Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Smith, Todd D; Woldu, Henok; Dyal, Mari-Amanda; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2017-07-01

    Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs. Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days. Regression modeling was used to examine predictors of personal protective equipment use, engineering controls, and adverse events involving antineoplastic drugs. Approximately 14% of nurses reported experiencing an adverse event while administering antineoplastic drugs during the previous week. Usage of recommended engineering controls and personal protective equipment was quite variable. Usage of both was better in non-profit and government settings, when workers were more familiar with safe handling guidelines, and when perceived management commitment to safety was higher. Usage was poorer in the absence of specific safety handling procedures. The odds of adverse events increased with number of antineoplastic drugs treatments and when antineoplastic drugs were administered more days of the week. The odds of such events were significantly lower when the use of engineering controls and personal protective equipment was greater and when more precautionary measures were in place. Greater levels of management commitment to safety and perceived risk were also related to lower odds of adverse events. These results point to the value of implementing a comprehensive health and safety program that utilizes available hazard controls and effectively communicates

  18. THE ETHICS OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN TURKEY: RESPONSIBILITY AND CONSENT TO RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artvinli, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Work-related diseases, injuries, risks and deaths are the issues that have been recently gaining importance especially in developing countries. The ethical dimensions of occupational health and safety have remained as relatively understudied areas. Concepts such as responsibility, consent, autonomy, paternalism, choice, and certain values or justifications that are used in medical ethics and bioethics are also applicable to occupational health and safety. This article examines the ethical issues of responsibility and consent to occupational risk. It will first define the concepts of consent and risk, and then different views on responsibility and consent to risk will be discussed. The article will also examine the responsibility of the society and government regarding these concepts.

  19. Approaches to quantitative risk assessment with applications to PP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, G.; Schaefer, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience with accidents such as Goiania in Brazil and indications of a considerable number of orphan sources suggest that improved protection would be desirable for some types of radioactive material of wide-spread use such as radiation sources for civil purposes. Regarding large potential health and economic consequences (in particular, if terrorists attacks cannot be excluded), significant costs of preventive actions, and large uncertainties about both the likelihood of occurrence and the potential consequences of PP safety and security incidents, an optimum relationship between preventive and mitigative efforts is likely to be a key issue for successful risk management in this field. Thus, possible violations of physical protection combined with threats of misuse of nuclear materials, including terrorist attack, pose considerable challenges to global security from various perspectives. In view of these challenges, recent advance in applied risk and decision analysis suggests methodological and procedural improvements in quantitative risk assessment, the demarcation of acceptable risk, and risk management. Advance is based on a recently developed model of optimal risky choice suitable for assessing and comparing the cumulative probability distribution functions attached to safety and security risks. Besides quantification of risk (e. g., in economic terms), the standardization of various risk assessment models frequently used in operations research can be approached on this basis. The paper explores possible applications of these improved methods to the safety and security management of nuclear materials, cost efficiency of risk management measures, and the establishment international safety and security standards of PP. Examples will be presented that are based on selected scenarios of misuse involving typical radioactive sources. (author)

  20. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Pieters, Wolter; Teixeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by implementing suitable risk treatment plans. However, an overarching overview of these methods, systematizing the characteristics of such methods, is missing. In this paper, we conduct a systematic l...

  1. Legal basis for risk analysis methodology while ensuring food safety in the Eurasian Economic union and the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fedorenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health risk analysis methodology is an internationally recognized tool for ensuring food safety. Three main elements of risk analysis are risk assessment, risk management and risk communication to inform the interested parties on the risk, are legislated and implemented in the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. There is a corresponding organizational and functional framework for the application of risk analysis methodology as in the justification of production safety indicators and the implementation of public health surveillance. Common methodological approaches and criteria for evaluating public health risk are determined, which are used in the development and application of food safety requirements. Risk assessment can be used in justifying the indicators of safety (contaminants, food additives, and evaluating the effectiveness of programs on enrichment of food with micronutrients.

  2. 2D Methods for pose invariant face recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Ntabiseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognise face images under random pose is a task that is done effortlessly by human beings. However, for a computer system, recognising face images under varying poses still remains an open research area. Face recognition across pose...

  3. Pharmaceutical company perspectives on current safety risk communications in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Kobashi, Gen; Masuda, Hideaki; Taneichi, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuda, Tsutomu; Ohta, Kaori; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    In 1987, a group infection of hepatitis in patients receiving a contaminated fibrinogen product was first reported to the Japanese regulatory agency. Eventually, this serious drug incident involved more than 10,000 cases of infection. In response, the Government of Japan established a responding inspection committee in 2008 to make recommendations for the restructuring of drug regulatory administration. The final report was issued in 2010. One agenda item of this restructuring was the improvement of drug-related safety risk communications. Our research group on drug safety risk communications, which is funded by the Government of Japan, surveyed pharmaceutical companies regarding their perspective on current risk communications. The survey was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire developed for this study which included the three operational domains of targets, contents, and measures of drug risk communication. Fifty-two of the 74 member companies of the Post-marketing Surveillance Subcommittee of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association participated, and this response rate of more than 70% was considered sufficient to ensure the external validity of the survey results. Results showed that the most highly prioritized aspect of risk messaging was the strength of evidence, and that outcome evaluation of risk communication gained recognition. Further, while physicians and pharmacists were the most prioritized communication targets, pharmacovigilance departments devoted the most resources to regulators, at more than 30%. The Internet was recognized as a useful public source of risk information, whereas Drug Guides for Patients delivered on the web were considered under-recognized. Further discussion of these results with the aim of enhancing the restructuring of the Japanese drug regulatory administration system are warranted.

  4. Safety considerations for patients with communication disorders in rehabilitation medicine settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, Adrian; Giammarino, Claudia; Olds, Michael; Adams, Elizabeth; Moriarty, Christina; Ratner, Sabina; Mural, Shruti; Stobart, Eric C

    2012-05-01

    Communication barriers can pose a significant safety risk for patients. Individuals in a communication-vulnerable state are commonly seen in rehabilitation settings. These patients cannot adequately communicate their symptoms, wants, and needs to providers. Causes of communication barriers include neurologic impairments, such as stroke, cerebral palsy, and Parkinson disease, and language barriers. The ability of clinicians to adequately diagnose, treat, and monitor these patients is also hindered. This article identifies key communication barriers and strategies that clinicians can use to effectively communicate with these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Presentations of the PTAC driving safety technology forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Issues concerning road safety and driver training in relation to the petroleum industry were the focus of this conference. The results of a driving safety survey from the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada were presented. High risk driver identification methods were discussed along with coaching case studies, including details of continuous and advanced driver training by various industry members. Road hazard analysis was discussed as an effective means of reducing vehicular incidents. The dangers posed by cell phones were reviewed, as well as issues concerning motor vehicle event data recorders and personal privacy. The safety aspects of global positioning system (GPS) enabled fleet management systems were evaluated. Tactical plans for Alberta's traffic collision fatality and injury reduction strategy were examined. An overview of the Schlumberger Canada Driving Program was presented. The systems and processes used within Halliburton Canada to reinforce safe driving behaviors were reviewed. Real time personnel monitoring was discussed, as well as various asset management technologies. It was suggested that new communications technologies for mobile resource management can improve oilfield fleet safety and productivity. The forum featured 12 presentations, of which 8 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  6. Knowledge and perceived implementation of food safety risk analysis framework in Latin America and the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, C; Mohr, A Hofelich; Lindsay, T; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Hueston, W; Sampedro, F

    2014-12-01

    Risk analysis is increasingly promoted as a tool to support science-based decisions regarding food safety. An online survey comprising 45 questions was used to gather information on the implementation of food safety risk analysis within the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Professionals working in food safety in academia, government, and private sectors in Latin American and Caribbean countries were contacted by email and surveyed to assess their individual knowledge of risk analysis and perceptions of its implementation in the region. From a total of 279 participants, 97% reported a familiarity with risk analysis concepts; however, fewer than 25% were able to correctly identify its key principles. The reported implementation of risk analysis among the different professional sectors was relatively low (46%). Participants from industries in countries with a long history of trade with the United States and the European Union, such as Mexico, Brazil, and Chile, reported perceptions of a higher degree of risk analysis implementation (56, 50, and 20%, respectively) than those from the rest of the countries, suggesting that commerce may be a driver for achieving higher food safety standards. Disagreement among respondents on the extent of the use of risk analysis in national food safety regulations was common, illustrating a systematic lack of understanding of the current regulatory status of the country. The results of this survey can be used to target further risk analysis training on selected sectors and countries.

  7. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, S.M.; Boobis, A.R.; Bridges, J.; Cockburn, A.; Dekant, W.; Hepburn, P.; Houben, G.F.; König, J.; Nauta, M.J.; Schuermans, J.; Bánáti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management

  8. Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milczarek, M.; Brun, E.; Houtman, I.; Goudswaard, A.; Evers, M.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Roskams, N.; Op de Beeck, R.; Pahkin, K.; Berthet, M.; Morvan, E.; Kuhn, K.; Kaluza, K.; Hupke, M.; Hauke, A.; Reinert, D.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Perez, J.; Oncins de Frutos, M.

    2007-01-01

    This report is in cooperation with TNO Work and Employment and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks was carried out by means of the Delphi method. The main emerging psychosocial risks revealed were related to new forms of employment

  9. The nucleolus is well-posed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragnelli, Vito; Patrone, Fioravante; Torre, Anna

    2006-02-01

    The lexicographic order is not representable by a real-valued function, contrary to many other orders or preorders. So, standard tools and results for well-posed minimum problems cannot be used. We prove that under suitable hypotheses it is however possible to guarantee the well-posedness of a lexicographic minimum over a compact or convex set. This result allows us to prove that some game theoretical solution concepts, based on lexicographic order are well-posed: in particular, this is true for the nucleolus.

  10. Safety and security in transportation of radioactive material- the perception of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, A.M.; Jaernry, C. [AMC Konsult AB, Bromma (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Since the event of September 11, 2001, the way most people look at transportation risk has changed. There is now a lot more focusing on the security concerns related to the transportation of radioactive material. Most people are now more concerned about the risk of terrorist actions or sabotage than of accidents. This is probably due to the fact that the safety record for transportation of radioactive material has so far been very good and that most people experience terrorism and sabotage more scaring and less controllable than general accidents. This paper will compare the safety and the security regulations and discuss synergies and contradictions between the sets of regulations.

  11. Safety and security in transportation of radioactive material- the perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.; Jaernry, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since the event of September 11, 2001, the way most people look at transportation risk has changed. There is now a lot more focusing on the security concerns related to the transportation of radioactive material. Most people are now more concerned about the risk of terrorist actions or sabotage than of accidents. This is probably due to the fact that the safety record for transportation of radioactive material has so far been very good and that most people experience terrorism and sabotage more scaring and less controllable than general accidents. This paper will compare the safety and the security regulations and discuss synergies and contradictions between the sets of regulations

  12. Real-Time Head Pose Estimation on Mobile Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Ren

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many computer vision applications such as augmented reality require head pose estimation. As far as the real-time implementation of head pose estimation on relatively resource limited mobile platforms is concerned, it is required to satisfy real-time constraints while maintaining reasonable head pose estimation accuracy. The introduced head pose estimation approach in this paper is an attempt to meet this objective. The approach consists of the following components: Viola-Jones face detection, color-based face tracking using an online calibration procedure, and head pose estimation using Hu moment features and Fisher linear discriminant. Experimental results running on an actual mobile device are reported exhibiting both the real- time and accuracy aspects of the developed approach.

  13. Patterns of behaviour that pose potential drowning risk to hikers at Yosemite National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girasek, Deborah C; Marschall, Joy S; Pope, Dov

    2016-01-01

    To analyse patterns of departure from a popular hiking trail in Yosemite National Park, at sites where fatal drownings have occurred in the past. This study employed direct observation. For 32 days throughout the summer of 2013, study team members observed hikers who entered areas that brought them in close proximity to hazardous sections of the Merced River. Subject and environmental data were recorded for 1417 such approaches. In 81% of our observation hours, subjects entered 'risk zones.' The median number of hikers seen near/in the river was eight per hour at the Vernal Fall footbridge, and three at the top of the waterfall. A regression analysis found that air temperature and later hike starts were positively associated, and water level was negatively associated, with the rate of river approach. Means of river access were also identified. Males, teens and people who were alone were significantly more likely to be observed entering particularly dangerous areas. It is common for hikers to approach water sources during summer months, particularly as air temperatures rise. By analysing how behaviour and environmental factors co-vary, safety advocates can tailor risk reduction measures to specific settings and visitor populations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  15. Cooperative conflict and contested space: a case study of risk and safety in the steel industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is a journey into the world of risk and safety in the steel industry. The problem statement that is explored in this study relates to the nature of the relationship between safety performance and stakeholders in the steel industry, the nature of the relationships between different stakeholders and the way in which these relationships impact on risk management strategies. The author contends that safety is not a normative or procedural system within the workplace, but rather ...

  16. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  17. Risk-based approach to long-term safety assessment for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C.W.; Kim, K.I.; Lee, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Korean regulatory approach to safety assessment consistent with probabilistic, risk-based long-term safety requirements for near surface disposal facilities. The approach is based on: (1) From the standpoint of risk limitation, normal processes and probabilistic disruptive events should be integrated in a similar manner in terms of potential exposures; and (2) The uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be reduced using appropriate exposure scenarios. In addition, this paper emphasizes the necessity of international guidance for quantifying potential exposures and the corresponding risks from radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  18. The nuclear safety case for the replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, A.; Garea, V.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a broad overview of the safety case being used in the licensing of Australia's Replacement Research Reactor. The reactor is a 20 MW pool-type research reactor and is being constructed at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre in Sydney's south. It will be owned and operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and will take over the duties currently performed by HIFAR, a DIDO-type reactor currently operating at the site. The safety case for the RRR considers all aspects of normal operation and anticipated occurrences and will be subject to periodic review and updated in line with evolving methodologies and modifications to plant and procedures. Its scope and degree of detail ensure that the risk posed to members of the public, operators and environment are all adequately low and well in the regulatory limits

  19. Circumstances in a nuclear power plant. Organization of risk and institutionalization of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessblad, H.

    1999-01-01

    Risk societies are made of risk organisations. This dissertation is an ethnographic study of a risk organisation, of a nuclear power plant. Risk organizations have larger demands on their organization than traditional companies have. Risk societies, to come or already present, have new political agendas. Within a risk society the major task is to reduce and distribute the negative side effects of industrial production, not to increase and distribute well-fare in society, as it has been in an industrial society. This is a study of a risk organisation claimed to produce these negative side effects. The title of this thesis relates to specific occasions in the organisation. The branch concept, circumstances, defines 'situations beyond normal performance', which are to be reported to the nuclear authorities. These circumstances are rarely endangering man or material, but given the nature of nuclear power production, they have a potential to escalate to something larger. This dissertation focuses on how the organisation deals with these issues and reproduces safety as something taken-for-granted. The material is gathered using participant observation of different functions in the plant. The work is based on narration of situations, meetings, interviews, and small talk etc, in every-day-interaction. The dissertation describes how business-as-usual produce safety. It is a description of how values, norms, attitudes, ideas, knowledge are produced and reproduced. These issues are discussed mainly in an institutional theory perspective. What has become apparent is that functions governed by routines and instructions tend to be more flexible and reflecting than those dealing with new tasks, such as problem solving projects. Thus, these new projects tend to reproduce earlier established procedures. Through the narration of the various functions of the plant joined with theoretical discussions, different themes have been found describing how the organisation deals with

  20. Head pose estimation algorithm based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanming; Liu, Yijun

    2017-05-01

    Head pose estimation has been widely used in the field of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and intelligent human-computer interaction and so on. Good head pose estimation algorithm should deal with light, noise, identity, shelter and other factors robustly, but so far how to improve the accuracy and robustness of attitude estimation remains a major challenge in the field of computer vision. A method based on deep learning for pose estimation is presented. Deep learning with a strong learning ability, it can extract high-level image features of the input image by through a series of non-linear operation, then classifying the input image using the extracted feature. Such characteristics have greater differences in pose, while they are robust of light, identity, occlusion and other factors. The proposed head pose estimation is evaluated on the CAS-PEAL data set. Experimental results show that this method is effective to improve the accuracy of pose estimation.

  1. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  2. Hazard identification and risk assessment for biologics targeting the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Andrea B

    2008-01-01

    Biologic pharmaceuticals include a variety of products, such as monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins and cytokines. Products in those classes include immunomodulatory biologics, which are intended to enhance or diminish the activity of the immune system. Immunomodulatory biologics have been approved by the U.S. FDA for a variety of indications, including cancer and inflammatory conditions. Prior to gaining approval for marketing, sponsoring companies for all types of products must demonstrate a product's safety in toxicology studies conducted in animals and show safety and efficacy in clinical trials conducted in patients. The overall goal of toxicology studies, which applies to immunomodulatory and other product types, is to identify the hazards that products pose to humans. Because biologics are generally highly selective for specific targets (receptors/epitopes), conducting toxicology studies in animal models with the target is essential. Such animals are referred to as pharmacologically relevant. Endpoints routinely included in toxicology studies, such as hematology, organ weight and histopathology, can be used to assess the effect of a product on the structure of the immune system. Additionally, specialized endpoints, such as immunophenotyping and immune function tests, can be used to define effects of immunomodulatory products on the immune system. Following hazard identification, risks posed to patients are assessed and managed. Risks can be managed through clinical trial design and risk communication, a practice that applies to immunomodulatory and other product types. Examples of risk management in clinical trial design include establishing a safe starting dose, defining the appropriate patient population and establishing appropriate patient monitoring. Risk communication starts during clinical trials and continues after product approval. A combination of hazard identification, risk assessment and risk management allows for drug development to proceed

  3. Injunctive safety norms, young worker risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Simon; Turner, Nick; Tucker, Sean; Kelloway, E Kevin; Morrish, Jayne

    2017-09-01

    Injunctive safety norms (ISNs) refer to perceptions of others' expectations of one's safety-related conduct. Drawing on a sample of Canadian young workers (n=11,986;M age=17.90years; 55% males), we study the relationships among four sources of non-work-related (i.e., parents, siblings, friends, teachers), two sources of work-related (i.e., supervisors, co-workers) ISNs, young workers' self-reported work-related risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries. Structural equation modeling suggests that ISNs from parents, supervisors, and co-workers were related to less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors, and with fewer workplace injuries via less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors. In addition, ISNs from supervisors were directly associated with fewer workplace injuries. In contrast, ISNs from teachers and siblings were not associated with work-related risk-taking behaviors, but ISNs from siblings were associated with fewer work injuries. Finally, ISNs from friends were associated with more frequent work-related risk-taking and more frequent work injuries via more frequent work-related risk-taking. This study draws attention to the relative roles of non-work sources of social influence and provides some evidence of how ISNs might be related to young workers' work-related risk-taking behaviors and their workplace injuries. It also contributes to practice by suggesting specific interventions that parents, supervisors, and co-workers could undertake to reduce young workers' work-related risk-taking and workplace injuries, namely encouraging youth to be safe at work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-the-wild facial expression recognition in extreme poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Chi; Qiu, Guoping

    2018-04-01

    In the computer research area, facial expression recognition is a hot research problem. Recent years, the research has moved from the lab environment to in-the-wild circumstances. It is challenging, especially under extreme poses. But current expression detection systems are trying to avoid the pose effects and gain the general applicable ability. In this work, we solve the problem in the opposite approach. We consider the head poses and detect the expressions within special head poses. Our work includes two parts: detect the head pose and group it into one pre-defined head pose class; do facial expression recognize within each pose class. Our experiments show that the recognition results with pose class grouping are much better than that of direct recognition without considering poses. We combine the hand-crafted features, SIFT, LBP and geometric feature, with deep learning feature as the representation of the expressions. The handcrafted features are added into the deep learning framework along with the high level deep learning features. As a comparison, we implement SVM and random forest to as the prediction models. To train and test our methodology, we labeled the face dataset with 6 basic expressions.

  5. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  6. Trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections pose a correlated risk to global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. B.; Seager, R.; Cane, M. A.; Baethgen, W.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of interannual climate variability, particularly in the Pacific Basin. ENSO life-cycles tend to evolve over multiple years, as do the associated trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections. This analysis, however, represents the first attempt to characterize the structure of the risk posed by ENSO to wheat, maize and soybean production across the Pacific Basin. Our results indicate that most ENSO teleconnections relevant for crop flowering seasons are the result of a single trans-Pacific circulation anomaly that develops in boreal summer and persists through the spring. During the late summer and early fall of a developing ENSO event, the tropical Pacific forces an atmospheric anomaly in the midlatitudes that spans the Pacific Basin. This teleconnection directly links the soybean and maize growing seasons of the US, Mexico and China. It also connects the wheat growing seasons of Argentina, southern Brazil and Australia. The ENSO event peaks in boreal winter, when the atmospheric circulation anomalies intensify and affect maize and soybeans in southeast South America. As the event decays, the ENSO-induced circulation anomalies persist through the wheat flowering seasons in China and the US. While the prospect of ENSO forcing simultaneous droughts in major food producing regions seems disastrous, there may be a silver lining from the perspective of global food security: trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections to yields are often offsetting between major producing regions in th