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Sample records for pose conceptual questions

  1. POSING THE HISTORICAL JESUS QUESTION AND THE GOAL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycl

    ... study recommended that. African scholars be allowed to develop and pose the Historical Jesus ... he is seen as the starting point for modern critical study of Jesus. (Burer). ... African anthropology and culture and the data of revelation, and how this theology ... Man” from two perspectives: that of a biblical culture in the first.

  2. Categorization of questions posed before and after inquiry-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena García González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Posing research questions is the central ability of the scientific thought. This article examines the ability of sixth grade children to pose researchable questions before and after a three months’ work on a didactic sequence based on the inquiry school model. According to their purpose, the questions asked by children, after reading a text, were classified into researchable questions -susceptible to be empirically explored-, questions about a cause, and questions on a piece of data. The results show that the amount and the type of questions the students were able to pose during the intervention changed, from most of questions on data or information, to most of researchable questions, subsequently, the importance of designing teaching approaches to foster this ability was proved.

  3. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  4. Developmental regression in autism: research and conceptual questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lampreia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of developmental regression in autism has gained importance and a growing number of studies have been conducted in recent years. It is a major issue indicating that there is not a unique form of autism onset. However the phenomenon itself and the concept of regression have been the subject of some debate: there is no consensus on the existence of regression, as there is no consensus on its definition. The aim of this paper is to review the research literature in this area and to introduce some conceptual questions about its existence and its definition.

  5. Student performance on conceptual questions: Does instruction matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

  6. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  7. Within-Case and Cross-Case Analyses of Questions Posed by Fifth-Grade Students Working in Small Groups to Investigate Pendulum Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisel, James Michael

    The focus of this basic qualitative research is student questions in an unstructured inquiry setting. Case and cross-case analyses were conducted (Miles and Huberman, 1984) of the questions posed by fifth grade students working in laboratory groups of size three to five students as they investigated pendulum motion. To establish the conceptual framework for the study, literature was reviewed in the areas of cognitive theory (constructivism, conceptual change, and other theories), approaches to science, and the importance of student questions in the learning process. A review of group work, related studies of student questions and activities and relevant methods of qualitative research was also undertaken. The current study occupies the relatively unique position of being about the questions students posed to each other (not the teacher) at the outset of and throughout an unstructured inquiry activity with a minimum of teacher initiation or intervention. The focus is on finding out what questions students ask, when they ask them, what categories the questions fall into in relation to possible models of the scientific method, student motivation, and what role the questions play as the students take part in an inquiry activity. Students were video and/or audio-recorded as they did the investigation. They wrote down their questions during one-minute pauses that occurred at roughly eight-minute intervals. The groups were interviewed the next day about their experience. The recordings, question sheets, and interview accounts and recordings were analyzed by the researcher. Accounts of the experience of each group were prepared, and reiterated attempts were made to classify the questions as the main themes and categories emerged. It was found that students posed their key research question (most typically related to pendulum damping effects) midway through the first half of their activity, after having first met some competence and other needs in relation to measurement

  8. A conceptual model of the risk of elder abuse posed by incontinence and care dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan

    2017-12-08

    To describe and critically analyse the thinking that led to the concept of an association between incontinence, care dependence and elder abuse. Coercive or abusive continence care practices include chastising a person for their incontinence and overriding their attempts to resist continence care. Neglect in continence care is characterised by withholding or delaying responding to requests for help to maintain continence or to manage incontinence, and restricting a person's access to toileting assistance, incontinence aids or hygiene care. Contemporary biomedical understandings about incontinence and influencing concepts from the fields of sociology, psychology and nursing were analysed to inform the design of a conceptual model that elucidates possible associations between incontinence, care dependence and elder abuse. Ideas generated from an analysis of the concepts led to the development of a model termed the "Model of Attributes to Abuse of Dependent Elders in Continence Care" (MADE-CC). The MADE-CC theorises factors that cause and contribute to abuse in continence care. Carer factors include physical and emotional exhaustion, frustration related to the inability to control or predict incontinence, resentment associated with constraints imposed by care dependence, disgust associated with physical contact with urine/faeces, limited knowledge and skills about incontinence and ethical conflicts concerning care. Care recipient factors include frequent and severe incontinence, cognitive impairment and a history of physical or psychological trauma. Social factors that are theorised include the stigmatised nature of incontinence, social taboos and cultural norms and the private nature of continence care. The MADE-CC illuminates the potential risk of elder abuse posed by incontinence and care dependence. It should be used to improve ethical care of older people and stimulate debate about everyday ethics in the care of older people who are care dependent and to optimise

  9. The effect of problem posing and problem solving with realistic mathematics education approach to the conceptual understanding and adaptive reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rengga; Slamet, Isnandar; Budiyono

    2017-12-01

    One of the difficulties of students in learning mathematics is on the subject of geometry that requires students to understand abstract things. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of learning model Problem Posing and Problem Solving with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning in learning mathematics. This research uses a kind of quasi experimental research. The population of this research is all seventh grade students of Junior High School 1 Jaten, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The test of the research hypothesis was analyzed by using t-test. The results of this study indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' conceptual understanding significantly in mathematics learning. In addition tu, the results also showed that the model of Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' adaptive reasoning significantly in learning mathematics. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing and Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on the subject of geometry so as to improve conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  10. General technical comments on climate change - comment 1: Answers to five questions posed at the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firor, J.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to answer the following five questions: (1) what are the projections of global average temperature increase? (2) What are the prospects for projecting regional climate change? (3) Do the climate models produce outlooks for a group of climate variables closely related to sociatal impacts? (4) What is the feasibility and what are the costs of proposed geoengineering options for responding to climate change? (5) What climate variables co-vary with global average temperature

  11. Answers to questions posed by the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A general presentation of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program was given on July 26, 1976, to the Michigan Environmental Review Board and the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force. Following the presentation, Dr. William G. Taylor, Chairman of the Task Force, provided ERDA with a listing of questions which pertained to the NWTS program and ERDA/OWI's interest in northeast Michigan. This document contains copies of the information which was provided to Dr. Taylor in response to his inquiry

  12. Answers to questions posed by the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-30

    A general presentation of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program was given on July 26, 1976, to the Michigan Environmental Review Board and the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force. Following the presentation, Dr. William G. Taylor, Chairman of the Task Force, provided ERDA with a listing of questions which pertained to the NWTS program and ERDA/OWI's interest in northeast Michigan. This document contains copies of the information which was provided to Dr. Taylor in response to his inquiry.

  13. Importance of Broken Gauge Symmetry in Addressing Three, Key, Unanswered Questions Posed by Low Nuclear Reactions (LENR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's are: 1. How do we explain the lack of high energy particles (HEP's)? 2. Can we understand and prioritize the way coupling can occur between nuclear- and atomic- lengthscales, and 3. What are the roles of Surface-Like (SL), as opposed to Bulk-Like (BL), processes in triggering nuclear phenomena. One important source of confusion associated with each of these questions is the common perception that the quantum mechanical phases of different particles are not correlated with each other. When the momenta p of interacting particles is large, and reactions occur rapidly (between HEP's, for example), this is a valid assumption. But when the relative difference in p becomes vanishingly small, between one charge, and many others, as a result of implicit electromagnetic coupling, each charge can share a common phase, relative to the others, modulo 2nπ, where n is an integer, even when outside forces are introduced. The associated forms of broken gauge symmetry, distinguish BL from SL phenomena, at room temperature, also explain super- and normal- conductivity in solids, and can be used to address the Three, Key, Unanswered Questions posed by LENR's.

  14. The English and northern (Sweden and Norway) systems regarding the questions posed by the white book; Les systemes anglais et nordiques (Suede et Norvege) au regard des questions posees dans le livre blanc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie [ed.] [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie, Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    1999-06-15

    This report issued at request of Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry - State Secretariat for Industry, presents an analysis of the way the European countries have liberalized their markets, which will be used to answer the questions posed by the white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the French electricity sector'. In the United Kingdom the reform, initiated on 1 April 1990, occurred as a genuine revolution, with the blow-up of CEGB, the equivalent of EDF in France. In Swede and Norway the evolution was progressive; the electric industry was actually not nationalized and the local collectivities, often owners of the production means, have remained the prominent actors. Other characteristic of these countries is the abundance of natural energetic resources, especially for United Kingdom and Norway where the objective of the power policy is of turning profitable the existent potential and not as in France, where the problem is to cope with the consequences of the lack of natural resources. This report contains two parts. The first part presents the main characteristics of the liberalized systems. Indeed while in an integrated system the logic is 'top - down', in a liberalized system the logic is 'bottom - up' i.e., the coordination is based on the market in a decentralized way. The instrument of this coordination is a contract by which the risks are shared among the actors (producers, bankers, distributors, customers). The central actor of the liberalized system is the network authority, so-called 'independent' with rather large autonomy, nominated by the Minister in charge with the energy policy. The network authority has essentially two functions: control and surveillance. In United Kingdom this agency has among his duties the promotion of competition, particularly in production sector, considered as still having monopole capabilities. In Swede and Norway this authority contents itself of only issuing

  15. Effects of Re-Using a Conceptual Examination Question in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manjula D.; Sefton, Ian M.; Cole, Martyn; Whymark, Aaron; Millar, Rosemary M.; Smith, Andrew

    2005-12-01

    We report on a study of what happened when we recycled a conceptual examination question in a first-year university physics course. The question, which was used for three consecutive years, asked about an astronaut's experience of weighing in an orbiting space-craft. Our original intention was to use a phenomenographic approach to look for differences in students' descriptive answers. Having done that, we decided to add a study of the marks that were awarded to those answers. The first time that the question was re-used, the distribution of answers amongst our phenomenographic categories showed a decrease in the common conception that gravity is zero in the satellite and an increase in explanations in terms of free fall. When the question was re-used a second time, that difference was maintained but it was not significantly increased. The distribution of marks for the question was different over the three years in a way that appears to be unrelated to differences in students' conceptual understandings. Differences in the distribution of marks are more likely to be related to differences in marking procedures. We conclude that studies like this one have the potential to contribute to improvements in university assessment procedures. In particular we propose that phenomenographic analysis could be used in the design of marking schemes.

  16. The Investigation of Chemistry Questions Asked in Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination for High School Level in the Context of Algorithmic and Conceptual Question Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül DERMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To conduct of the education programs, the most important resource is considered that textbooks but in national assesment tests, chemistry questions prepared according to chemistry curriculum they may be considered reflections of curriculum. The purpose of this study is to review the 140 chemistry questions “algoritmic or conceptual”, asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”for 9,10,11 classes between 1998 and 2015 years. The study is a descriptive study. In data analysis, within the scope of the document analysis, qualitative research method was used. Crosstabs and Kappa statistic was used. The findings of this study revealed that the questions asked in “Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination”are 80% conceptual, 20% algorithmic in total. The distribution of question types according to the years indicates that most of questions are consisted of conceptual question types. By the findings are associated with the relevant literature and national chemistry curriculum, inferences and implications for conceptual chemistry teaching and learning have been made

  17. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  18. Learning Physics Teaching through Collaborative Design of Conceptual Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student engagement through Electronic Response Systems (clickers) has been widely researched. Its success largely depends on the quality of multiple-choice questions used by instructors. This paper describes a pilot project that focused on the implementation of online collaborative multiple-choice question repository, PeerWise, in a…

  19. Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity" and Related Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.

  20. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  1. Are archetypes transmitted more by culture than biology? Questions arising from conceptualizations of the archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The archetype is one of the most important, if not the central concept of analytical psychology. Nevertheless from the beginning the concept was controversial. This paper attempts to review the debate around the term archetype and tries to point out some of the main problems the concept has in the light of contemporary knowledge especially in genetics and neurosciences. It becomes clear that for its use in the practice of Jungian psychotherapy the element of universality in the concept of archetypes is crucial. However, it must be concluded that there is still no firm scientific foundation for the claim that complex symbolic patterns (as for example the myth of the hero) can be transmitted in a way that every human individual has access to them. The paper attempts to show possible ways in which this transmission may be more successfully conceptualized. I would like to have Jung have the last word here. We find a hint in Jung's work where he opens up to ideas much like the ones I have developed here, and this is where Jung says: culture is part of man's nature. 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Validity of instruments to measure physical activity may be questionable due to a lack of conceptual frameworks: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance documents for the development and validation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) advise the use of conceptual frameworks, which outline the structure of the concept that a PRO aims to measure. It is unknown whether currently available PROs are based on conceptual frameworks. This study, which was limited to a specific case, had the following aims: (i) to identify conceptual frameworks of physical activity in chronic respiratory patients or similar populations (chronic heart disease patients or the elderly) and (ii) to assess whether the development and validation of PROs to measure physical activity in these populations were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Methods Two systematic reviews were conducted through searches of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases prior to January 2010. Results In the first review, only 2 out of 581 references pertaining to physical activity in the defined populations provided a conceptual framework of physical activity in COPD patients. In the second review, out of 103 studies developing PROs to measure physical activity or related constructs, none were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Conclusions These findings raise concerns about how the large body of evidence from studies that use physical activity PRO instruments should be evaluated by health care providers, guideline developers, and regulatory agencies. PMID:21967887

  3. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  4. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue part 1: conceptual and definitional issues in psychiatric diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In face of the multiple controversies surrounding the DSM process in general and the development of DSM-5 in particular, we have organized a discussion around what we consider six essential questions in further work on the DSM. The six questions involve: 1 the nature of a mental disorder; 2 the definition of mental disorder; 3 the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4 the role of pragmatic considerations in the construction of DSM-5; 5 the issue of utility of the DSM - whether DSM-III and IV have been designed more for clinicians or researchers, and how this conflict should be dealt with in the new manual; and 6 the possibility and advisability, given all the problems with DSM-III and IV, of designing a different diagnostic system. Part I of this article will take up the first two questions. With the first question, invited commentators express a range of opinion regarding the nature of psychiatric disorders, loosely divided into a realist position that the diagnostic categories represent real diseases that we can accurately name and know with our perceptual abilities, a middle, nominalist position that psychiatric disorders do exist in the real world but that our diagnostic categories are constructs that may or may not accurately represent the disorders out there, and finally a purely constructivist position that the diagnostic categories are simply constructs with no evidence of psychiatric disorders in the real world. The second question again offers a range of opinion as to how we should define a mental or psychiatric disorder, including the possibility that we should not try to formulate a definition. The general introduction, as well as the introductions and conclusions for the specific questions, are written by James Phillips, and the responses to commentaries are written by Allen Frances.

  5. Is supergravity well-posed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenberg, J.; Bao, D.; Yasskin, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    One rather fundamental question concerning supergravity remains unresolved: Is supergravity a well-posed field theory? That is, does a set of certain (Cauchy) data specified on some initial spacelike surface determine a unique, causally propagating spacetime solution of the supergravity field equations (at least in some finite neighborhood of the initial surface)? In this paper, the authors give a very brief report on work directed towards answering this question. (Auth.)

  6. Conceptual and safety-related questions in the final storage of radioactive waste - a comparison of various types of host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, U.

    2005-01-01

    The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in early November published the synthesis report (BfS 2005) about the conceptual and safety-related specific questions associated with the final storage of radioactive waste. In addition to a condensed version of twelve individual projects, the report contains a description of the results of the peer review and the workshops carried out, in particular an evaluation comparing different types of host rock in Germany. The whole project constitutes a comprehensive documentation of the current state of the art. Findings are expressed at a general level referring neither to the suitability of any specific repository site nor to that of salts as a repository formation, but covering all potential repository formations in deep geologic strata in Germany. The limits to and possibilities of, generic comparisons of various types of host rock are shown. It si seen that, in principle, none of the host rock varieties in Germany would be preferable to others. Numerous problems can be solved only for specific sites, thus requiring site comparisons. While some questions indicate a need for regulatory treatment, the need for basic research is considered to be low. The contribution presents the main findings made in each of the specific projects and the evaluations by the Office. (orig.)

  7. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  8. Analysing the Mathematical Experience: Posing the "What Is Mathematics?" Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Janice

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, different schools of thought are discussed and compared to encourage lively classroom discussion and interest in mathematics for high achieving Form 12 students and first (or higher) year university students enrolled in a mathematics degree program. In particular the work and views of two mathematicians, Kurt Godel (1931) and Ian…

  9. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  10. The art of problem posing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    1990-01-01

    Updated and expanded, this second edition satisfies the same philosophical objective as the first -- to show the importance of problem posing. Although interest in mathematical problem solving increased during the past decade, problem posing remained relatively ignored. The Art of Problem Posing draws attention to this equally important act and is the innovator in the field. Special features include: * an exploration ofthe logical relationship between problem posing and problem solving * a special chapter devoted to teaching problem posing as a separate course * sketches, drawings, diagrams, and cartoons that illustrate the schemes proposed * a special section on writing in mathematics.

  11. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  12. A Conceptual Model of the Pasadena Housing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, Alan S.; Barber, Thomas A.

    1971-01-01

    During the last 5 years, there have been several attempts at applying systems analysis to complex urban problems. This paper describes one such attempt by a multidisciplinary team of students, engineers, professors, and community representatives. The Project organization is discussed and the interaction of the different disciplines (the process) described. The two fundamental analysis questions posed by the Project were: "Why do houses deteriorate?" and "Why do people move?" The analysis of these questions led to the development of a conceptual system model of housing in Pasadena. The major elements of this model are described, and several conclusions drawn from it are presented.

  13. Conceptual structures in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Exploring fundamental research questions, Conceptual Structures in Practice takes you through the basic yet nontrivial task of establishing conceptual relations as the foundation for research in knowledge representation and knowledge mining. It includes contributions from leading researchers in both the conceptual graph and formal concept analysis (FCA) communities.This accessible, self-contained book begins by providing the formal background in FCA and conceptual graphs. It then describes various software tools for analysis and computation, including the ToscanaJ suite. Written by the origina

  14. Conceptualization and Appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dalsgård, Peter

    2005-01-01

    parasitic system. First, we argue that the failure of the management's system is caused by the concept of knowledge upon which the system was built. Hence, design of computer systems is as much a question of critical conceptual understanding of its application domain as a question of doing ethnography...

  15. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  16. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  17. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  18. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  19. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  20. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  1. Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, R.; Slamet, I.; Budiyono

    2017-09-01

    One of the difficulties of students in the learning of geometry is on the subject of plane that requires students to understand the abstract matter. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of Problem Posing learning model with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in geometry learning. This quasi experimental research was conducted in one of the junior high schools in Karanganyar, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The results of this research indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students’ conceptual understanding significantly in geometry learning especially on plane topics. It is because students on the application of Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach are become to be active in constructing their knowledge, proposing, and problem solving in realistic, so it easier for students to understand concepts and solve the problems. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on geometry material. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  2. Inductive logic on conceptual spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the question of how conceptual frameworks influence inductive reasoning. A conceptual framework is a collection of concepts used for a particular purpose; we can think of it as a semantic environment in which observations, or evidence, are recorded, and beliefs are formed

  3. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  4. Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Budhi Utami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.

  5. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  6. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  7. An Integrated Conceptual Framework for the Development of Asian American Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayanthi; Li, Jin; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Tseng, Vivian; Tirrell, Jonathan; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Rashmita; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    The diversity of circumstances and developmental outcomes among Asian American children and youth poses a challenge for scholars interested in Asian American child development. This article addresses the challenge by offering an integrated conceptual framework based on three broad questions: (a) What are theory-predicated specifications of contexts that are pertinent for the development of Asian American children? (b) What are the domains of development and socialization that are particularly relevant? (c) How can culture as meaning-making processes be integrated in conceptualizations of development? The heuristic value of the conceptual model is illustrated by research on Asian American children and youth that examines the interconnected nature of specific features of context, pertinent aspects of development, and interpretive processes. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Analyzing Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Fraction Knowledge Structures through Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine pre-service primary teachers' knowledge structures of fraction through problem posing activities. A total of 90 pre-service primary teachers participated in this study. A problem posing test consisting of two questions was used and the participants were asked to generate as many as problems based on the…

  9. Manifolds for pose tracking from monocular video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saurav; Poulin, Joshua; Acton, Scott T.

    2015-03-01

    We formulate a simple human-pose tracking theory from monocular video based on the fundamental relationship between changes in pose and image motion vectors. We investigate the natural embedding of the low-dimensional body pose space into a high-dimensional space of body configurations that behaves locally in a linear manner. The embedded manifold facilitates the decomposition of the image motion vectors into basis motion vector fields of the tangent space to the manifold. This approach benefits from the style invariance of image motion flow vectors, and experiments to validate the fundamental theory show reasonable accuracy (within 4.9 deg of the ground truth).

  10. A problem-posing approach to teaching the topic of radioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, C.W.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis highlights a problem-posing approach to science education. By this is meant an approach that explicitly aims at providing students with content-related motives for extending their existing conceptual resources, experiential base and belief system in a certain direction, such that a

  11. When a Problem Is More than a Teacher's Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jo Clay; Knott, Libby

    2013-01-01

    Not only are the problems teachers pose throughout their teaching of great importance but also the ways in which they use those problems make this a critical component of teaching. A problem-posing episode includes the problem setup, the statement of the problem, and the follow-up questions. Analysis of problem-posing episodes of precalculus…

  12. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  13. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  14. Comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO); Stellungnahme zu konzeptionellen Fragen der Freigabe zur Beseitigung auf einer Deponie bei Stilllegung und Abbau des Kernkraftwerks Obrigheim (KWO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian

    2015-08-03

    The comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO) cover the following issues: fundamentals of the 10 micro-Sv concept for clearance; specific regulations for the clearance of wastes from the dismantling of KWO for disposal on a dump site; disposal concept at shutdown and dismantling of KWO; measurements and control during clearance for disposal during shutdown and dismantling of KWO; documentation and reports.

  15. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  16. Exemplar-based human action pose correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Deng, Ke; Bai, Xiang; Leyvand, Tommer; Guo, Baining; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-07-01

    The launch of Xbox Kinect has built a very successful computer vision product and made a big impact on the gaming industry. This sheds lights onto a wide variety of potential applications related to action recognition. The accurate estimation of human poses from the depth image is universally a critical step. However, existing pose estimation systems exhibit failures when facing severe occlusion. In this paper, we propose an exemplar-based method to learn to correct the initially estimated poses. We learn an inhomogeneous systematic bias by leveraging the exemplar information within a specific human action domain. Furthermore, as an extension, we learn a conditional model by incorporation of pose tags to further increase the accuracy of pose correction. In the experiments, significant improvements on both joint-based skeleton correction and tag prediction are observed over the contemporary approaches, including what is delivered by the current Kinect system. Our experiments for the facial landmark correction also illustrate that our algorithm can improve the accuracy of other detection/estimation systems.

  17. An improved silhouette for human pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Anthony H.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel method for analyzing images that exploits the natural lines of a human poses to find areas where self-occlusion could be present. Errors caused by self-occlusion cause several modern human pose estimation methods to mis-identify body parts, which reduces the performance of most action recognition algorithms. Our method is motivated by the observation that, in several cases, occlusion can be reasoned using only boundary lines of limbs. An intelligent edge detection algorithm based on the above principle could be used to augment the silhouette with information useful for pose estimation algorithms and push forward progress on occlusion handling for human action recognition. The algorithm described is applicable to computer vision scenarios involving 2D images and (appropriated flattened) 3D images.

  18. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to 'Power Poses'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body ( n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body ( n = 22), two expansive, high power poses ( n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses ( n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  19. Non-standard and improperly posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian; Ames, William F

    1997-01-01

    Written by two international experts in the field, this book is the first unified survey of the advances made in the last 15 years on key non-standard and improperly posed problems for partial differential equations.This reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers provides an overview of the methodology typically used to study improperly posed problems. It focuses on structural stability--the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions and the modeling equations--and on problems for which data are only prescribed on part of the boundary.The book addresses continuou

  20. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  1. The nucleolus is well-posed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragnelli, Vito; Patrone, Fioravante; Torre, Anna

    2006-02-01

    The lexicographic order is not representable by a real-valued function, contrary to many other orders or preorders. So, standard tools and results for well-posed minimum problems cannot be used. We prove that under suitable hypotheses it is however possible to guarantee the well-posedness of a lexicographic minimum over a compact or convex set. This result allows us to prove that some game theoretical solution concepts, based on lexicographic order are well-posed: in particular, this is true for the nucleolus.

  2. Fraction Multiplication and Division Word Problems Posed by Different Years of Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Aydogdu Iskenderoglu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important for pre-service teachers to know the conceptual difficulties they have experienced regarding the concepts of multiplication and division in fractions and problem posing is a way to learn these conceptual difficulties. Problem posing is a synthetic activity that fundamentally has multiple answers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the multiplication and division of fractions problems posed by pre-service elementary mathematics teachers and to investigate how the problems posed change according to the year of study the pre-service teachers are in. The study employed developmental research methods. A total of 213 pre-service teachers enrolled in different years of the Elementary Mathematics Teaching program at a state university in Turkey took part in the study. The “Problem Posing Test” was used as the data collecting tool. In this test, there are 3 multiplication and 3 division operations. The data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. The findings suggest that, regardless of the year, pre-service teachers had more conceptual difficulties in problem posing about the division of fractions than in problem posing about the multiplication of fractions.

  3. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  4. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  5. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  6. Head Pose Estimation from Passive Stereo Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenstein, Michael D.; Jensen, Jeppe; Høilund, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    function. Our algorithm incorporates 2D and 3D cues to make the system robust to low-quality range images acquired by passive stereo systems. It handles large pose variations (of ±90 ° yaw and ±45 ° pitch rotation) and facial variations due to expressions or accessories. For a maximally allowed error of 30...

  7. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  8. Novelty Detection for Interactive Pose Recognition by a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gonzalez-Pacheco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Active robot learners take an active role in their own learning by making queries to their human teachers when they receive new data. However, not every received input is useful for the robot, and asking for non-informative inputs or asking too many questions might worsen the user's perception of the robot. We present a novelty detection system that enables a robot to ask labels for new stimuli only when they seem both novel and interesting. Our system separates the decision process into two steps: first, it discriminates novel from known stimuli, and second, it estimates if these stimuli are likely to happen again. Our approach uses the notion of curiosity, which controls the eagerness with which the robot asks questions to the user. We evaluate our approach in the domain of pose learning by training our robot with a set of pointing poses able to detect up to 84%, 79%, and 78% of the observed novelties in three different experiments. Our approach enables robots to keep learning continuously, even after training is finished. The introduction of the curiosity parameter allows tuning, for the conditions in which the robot should want to learn more.

  9. Populism, Exclusion, Post-truth. Some Conceptual Caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cleen, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    In their editorial, Speed and Mannion identify two main challenges "the rise of post-truth populism" poses for health policy: the populist threat to inclusive healthcare policies, and the populist threat to well-designed health policies that draw on professional expertise and research evidence. This short comment suggests some conceptual clarifications that might help in thinking through more profoundly these two important issues. It argues that we should approach right-wing populism as a combination of a populist down/up (people/elite) axis with an exclusionary nationalist in/out (member/non-member) axis. And it raises some questions regarding the equation between populism, demagogy and the rejection of expertise and scientific knowledge. PMID:29524956

  10. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 3. Optimization of the Anderson Bridge Experiment. P Arun Kuldeep Kumar Mamta. Classroom Volume 15 Issue 3 March 2010 pp 244-256. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Author Affiliations. Kaushik Basu1 Suchandra Chakraborty2 Chandan Saha2. Department of Chemistry St Paul's Cathedral Mission College Kolkata 700 009, India. Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata 700 073, India.

  12. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 5. An Experiment on Projectile Motion. Amitabh Srivastava M K Raghavendra K P Ramesh. Classroom Volume 20 Issue 5 May 2015 pp 458-471. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 10. An Easy, Rapid and Cost-effective Method of Microtitration. Mala Das Sharma Ch Dhanamma. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 10 October 2005 pp 78-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 3 ... Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography Memorial University St. John's NL Canada AIB 3X7; Department of ...

  15. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Kaushik Basu1 Suchandra Chakraborty2 Chandan Saha2. Department of Chemistry St Paul's Cathedral Mission College Kolkata 700 009, India. Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata 700 073, India.

  16. Explanation, Motivation and Question Posing Routines in University Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Discourse: A Commognitive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the…

  17. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 6. Simple Models for the 100 Meter Dash. Priyanka deSouza Vijay A Singh. Classroom Volume ...

  18. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 6 ... https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/022/06/0611-0618 ... In this series of articles, the authors discuss various phenomenain fluid dynamics, which may be investigated via tabletopexperiments using low-cost or home-made instruments.

  19. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 6. Current Issue Volume 22 | Issue 6. June 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  20. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The demonstration described in this article is to show thatwhile H 2 O ice floats in water, D 2 O ice sinks in water, provingthe higher density of 'heavy water'. This experiment can bedone in a classroom or in an auditoriam. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 4. Current Issue Volume 23 ...

  1. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  2. Tridimensional pose estimation of a person head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Berenguer, Elisa; Soria, Carlos; Nasisi, Oscar; Mut, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for estimating 3-D motion parameters; this method provides an alternative way for 3D head pose estimation from image sequence in the current computer vision literature. This method is robust over extended sequences and large head motions and accurately extracts the orientation angles of head from a single view. Experimental results show that this tracking system works well for development a human-computer interface for people that possess severe motor incapacity

  3. Driver head pose tracking with thermal camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, S.; Fournier, C.; Lavergne, C.; Druart, G.; Lépine, T.

    2016-09-01

    Head pose can be seen as a coarse estimation of gaze direction. In automotive industry, knowledge about gaze direction could optimize Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Pose estimation systems are often based on camera when applications have to be contactless. In this paper, we explore uncooled thermal imagery (8-14μm) for its intrinsic night vision capabilities and for its invariance versus lighting variations. Two methods are implemented and compared, both are aided by a 3D model of the head. The 3D model, mapped with thermal texture, allows to synthesize a base of 2D projected models, differently oriented and labeled in yaw and pitch. The first method is based on keypoints. Keypoints of models are matched with those of the query image. These sets of matchings, aided with the 3D shape of the model, allow to estimate 3D pose. The second method is a global appearance approach. Among all 2D models of the base, algorithm searches the one which is the closest to the query image thanks to a weighted least squares difference.

  4. Conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1978-09-01

    This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC.

  5. Conceptual study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.

    1978-09-01

    This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC

  6. Robotic-surgical instrument wrist pose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Stephan; Baek, Kyungim; Berkelman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Lightweight Surgery Robot from the University of Hawaii includes two teleoperated instruments and one endoscope manipulator which act in accord to perform assisted interventional medicine. The relative positions and orientations of the robotic instruments and endoscope must be known to the teleoperation system so that the directions of the instrument motions can be controlled to correspond closely to the directions of the motions of the master manipulators, as seen by the the endoscope and displayed to the surgeon. If the manipulator bases are mounted in known locations and all manipulator joint variables are known, then the necessary coordinate transformations between the master and slave manipulators can be easily computed. The versatility and ease of use of the system can be increased, however, by allowing the endoscope or instrument manipulator bases to be moved to arbitrary positions and orientations without reinitializing each manipulator or remeasuring their relative positions. The aim of this work is to find the pose of the instrument end effectors using the video image from the endoscope camera. The P3P pose estimation algorithm is used with a Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to ensure convergence. The correct transformations between the master and slave coordinate frames can then be calculated and updated when the bases of the endoscope or instrument manipulators are moved to new, unknown, positions at any time before or during surgical procedures.

  7. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  8. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  9. Conceptualizing belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Alyson L; Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2013-06-01

    To develop a transdisciplinary conceptualization of social belonging that could be used to guide measurement approaches aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of community-based programs for people with disabilities. We conducted a narrative, scoping review of peer reviewed English language literature published between 1990 and July 2011 using multiple databases, with "sense of belonging" as a key search term. The search engine ranked articles for relevance to the search strategy. Articles were searched in order until theoretical saturation was reached. We augmented this search strategy by reviewing reference lists of relevant papers. Theoretical saturation was reached after 40 articles; 22 of which were qualitative accounts. We identified five intersecting themes: subjectivity; groundedness to an external referent; reciprocity; dynamism and self-determination. We define a sense of belonging as a subjective feeling of value and respect derived from a reciprocal relationship to an external referent that is built on a foundation of shared experiences, beliefs or personal characteristics. These feelings of external connectedness are grounded to the context or referent group, to whom one chooses, wants and feels permission to belong. This dynamic phenomenon may be either hindered or promoted by complex interactions between environmental and personal factors.

  10. Relative Pose Estimation Algorithm with Gyroscope Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vision and inertial fusion algorithm S2fM (Simplified Structure from Motion for camera relative pose estimation. Different from current existing algorithms, our algorithm estimates rotation parameter and translation parameter separately. S2fM employs gyroscopes to estimate camera rotation parameter, which is later fused with the image data to estimate camera translation parameter. Our contributions are in two aspects. (1 Under the circumstance that no inertial sensor can estimate accurately enough translation parameter, we propose a translation estimation algorithm by fusing gyroscope sensor and image data. (2 Our S2fM algorithm is efficient and suitable for smart devices. Experimental results validate efficiency of the proposed S2fM algorithm.

  11. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  12. Using computer simulations to facilitate conceptual understanding of electromagnetic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Fen

    their revised answers electronically. Students in the TRAD group were not granted access to the CLCS material and followed their normal classroom routine. At the end of the study, both the CLCS and TRAD students took a post-test. Questions on the post-test were divided into "what" questions, "how" questions, and an open response question. Analysis of students' post-test performance showed mixed results. While the TRAD students scored higher on the "what" questions, the CLCS students scored higher on the "how" questions and the one open response questions. This result suggested that more TRAD students knew what kinds of conditions may or may not cause electromagnetic induction without understanding how electromagnetic induction works. Analysis of the CLCS students' learning also suggested that frequent disruption and technical trouble might pose threats to the effectiveness of the CLCS learning framework. Despite the mixed results of students' post-test performance, the CLCS learning framework revealed some limitations to promote conceptual understanding in physics. Improvement can be made by providing students with background knowledge necessary to understand model reasoning and incorporating the CLCS learning framework with other learning frameworks to promote integration of various physics concepts. In addition, the reflective questions in the CLCS learning framework may be refined to better address students' difficulties. Limitations of the study, as well as suggestions for future research, are also presented in this study.

  13. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  14. Gendering China studies: peripheral perspectives, central questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between the field of China studies and the field of gender and sexuality studies. It engages with three questions. First, why is it that theoretical, conceptual and methodological cross-fertilization between China studies and cultural studies remains quite

  15. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  16. Multi-Task Convolutional Neural Network for Pose-Invariant Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Liu, Xiaoming

    2018-02-01

    This paper explores multi-task learning (MTL) for face recognition. We answer the questions of how and why MTL can improve the face recognition performance. First, we propose a multi-task Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for face recognition where identity classification is the main task and pose, illumination, and expression estimations are the side tasks. Second, we develop a dynamic-weighting scheme to automatically assign the loss weight to each side task, which is a crucial problem in MTL. Third, we propose a pose-directed multi-task CNN by grouping different poses to learn pose-specific identity features, simultaneously across all poses. Last but not least, we propose an energy-based weight analysis method to explore how CNN-based MTL works. We observe that the side tasks serve as regularizations to disentangle the variations from the learnt identity features. Extensive experiments on the entire Multi-PIE dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work using all data in Multi-PIE for face recognition. Our approach is also applicable to in-the-wild datasets for pose-invariant face recognition and achieves comparable or better performance than state of the art on LFW, CFP, and IJB-A datasets.

  17. University Students' Problem Posing Abilities and Attitudes towards Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmeier, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)

  18. Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

  19. 2D Methods for pose invariant face recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Ntabiseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognise face images under random pose is a task that is done effortlessly by human beings. However, for a computer system, recognising face images under varying poses still remains an open research area. Face recognition across pose...

  20. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  1. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  2. The Effect of Problem Solving and Problem Posing Models and Innate Ability to Students Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Kartika Irawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Problem Solving dan Problem Posing serta Kemampuan Awal terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa   Abstract: Chemistry concepts understanding features abstract quality and requires higher order thinking skills. Yet, the learning on chemistry has not boost the higher order thinking skills of the students. The use of the learning model of Problem Solving and Problem Posing in observing the innate ability of the student is expected to resolve the issue. This study aims to determine the learning model which is effective to improve the study of the student with different level of innate ability. This study used the quasi-experimental design. The research data used in this research is the quiz/test of the class which consist of 14 multiple choice questions and 5 essay questions. The data analysis used is ANOVA Two Ways. The results showed that Problem Posing is more effective to improve the student compared to Problem Solving, students with high level of innate ability have better outcomes in learning rather than the students with low level of innate ability after being applied with the Problem solving and Problem posing model, further, Problem Solving and Problem Posing is more suitable to be applied to the students with high level of innate ability. Key Words: problem solving, problem posing, higher order thinking skills, innate ability, learning outcomes   Abstrak: Pemahaman konsep-konsep kimia yang bersifat abstrak membutuhkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Pembelajaran kimia belum mendorong siswa melakukan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Penggunaan model pembelajaran Problem Solving dan Problem Posing dengan memperhatikan kemampuan awal siswa diduga dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model pembelajaran yang efektif dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar dengan kemampuan awal siswa yang berbeda. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan eksperimen semu. Data penelitian menggunakan tes hasil belajar

  3. The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, David

    2010-08-01

    Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook, lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity and contextual cues that allow learners to immediately appreciate a question’s relevance. Teacher queries intended to motivate, guide, and foster learning through inquiry are known as focus questions. This theoretical article draws upon science education research to present a typology and conceptual framework intended to support science teacher educators as they identify, develop, and evaluate focus questions with their students.

  4. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  5. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  6. Pose Planning for the Feed Support System of FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-cable driven parallel manipulator and an A-B rotator in the feed support system of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST are adopted for realizing the position and pose of nine feeds. The six-cable driven parallel manipulator is a flexible mechanism, which may not be stably controlled due to a small cable tension. The A-B rotator is a rigid mechanism, and its stability and accuracy can be improved by small pose angle. Based on the different characteristics, a pose planning function is presented. The optimization target of the pose planning function is to get the smallest pose angle of the A-B rotator, and the constraint condition can reflect the controllability of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator. Then, the pose planning realization process of the feed support system is proposed. Based on the pose planning method, optimized pose angles of the feed support system for the nine feeds are obtained, which suggests that the pose angle of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator changes from 0° to 14° and the pose angle of the A-B rotator changes from 0° to 26.4°.

  7. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  8. To Strike a Pose: No Stereotype Backlash for Power Posing Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rennung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful versus powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473 asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures. High-power posers were rated higher on competence, admiration, envy, and contempt compared to low-power posers, whereas the opposite was true for pity. There was no impact of power posing on perceived warmth. Contrary to expectations, the poser’s gender did not moderate any of the effects. These findings suggest that nonverbal displays of power do influence fundamental dimensions of social perception and their accompanying emotional reactions but result in comparably positive and negative evaluations for both genders.

  9. Head pose estimation algorithm based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanming; Liu, Yijun

    2017-05-01

    Head pose estimation has been widely used in the field of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and intelligent human-computer interaction and so on. Good head pose estimation algorithm should deal with light, noise, identity, shelter and other factors robustly, but so far how to improve the accuracy and robustness of attitude estimation remains a major challenge in the field of computer vision. A method based on deep learning for pose estimation is presented. Deep learning with a strong learning ability, it can extract high-level image features of the input image by through a series of non-linear operation, then classifying the input image using the extracted feature. Such characteristics have greater differences in pose, while they are robust of light, identity, occlusion and other factors. The proposed head pose estimation is evaluated on the CAS-PEAL data set. Experimental results show that this method is effective to improve the accuracy of pose estimation.

  10. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  11. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  12. PRA has many faces - can the safety goal be well-posed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargmann, H.

    1983-01-01

    The question is discussed whether probabilistic reliability problems can, principally, be well-posed in practical situations. The problem is reduced to the question whether an underlying probabilistic experiment which is, essentially, the set of outcomes can be precisely specified such that the solution of the problem is unique. Upon reexamination of a classical paradox due to Bertrand and consideration of a typical problem of structural reliability we conclude that the possibility of well-posing a reliability problem should be considered illusory, for fundamental reasons which are inherent in practical situations. In particular, it should not be assumed that a quantitative safety goal could be verified. Generally, a probabilistic assessment should be considered as a quantitative method for establishing rational results which should, however, not be viewed as quantitative measures but as qualitative guides

  13. PROFESSIONAL SPECIFICITY OF CONCEPTUAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gilmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Most studies of psychologists and teachers in the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and ways of its formation are considered to be rather controversial and questionable. However, the research results were limited to the phenomenon of conceptual thinking and are therefore not representative for its implementation during the process of vocational training at the higher school. There is still considerable uncertainty with regard to the approaches to the problem of conceptual thinking in the humanities, including pedagogics and psychology. Furthermore, previous studies have not dealt with the objectives of conceptual thinking formation.The aims of the article are: to justify the use of the term “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT in theory and practice; to describe the prospects of the development of PCT in the training process.Methodology and research methods. The methodological base of the research involves the Russian psychological and pedagogical science approaches to the consideration of conceptual thinking as a higher mental function, a systematized and summarized form of cognitive reflection of notions and relations of reality. The experimental work was carried out using the method of observation, interviews, and tests. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was conducted. The process of formation of PCT is described through the theory of stage-by-stage systematic development of mental acts.Results and scientific novelty. The concept “professional conceptualization of thinking” (PCT, a new one for psychological-pedagogical science, is suggested. The PCT levels are identified: ordinary, formal, substantial, system, and holistic. The objectives proposed for the development of the PCT levels in the process of professional education consist in the organization of consecutive transition from conscious mastering of a terminological framework to its use in the performance of educational tasks; from

  14. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  15. The lighter side of advertising: investigating posing and lighting biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole A; Burkitt, Jennifer A; Patrick, Regan E; Elias, Lorin J

    2008-11-01

    People tend to display the left cheek when posing for a portrait; however, this effect does not appear to generalise to advertising. The amount of body visible in the image and the sex of the poser might also contribute to the posing bias. Portraits also exhibit lateral lighting biases, with most images being lit from the left. This effect might also be present in advertisements. A total of 2801 full-page advertisements were sampled and coded for posing direction, lighting direction, sex of model, and amount of body showing. Images of females showed an overall leftward posing bias, but the biases in males depended on the amount of body visible. Males demonstrated rightward posing biases for head-only images. Overall, images tended to be lit from the top left corner. The two factors of posing and lighting biases appear to influence one another. Leftward-lit images had more leftward poses than rightward, while the opposite occurred for rightward-lit images. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the posing biases in advertisements are dependent on the amount of body showing in the image, and that biases in lighting direction interact with these posing biases.

  16. In-the-wild facial expression recognition in extreme poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Chi; Qiu, Guoping

    2018-04-01

    In the computer research area, facial expression recognition is a hot research problem. Recent years, the research has moved from the lab environment to in-the-wild circumstances. It is challenging, especially under extreme poses. But current expression detection systems are trying to avoid the pose effects and gain the general applicable ability. In this work, we solve the problem in the opposite approach. We consider the head poses and detect the expressions within special head poses. Our work includes two parts: detect the head pose and group it into one pre-defined head pose class; do facial expression recognize within each pose class. Our experiments show that the recognition results with pose class grouping are much better than that of direct recognition without considering poses. We combine the hand-crafted features, SIFT, LBP and geometric feature, with deep learning feature as the representation of the expressions. The handcrafted features are added into the deep learning framework along with the high level deep learning features. As a comparison, we implement SVM and random forest to as the prediction models. To train and test our methodology, we labeled the face dataset with 6 basic expressions.

  17. Question Generation and Adaptation Using a Bayesian Network of the Learner’s Achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wißner, M.; Linnebank, F.; Liem, J.; Bredeweg, B.; André, E.; Lane, H.C.; Yacef, K.; Mostow, J.; Pavlik, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a domain independent question generation and interaction procedure that automatically generates multiple-choice questions for conceptual models created with Qualitative Reasoning vocabulary. A Bayesian Network is deployed that captures the learning progress based on the answers

  18. Latent Space Embedding for Retrieval in Question-Answer Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Deepak; Garg, Dinesh; Shevade, Shirish

    2017-01-01

    Community-driven Question Answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers have become valuable sources of reusable information. CQA retrieval enables usage of historical CQA archives to solve new questions posed by users. This task has received much recent attention, with methods building upon literature from translation models, topic models, and deep learning. In this paper, we devise a CQA retrieval technique, LASER-QA, that embeds question-answer pairs within a unified latent space preservi...

  19. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  20. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  1. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  2. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  3. Standard diffusive systems are well-posed linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matignon, Denis; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2004-01-01

    The class of well-posed linear systems as introduced by Salamon has become a well-understood class of systems, see e.g. the work of Weiss and the book of Staffans. Many partial partial differential equations with boundary control and point observation can be formulated as a well-posed linear system.

  4. Formulas in inverse and ill-posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Anikonov, Yu E

    1997-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  5. Turkish Primary School Teachers' Opinions about Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the most important topics in a mathematics education. Through problem posing, students gain mathematical abilities and concepts and teachers can evaluate their students and arrange adequate learning environments. The aim of the present study is to investigate Turkish primary school teachers' opinions about problem posing…

  6. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  7. Real-Time Head Pose Estimation on Mobile Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Ren

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many computer vision applications such as augmented reality require head pose estimation. As far as the real-time implementation of head pose estimation on relatively resource limited mobile platforms is concerned, it is required to satisfy real-time constraints while maintaining reasonable head pose estimation accuracy. The introduced head pose estimation approach in this paper is an attempt to meet this objective. The approach consists of the following components: Viola-Jones face detection, color-based face tracking using an online calibration procedure, and head pose estimation using Hu moment features and Fisher linear discriminant. Experimental results running on an actual mobile device are reported exhibiting both the real- time and accuracy aspects of the developed approach.

  8. Pose estimation for mobile robots working on turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.D.; Chen, Q.; Liu, J.J.; Sun, Z.G.; Zhang, W.Z. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-03-11

    This paper discussed a features point detection and matching task technique for mobile robots used in wind turbine blade applications. The vision-based scheme used visual information from the robot's surrounding environment to match successive image frames. An improved pose estimation algorithm based on a scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed to consider the characteristics of local images of turbine blades, pose estimation problems, and conditions. The method included a pre-subsampling technique for reducing computation and bidirectional matching for improving precision. A random sample consensus (RANSAC) method was used to estimate the robot's pose. Pose estimation conditions included a wide pose range; the distance between neighbouring blades; and mechanical, electromagnetic, and optical disturbances. An experimental platform was used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Panchanathan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1∘. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2∘ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.

  10. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  11. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  12. EVALUATION OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS IN ASTRONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pundak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though astronomy is the oldest science, it is still an open question how to evaluate students’ understanding in astronomy. In spite of the fact that some methods and evaluation tools have been developed for that purpose, the sources of students' difficulties in astronomy are still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the changes in conceptual frameworks in astronomy among 50 engineering students as a result of learning a general course in astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA, which was initially used in 1989, was adopted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool includes 23 questions and five to six optional answers to each question. Each of the answers characterizes one of the four conceptual frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal. These four conceptual frameworks act as a taxonomical system that enables us to evaluate astronomical understanding. The paper describes the background of the CFA, its development, and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to: (1 identify the students’ conceptual frameworks at the beginning of the course and at its end, (2 to evaluate the students’ paradigmatic change following the course. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks. The CFA can also be applied as an evaluation tool in all schools and institutions that teach astronomy.

  13. Textbook Presentations of Weight: Conceptual Difficulties and Language Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Rudge, David; Schuster, David

    2015-01-01

    The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties…

  14. HOW TO GENERATE AUTONOMOUS QUESTIONING IN SECONDARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Britta Eyrich

    2017-01-01

    In mathematics education it is still a major challenge to find ways to nurture students to pose and pursue their own questions in order to learn mathematics. During the last three decades problem posing has been explored through different approaches and in empirical studies. This paper presents...... the result of an empirical study, where teaching was designed and conducted based on The Anthropological Theory of the Didactic. It is shown how a changed didactic contract and open generating questions posed by the teacher can support students’ autonomous questioning of the taught knowledge. In the study......, students developed knowledge that went beyond curriculum requirements through autonomous activities, which were different from more traditional school and pedagogical culture....

  15. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  16. Design and Validation of the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKagan, S. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS) is a 12-question survey of students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included…

  17. Current status and new directions in conceptual aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, George H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: systems analysis branch questions; systems analysis; historical perspective; background technology; conceptual design/evaluation program organization; system integration/vehicle closure; conceptual design synthesis programs; numerical optimization/mathematical programming; and current R&D interests. The discussion is presented in viewgraph format.

  18. Integrating conceptualizations of experience into the interaction design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a design perspective, the increasing awareness of experiential aspects of interactive systems prompts the question of how conceptualizations of experience can inform and potentially be integrated into the interaction design process. This paper presents one approach to integrating theoretical...

  19. Fast human pose estimation using 3D Zernike descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjón, Daniel; Morán, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Markerless video-based human pose estimation algorithms face a high-dimensional problem that is frequently broken down into several lower-dimensional ones by estimating the pose of each limb separately. However, in order to do so they need to reliably locate the torso, for which they typically rely on time coherence and tracking algorithms. Their losing track usually results in catastrophic failure of the process, requiring human intervention and thus precluding their usage in real-time applications. We propose a very fast rough pose estimation scheme based on global shape descriptors built on 3D Zernike moments. Using an articulated model that we configure in many poses, a large database of descriptor/pose pairs can be computed off-line. Thus, the only steps that must be done on-line are the extraction of the descriptors for each input volume and a search against the database to get the most likely poses. While the result of such process is not a fine pose estimation, it can be useful to help more sophisticated algorithms to regain track or make more educated guesses when creating new particles in particle-filter-based tracking schemes. We have achieved a performance of about ten fps on a single computer using a database of about one million entries.

  20. Interacting Conceptual Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Josef; Coecke, Bob; Genovese, Fabrizio; Lewis, Martha; Marsden, Daniel; Piedeleu, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We propose applying the categorical compositional scheme of [6] to conceptual space models of cognition. In order to do this we introduce the category of convex relations as a new setting for categorical compositional semantics, emphasizing the convex structure important to conceptual space applications. We show how conceptual spaces for composite types such as adjectives and verbs can be constructed. We illustrate this new model on detailed examples.

  1. Methods of RVD object pose estimation and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; He, Yan; Wang, Weihua; Yu, Qifeng

    2007-11-01

    Methods of measuring a RVD (rendezvous and docking) cooperative object's pose from monocular and binocular images respectively are presented. The methods solve the initial values first and optimize the object pose parameters by bundle adjustment. In the disturbance-rejecting binocular method, chosen measurement system parameters of one camera's exterior parameters are modified simultaneously. The methods need three or more cooperative target points to measure the object's pose accurately. Experimental data show that the methods converge quickly and stably, provide accurate results and do not need accurate initial values. Even when the chosen measurement system parameters are subjected to some amount of disturbance, the binocular method manages to provide fairly accurate results.

  2. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  3. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  4. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  5. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  6. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  7. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ESPRIT: an Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, in support of NASA's effort in developing crew exercise technologies for...

  8. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  9. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  10. Pose estimation of industrial objects towards robot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Zhou, Fuqiang; Tan, Haishu; Cao, Yu

    2017-10-01

    With the advantages of wide range, non-contact and high flexibility, the visual estimation technology of target pose has been widely applied in modern industry, robot guidance and other engineering practices. However, due to the influence of complicated industrial environment, outside interference factors, lack of object characteristics, restrictions of camera and other limitations, the visual estimation technology of target pose is still faced with many challenges. Focusing on the above problems, a pose estimation method of the industrial objects is developed based on 3D models of targets. By matching the extracted shape characteristics of objects with the priori 3D model database of targets, the method realizes the recognition of target. Thus a pose estimation of objects can be determined based on the monocular vision measuring model. The experimental results show that this method can be implemented to estimate the position of rigid objects based on poor images information, and provides guiding basis for the operation of the industrial robot.

  11. Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kabanikhin, S I

    2011-01-01

    The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.

  12. Contactless and pose invariant biometric identification using hand surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhangad, Vivek; Kumar, Ajay; Zhang, David

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for hand matching that achieves significantly improved performance even in the presence of large hand pose variations. The proposed method utilizes a 3-D digitizer to simultaneously acquire intensity and range images of the user's hand presented to the system in an arbitrary pose. The approach involves determination of the orientation of the hand in 3-D space followed by pose normalization of the acquired 3-D and 2-D hand images. Multimodal (2-D as well as 3-D) palmprint and hand geometry features, which are simultaneously extracted from the user's pose normalized textured 3-D hand, are used for matching. Individual matching scores are then combined using a new dynamic fusion strategy. Our experimental results on the database of 114 subjects with significant pose variations yielded encouraging results. Consistent (across various hand features considered) performance improvement achieved with the pose correction demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach for hand based biometric systems with unconstrained and contact-free imaging. The experimental results also suggest that the dynamic fusion approach employed in this work helps to achieve performance improvement of 60% (in terms of EER) over the case when matching scores are combined using the weighted sum rule.

  13. Perspective projection for variance pose face recognition from camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhir, M. M.; Woo, W. L.; Chambers, J. A.; Dlay, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    Variance pose is an important research topic in face recognition. The alteration of distance parameters across variance pose face features is a challenging. We provide a solution for this problem using perspective projection for variance pose face recognition. Our method infers intrinsic camera parameters of the image which enable the projection of the image plane into 3D. After this, face box tracking and centre of eyes detection can be identified using our novel technique to verify the virtual face feature measurements. The coordinate system of the perspective projection for face tracking allows the holistic dimensions for the face to be fixed in different orientations. The training of frontal images and the rest of the poses on FERET database determine the distance from the centre of eyes to the corner of box face. The recognition system compares the gallery of images against different poses. The system initially utilises information on position of both eyes then focuses principally on closest eye in order to gather data with greater reliability. Differentiation between the distances and position of the right and left eyes is a unique feature of our work with our algorithm outperforming other state of the art algorithms thus enabling stable measurement in variance pose for each individual.

  14. Robust head pose estimation via supervised manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Xubo

    2014-05-01

    Head poses can be automatically estimated using manifold learning algorithms, with the assumption that with the pose being the only variable, the face images should lie in a smooth and low-dimensional manifold. However, this estimation approach is challenging due to other appearance variations related to identity, head location in image, background clutter, facial expression, and illumination. To address the problem, we propose to incorporate supervised information (pose angles of training samples) into the process of manifold learning. The process has three stages: neighborhood construction, graph weight computation and projection learning. For the first two stages, we redefine inter-point distance for neighborhood construction as well as graph weight by constraining them with the pose angle information. For Stage 3, we present a supervised neighborhood-based linear feature transformation algorithm to keep the data points with similar pose angles close together but the data points with dissimilar pose angles far apart. The experimental results show that our method has higher estimation accuracy than the other state-of-art algorithms and is robust to identity and illumination variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  16. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.

    1977-12-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion reactors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket design, thermal hydraulics, tritium analysis, neutronics calculations, radiation effects, stress analysis, shield design, reactor and plant building layout, maintenance procedures, and power cycle design. The reactor is designed as a 1000 MW/sub e/ unit for central station electric power generation

  17. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.

    1977-12-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion ractors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket design, thermal hydraulics, tritium analysis, neutronics calculations, radiation effects, stress analysis, shield design, reactor and plant building layout, maintenance procedures, and power cycle design. The reactor is designed as a 1000 MW/sub e/ unit for central station electric power generation

  18. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  19. Conceptual Content and Unattended Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pereira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available McDowell (1994 proposed a philosophical theory about perceptual content −call it “conceptualism”− that states that in every case the content of a visual experience necessarily involves concepts that fully specify every single feature consciously and simultaneously available during the experience. In this paper I will question conceptualism, arguing that some visual experiences carry information about so many objects, properties and relations at the same time that it is unlikely for subjects to possess and implement concepts for every feature represented simultaneously by the experience at that time. If this is the case, then McDowell’s conceptualism is insufficiently grounded.

  20. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  1. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  2. Multi-task pose-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-03-01

    Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.

  3. Students’ Mathematical Creative Thinking through Problem Posing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, U.; Prabawanto, S.; Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    The research aims to investigate the differences in enhancement of students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach assisted by manipulative media and students who received problem posing approach without manipulative media. This study was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. Population of this research was third-grade students of a primary school in Bandung city in 2016/2017 academic year. Sample of this research was two classes as experiment class and control class. The instrument used is a test of mathematical creative thinking ability. Based on the results of the research, it is known that the enhancement of the students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach with manipulative media aid is higher than the ability of those who received problem posing approach without manipulative media aid. Students who get learning problem posing learning accustomed in arranging mathematical sentence become matter of story so it can facilitate students to comprehend about story

  4. Temporal subtraction of chest radiographs compensating pose differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Jens; Dworzak, Jalda; Klinder, Tobias; Manke, Dirk; Kreth, Adrian; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Lorenz, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Temporal subtraction techniques using 2D image registration improve the detectability of interval changes from chest radiographs. Although such methods are well known for some time they are not widely used in radiologic practice. The reason is the occurrence of strong pose differences between two acquisitions with a time interval of months to years in between. Such strong perspective differences occur in a reasonable number of cases. They cannot be compensated by available image registration methods and thus mask interval changes to be undetectable. In this paper a method is proposed to estimate a 3D pose difference by the adaptation of a 3D rib cage model to both projections. The difference between both is then compensated for, thus producing a subtraction image with virtually no change in pose. The method generally assumes that no 3D image data is available from the patient. The accuracy of pose estimation is validated with chest phantom images acquired under controlled geometric conditions. A subtle interval change simulated by a piece of plastic foam attached to the phantom becomes visible in subtraction images generated with this technique even at strong angular pose differences like an anterior-posterior inclination of 13 degrees.

  5. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Pose estimation for augmented reality applications using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying Kin; Wong, Kin Hong; Chang, Michael Ming Yuen

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes a genetic algorithm that tackles the pose-estimation problem in computer vision. Our genetic algorithm can find the rotation and translation of an object accurately when the three-dimensional structure of the object is given. In our implementation, each chromosome encodes both the pose and the indexes to the selected point features of the object. Instead of only searching for the pose as in the existing work, our algorithm, at the same time, searches for a set containing the most reliable feature points in the process. This mismatch filtering strategy successfully makes the algorithm more robust under the presence of point mismatches and outliers in the images. Our algorithm has been tested with both synthetic and real data with good results. The accuracy of the recovered pose is compared to the existing algorithms. Our approach outperformed the Lowe's method and the other two genetic algorithms under the presence of point mismatches and outliers. In addition, it has been used to estimate the pose of a real object. It is shown that the proposed method is applicable to augmented reality applications.

  7. Some of the unanswered questions in finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Dragana M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very dynamic development of finance in the last 50 years is inter alia probably due to experiments and innovations in this field. Previously theoretical base could not explain and predict movements especially in volatile times. "The new finance" appeared 50 years ago (portfolio theory CAPM, the efficient market theory, M&M theorem and made substantial progress in understanding movements in globalized and internationalized financial markets. However, many questions remain open. The author tries to put emphasis on some of these questions, perfectly aware that these are not the only ones. Unresolved questions are related to company's aims, project's risks, degree of portfolio optimization, importance of liquidity, dividend policy, as well as factors that determine M&A. As the "new finance" is not able to predict and explain volatile movements, a question that should be posed is whether it is appropriate to add some non-economic factors as the behaviorist theory suggests. Although the behaviorist theory is an important part of "new finance", it is unfortunately the only theory able to explain movements in volatile times. In conclusion, many questions still remain unanswered and wait for appropriate theoretical explanations.

  8. Kuhn and conceptual change: on the analogy between conceptual changes in science and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffenhagen, Christian; Sherman, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the analogy between conceptual changes in the history of science and conceptual changes in the development of young children is problematic. We show that the notions of ‘conceptual change’ in Kuhn and Piaget’s projects, the two thinkers whose work is most commonly drawn upon to support this analogy, are not compatible in the sense usually claimed. We contend that Kuhn’s work pertains not so much to the psychology of individual scientists, but to the way philosophers and historians should describe developments in communities of scientists. Furthermore, we argue that the analogy is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of science and the relation between science and common sense. The distinctiveness of the two notions of conceptual change has implications for science education research, since it raises serious questions about the relevance of Kuhn’s remarks for the study of pedagogical issues.

  9. A Conceptual Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    The multilevel interactions between a mentor and her/his learner could exchange various conceptions between them that are supported by their own conceptualisations. Producing the own realisation of a world and developing it in the context of interactions could be said to be the most valuable prod...... will analyse the logical dependencies between learner and men- tor and will check their reflectional symmetrical relationship in a conceptual mirror. The conceptual mirror is a phenomenon that represents the meeting point of the mentor’s and the learner’s conceptual knowledge....

  10. Classroom Voting Questions to Stimulate Discussions in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Huckaby, David A.; Storm, Christopher; Stewart, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Classroom voting can be an effective way to stimulate student discussions. In this pedagogy, the instructor poses a multiple-choice question to the class, and then allows a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion before students vote, either with clickers, cell phones, or a non-electronic method. After the vote the instructor…

  11. Questions Asked by Primary Student Teachers about Observations of a Science Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtee, Maija; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Suomela, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Teacher questioning has a central role in guiding pupils to learn to make scientific observations and inferences. We asked 110 primary student teachers to write down what kind of questions they would ask their pupils about a demonstration. Almost half of the student teachers posed questions that were either inappropriate or presupposed that the…

  12. The ethics of physicists in questions

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Four CERN physicists, Peggie Rimmer, Ugo Amaldi, Alain Blondel, and Jean-Marie Le Goff, answered questions from 150 college students last Monday during a debate on the theme of the ethics of physics. Organized by CERN and the Department of public instruction of the Canton of Geneva, the meeting followed a reading by the students of the play Die Physiker, by Friedrich Dürrenmatt, which raises the problem of political exploitation of discoveries made during the second world war. The Minister of Education of the Canton de Genève, Mrs Martine Brunschwig-Graf, took part in the debate. The questions posed by students were not lacking in pertinence : Should a physicist reveal a discovery that is dangerous in his opinion ? Who are responsible, those who make the discoveries or those who use them ?

  13. Pose-Invariant Face Recognition via RGB-D Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; Li, Jing; Zhao, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) face models can intrinsically handle large pose face recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel pose-invariant face recognition method via RGB-D images. By employing depth, our method is able to handle self-occlusion and deformation, both of which are challenging problems in two-dimensional (2D) face recognition. Texture images in the gallery can be rendered to the same view as the probe via depth. Meanwhile, depth is also used for similarity measure via frontalization and symmetric filling. Finally, both texture and depth contribute to the final identity estimation. Experiments on Bosphorus, CurtinFaces, Eurecom, and Kiwi databases demonstrate that the additional depth information has improved the performance of face recognition with large pose variations and under even more challenging conditions.

  14. Prima facie questions in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, C. J.

    The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem of time.

  15. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  16. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  17. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  18. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  19. A problem-posing approach to teaching the topic of radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, C. W. J. M.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis highlights a problem-posing approach to science education. By this is meant an approach that explicitly aims at providing students with content-related motives for extending their existing conceptual resources, experiential base and belief system in a certain direction, such that a further development in that direction eventually leads to a proper understanding of science. An elaboration of that approach consists in designing, testing, improving, etc, concrete didactical structures. The eventual aim of the approach is a coherent, and by means of developmental research empirically supported, didactical structure that covers the whole of science education. The thesis also contains a few steps in the direction suggested by this programmatic view. It contains an illustration of the heuristic value of an articulation of a didactical structure in some main substructures, based on the work of van Hiele and ten Voorde. It further contains a discussion of some methodological aspects relating to the design and evaluation of a didactical structure, and of the role that a further developed version of Davidson's theory of interpretation could play in this respect. A detailed didactical structure of the topic of radioactivity is presented, evaluated and, on the basis of the evaluation, judged as `good enough.' Also the role of the teacher in a problem-posing approach is dis-cussed, and in particular the consequences for that role of giving students control over and responsibility for the progress of their learning process with respect to content.

  20. A problem-posing approach to teaching the topic of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis highlights a problem-posing approach to science education. By this is meant an approach that explicitly aims at providing students with content-related motives for extending their existing conceptual resources, experiential base and belief system in a certain direction, such that a further development in that direction eventually leads to a proper understanding of science. An elaboration of that approach consists in designing, testing, improving, etc, concrete didactical structures. The eventual aim of the approach is a coherent, and by means of developmental research empirically supported, didactical structure that covers the whole of science education. The thesis also contains a few steps in the direction suggested by this programmatic view. It contains an illustration of the heuristic value of an articulation of a didactical structure in some main substructures, based on the work of van Hiele and ten Voorde. It further contains a discussion of some methodological aspects relating to the design and evaluation of a didactical structure, and of the role that a further developed version of Davidson's theory of interpretation could play in this respect. A detailed didactical structure of the topic of radioactivity is presented, evaluated and, on the basis of the evaluation, judged as 'good enough'. Also the role of the teacher in a problem-posing approach is discussed, and in particular the consequences for that role of giving students control over and responsibility for the progress of their learning process with respect to content. refs

  1. Pose-invariant face recognition using Markov random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Huy Tho; Chellappa, Rama

    2013-04-01

    One of the key challenges for current face recognition techniques is how to handle pose variations between the probe and gallery face images. In this paper, we present a method for reconstructing the virtual frontal view from a given nonfrontal face image using Markov random fields (MRFs) and an efficient variant of the belief propagation algorithm. In the proposed approach, the input face image is divided into a grid of overlapping patches, and a globally optimal set of local warps is estimated to synthesize the patches at the frontal view. A set of possible warps for each patch is obtained by aligning it with images from a training database of frontal faces. The alignments are performed efficiently in the Fourier domain using an extension of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm that can handle illumination variations. The problem of finding the optimal warps is then formulated as a discrete labeling problem using an MRF. The reconstructed frontal face image can then be used with any face recognition technique. The two main advantages of our method are that it does not require manually selected facial landmarks or head pose estimation. In order to improve the performance of our pose normalization method in face recognition, we also present an algorithm for classifying whether a given face image is at a frontal or nonfrontal pose. Experimental results on different datasets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, the smaller of the two islands in the Prince Edward. Island group, has few introduced organisms; it is cur- rently known to support only three introduced animals.

  3. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    people is a very challenging problem for methods based on pictorials structure as for any other monocular pose estimation method. In this report we present work on a multi-view approach based on pictorial structures that integrate low level information from multiple calibrated cameras to improve the 2D...

  4. Spontaneous and posed facial expression in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M C; Smith, M K; Ellgring, H

    1996-09-01

    Spontaneous and posed emotional facial expressions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 12) were compared with those of healthy age-matched controls (n = 12). The intensity and amount of facial expression in PD patients were expected to be reduced for spontaneous but not posed expressions. Emotional stimuli were video clips selected from films, 2-5 min in duration, designed to elicit feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, or anger. Facial movements were coded using Ekman and Friesen's (1978) Facial Action Coding System (FACS). In addition, participants rated their emotional experience on 9-point Likert scales. The PD group showed significantly less overall facial reactivity than did controls when viewing the films. The predicted Group X Condition (spontaneous vs. posed) interaction effect on smile intensity was found when PD participants with more severe disease were compared with those with milder disease and with controls. In contrast, ratings of emotional experience were similar for both groups. Depression was positively associated with emotion rating but not with measures of facial activity. Spontaneous facial expression appears to be selectively affected in PD, whereas posed expression and emotional experience remain relatively intact.

  5. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills through Problem Posing and Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugito; E. S., Sri Mulyani; Hartono; Supartono

    2017-01-01

    This study was to explore how enhance communication skill through problem posing and presentation method. The subjects of this research were the seven grade students Junior High School, including 20 male and 14 female. This research was conducted in two cycles and each cycle consisted of four steps, they were: planning, action, observation, and…

  6. Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or ...

  7. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  8. Developing teachers' subject didactic competence through problem posing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie; Hošpesová, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-143 ISSN 0013-1954 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : professional development * primary school teachers * problem posing Subject RIV: AM - Education Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10649-012-9455-1

  9. The relative pose estimation of aircraft based on contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tai; Sun, Xiangyi

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a relative pose estimation approach based on object contour model. The first step is to obtain a two-dimensional (2D) projection of three-dimensional (3D)-model-based target, which will be divided into 40 forms by clustering and LDA analysis. Then we proceed by extracting the target contour in each image and computing their Pseudo-Zernike Moments (PZM), thus a model library is constructed in an offline mode. Next, we spot a projection contour that resembles the target silhouette most in the present image from the model library with reference of PZM; then similarity transformation parameters are generated as the shape context is applied to match the silhouette sampling location, from which the identification parameters of target can be further derived. Identification parameters are converted to relative pose parameters, in the premise that these values are the initial result calculated via iterative refinement algorithm, as the relative pose parameter is in the neighborhood of actual ones. At last, Distance Image Iterative Least Squares (DI-ILS) is employed to acquire the ultimate relative pose parameters.

  10. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David

    1990-01-01

    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  11. 3D Facial Landmarking under Expression, Pose, and Occlusion Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dibeklioğ lu; A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); L. Akarun

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomatic localization of 3D facial features is important for face recognition, tracking, modeling and expression analysis. Methods developed for 2D images were shown to have problems working across databases acquired with different illumination conditions. Expression variations, pose

  12. Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Weigmann, Diana L.; Speenburgh, Renee M.; Neves, Richard J.; Kitchel, Lisie; Bruenderman, Sue A., 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Provides an brief introduction to the invasion of the zebra mussel into American waters, explains the economic consequences they pose, and discusses if Virginia will inherit the problem, what the public can do to help, the general lifecycle of the zebra mussel and if they can be controlled, and who is working on the zebra mussel problem.

  13. Effects of pose and image resolution on automatic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khan, Samee U.

    The popularity of face recognition systems have increased due to their use in widespread applications. Driven by the enormous number of potential application domains, several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Face pose and image resolutions are among the two important factors that

  14. Meanings Given to Algebraic Symbolism in Problem-Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, María C.; Molina, Marta; del Río, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    Some errors in the learning of algebra suggest that students might have difficulties giving meaning to algebraic symbolism. In this paper, we use problem posing to analyze the students' capacity to assign meaning to algebraic symbolism and the difficulties that students encounter in this process, depending on the characteristics of the algebraic…

  15. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  16. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  17. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  18. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, Michael F.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Cook, Philip A.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic b...

  19. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  20. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  1. An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

    2011-09-01

    We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

  2. Supply chain design: Some critical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective supply chain management (SCM requires organisations to work together in order to satisfy the needs of their end customers. Since organisations have to determine which processes and relationships will best achieve this aim, the design of their supply chains is important. Supply chain design thus forms an integral part of SCM and embodies the supply chain's structure. Unfortunately, too many organisations allow the design of their supply chain to evolve into its current form instead of planning their supply chain design (SCD efforts. The literature is vague on what SCD efforts constitute. This article consists of a comprehensive literature study in which an effort was made to bring more clarity on exactly what purposeful SCD efforts consist of, and some key questions were formulated that organisations could use as a guide in their SCD practices. From these critical questions a conceptual framework has been developed that can be used to determine whether organisations' SCD practices are aligned with organisational objectives. The conceptual framework was tested at two South African organisations to determine if it indeed can be be used to analyse the SCD practices of organisations.

  3. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  4. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  6. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  7. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  8. New Conceptual Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    hand, the main software houses are trying to introduce powerful and effective user-friendly applications in the world of building designers, that are more and more able to fit their specific requirements; on the other hand, some groups of expert users with a basic programming knowledge seem to deal......This paper aims to discuss recent approaches in using more and more frequently computer tools as supports for the conceptual design phase of the architectural project. The present state-of-the-art about software as conceptual design tool could be summarized in two parallel tendencies. On the one...... with the problem of software as conceptual design tool by means of 'scripting', in other words by self-developing codes able to solve specific and well defined design problems. Starting with a brief historical recall and the discussion of relevant researches and practical experiences, this paper investigates...

  9. The use of categorization information in language models for question retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) has emerged as a popular type of service meeting a wide range of information needs. Such services enable users to ask and answer questions and to access existing question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain very large volumes of valuable user-generated content...... and have become important information resources on the Web. To make the body of knowledge accumulated in CQA archives accessible, effective and efficient question search is required. Question search in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical questions that are relevant to new questions posed by users...

  10. Toward conceptualizations in nursing: harbingers from the sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, A M

    1992-01-01

    Conceptualizations of care and caring generated from ethnographic study of Tohono O'odham children, Norwegian-Americans, elderly clients in nursing clinics, preschoolers, children with cancer, and gender differences is outlined. Where research questions came from during life experiences of the author, a journey of nursing scholarship viewed from concepts of context development, transformation and care, and "Where do we go from here?" serve as the outline for a discussion of the generation of conceptualizations. A question for nursing research is proposed: What characteristics of care promote human responses for quality human experience? Suggestions for nursing research in the future emphasize the potential of human responses, variations in conceptualizations of care during the life cycles of human beings living in diverse cultural contexts, and changes in conceptualizations of care over time.

  11. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  12. Pose Estimation of Interacting People using Pictorial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Pose estimation of people have had great progress in recent years but so far research has dealt with single persons. In this paper we address some of the challenges that arise when doing pose estimation of interacting people. We build on the pictorial structures framework and make important...... contributions by combining color-based appearance and edge information using a measure of the local quality of the appearance feature. In this way we not only combine the two types of features but dynamically find the optimal weighting of them. We further enable the method to handle occlusions by searching...... a foreground mask for possible occluded body parts and then applying extra strong kinematic constraints to find the true occluded body parts. The effect of applying our two contributions are show through both qualitative and quantitative tests and show a clear improvement on the ability to correctly localize...

  13. Effects of the Problem-Posing Approach on Students' Problem Solving Skills and Metacognitive Awareness in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akben, Nimet

    2018-05-01

    The interrelationship between mathematics and science education has frequently been emphasized, and common goals and approaches have often been adopted between disciplines. Improving students' problem-solving skills in mathematics and science education has always been given special attention; however, the problem-posing approach which plays a key role in mathematics education has not been commonly utilized in science education. As a result, the purpose of this study was to better determine the effects of the problem-posing approach on students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness in science education. This was a quasi-experimental based study conducted with 61 chemistry and 40 physics students; a problem-solving inventory and a metacognitive awareness inventory were administered to participants both as a pre-test and a post-test. During the 2017-2018 academic year, problem-solving activities based on the problem-posing approach were performed with the participating students during their senior year in various university chemistry and physics departments throughout the Republic of Turkey. The study results suggested that structured, semi-structured, and free problem-posing activities improve students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness. These findings indicated not only the usefulness of integrating problem-posing activities into science education programs but also the need for further research into this question.

  14. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods......; taking place in five dimensions of change - technical-rational, cultural, political, project management, and facilitation; and typically unfolding as a sequential and parallel, ordered and disordered, planned and emergent as well as top-down and bottom-up process. The proposed OS conceptualization...

  15. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  16. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations

  17. Sensing Strategies for Disambiguating among Multiple Objects in Known Poses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    ELEMENT. PROIECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AE OKUI UBR 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 021.39 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...AD-Ali65 912 SENSING STRATEGIES FOR DISAMBIGURTING MONG MULTIPLE 1/1 OBJECTS IN KNOWN POSES(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL ...or Dist Special 1 ’ MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 855 August, 1985 Sensing Strategies for

  18. Solution of linear ill-posed problems using overcomplete dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Pensky, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider application of overcomplete dictionaries to solution of general ill-posed linear inverse problems. Construction of an adaptive optimal solution for such problems usually relies either on a singular value decomposition or representation of the solution via an orthonormal basis. The shortcoming of both approaches lies in the fact that, in many situations, neither the eigenbasis of the linear operator nor a standard orthonormal basis constitutes an appropriate co...

  19. Mining Key Skeleton Poses with Latent SVM for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition based on 3D skeleton has become an active research field in recent years with the recently developed commodity depth sensors. Most published methods analyze an entire 3D depth data, construct mid-level part representations, or use trajectory descriptor of spatial-temporal interest point for recognizing human activities. Unlike previous work, a novel and simple action representation is proposed in this paper which models the action as a sequence of inconsecutive and discriminative skeleton poses, named as key skeleton poses. The pairwise relative positions of skeleton joints are used as feature of the skeleton poses which are mined with the aid of the latent support vector machine (latent SVM. The advantage of our method is resisting against intraclass variation such as noise and large nonlinear temporal deformation of human action. We evaluate the proposed approach on three benchmark action datasets captured by Kinect devices: MSR Action 3D dataset, UTKinect Action dataset, and Florence 3D Action dataset. The detailed experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art skeleton-based action recognition methods.

  20. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  1. LEVELING STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING IN SOLVING AND POSING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.794.17-40

  2. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  3. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  4. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  5. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  6. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  7. When is typography conceptual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual artwork is not necessarily constituted by exceptional practical skill, sublime execution or whatever might otherwise regularly characterize “fine art”. Instead, the effort is seated in the preparatory process of thought – or as Sol Lewitt once put it: “The idea becomes a machine that...

  8. MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY: CONCEPTUAL POSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Radu CUHAL; Ludmila STARIŢÎNA; Nicolae BASISTÎI

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  9. Macroprudential policy: conceptual positions

    OpenAIRE

    Stariţîna Ludmila; Cuhal Radu

    2013-01-01

    The article explains the conceptual principles of macroprudential policy, its main objectives and instruments. The classification of macroprudential policy tools of the Committee on the Global Financial System is defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-prudential policy in the Western developed countries are also examined.

  10. ITER conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) are reported. This report covers the Terms of Reference for the project: defining the technical specifications, defining future research needs, define site requirements, and carrying out a coordinated research effort coincident with the CDA. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. SLC ir conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Work on a one interaction-region, push-pull conceptual design for the SLC is described. The concept which has received the most attention is described. It is a below-ground hall - a 15 m deep rectangular pit covered by a surface building which houses counting rooms, power supplies, cryogenics and other auxiliary equipment

  12. What is Conceptualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2017-01-01

    diversity shows an apparent devotion to a free and experimental practice, cutting across regional differences and stylistic modes. Every new project seems to conceptually reinvent the architectural language, responding to specific programmatic and contextual conditions. “The term concep­tualism, as applied...

  13. Teaching conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first observational study of an ongoing research project. The research focuses on ‘teaching conceptual design’ and on the investigation of new teaching methods and strategies. Presently, in the commonly established educational setting, students practice the role of designing

  14. ITER conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, K.; Gilleland, J.R.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Toschi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Conceptual Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were carried out jointly by the European Community, Japan, the Soviet Union and the United States of America, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The European Community provided the site for joint work sessions at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The Conceptual Design Activities began in the spring of 1988 and ended in December 1990. The objectives of the activities were to develop the design of ITER, to perform a safety and environmental analysis, to define the site requirements as well as the future research and development needs, to estimate the cost and manpower, and to prepare a schedule for detailed engineering design, construction and operation. On the basis of the investigation and analysis performed, a concept of ITER was developed which incorporated maximum flexibility of the performance of the device and allowed a variety of operating scenarios to be adopted. The heart of the machine is a tokamak having a plasma major radius of 6 m, a plasma minor radius of 2.15 m, a nominal plasma current of 22 MA and a nominal fusion power of 1 GW. The conceptual design can meet the technical objectives of the ITER programme. Because of the success of the Conceptual Design Activities, the Parties are now considering the implementation of the next phase, called the Engineering Design Activities. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  16. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  17. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  18. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  19. Doxing: a conceptual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, David

    2016-01-01

    Doxing is the intentional public release onto the Internet of personal information about an individual by a third party, often with the intent to humiliate, threaten, intimidate, or punish the identified individual. In this paper I present a conceptual analysis of the practice of doxing and how it

  20. Role of conceptual models in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.; Moran, T.P.; Brown, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A crucial objective in plant operation (and perhaps licensing) ought to be to explicitly train operators to develop, perhaps with computer aids, robust conceptual models of the plants they control. The question is whether we are actually able to develop robust conceptual models and validate their robustness. Cognitive science is just beginning to come to grips with this problem. This paper describes some of the evolving technology for building conceptual models of physical mechanisms and some of the implications of such models in the context of nuclear power plant operation

  1. New Views on the Woman Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Waltner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcia Yonemoto. The Problem of Women in Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016. 304 pp. $70 (cloth, e-book. Wang Zheng. Finding Women in the State: A Socialist Feminist Revolution in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1964. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017. 400 pp. $85 (cloth; $35 (paper, e-book. "The Problem of Women in Early Modern Japan" and "Finding Women in the State" are in many ways quite different: they cover different geographic areas and different time periods; they use different sources and ask different questions. But it is productive to think about them in tandem, to see what kind of questions they do raise and to think about the ways “the woman question” is posed in these two contexts—early modern Japan and early Maoist China, respectively. Both books are interested in the question of what looking at history through a feminist lens does to our view of that history; both are interested in dismantling a hegemonic narrative that provides a diminished vision of women as historical subjects. And both of them point out ways in which neither the “problem of women” (Yonemoto nor the problem of finding women in the state (Wang has been resolved...

  2. Assessing the quality of pharmacist answers to telephone drug information questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C T; Stevenson, J G; Poremba, A

    1990-04-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program is described in which frontline pharmacists were asked test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls. The program was instituted at a university hospital that began providing decentralized pharmaceutical services in 1985. Questions were developed on the basis of a pilot study conducted to determine the types and complexity of drug information questions received by frontline pharmacists at the hospital. Data on departmental clinical productivity were used to determine the number of questions that would be posed during each shift in the various service areas. The questions were posed during a 10-day period; the pharmacists were aware of the program, but the callers did not identify their affiliation with it. In response to 105 questions asked, 86 were judged to have been answered correctly, 13 answers were deemed incomplete, and 6 were judged incorrect. Pharmacists were more likely to respond incorrectly to complex questions and questions posed during the night shift. As a result of the audit, staff members with advanced clinical knowledge were asked to help less experienced pharmacists, the position of assistant director for drug information and staff development was created, and educational programs were instituted. The QA audit has been repeated twice. Posing test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls is effective in assessing the quality of drug information provided by pharmacists in patient-care areas.

  3. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  4. Questions of Modern Cosmology Galileo's Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Are we living in the "golden age" of cosmology? Are we close to understanding the nature of the unknown ingredients of the currently most accepted cosmological model and the physics of the early Universe? Or are we instead approaching a paradigm shift? What is dark matter and does it exist? How is it distributed around galaxies and clusters? Is the scientific community open to alternative ideas that may prompt a new scientific revolution - as the Copernican revolution did in Galileo's time? Do other types of supernovae exist that can be of interest for cosmology? Why have quasars never been effectively used as standard candles? Can you tell us about the scientific adventure of COBE? How does the extraction of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy depend on the subtraction of the various astrophysical foregrounds? These, among many others, are the astrophysical, philosophical and sociological questions surrounding modern cosmology and the scientific community that Mauro D'Onofrio and Carlo Burigana pose t...

  5. Living with risk: a management question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, Ben J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Public authorities started to be really involved in risk management of hazardous materials some 30 years ago. Recent developments have led to fresh attention for this matter and many further developments are underway. The history of risk management and safety regulation is one of strongly variable interest, forgotten lessons and rude awakenings. The impetus exerted by accidents is short lived. Safety cases become documents to satisfy regulation rather than instruments to reduce risk. Deregulation, privatisation, and outsourcing pose new challenges to safety and risk management. Some of the unfortunate side effects have already become apparent. This invariably leads to the next disaster, which will have a striking resemblance to the previous one when abstracted from the immediate technological context. Lessons can be learned if we really want. The question remains: 'Do we?'

  6. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, J.; Hakala, M.; Wanne, T.; Kantia, P.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    In-depth knowledge of the in situ stress state at the Olkiluoto site is critical for stability assessment both prior to and after deposition of spent nuclear fuel in order to understand and avoid potential damage to the rock at the site. Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE) was designed specifically for this purpose with three primary goals: establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level and act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. Phases 1 and 2 of POSE are outlined in WR 2012-60. The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are the same as the original objectives outlined above. This report outlines the execution and results of the third phase of the POSE experiment. The third phase of the experiment involved internally heating the third experimental hole (ONK-EH3) of the POSE niche in order to cause a symmetrical thermal stress increase around the hole due to the thermal expansion of rock. This thermomechanically induced stress increase, coupled with the estimated existing in situ stress state, should cause the maximum principal stress around the hole to exceed the predicted spalling strength of the rock around the hole. ONK-EH3 is located almost completely in pegmatitic granite. Four fractures near the top of the hole were mapped after boring ONK-EH3, and a tensile failure located at the contact between mica-rich gneiss and pegmatitic granite was observed 18 months after boring, prior to the experiment. Based on predictive calculations and the estimated in situ state of stress, the maximum principal stress magnitude should reach ca. 100 MPa when the temperature was just below 100 deg C after 12 weeks of heating. There were problems with the heater control unit at the beginning of the experiment, after which heating proceeded according to plan. The crack damage threshold of pegmatitic granite has been determined to be 85 ±17 MPa at Olkiluoto

  7. Conceptual metaphor and comprehension in business writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit, Talita C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies in cognitive linguistics (Gibbs, 1999; Kővecses, 2005; Lakoff, 1987; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999 have demonstrated that metaphor is not merely a figure of speech. The findings of these studies have shown that metaphor influences a good deal of how people think as it comprises a specific mental, cross-domain mapping in the conceptual system (Balaban, 1999; Ibarretxe-Antuňanu, 1999; Lakoff, 2006; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980. This article looks at whether employing different conceptual metaphors in different versions of the same business report will have an effect on reader comprehension. A small-scale research study was conducted with a group of second-year university students, in which they were given one of two texts concerning the recovery of the economy. Both texts were adapted from a newspaper report and seeded with metaphors and metaphoric expressions. The multiple-choice questions that followed aimed to determine to what extent the readers’ comprehension and interpretation of the report were influenced by the different conceptual metaphors used. The findings indicate that language that served to introduce the sources or targets directly into the content did not necessarily have an effect on the processing of subsequent metaphors involving these concepts; however, it appeared that the surface patterns of metaphorical discourse did affect the inferences drawn about the different conceptual metaphors. It can thus be concluded that a specific metaphoric framework in written discourse does influence the interpretation of the content.

  8. Relative Pose Estimation and Accuracy Verification of Spherical Panoramic Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Donghai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper improves the method of the traditional 5-point relative pose estimation algorithm, and proposes a relative pose estimation algorithm which is suitable for spherical panoramic images. The algorithm firstly computes the essential matrix, then decomposes the essential matrix to obtain the rotation matrix and the translation vector using SVD, and finally the reconstructed three-dimensional points are used to eliminate the error solution. The innovation of the algorithm lies the derivation of panorama epipolar formula and the use of the spherical distance from the point to the epipolar plane as the error term for the spherical panorama co-planarity function. The simulation experiment shows that when the random noise of the image feature points is within the range of pixel, the error of the three Euler angles is about 0.1°, and the error between the relative translational displacement and the simulated value is about 1.5°. The result of the experiment using the data obtained by the vehicle panorama camera and the POS shows that:the error of the roll angle and pitch angle can be within 0.2°, the error of the heading angle can be within 0.4°, and the error between the relative translational displacement and the POS can be within 2°. The result of our relative pose estimation algorithm is used to generate the spherical panoramic epipolar images, then we extract the key points between the spherical panoramic images and calculate the errors in the column direction. The result shows that the errors is less than 1 pixel.

  9. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  10. Regularization theory for ill-posed problems selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Thismonograph is a valuable contribution to thehighly topical and extremly productive field ofregularisationmethods for inverse and ill-posed problems. The author is an internationally outstanding and acceptedmathematicianin this field. In his book he offers a well-balanced mixtureof basic and innovative aspects.He demonstrates new,differentiatedviewpoints, and important examples for applications. The bookdemontrates thecurrent developments inthe field of regularization theory,such as multiparameter regularization and regularization in learning theory. The book is written for graduate and PhDs

  11. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  12. Conceptual querying through ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by an obvious need for users to survey huge volumes of objects in query answers. An ontology formalism and a special notion of-instantiated ontology" are introduced. The latter is a structure reflecting the content in the document collection in that; it is a restriction of a general world......We present here ail approach to conceptual querying where the aim is, given a collection of textual database objects or documents, to target an abstraction of the entire database content in terms of the concepts appearing in documents, rather than the documents in the collection. The approach...... knowledge ontology to the concepts instantiated in the collection. The notion of ontology-based similarity is briefly described, language constructs for direct navigation and retrieval of concepts in the ontology are discussed and approaches to conceptual summarization are presented....

  13. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  14. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  15. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  16. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  17. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  18. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  19. Multimodal follow-up questions to multimodal answers in a QA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a dialogue manager (DM) for a multimodal interactive Question Answering (QA) system. Our QA system presents answers using text and pictures, and the user may pose follow-up questions using text or speech, while indicating screen elements with the mouse. We developed a corpus of

  20. Probabilistic Mapping of Human Visual Attention from Head Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Veronese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective interaction between a human and a robot requires the bidirectional perception and interpretation of actions and behavior. While actions can be identified as a directly observable activity, this might not be sufficient to deduce actions in a scene. For example, orienting our face toward a book might suggest the action toward “reading.” For a human observer, this deduction requires the direction of gaze, the object identified as a book and the intersection between gaze and book. With this in mind, we aim to estimate and map human visual attention as directed to a scene, and assess how this relates to the detection of objects and their related actions. In particular, we consider human head pose as measurement to infer the attention of a human engaged in a task and study which prior knowledge should be included in such a detection system. In a user study, we show the successful detection of attention to objects in a typical office task scenario (i.e., reading, working with a computer, studying an object. Our system requires a single external RGB camera for head pose measurements and a pre-recorded 3D point cloud of the environment.

  1. Gaussian particle filter based pose and motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Determination of relative three-dimensional (3D) position, orientation, and relative motion between two reference frames is an important problem in robotic guidance, manipulation, and assembly as well as in other fields such as photogrammetry.A solution to pose and motion estimation problem that uses two-dimensional (2D) intensity images from a single camera is desirable for real-time applications. The difficulty in performing this measurement is that the process of projecting 3D object features to 2D images is a nonlinear transformation. In this paper, the 3D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimation providing six degrees-of-freedom motion and position values, using line features in image plane as measuring inputs and dual quaternion to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. A filtering method called the Gaussian particle filter (GPF) based on the particle filtering concept is presented for 3D pose and motion estimation of a moving target from monocular image sequences. The method has been implemented with simulated data, and simulation results are provided along with comparisons to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to show the relative advantages of the GPF. Simulation results showed that GPF is a superior alternative to EKF and UKF.

  2. Laser Remediation of Threats Posed by Small Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Rogers, Jan R.; Hovater, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The continually increasing amount of orbital debris in near Earth space poses an increasing challenge to space situational awareness. Recent collisions of spacecraft caused abrupt increases in the density of both large and small debris in near Earth space. An especially challenging class of threats is that due to the increasing density of small (1 mm to 10 cm dimension) orbital debris. This small debris poses a serious threat since: (1) The high velocity enables even millimeter dimension debris to cause serious damage to vulnerable areas of space assets, e.g., detector windows; (2) The small size and large number of debris elements prevent adequate detection and cataloguing. We have identified solutions to this threat in the form of novel laser systems and novel ways of using these laser systems. While implementation of the solutions we identify is challenging we find approaches offering threat mitigation within time frames and at costs of practical interest. We base our analysis on the unique combination of coherent light specifically structured in both space and time and applied in novel ways entirely within the vacuum of space to deorbiting small debris. We compare and contrast laser based small debris removal strategies using ground based laser systems with strategies using space based laser systems. We find laser systems located and used entirely within space offer essential and decisive advantages over groundbased laser systems.

  3. Conceptual IT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  4. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  5. PRA and Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  6. Interior design conceptual basis

    CERN Document Server

    Sully, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer’s activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assu...

  7. Determining the Performances of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers in Problem Posing Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the problem posing strategies of pre-service primary school teachers in different problem posing situations (PPSs) and analysed the issues they encounter while posing problems. A problem posing task consisting of six PPSs (two free, two structured, and two semi-structured situations) was delivered to 40 participants.…

  8. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ismayilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.

  9. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  10. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  11. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  12. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  13. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  14. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.; Hakala, M.; Kantia, P.

    2014-02-01

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  15. Does modern piracy pose a threat to maritime transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Makowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to answer the question whether the observed since 2005 “renaissance” of piracy in the Somali region and the Gulf of Aden (in general, we can speak of the eastern part of the Indian Ocean, is in a position to threaten the international chains of supplies in their global dimension. The conducted analysis of lines of maritime transport compared with the number of pirate attacks and their consequences on the individual sea areas helped to establish that, answering the main question raised in the title of the article, we can certainly say that it does not.

  16. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  17. The Spatial and the Visual in Mental Spatial Reasoning: An Ill-Posed Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Holger; Bertel, Sven; Barkowsky, Thomas; Seifert, Inessa

    It is an ongoing and controversial debate in cognitive science which aspects of knowledge humans process visually and which ones they process spatially. Similarly, artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive science research, in building computational cognitive systems, tended to use strictly spatial or strictly visual representations. The resulting systems, however, were suboptimal both with respect to computational efficiency and cognitive plau sibility. In this paper, we propose that the problems in both research strands stem from a mis conception of the visual and the spatial in mental spatial knowl edge pro cessing. Instead of viewing the visual and the spatial as two clearly separable categories, they should be conceptualized as the extremes of a con tinuous dimension of representation. Regarding psychology, a continuous di mension avoids the need to exclusively assign processes and representations to either one of the cate gories and, thus, facilitates a more unambiguous rating of processes and rep resentations. Regarding AI and cognitive science, the con cept of a continuous spatial / visual dimension provides the possibility of rep re sentation structures which can vary continuously along the spatial / visual di mension. As a first step in exploiting these potential advantages of the pro posed conception we (a) introduce criteria allowing for a non-dichotomic judgment of processes and representations and (b) present an approach towards rep re sentation structures that can flexibly vary along the spatial / visual dimension.

  18. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  19. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA DENGAN METODE PROBLEM POSING BERBASIS PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Lia Susanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan metode Problem Posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania pada materi garis singgung lingkaran efektif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah peserta didik di SMP N 2 Pati. Sampel dalam penelitian ini diambil dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Variabel dalam penelitian ini yaitu keaktifan sebagai variabel independen dan prestasi belajar sebagai variabel dependen. Cara pengambilan data dengan lembar pengamatan dan tes. Data diolah dengan uji banding t dan uji pengaruh regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 secara statistik melebihi KKM (75. Dengan uji regresi linear sederhana diperoleh persamaan regresi ?=-15,847 + 1,194X dan R^2=0,829. Koefisien X merupakan bilangan positif sehingga keaktifan berpengaruh positif pada prestasi belajar sebesar 82,9%. Rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 dan rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas kontrol (72,91. Secara uji stastistik prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil analisis disimpulkan (1 pembelajaran mencapai tuntas belajar; (2 adanya pengaruh positif pada keaktifan terhadap prestasi belajar; dan (3 prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol; sehingga pembelajaran matematika dengan metode problem posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania merupakan pembelajaran yang efektif. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the learning of mathematics by Problem Posing method in a TeenZania laboratory based character education in circle tangent material effectively. The population in this study were students in SMP N 2 Pati. The sample in this study were drawn by cluster random sampling technique. The variables in this study is the activity as an independent variable and learning achievement as the dependent variable

  20. Lavrentiev regularization method for nonlinear ill-posed problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinh, Nguyen Van

    2002-10-01

    In this paper we shall be concerned with Lavientiev regularization method to reconstruct solutions x 0 of non ill-posed problems F(x)=y o , where instead of y 0 noisy data y δ is an element of X with absolut(y δ -y 0 ) ≤ δ are given and F:X→X is an accretive nonlinear operator from a real reflexive Banach space X into itself. In this regularization method solutions x α δ are obtained by solving the singularly perturbed nonlinear operator equation F(x)+α(x-x*)=y δ with some initial guess x*. Assuming certain conditions concerning the operator F and the smoothness of the element x*-x 0 we derive stability estimates which show that the accuracy of the regularized solutions is order optimal provided that the regularization parameter α has been chosen properly. (author)

  1. Pose Tracking Algorithm of an Endoscopic Surgery Robot Wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Yin, H L; Meng, Q

    2006-01-01

    In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out [2]. Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter

  2. Pose Tracking Algorithm of an Endoscopic Surgery Robot Wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Yin, H L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Meng, Q [Shanghai University of Electric Power (China)

    2006-10-15

    In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out [2]. Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter.

  3. Challenges Posed by Novel Psychoactive Substances – Middle East Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J. Bogusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are defined as substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat. In this context, the term “new” does not necessarily refer to new inventions but to substances that have recently become available or popular in a given society or country. This definition indicates that the problem of NPS is not new; however, the availability of any information via new communication technologies in the 21st century has enabled the spread of unwanted and socially harmful information, like information on the commercial availability of various NPS, offered in rising amounts and brands.

  4. [On the question of a practice.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, R

    1979-01-01

    The author, a psycho-sociologist and a professor in the department of sociology at l'Université de Montreal, looks back and reflects on his practice as an intervener in different types of groups. He returns to his first experiences with T-groups and to the analysis of them which he made at the beginning of his practice. Furthermore, this analysis touches on questions that remain very relevant. Thus the author explains why, for social reasons, he came to privilege work with "real groups" rather than that with spontaneous groups. On the basis of twenty years of experience and a view of many group approaches it can be asked whether the question of man in society as a change agent should not be posed to a greater extent within groups. 1) Dans Sociologie A Sociétés, vol. 9, no 2, d'octobre 1977, le lecteur trouvera un article de moi qui préserve une réflexion plus systématique mais sans référence immédiate à ma propre pratique. Oe numéro, entièrement consacré au thème "psychologie, sociologie, intervention" comprend également plusieurs textes qui ne sont pas étrangers à certains thèmes développés ici. On y trouvera aussi de nombreuses références bibliographiques.

  5. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2017-10-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and is a major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly challenging because it is considered the fifth most threatened large taxonomic group in the world; several species are among the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and the 11 largest online auction sites selling cacti, we documented the international cactus trade. To provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (a hotspot of cactus trade and invasions). We purchased seeds of every available species and used DNA barcoding to identify species to the genus level. Although <20% of this trade involved threatened species and <3% involved known invasive species, many species were identified by a common name. However, only 0.02% of the globally traded cacti were collected from wild populations. Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which 15% and 1.5% were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. With DNA barcoding, we identified 24% of the species to genus level. Based on our results, we believe that if trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, then the commercial trade in cactus poses a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Helen Elise

    2014-07-01

    To debate the definition and use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. There is a paucity of literature to help the novice researcher to understand what theoretical and conceptual frameworks are and how they should be used. This paper acknowledges the interchangeable usage of these terms and researchers' confusion about the differences between the two. It discusses how researchers have used theoretical and conceptual frameworks and the notion of conceptual models. Detail is given about how one researcher incorporated a conceptual framework throughout a research project, the purpose for doing so and how this led to a resultant conceptual model. Concepts from Abbott (1988) and Witz ( 1992 ) were used to provide a framework for research involving two case study sites. The framework was used to determine research questions and give direction to interviews and discussions to focus the research. Some research methods do not overtly use a theoretical framework or conceptual framework in their design, but this is implicit and underpins the method design, for example in grounded theory. Other qualitative methods use one or the other to frame the design of a research project or to explain the outcomes. An example is given of how a conceptual framework was used throughout a research project. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks are terms that are regularly used in research but rarely explained. Textbooks should discuss what they are and how they can be used, so novice researchers understand how they can help with research design. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks need to be more clearly understood by researchers and correct terminology used to ensure clarity for novice researchers.

  7. Semiotic-conceptual analysis: a proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priss, Uta

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides the basic definitions of Semiotic-conceptual analysis (SCA), which is a mathematical modelling of signs as elements of a triadic relation. FCA concept lattices are constructed for each of the three sign components. It is demonstrated how core linguistic and semiotic notions (such as synonymy and icon) can be represented with SCA. While the usefulness of SCA has already been demonstrated in a number of applications and several propositions are proven in this paper, there are still many open questions as to what to do next with SCA. Therefore, this paper is meant as a proposal and encouragement for further development.

  8. Still asking the wrong questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    -up of the entrepreneur (Gartner, 1988). Building on this critique I will use the presentation to show, through the use of a historical case, how much we need new conceptualizations in order to highlight the collective development of ideas, which would also open for a discussion about the values guiding entrepreneurship...

  9. Semantics, Conceptual Role

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Ned

    1997-01-01

    According to Conceptual Role Semantics ("CRS"), the meaning of a representation is the role of that representation in the cognitive life of the agent, e.g. in perception, thought and decision-making. It is an extension of the well known "use" theory of meaning, according to which the meaning of a word is its use in communication and more generally, in social interaction. CRS supplements external use by including the role of a symbol inside a computer or a brain. The uses appealed to are not j...

  10. The Hyperloop as a Source of Interesting Estimation Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Rhett

    2014-03-01

    The Hyperloop is a conceptual high speed transportation system proposed by Elon Musk. The basic idea uses passenger capsules inside a reduced pressure tube. Even though the actual physics of dynamic air flow in a confined space can be complicated, there are a multitude estimation problems that can be addressed. These back-of-the-envelope questions can be approximated by physicists of all levels as well as the general public and serve as a great example of the fundamental aspects of physics.

  11. Linear Algebra Revisited: An Attempt to Understand Students' Conceptual Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Sandra; Henderson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at some of the conceptual difficulties that students have in a linear algebra course. An overview of previous research in this area is given, and the various theories that have been espoused regarding the reasons that students find linear algebra so difficult are discussed. Student responses to two questions testing the ability…

  12. A conceptual framework to understand academic student volunteerism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, Jorge; Mensing, Rainer; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework to understand the value of an increasing number of university study programmes that send students to the global south by learning through volunteering. We ask the research question what determines the benefit that these activities bring to the host

  13. Extending the Educational Planning Discourse: Conceptual and Paradigmatic Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Don

    1988-01-01

    Argues that rational, functionalist models of educational planning that conceptualize decision-making as an algorithmic process are relevant to a limited number of educational problems. Suggests that educational questions pertaining to goals, needs, equity, and quality must be solved with soft systems thinking and its interpretivist and relativist…

  14. Conceptualizing smart service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver; Matzner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service” that is b......Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service......” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart...... service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers’ and service providers’ resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual...

  15. Conceptualizing energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Energy security is one of the main targets of energy policy. However, the term has not been clearly defined, which makes it hard to measure and difficult to balance against other policy objectives. We review the multitude of definitions of energy security. They can be characterized according to the sources of risk, the scope of the impacts, and the severity filters in the form of the speed, size, sustention, spread, singularity and sureness of impacts. Using a stylized case study for three European countries, we illustrate how the selection of conceptual boundaries along these dimensions determines the outcome. This can be avoided by more clearly separating between security of supply and other policy objectives. This leads us to the definition of energy security as the continuity of energy supplies relative to demand. - Highlights: ► The widest energy security concept includes all risks that are caused by or have an impact on the energy supply chain. ► Authors narrow this down by choosing different risk sources, impact measures and subjective severity filters in their definitions. ► The selection of conceptual boundaries determines outcome of quantitative studies.

  16. Surety of the nation`s critical infrastructures: The challenge restructuring poses to the telecommunications sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R.; Drennen, T.E.; Gilliom, L.; Harris, D.L.; Kunsman, D.M.; Skroch, M.J.

    1998-04-01

    The telecommunications sector plays a pivotal role in the system of increasingly connected and interdependent networks that make up national infrastructure. An assessment of the probable structure and function of the bit-moving industry in the twenty-first century must include issues associated with the surety of telecommunications. The term surety, as used here, means confidence in the acceptable behavior of a system in both intended and unintended circumstances. This paper outlines various engineering approaches to surety in systems, generally, and in the telecommunications infrastructure, specifically. It uses the experience and expectations of the telecommunications system of the US as an example of the global challenges. The paper examines the principal factors underlying the change to more distributed systems in this sector, assesses surety issues associated with these changes, and suggests several possible strategies for mitigation. It also studies the ramifications of what could happen if this sector became a target for those seeking to compromise a nation`s security and economic well being. Experts in this area generally agree that the U. S. telecommunications sector will eventually respond in a way that meets market demands for surety. Questions remain open, however, about confidence in the telecommunications sector and the nation`s infrastructure during unintended circumstances--such as those posed by information warfare or by cascading software failures. Resolution of these questions is complicated by the lack of clear accountability of the private and the public sectors for the surety of telecommunications.

  17. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  18. A note on the translation of conceptual data models into description logics: disjointness and covering assumptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available possibilities for conceptual data modeling. It also raises the question of how existing conceptual models using ER, UML or ORM could be translated into Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics that have proved to be particularly appropriate for formalizing...

  19. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  20. Invasive Lionfish (Pterosis volitans) Pose Public Health Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity. Lionfish pose several public health threats. New strategies to control the lionfish population explosion in coastal waters and offshore fisheries are needed now to ensure seafood safety and public health. The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, is native to the reefs of the western Indian and Pacific Oceans (Figure 1). Brightly colored with red, white, and black stripes and adorned with feathery fins, the lionfish is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins (Figure 2). Lionfish were introduced into the western North Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s after some specimens were discarded by dissatisfied amateur aquarists and others escaped from hurricane-flooded public aquariums.1 Since lionfish are voracious carnivores, have few natural predators, and reproduce prolifically, they have overpopulated and dispersed widely from Cape Hatteras to Florida, throughout the Caribbean Sea, and into the Gulf of Mexico.1 The population density of lionfish in its new, invaded territory now exceeds that of its native habitat.1 As a result, campaigns to control lionfish populations were launched in Florida and the Caribbean. Lionfish now pose several public

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Questions to Their Child in Mexican-Descent Families: Moderators of Cognitive Demand during Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Leaper, Campbell

    1997-01-01

    The cognitive demand in questions directed to Mexican-descent children by their mothers and fathers were analyzed for videotaped play situations involving gender-neutral, masculine-, or feminine-stereotyped toys. Mothers asked proportionately more conceptual questions than did fathers. Mothers' question asking was influenced by child gender,…

  2. Conceptual assessment tool for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Charles; Ryan, Qing X.; Astolfi, Cecilia; Pollock, Steven J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of ongoing investigations into student learning in advanced undergraduate courses, we have developed a conceptual assessment tool for upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II): the Colorado UppeR-division ElectrodyNamics Test (CURrENT). This is a free response, postinstruction diagnostic with 6 multipart questions, an optional 3-question preinstruction test, and accompanying grading rubrics. The instrument's development was guided by faculty-consensus learning goals and research into common student difficulties. It can be used to gauge the effectiveness of transformed pedagogy, and to gain insights into student thinking in the covered topic areas. We present baseline data representing 500 students across 9 institutions, along with validity, reliability, and discrimination measures of the instrument and scoring rubric.

  3. Conceptual assessment tool for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Baily

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of ongoing investigations into student learning in advanced undergraduate courses, we have developed a conceptual assessment tool for upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II: the Colorado UppeR-division ElectrodyNamics Test (CURrENT. This is a free response, postinstruction diagnostic with 6 multipart questions, an optional 3-question preinstruction test, and accompanying grading rubrics. The instrument’s development was guided by faculty-consensus learning goals and research into common student difficulties. It can be used to gauge the effectiveness of transformed pedagogy, and to gain insights into student thinking in the covered topic areas. We present baseline data representing 500 students across 9 institutions, along with validity, reliability, and discrimination measures of the instrument and scoring rubric.

  4. The STS-93 crew pose in front of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 crew pose in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following their landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. From left to right, they are Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins, and Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander.

  5. STS-93 Commander Collins poses in front of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins poses in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following her textbook landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander. Also on board were her fellow STS-93 crew members: Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  6. Real-time pose invariant logo and pattern detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Kottmann, Michal; Benesova, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    The detection of pose invariant planar patterns has many practical applications in computer vision and surveillance systems. The recognition of company logos is used in market studies to examine the visibility and frequency of logos in advertisement. Danger signs on vehicles could be detected to trigger warning systems in tunnels, or brand detection on transport vehicles can be used to count company-specific traffic. We present the results of a study on planar pattern detection which is based on keypoint detection and matching of distortion invariant 2d feature descriptors. Specifically we look at the keypoint detectors of type: i) Lowe's DoG approximation from the SURF algorithm, ii) the Harris Corner Detector, iii) the FAST Corner Detector and iv) Lepetit's keypoint detector. Our study then compares the feature descriptors SURF and compact signatures based on Random Ferns: we use 3 sets of sample images to detect and match 3 logos of different structure to find out which combinations of keypoint detector/feature descriptors work well. A real-world test tries to detect vehicles with a distinctive logo in an outdoor environment under realistic lighting and weather conditions: a camera was mounted on a suitable location for observing the entrance to a parking area so that incoming vehicles could be monitored. In this 2 hour long recording we can successfully detect a specific company logo without false positives.

  7. The role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, David C; McNamara, James A; Sigler, Lauren M; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics, as determined by laypersons and orthodontists. Twenty orthodontists and 20 lay evaluators were asked to perform six Q-sorts on different photographs of 48 white female subjects. The six Q-sorts consisted of three different photographs for each of two time points (pre- and posttreatment), as follows: (1) smile-only, (2) face without the smile, and (3) face with the smile. The evaluators determined a split-line for attractive and unattractive images at the end of each Q-sort. The proportions of attractive patients were compared across Q-sorts using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data. The evaluators also ranked nine facial/dental characteristics at the completion of the six Q-sorts. Evaluators found the pretreatment face without the smile to be significantly more attractive than the face with the smile or the smile-only photographs. Dissimilar results were seen posttreatment; there was not a significant difference between the three posttreatment photographs. The two panels agreed on the proportion of "attractive" subjects but differed on the attractiveness level of each individual subject. The presence of a malocclusion has a negative impact on facial attractiveness. Orthodontic correction of a malocclusion affects overall facial esthetics positively. Laypeople and orthodontists agree on what is attractive. Overall facial harmony is the most important characteristic used in deciding facial attractiveness.

  8. Compensating Pose Uncertainties through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolniakowski Adam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate for a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise, and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process. One of the open challenges is the need for the gripper to compensate for uncertainties inherent to the workcell, e.g. due to errors in calibration, inaccurate pose estimation from the vision system, or object deformation. In this paper, we present an analysis of gripper uncertainty compensating capabilities in a sample industrial object grasping scenario for a finger that was designed using an automated simulation-based geometry optimization method (Wolniakowski et al., 2013, 2015. We test the developed gripper with a set of grasps subjected to structured perturbation in a simulation environment and in the real-world setting. We provide a comparison of the data obtained by using both of these approaches. We argue that the strong correspondence observed in results validates the use of dynamic simulation for the gripper finger design and optimization.

  9. Asynchronous vehicle pose correction using visual detection of ground features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnarinesingh, Randy E S; Syan, Chanan S

    2014-01-01

    The inherent noise associated with odometry manifests itself as errors in localization for autonomous vehicles. Visual odometry has been previously used in order to supplement classical vehicle odometry. However, visual odometry is limited in its ability to reduce errors in localization for large travel distances that entail the cumulative summing of individual frame-to-frame image errors. In this paper, a novel machine vision approach for tiled surfaces is proposed to address this problem. Tile edges in a laboratory environment are used to define a travel trajectory for the Quansar Qbot (autonomous vehicle) built on the iRobot iRoomba platform with a forward facing camera. Tile intersections are used to enable asynchronous error recovery for vehicle position and orientation. The proposed approach employs real-time image classification and is feasible for error mitigation for large travel distances. The average position error for an 8m travel distance using classical odometry was measured to be 0.28m. However, implementation of the proposed approach resulted in an error of 0.028m. The proposed approach therefore significantly reduces pose estimation error and could be used to supplement existing modalities such as GPS and Laser-based range sensors

  10. Mendalami Dasar-Dasar dalam Pengambilan Pose pada Pemotretan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Paulina Gunawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many activities and numerous objects in this universe, which make them interesting for photographers to explore as their masterpiece. One of the things that has been enjoyed and is always developing over time is the use of human as an object, whether as a candid photography or as a posing model in accordance to photographer's concept and theme. Using human being as an object is always popular among beginners and professional photographers. Even nowadays people often hold photo shoot as a media in many social network sites. And so if they understand the simple theories in basic knowledge of using human object, the results will be maximized, and of course, much more interesting. The more a photographer does his job, the better his experience is, and his work will develop. Thus, it makes him more alert to the situation and character of a model, which will then become more observant in predicting their outcome in photography.   

  11. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  12. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  13. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  14. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  15. Student teachers’ mathematical questioning and courage in metaphorical thinking learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriana, H.; Hidayat, W.; Ristiana, M. G.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed in the form of experiments with control group design and post-test only which aimed to examine the role of metaphorical thinking learning in the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers based on the level of mathematical courage. The population of this study was student teachers of mathematics education study program in West Java Province, while the sample of this study was 152 student teachers which were set purposively and then randomly to be included in the experimental class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (a) the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers who received Metaphorical Thinking learning was better than those who received conventional learning seen from mathematical courage level; (b) learning and mathematical courage level factors affected the achievement of student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and mathematical courage level (high, medium, and low) simultaneously in developing student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability; (c) achievement of mastering mathematical questioning ability of student teacher was still not well achieved on indicator of problem posing in the form of non-routine question and open question.

  16. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  17. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  18. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother la...

  19. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS OF CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelcu Serban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS OF CONTROLLING Nedelcu Serban Universitatea ,,Babes-Bolyai`` Facultatea de Stiinte Economice si Gestiunea Afacerilor 'Controlling' represents a new concept in the Romanian economic environement, being implemented successfully in very few companies. Unlike the German space where controlling is very well represented both at a practical level and in the academia, in Romania controlling can only be found at a practical level, and the specialized literature is restraint, almost absent. Since the practicians of controlling in Romania only know the toolkit they use and not the theoretical elements as well, what is needed in this case is a conceptual delimitation so that controlling would be better implemented, and improved with various elements of the economic environment. In practice, inside various linguistic areas different problems of communication may occur very often in regards to the use of different concepts that may be missunderstood. Therefore in the Romanian research area it becomes imperative to try and clarify the existing issues and to intensify the reasearch in this field. Studying the evolution of the concept we observe that the need for its implementation is primarily experienced at the practical level of the companies, to be then followed by a debate in the specialized literature. The internationalization and the fierce competition that the Romanian companies are confronting on the ecenomic market represent the decissive factor in adopting the concept of controlling.This article is part of the research conducted for my doctoral thesis, 'Controlling in hetergenous economic envirnoments', under the coordination and supervision of Prof.Dr.Dumitru Matis. Keywords: Controlling, Management Accounting, Management Control, Accounting, Internal audit JEL Code: M49

  20. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  1. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Conceptualizing innovation capabilities: A contingency perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Helge Aas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has confirmed that a positive relationship exists between the implementation of innovation activities and the future performance of organizations. Firms utilize resources and capabilities to develop innovations in the form of new products, services or processes. Some firms prove to be better at reproducing innovation success than others, and the capacity to do so is referred to as innovation capability. However, the term innovation capability is ambiguously treated in extant literature. There are several different definitions of the concept and the distinction between innovation capabilities and other types of capabilities, such as dynamic capabilities, is neither explicitly stated, nor is the relationship between the concept and other resource- and capability-based concepts within strategy theory established. Although innovation is increasingly identified as crucial for a firm’s sustainable competitiveness in contemporary volatile and complex markets, the strategy-innovation link is underdeveloped in extant research. To overcome this challenge this paper raises the following research question: What type of innovation capabilities are required to innovate successfully? Due to the status of the extant research, we chose a conceptual research design to answer our research question and the paper contributes with a conceptual framework to discuss what innovation capabilities firms need to reproduce innovation success. Based on careful examination of current literature on innovation capability specifically, and the strategy-innovation link in general, we suggest that innovation capability must be viewed along two dimensions – innovation novelty and market characteristics. This framework enables the identification of four different contexts for innovation capabilities in a two-bytwo matrix. We discuss the types of innovation capabilities necessary within the four different contexts. This novel framework contributes to the

  3. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Montes, J.; Flynn, W.; Huang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are to determine the in situ state of stress at Olkiluoto and the spalling strength of Olkiluoto rock, by internal heating of the experimental hole (ONK-EH3) using 8 vertically installed heaters. This report presents the results from the Acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring carried out around the third experimental hole of the POSE niche between November 2012 and May 2013. The experiment was monitored using an array of 24 transducers installed along 4 monitoring drillholes and data was automatically acquired and processed using the system installed at the niche by Applied Seismology Consultants in May 2012. Daily ultrasonic surveys were carried out between 14 th November 2012 and 21 st May 2013, monitoring the changes in transmission velocities of P and S-waves with an estimated error of ±2 m x s -1 (ASC, 2013). Changes in transmission velocities closely follow the evolution of the temperature profile in the hole wall. An increase in both P-and S-wave transmission velocities is observed at all depth levels and surveyed raypaths during the heating phase, with the highest changes observed in raypaths skimming the hole surface and depths between 2.33 m and 3.7 m. This observation indicates the closure of in situ and excavation-induced microcracks due to thermal stress. After the heaters were switched off, P-wave velocities show a marked decrease, in all raypaths reaching values below those measured at the start of the monitoring approximately 4 weeks after the heaters were switched off. The highest decrease was observed along raypaths surveying the region skimming the hole wall. This decrease below original background values indicates the induction of rock degradation as microcracking induced through the heating-cooling cycle. Changes in P- and S-wave transmission velocity were used to calculate changes in Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio along the different raypaths and depth levels. An overall

  4. Do colors exist? and other profound physics questions

    CERN Document Server

    Cottrell, Seth Stannard

    2018-01-01

    Why do polished stones look wet? How does the Twin Paradox work? Why are orbits ellipses? How can we be sure that pi never repeats? How does a quantum computer break encryption? Discover the answers to these, and other profound physics questions! This fascinating book presents a collection of articles based on conversations and correspondences between the author and complete strangers about physics and math. The author, a researcher in mathematical physics, responds to dozens of questions posed by inquiring minds from all over the world, ranging from the everyday to the profound. Rather than unnecessarily complex explanations mired in mysterious terminology and symbols, the reader is presented with the reasoning, experiments, and mathematics in a casual, conversational, and often comical style. Neither over-simplified nor over-technical, the lucid and entertaining writing will guide the reader from the each innocent question to a better understanding of the weird and beautiful universe around us. Advance prai...

  5. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  6. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  7. Questioning As a Pedagogical Tool for Eliciting Student Generated Questions During the Teaching of Acid-base Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, teachers simply taught problem-solving by explaining the worked-out examples taken from textbooks and students were expected to listen quietly, copy the solution to the problem, and then work independently at their desks. But a large body of research notes that guiding students to develop a solution pathway with questioning is more effective than simply explaining the sequence of steps to solve the problem. Students involved in question- and-answer sessions are more attentive than those who listen passively to teacher explanations and they are more likely to generate questions. The questions students ask during a lesson perform a number of important functions, including providing the teacher with valuable information about students’ understanding and misunderstanding, fostering self-regulation, inviting classroom discussions and aiding comprehension of contents presented. The skill of posing questions during classroom instruction is often under-valued and under taught in today’s classrooms. To encourage students to ask quality and thought provoking questions related to the contents taught, explicit instruction is required. This paper, therefore, qualitatively reports factors that foster student generated questions during the problem-solving instruction involving acid-base titration problem.

  8. Investigation of Problem-Solving and Problem-Posing Abilities of Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of multiple problem-solving skills on the problem-posing abilities of gifted and non-gifted students and to assess whether the possession of such skills can predict giftedness or affect problem-posing abilities. Participants' metaphorical images of problem posing were also explored. Participants were 20 gifted…

  9. Cultural adaptations to the differential threats posed by hot versus cold climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Damian R

    2013-10-01

    Hot and cold climates have posed differential threats to human survival throughout history. Cold temperatures can pose direct threats to survival in themselves, whereas hot temperatures may pose threats indirectly through higher prevalence of infectious disease. These differential threats yield convergent predictions for the relationship between more demanding climates and freedom of expression, but divergent predictions for freedom from discrimination.

  10. Single-frame 3D human pose recovery from multiple views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body pose from multi-camera single-frame views. Pose recovery starts with a shape detection stage where candidate poses are generated based on hierarchical exemplar matching in the individual camera views. The hierarchy used in

  11. Multi-view 3D Human Pose Estimation in Complex Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a framework for unconstrained 3D human upper body pose estimation from multiple camera views in complex environment. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model texture adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery

  12. Conceptual optimal design of jackets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper; Verbart, Alexander; Stolpe, Mathias

    Structural optimization can explore a large design space (400 jackets) in a short time (2 hours), and thus lead to better conceptual jacket designs.......Structural optimization can explore a large design space (400 jackets) in a short time (2 hours), and thus lead to better conceptual jacket designs....

  13. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…

  14. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  15. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  16. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  17. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  18. Design Research as Conceptual Designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jacucci, Giulio; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    define conceptual designing as a constructive framing and re-framing activity, which is mediated by and targeted at the creation of new design concepts. Conceptual designing as an approach is valuable for addressing the fuzziness and ambiguity typical of research that explores novel areas with new...... partners, methods and resources. It is by no means a new phenomenon, and the main contribution of the article is the clarification of conceptual designing as a particular approach to designing and researching. The approach embraces openness, resource-construction and collaboration. We conclude...... that conceptual designing can be especially useful in research and design projects that bring different kinds of people, organizations, technologies and domains together into the forming of new well-founded proposals for development. The presentation of conceptual designing in this paper is written...

  19. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  20. "What's the difference?" women's wheelchair basketball, reverse integration, and the question(ing) of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Peers, Danielle

    2011-10-01

    The inclusion of able-bodied athletes within disability sport, a phenomenon known as reverse integration, has sparked significant debate within adapted physical activity. Although researchers and practitioners have taken up positions for or against reverse integration, there is a lack of supporting research on the experiences of athletes who already play in such settings. In this study, we explore how competitive female athletes who have a disability experience reverse integration in Canadian wheelchair basketball. Athletic identity was used as the initial conceptual framework to guide semistructured interviews with nine participants. The results suggest that participation in this context contributed to positive athletic identities. Interviews also pointed to the unexpected theme of "what's the difference?" that this sporting context provided a space for the questioning and creative negotiation of the categories of disability and able-bodiedness. Methodologically, this paper also explores the possibilities and challenges of inter- worldview and insider-outsider research collaboration.

  1. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  2. Confabulations: a conceptual history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, G E

    1998-12-01

    Confabulations are inaccurate or false narratives purporting to convey information about world or self. It is the received view that they are uttered by subjects intent on "covering up" for a putative memory deficit. The epidemiology of confabulations is unknown. Speculated causes include amnesia, embarrassment, "frontal lobe" damage, a subtype of "personality", a dream-like event, and a disturbance of the self. Historical analysis shows that "confabulation" was constructed at the turn of the century as part of a network of concepts (e.g. delusion, fixed idea, etc.) meant to capture narratives with dubious content. This paper deals with the history of the construction of the word and concept of confabulation and with earlier recognitions of the behaviours that serve as their referent and puts forward a model based on historical data. Two phenomena are included under "confabulation": "untrue" utterances by subjects with memory impairment and "fantastic" utterances marshalled with conviction by subjects suffering from psychoses and no memory deficit. Under different disguises, the "covering up" or "gap filling" hypothesis is still going strong. Although superficially plausible, it poses problems in regards to the issue of "awareness of purpose": if full awareness is presumed then the semantics of the concept of "purpose" is severely stretched and confabulations cannot be differentiated from delusions.

  3. [Specific problems posed by carbohydrate utilization in the rainbow trout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergot, F

    1979-01-01

    Carbohydrate incorporation in trout diets arises problems both at digestive and metabolic levels. Digestive utilization of carbohydrate closely depends on their molecular weight. In addition, in the case of complex carbohydrates (starches), different factors such as the level of incorporation, the amount consumed and the physical state of starch influence the digestibility. The measurement of digestibility in itself is confronted with methodological difficulties. The way the feces are collected can affect the digestion coefficient. Dietary carbohydrates actually serve as a source of energy. Nevertheless, above a certain level in the diet, intolerance phenomena may appear. The question that arises now is to establish the optimal part that carbohydrates can take in the metabolizable energy of a given diet.

  4. Some open questions concerning biological growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the properties of radially growing interfaces and their connection to biological growth. We focus on simplified models which result from the abstraction of only considering domain growth and not the interface curvature. Linear equations can be exactly solved and the phenomenology of growth can be inferred from the explicit solutions. Nonlinear equations pose interesting open questions that are summarized herein.

    En este trabajo revisamos brevemente las propiedades de las superficies que crecen de forma radial y su conexión con el crecimiento biológico. Nos vamos a concentrar en modelos simplificados que resultan de la abstracción de sólo considerar el crecimiento del dominio y no la curvatura de la interfaz. Las ecuaciones lineales se pueden resolver exactamente y la fenomenología del crecimiento puede ser inferida de las soluciones explítas. Las ecuaciones no lineales dan lugar a interesantes problemas abiertos que vamos a resumir aquí.

  5. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  6. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  7. CIT divertor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.C.; Sevier, D.L.

    1988-06-01

    A conceptual design of the divertor target assembly for the 1.75-m CIT baseline device has been developed. The divertor target assembly consists of four toroidal arrays of pyrolytic graphite plates that cover the inside surface of the ends of the vacuum vessel in the locations where the magnetic separatrices of the plasma intersect the vessel wall. During the course of the plasma discharge, the currents on the poloidal field coils that establish the plasma equilibrium are varied to sweep the separatrix strike locations across the divertor targets. This spreads the plasma heat loading over sufficient area to keep the peak target surface temperature within allowable limits. The required magnetic sweep (/+-/5 cm for the inside strike location and /+-/12 cm for the outside strike location) can be affected by programming either the external poloidal strike location) can be effected by programming either the external poloidal field (PF) coils or the internal PF control coils plus the external PF solenoid coils (PF1 and PF2). The ensuing variations in the elongation and triangularity of the plasma are modest, and fall within the ranges of plasma elongation and triangularity specified in the CIT General Requirements Document. 17 figs., 13 tabs

  8. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  9. Preserved conceptual implicit memory for pictures in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Rebecca G.; Hussey, Erin P.; Flannery, Sean; Ally, Brandon A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined different aspects of conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Specifically, we were interested in whether priming of distinctive conceptual features versus general semantic information related to pictures and words would differ for the mild AD patients and healthy older adults. In this study, 14 healthy older adults and 15 patients with mild AD studied both pictures and words followed by an implicit test section, where they were asked about distinctive conceptual or general semantic information related to the items they had previously studied (or novel items) Healthy older adults and patients with mild AD showed both conceptual priming and the picture superiority effect, but the AD patients only showed these effects for the questions focused on the distinctive conceptual information. We found that patients with mild AD showed intact conceptual picture priming in a task that required generating a response (answer) from a cue (question) for cues that focused on distinctive conceptual information. This experiment has helped improve our understanding of both the picture superiority effect and conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild AD in that these findings support the notion that conceptual implicit memory might potentially help to drive familiarity-based recognition in the face of impaired recollection in patients with mild AD. PMID:26291521

  10. Preserved conceptual implicit memory for pictures in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Rebecca G; Hussey, Erin P; Flannery, Sean; Ally, Brandon A

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined different aspects of conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, we were interested in whether priming of distinctive conceptual features versus general semantic information related to pictures and words would differ for the mild AD patients and healthy older adults. In this study, 14 healthy older adults and 15 patients with mild AD studied both pictures and words followed by an implicit test section, where they were asked about distinctive conceptual or general semantic information related to the items they had previously studied (or novel items). Healthy older adults and patients with mild AD showed both conceptual priming and the picture superiority effect, but the AD patients only showed these effects for the questions focused on the distinctive conceptual information. We found that patients with mild AD showed intact conceptual picture priming in a task that required generating a response (answer) from a cue (question) for cues that focused on distinctive conceptual information. This experiment has helped improve our understanding of both the picture superiority effect and conceptual implicit memory in patients with mild AD in that these findings support the notion that conceptual implicit memory might potentially help to drive familiarity-based recognition in the face of impaired recollection in patients with mild AD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN BASKETBALL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Toleikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents part of the research performed within the scope of the national project “Conceptual Metaphors in Public Discourse,”1 financed by the Research Council of Lithuania. The aim of the present paper is to analyze conceptual metaphors in the discourse of the European Basketball Championship which took place in Kaunas, Lithuania in 2011, as well as to determine the source concepts. The analysis allows certain features of the images which are used while conceptualizing the entities related to basketball to be described. The metaphorical collocations drawn from the Lithuanian language corpora and web portals (www.delfi.lt and www.lrytas.lt were selected and analyzed from 31 August 2011 to 18 September 2011. A conceptual metaphor is defined as an interaction of two conceptual fields (source and target concepts. On the basis of the analyzed conceptual sayings, the reconstructed conceptual metaphors proved that the most prolific metaphors are of war, ontology, and scale. In basketball discourse, the war metaphor is characterized by the fact that the image of sport is war is supplemented by other source concepts (e.g.,a person, a building, a thing, a material, a scale. The features of two or sometimes even three source concepts are ascribed to the target concept.

  12. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  13. The Conceptual Framework of Thematic Mapping in Case Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E

    2017-04-01

    This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The eμ coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study π 0 and η production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the φ meson (via K + K - decay), jets, and two-boson correlations. The measurements are made down to small cross sections to allow the study of high p T spectra, and J/ψ and Υ production. The PHENIX collaboration consists of over 300 scientists, engineers, and graduate students from 43 institutions in 10 countries. This large international collaboration is supported by US resources and significant foreign resources

  15. A conceptual change analysis of nature of science conceptions: The deep roots and entangled vines of a conceptual ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Adam Thomas

    This research used theories of conceptual change to analyze learners' understandings of the nature of science (NOS). Ideas regarding the NOS have been advocated as vital aspects of science literacy, yet learners at many levels (students and teachers) have difficulty in understanding these aspects in the way that science literacy reforms advocate. Although previous research has shown the inadequacies in learners' NOS understandings and have documented ways by which to improve some of these understandings, little has been done to show how these ideas develop and why learners' preexisting conceptions of NOS are so resistant to conceptual change. The premise of this study, then, was to describe the nature of NOS conceptions and of the conceptual change process itself by deeply analyzing the conceptions of individual learners. Toward this end, 4 individuals enrolled in a physical science course designed for preservice elementary teachers were selected to participate in a qualitative research study. These individuals answered questionnaires, surveys, direct interview questions, and a variety of interview probes (e.g., critical incidents, responses to readings/videos, reflections on coursework, card sorting tasks, etc.) which were administered throughout the duration of a semester. By utilizing these in-depth, qualitative probes, learners' conceptions were not only assessed but also described in great detail, revealing the source of their conceptions as well as identifying many instances in which a learner's directly stated conception was contradictory to that which was reflected by more indirect probes. As a result of this research, implications regarding NOS conceptions and their development have been described. In addition, various descriptions of conceptual change have been further refined and informed. Especially notable, the influence of a learner's conceptual ecology and its extrarational influences on conceptual change have been highlighted. It is argued that

  16. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  17. Creativity of Field-dependent and Field-independent Students in Posing Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlina, N.; Amin, S. M.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the creativity of elementary school students with different cognitive styles in mathematical problem-posing. The posed problems were assessed based on three components of creativity, namely fluency, flexibility, and novelty. The free-type problem posing was used in this study. This study is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. Data collections were conducted through written task and task-based interviews. The subjects were two elementary students. One of them is Field Dependent (FD) and the other is Field Independent (FI) which were measured by GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Further, the data were analyzed based on creativity components. The results show thatFD student’s posed problems have fulfilled the two components of creativity namely fluency, in which the subject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, and flexibility, in whichthe subject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas. Meanwhile,FI student’s posed problems have fulfilled all three components of creativity, namely fluency, in which thesubject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, flexibility, in which thesubject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas, and novelty, in which the subject posed problems that are purely the result of her own ideas and different from problems they have known.

  18. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective.

  19. Reasoning about coordination in the problem of conceptualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2010-01-01

    Within the last decade or so theories of inductive learning in games have increasingly become the primary approach in the construction of models for explaining how agents may resolve repeated coordination problems as well as the emergence social conventions at the more general level. However......, looking closer at a paradigm case of such models, the Dirichlet model, this paper argues that such models only work for explaining emergence if presupposing pre-tailored and ad hoc conceptualizations of the recurrent decision problem faced by the agents. It then argues that such conceptualization itself...... rest on convention and thus that the models only work by begging the question they were thought to answer. Finally, the paper points to the possibility that a non-circular solution to the problem of conceptualization may be found in an understanding of the way agents reason about coordination, when...

  20. Conceptualizing Aesthetics in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to introduce and discuss aesthetics as an approach to understand how design frames experience. In doing so, the chapter combines two philosophical interests in design, design phenomenology and design aesthetics, in order to promote a framework for discussing the impact...... of aesthetic meaning construction on experience. First, the chapter raises the phenomenological question of the relationship between design and experience, specifically, how design conditions experience. Second, in looking at aesthetics in terms of a) the sensual appeal of design, b) design objects...... as aesthetic media that frame modes of understanding, and c) contextual factors, such as media, influencing what is regarded as aesthetic, it is the thesis of the chapter that a reflective concept of design aesthetics can be employed to differentiate between three different ways in which design frame our...

  1. Conceptual thinking of uneducated adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Vygotsky's thesis that the prerequisite of conceptual thinking and concepts in general is the systematic influence upon the child effectuated by his/her inclusion into the process of education. The aim of this work is to examine characteristics of conceptual thinking of people who have not attended school, by which they have been devoid of formative role of education. Four different methods for examination of conceptual development have been used on the sample consisting of seventeen respondents who have not attended school. The results state that the majority of respondents have not demonstrated that they master the concepts on the highest level of development in none of these four methods. However, some respondents in some tests and some individual tasks within the tests show some characteristics of the high level of the conceptual thinking development.

  2. Conceptual design of RFC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, R.; Adati, K.; Hatori, T.; Ichimura, M.; Obayashi, H.; Okamura, S.; Sato, T.; Watari, T.; Emmert, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A parametic analysis and a preliminary conceptual design for RFC reactor (including cusp field) with and without alpha particle heating are described. Steady state operations can be obtained for various RF ponderomotive potential in cases of alpha particle heating. (author)

  3. Conceptual maps as evaluation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísio Borsato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The following work shows the conceptual map as an evaluation tool. In this study, an opening text was used as a previous organizer, with a theme related to the students’ daily lives. The developed activity consisted in elaborating conceptual maps before and after the experimental works. The evaluation was applied to 21 students of the 1st grade and 22 of the 3rd grade of High School. The elaborated maps were scored according to hierarchy, propositions, linking words, cross linking and examples. The classification of the maps elaborated before and after the experimental activity, was obtained having as a parameter, a referential conceptual map. In this classification many differences were observed between the first and second maps of both grades and among the groups. The elaboration of conceptual maps showed great potential as evaluation resources.

  4. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  5. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  6. Power dynamics and questioning in elementary science lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsvold, Lori Ann

    Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.

  7. Conceptualizing suffering and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Gómez, Noelia

    2017-09-29

    This article aims to contribute to a better conceptualization of pain and suffering by providing non-essential and non-naturalistic definitions of both phenomena. Contributions of classical evidence-based medicine, the humanistic turn in medicine, as well as the phenomenology and narrative theories of suffering and pain, together with certain conceptions of the person beyond them (the mind-body dichotomy, Cassel's idea of persons as "intact beings") are critically discussed with such purpose. A philosophical methodology is used, based on the review of existent literature on the topic and the argumentation in favor of what are found as better definitions of suffering and pain. Pain can be described in neurological terms but cognitive awareness, interpretation, behavioral dispositions, as well as cultural and educational factors have a decisive influence on pain perception. Suffering is proposed to be defined as an unpleasant or even anguishing experience, severely affecting a person at a psychophysical and existential level. Pain and suffering are considered unpleasant. However, the provided definitions neither include the idea that pain and suffering can attack and even destroy the self nor the idea that they can constructively expand the self; both perspectives can b e equally useful for managing pain and suffering, but they are not defining features of the same. Including the existential dimension in the definition of suffering highlights the relevance of suffering in life and its effect on one's own attachment to the world (including personal management, or the cultural and social influences which shape it). An understanding of pain and suffering life experiences is proposed, meaning that they are considered aspects of a person's life, and the self is the ever-changing sum of these (and other) experiences. The provided definitions will be useful to the identification of pain and suffering, to the discussion of how to relieve them, and to a better understanding

  8. Conceptual structure within and between modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eDilkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multi-modal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1 to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2 to compare structures between modalities; and (3 to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly.Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities begs the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multi-faceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  9. Perbedaan Keterampilan Pemecahan Masalah pada Pembelajaran Fisika Menggunakan Metode Problem Posing dan Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Adetya; Hartini, Sri; An'nur, Syubhan

    2015-01-01

    Teachers should be able to choose the method of learning that can help students in learning physics, namely the method of problem posing and problem solving method. The purposes of this study are : (1) describe the learning physics skills by using problem posing method, (2) describe the learning physics skills by using problem solving method, and (3) know difference between learning physics skills by using problem posing method and problem solving method in class XI of Science SMAN 6 Banjarma...

  10. Historical trauma: politics of a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussing, Erica

    2014-06-01

    The concept of historical trauma (HT) is compelling: Colonialism has set forth cumulative cycles of adversity that promote morbidity and mortality at personal and collective levels, with especially strong mental health impacts. Yet as ongoing community-based as well as scholarly discussions attest, lingering questions continue to surround HT as a framework for understanding the relationships between colonialism and indigenous mental health. Through an overview of 30 recent peer-reviewed publications that aim to clarify, define, measure, and interpret how HT impacts American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) mental health, this paper examines how the conceptual framework of HT has circulated in ways shaped by interactions among three prominent research approaches: evidence-based, culturally relevant, and decolonizing. All define current approaches to AIAN mental health research, but each sets forth different conceptualizations of the connections between colonialism and psychological distress. The unfolding trajectory of research about HT reflects persistent tensions in how these frameworks interact, but also possibilities for better integrating them. These considerations aim to advance conversations about the politics of producing knowledge about AIAN mental health, and support ongoing calls for greater political pluralism in mental health research. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  12. Scaling back French nuclear generation poses risk to trade deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroleon, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Increasing electricity costs weigh on the performance of France's exports, and this should lead to 'prudence' regarding the rate at which France's nuclear plants are taken out of service, says a report from the council of economic analysis (CAE), an economic think tank that advises the French prime minister. Reducing the proportion of nuclear energy in the country's generation mix was part of French president Francois Hollande's agreement with the country's green parties during his election campaign and is one of the key issues being discussed in France's energy transition debate. The government has said that nuclear energy's share in the generation mix should be reduced from 75% to 50% by 2025. The only nuclear plant the government has committed to closing is France's oldest, the 1.8 GW Fessenheim plant. It is scheduled to close at the end of 2016, but the move has generated much debate. 'Nobody knows why Fessenheim should be closed. Because it is old? So what?' said a legal source close to the French energy market who asked to remain anonymous. 'It's a shame that the French energy transition debate is not dealing with fundamental questions. It's too political', said the source. Low electricity prices are a key factor in maintaining France's economic competitiveness in relation to other European countries, said the CAE report, which was published on 16 May. A 10% increase in power prices paid by industrial consumers would lead to a 1.9% average reduction in the value of France's exports, it said. The market share of France's exports fell 19% in 2005-10, one of the largest slumps in Europe, according to a report published last summer by the European Commission. The country's current account recorded a growing deficit from 2005 onwards, reaching -2.2% in 2011, with the trade balance for goods accounting for most of this deterioration, said the report. Although France's trade deficit improved in 2012, driven by aerospace sector sales and weak domestic demand, the

  13. Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Scholderer, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification (GM) in food production are posed and answered: (1) how negative are consumer attitudes to GM applications in food production? (2) How do these attitudes affect perception of and preference for products involving GM...

  14. "Global Cities" and "Globalization" in East Asia: Empirical Realities and Conceptual Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David; Timberlake, Michael

    2002-01-01

    For most of the Twentieth Century, East Asia was among the least urbanized parts of the world; now it is a region where cities are growing the most rapidly and becoming increasingly important centers regionally and in terms of the global urban hierarchy. Tokyo is unquestionably a key "global city," with Hong Kong probably following not far behind, and Seoul and Taipei also moving up in the world city ranks as crucial national articulates of highly successful newly industrialized countries (N...

  15. Conceptual physics differences by pedagogy and gender: Questioning the deficit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Twanelle Deann Walker

    The differences in physics performance between males and females have been studied extensively (Blue & Heller, 2003; Coletta, 2015; Madsen, McKagan, & Sayre 2013; McCullough, 2002, 2004, 2011; Pollock, Finkelstein, & Kost, 2007; Zohar & Sela, 2003). The purpose of this study was to look at the ways teaching methods and assessment choices have fabricated a gender gap. Deficit ways of thinking have further marginalized women by renegotiating prior acts of power that initiated and perpetuated marginalization. Outside of the deficit model, the blame for the underperformance of females has been attributed to discourses of power as well as less-than-critical ways of evaluating learning and schooling. Students in introductory algebra-based physics courses from 2008-2014 at Tennessee Technological University were self-enrolled in PHYS2010 sections that were taught using either a traditional or constructivist, interactive-engagement Learner-centered Environment for Algebra-based Physics (LEAP) pedagogy. Propensity scoring on all feasible and relevant independent variables was used to adjust for the probability of students choosing either LEAP or traditional sections. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Gender Force Concept Inventory (GFCI) were used as the measures to gauge students' performance on physics concepts. The results showed that there were no differences in the FCI or GFCI performance of males and females. Results also showed that when accounting for pretest performance and the likelihood of choosing a LEAP section, LEAP pedagogy accounted for roughly 30% of performance differences. Not only was this true on the average, it was true for both genders. This meant that the main effect of LEAP pedagogy was even stronger and more generalizable. Gender did not moderate pedagogy, indicating that a pedagogy gap focus was more appropriate for evaluating physics learners.

  16. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  17. Contemporary Conceptual Approaches in Fluvial Geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica dos Santos Marçal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary fluvial geomorphology faces challenging questions, especially as it goes by understanding the Late Holocene/Anthropocene period, which has repercussions today and are intrinsically important to understand the human river disturbance. Given the scale that physical rates operate in complex river systems, two conceptual paths were developed to analyze the spatial and temporal organization. The network view emphasizes controls on catchment-scale and a reach approach focuses on discontinuity and local controls. Fluvial geomorphology has seek to understand the organization of complex river systems from the integrated view of the continuity and discontinuity paradigm. This integrated approach has stimulated within the geomorphology, the emergence of new theoretical-methodological instruments. It is recognized that rivers management is an ongoing process, part of the socio-cultural development, which refers to both a social movement and scientific exercise.

  18. Democratic Learning Processes: Conceptual and Historical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    In this article democratic learning is conceptualised with inspiration from two academic traditions, one being the conceptions of citizenship, political identities and deliberative democracy in political sociology; the other theories and research on social and lifelong learning. The first part......'s empowerment and inclusion in the Danish democratic model. On the background of these two analyses the authors finally discuss some current democratic problems with integrating the diversity represented by ethnic minority groups. The discussion emphasizes the learning theory perspective on the initiative...... of the article outlines the authors' understanding of the core concepts involved. In the second part these conceptual discussions are related to two themes: the question of public adaptation of historical experiences in connection with the German reunification and the learning perspectives related to women...

  19. Teach it Yourself - Fast Modeling of Industrial Objects for 6D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Thomas; Rajeeth Savarimuthu, Thiusius; Glent Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vision system that allows a human to create new 3D models of novel industrial parts by placing the part in two different positions in the scene. The two shot modeling framework generates models with a precision that allows the model to be used for 6D pose estimation wi....... In addition, the models are applied in a pose estimation application, evaluated with 37 different scenes with 61 unique object poses. The pose estimation results show a mean translation error on 4.97 mm and a mean rotation error on 3.38 degrees....

  20. The roles of perceptual and conceptual information in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Linoy; Yovel, Galit

    2016-11-01

    The representation of familiar objects is comprised of perceptual information about their visual properties as well as the conceptual knowledge that we have about them. What is the relative contribution of perceptual and conceptual information to object recognition? Here, we examined this question by designing a face familiarization protocol during which participants were either exposed to rich perceptual information (viewing each face in different angles and illuminations) or with conceptual information (associating each face with a different name). Both conditions were compared with single-view faces presented with no labels. Recognition was tested on new images of the same identities to assess whether learning generated a view-invariant representation. Results showed better recognition of novel images of the learned identities following association of a face with a name label, but no enhancement following exposure to multiple face views. Whereas these findings may be consistent with the role of category learning in object recognition, face recognition was better for labeled faces only when faces were associated with person-related labels (name, occupation), but not with person-unrelated labels (object names or symbols). These findings suggest that association of meaningful conceptual information with an image shifts its representation from an image-based percept to a view-invariant concept. They further indicate that the role of conceptual information should be considered to account for the superior recognition that we have for familiar faces and objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  2. MPL in Context: Some Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adail Sobral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian translation (2015 of Patrick Sériot's Preface to the French translation (2010 of Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (MPL provides a good opportunity to discuss this work and its relevance for the field of Human Sciences, considering different possible interpretations. In this sense, this work presents a discussion on questions that deserve, in our opinion, to be addressed both in Sériot's work (taken as an example of MPL's interpretation and in Voloshinov's.

  3. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  4. 222 questions about the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Cerrolaza Asenjo, J.A.; Garcia Alonso, J.M.; Iranzo Martin, J.E.; Lopez Perez, B.; Minguez Perres, E.; Minguez Torres, E.; Pascualena Cambra, M.T.; Poza Galiano, A. de la; Secades Ariz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents with an easy language, questions about energy. The main topics are: - Energy and energy sources - Energy and society - The energy in the world - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics - Basic concepts of radiological protection - Electric power - Nuclear Fuel cycle - Environmental impact - Radioactive wastes management - The risk in the electricity production - Standardization of Nuclear Safety - Economic aspects of electricity generation - Energy and Spanish economy

  5. MINU Main Injector Neutrino Upgrade: Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogert, Dixon [Fermilab; Alber, Russ [Fermilab

    2007-02-01

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) is intended to be a selfconsistent basis for a project baseline cost estimate. It is not a Title 1 report and has not answered every technical design question. The current level of contingency is believed to be consistent with the degree of technical confidence in the design at this stage. It is recognized that some basic construction concerns will be reviewed and optimized during the remaining stages of the project.

  6. Molyneux's Question: A Window on Crossmodal Interplay in Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Occelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1688, the Irish scientist William Molyneux sent a letter to the philosopher John Locke in which he asked whether a man who had been born blind and whose experience of the world was based on senses other than vision, would be able to distinguish and name a globe and a cube by sight alone, once he had been enabled to see. This issue immediately raised considerable interest amongst philosophers, who, for centuries, have continued to speculate about how this issue might be resolved. More recently, the possibility of corrective surgery for people born with congenital cataracts, has offered a valuable opportunity to explore this topic experimentally. A discussion of how Molyneux’s question has been addressed over the centuries, allows us to investigate a number of intellectual challenges, involving a variety of fields, ranging from philosophy, psychology and the cognitive sciences, to neuroscience. For instance, Molyenux’s question raises the question of whether sensory experience is specific to each sensory modality, or rather supramodal, and if a transfer of knowledge across modalities can be established. Molyneux’s question is also relevant to the discussion of whether, how and to what extent a concept of space can be developed by blind people. More generally, it concerns the idea of how conceptual knowledge is acquired and processed when vision is lacking. The present paper aims to provide an overview of all the issues raised by Molyenux’s question.

  7. Moving beyond job search quantity: towards a conceptualization and self-regulatory framework of job search quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, E.A.J.; Wanberg, C.R.; van Hoye, G.

    2013-01-01

    Job seeking is an important aspect throughout people’s careers. Extant theory and research has focused on one particular dimension of job search, that is, intensity/effort (i.e., job search quantity), posing that intensity/effort importantly affects employment success. The present conceptual paper

  8. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    . Considering the strength and limitations of both methodologies, the question to be answered in this thesis is: How valuable and compatible are the classical analytical methods in today's conceptual design environment? And can these methods complement each other? To answer these questions, this thesis investigates the pros and cons of classical analytical structural analysis methods during the conceptual design stage through the following objectives: Illustrate structural design methodology of these methods within the framework of Aerospace Vehicle Design (AVD) lab's design lifecycle. Demonstrate the effectiveness of moment distribution method through four case studies. This will be done by considering and evaluating the strength and limitation of these methods. In order to objectively quantify the limitation and capabilities of the analytical method at the conceptual design stage, each case study becomes more complex than the one before.

  9. How grammaticized concepts shape event conceptualization in language production: Insights from linguistic analysis, eye tracking data, and memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, C. von; Andermann, M.; Carroll, M.; Flecken, M.E.P.; Schmiedtová, B.

    2012-01-01

    The role of grammatical systems in profiling particular conceptual categories is used as a key in exploring questions concerning language specificity during the conceptualization phase in language production. This study focuses on the extent to which crosslinguistic differences in the concepts

  10. Making 2D face recognition more robust using AAMs for pose compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Peter; Munster, Ruud; Moro-Ellenberger, Stephanie; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of pose in 2D face recognition is widely acknowledged. Commercial systems are limited to near frontal face images and cannot deal with pose deviations larger than 15 degrees from the frontal view. This is a problem, when using face recognition for surveillance applications in which

  11. Integrating Worked Examples into Problem Posing in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ju-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Ling; Lan, Yu-Feng; Jeng, Yoau-Chau

    2013-01-01

    Most students always lack of experience and perceive difficult regarding problem posing. The study hypothesized that worked examples may have benefits for supporting students' problem posing activities. A quasi-experiment was conducted in the context of a business mathematics course for examining the effects of integrating worked examples into…

  12. An Investigation of Eighth Grade Students' Problem Posing Skills (Turkey Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    To pose a problem refers to the creative activity for mathematics education. The purpose of the study was to explore the eighth grade students' problem posing ability. Three learning domains such as requiring four operations, fractions and geometry were chosen for this reason. There were two classes which were coded as class A and class B. Class A…

  13. Body-part templates for recovery of 2D human poses under occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Poel, Mannes; Perales, F.J.; Fisher, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Detection of humans and estimation of their 2D poses from a single image are challenging tasks. This is especially true when part of the observation is occluded. However, given a limited class of movements, poses can be recovered given the visible body-parts. To this end, we propose a novel template

  14. Teachers Implementing Mathematical Problem Posing in the Classroom: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study about how a teacher educator shared knowledge with teachers when they worked together to implement mathematical problem posing (MPP) in the classroom. It includes feasible methods for getting practitioners to use research-based tasks aligned to the curriculum in order to encourage children to pose mathematical problems.…

  15. Problem-Posing in Education: Transformation of the Practice of the Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, L. D. R.; Caron-Ruffino, M.; Rodrigues, R. A. P.; Vendrusculo, D. M. S.; Takayanagui, A. M. M.; Zago, M. M. F.; Mendes, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the use of a problem-posing model in health education. The model based on the ideas of Paulo Freire is presented. Four innovative experiences of teaching-learning in environmental and occupational health and patient education are reported. Notes that the problem-posing model has the capability to transform health-education practice.…

  16. The Effects of Problem Posing on Student Mathematical Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Roslinda; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to meta-synthesize research findings on the effectiveness of problem posing and to investigate the factors that might affect the incorporation of problem posing in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The eligibility criteria for inclusion of literature in the meta-analysis was: published between 1989 and 2011,…

  17. Tooth display and lip position during spontaneous and posed smiling in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Berge, Stefaan J; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M

    2008-08-01

    To analyze differences in tooth display, lip-line height, and smile width between the posed smiling record, traditionally produced for orthodontic diagnosis, and the spontaneous (Duchenne) smile of joy. The faces of 122 male participants were each filmed during spontaneous and posed smiling. Spontaneous smiles were elicited through the participants watching a comical movie. Maxillary and mandibular lip-line heights, tooth display, and smile width were measured using a digital videographic method for smile analysis. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare measurements of posed and spontaneous smiling. Maxillary lip-line heights during spontaneous smiling were significantly higher than during posed smiling. Compared to spontaneous smiling, tooth display in the (pre)molar area during posed smiling decreased by up to 30%, along with a significant reduction of smile width. During posed smiling, also mandibular lip-line heights changed and the teeth were more covered by the lower lip than during spontaneous smiling. Reduced lip-line heights, tooth display, and smile width on a posed smiling record can have implications for the diagnostics of lip-line height, smile arc, buccal corridors, and plane of occlusion. Spontaneous smiling records next to posed smiling records are therefore recommended for diagnostic purposes. Because of the dynamic nature of spontaneous smiling, it is proposed to switch to dynamic video recording of the smile.

  18. An Investigation of Seventh Grade Students’ Performances on Conceptual, Procedural and Graphical Problems Regarding Circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfi İncikabı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine seventh grade students’ preferences among the procedural, conceptual and graphical questions in the subject of circles, to define their success levels in their preferences, and to compare students’ success levels in one question type with their performances in other question types. The methodology adopted during this research was case study. Based on criterion-based purposive sampling strategy, 98 middle school students were selected as the participants. Data were collected through an achievement test consisting of nine questions (three per question type. The results obtained from the study indicated that students mostly preferred graphical question types. Moreover, majority of students could not succeeded high levels in their preferred question types. In addition, the students performed better in graphical question types; however, the failure in procedural question types was remarkable. Keywords: Multiple representations, middle school students, mathematics education, circles

  19. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  20. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  1. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  2. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  3. Conceptual models of information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.

  4. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  5. Coupled bias-variance tradeoff for cross-pose face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Annan; Shan, Shiguang; Gao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Subspace-based face representation can be looked as a regression problem. From this viewpoint, we first revisited the problem of recognizing faces across pose differences, which is a bottleneck in face recognition. Then, we propose a new approach for cross-pose face recognition using a regressor with a coupled bias-variance tradeoff. We found that striking a coupled balance between bias and variance in regression for different poses could improve the regressor-based cross-pose face representation, i.e., the regressor can be more stable against a pose difference. With the basic idea, ridge regression and lasso regression are explored. Experimental results on CMU PIE, the FERET, and the Multi-PIE face databases show that the proposed bias-variance tradeoff can achieve considerable reinforcement in recognition performance.

  6. Trajectory Planning with Pose Feedback for a Dual-Arm Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high precision path tracking for a dual-arm space robot, a trajectory planning method with pose feedback is proposed to be introduced into the design process in this paper. Firstly, pose error kinematic models are derived from the related kinematics and desired pose command for the end-effector and the base, respectively. On this basis, trajectory planning with pose feedback is proposed from a control perspective. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed trajectory planning algorithm can guarantee that pose error converges to zero exponentially for both the end-effector and the base when the robot is out of singular configuration. Compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm can lead to higher precision path tracking for the end-effector. Furthermore, the algorithm renders the system good anti-interference property for the base. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory planning algorithm.

  7. A Support System for the Electric Appliance Control Using Pose Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kunihito; Hongo, Hitoshi

    In this paper, we propose an electric appliance control support system for aged and bedridden people using pose recognition. We proposed a pose recognition system that distinguishes between seven poses of the user on the bed. First, the face and arm regions of the user are detected by using the skin color. Our system focuses a recognition region surrounding the face region. Next, the higher order local autocorrelation features within the region are extracted. The linear discriminant analysis creates the coefficient matrix that can optimally distinguish among training data from the seven poses. Our algorithm can recognize the seven poses even if the subject wears different clothes and slightly shifts or slants on the bed. From the experimental results, our system achieved an accuracy rate of over 99 %. Then, we show that it possibles to construct one of a user-friendly system.

  8. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  9. Teaching Writing: Some Perennial Questions and Some Possible Answers. Occasional Paper No. 85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan; Dunn, Saundra

    Based on the premise that writing research will be useful to educators only to the extent that it offers them conceptual tools to use in framing and solving their own problems, this paper reviews studies that address educators' perennial concerns about writing instruction. Among the questions addressed in the paper are those concerning (1) the…

  10. Application of Shape Similarity in Pose Selection and Virtual Screening in CSARdock2014 Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2016-06-27

    To evaluate the applicability of shape similarity in docking-based pose selection and virtual screening, we participated in the CSARdock2014 benchmark exercise for identifying the correct docking pose of inhibitors targeting factor XA, spleen tyrosine kinase, and tRNA methyltransferase. This exercise provides a valuable opportunity for researchers to test their docking programs, methods, and protocols in a blind testing environment. In the CSARdock2014 benchmark exercise, we have implemented an approach that uses ligand 3D shape similarity to facilitate docking-based pose selection and virtual screening. We showed here that ligand 3D shape similarity between bound poses could be used to identify the native-like pose from an ensemble of docking-generated poses. Our method correctly identified the native pose as the top-ranking pose for 73% of test cases in a blind testing environment. Moreover, the pose selection results also revealed an excellent correlation between ligand 3D shape similarity scores and RMSD to X-ray crystal structure ligand. In the virtual screening exercise, the average RMSD for our pose prediction was found to be 1.02 Å, and it was one of the top performances achieved in CSARdock2014 benchmark exercise. Furthermore, the inclusion of shape similarity improved virtual screening performance of docking-based scoring and ranking. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) between experimental activities and docking scores for 276 spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors was found to be 0.365 but reached 0.614 when the ligand 3D shape similarity was included.

  11. Citizen Journalism as Conceptual Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    itizen Journalism as Conceptual Practice provides a conceptualization of citizen journalism as a political practice developed through analyses of an historical and postcolonial case. Arguing that citizen journalism is first and foremost situated, embodied and political rather than networked...... and formulates a critical reading of citizens’ and subjects’ mediated political engagements then as well as now. The book discusses current approaches to citizen journalism before turning to The Herald, which is then read against the grain in an attempt to show the embodied politics of colonial history...... and cultural forms of citizen engagement as these politics evolve in this particular case of journalism...

  12. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  13. Investor Outlook: The Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The year 2016 was an exciting one for the field, with several notable successes outweighing a few setbacks. As the number of patients treated successfully (and safely) with gene therapy grows, the totality of evidence points to a robust platform with utility in orphan/ultra-orphan diseases as well as broader indications, and with hopefully increasing predictability of results. This year promises to feature more patients treated, more clinical data, and more gene therapy products in registration-enabling studies. For the field to continue to advance and mature into the next great drug delivery platform, a few unsolved and remaining questions need to be addressed, including the business model for cures, a broader safety/efficacy profile once more patients are treated, optimization of delivery (including next-generation approaches), and greater understanding of the impact of competitive dynamics. In this report, we detail the success and setbacks of 2016 and highlight the unanswered questions-and how the answers may shape the field in the years ahead.

  14. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  15. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  16. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  17. Compositional gossip: a conceptual architecture for designing gossip-based applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rivière, Étienne; Baldoni, Roberto; Li, Harry; Pereira, José

    2007-01-01

    Most proposed gossip-based systems use an ad-hoc design. We observe a low degree of reutilization among this proposals. We present how this limits both the systematic development of gossip-based applications and the number of applications that can benefit from gossip-based construction. We posit that these reinvent-the-wheel approaches poses a significant barrier to the spread and usability of gossip protocols. This paper advocates a conceptual design framework based upon aggregating basic an...

  18. A systematic review of protocol studies on conceptual design cognition: design as search and exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Laura; Duffy, Alex H.B.; McTeague, Chris; Pidgeon, Laura M.; Vuletic, Tijana; Grealy, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the first systematic review of protocol studies focusing specifically on conceptual design cognition, aiming to answer the following research question: What is our current understanding of the cognitive processes involved in conceptual design tasks carried out by individual designers? We reviewed 47 studies on architectural design, engineering design and product design engineering. This paper reports 24 cognitive processes investigated in a subset of 33 studie...

  19. Answers to questions posed during daily patient care are more likely to be answered by UpToDate than PubMed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources,

  20. „Der“ Feminismus – „die“ Wissenschaft. Sabine Hark stellt metafeministische Fragen Feminism-Science: Sabine Hark Poses Meta-Feminist Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gehring

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ein Anlauf zu einem großen Thema: Wie veränderte sich der Feminismus im Zuge des „akademisch Werdens“ der feministischen Theorie? Sabine Hark mischt Theoriekritik mit Wissens- und Universitätssoziologie. Heraus kommen im Ergebnis allerdings eher vorsichtige, ambivalente Einschätzungen – aus einer Perspektive von irgendwo oberhalb des feministischen Diskurses, einem schwer bestimmbaren Ort. Immerhin: Kapitel 5 enthält eine handfeste und wichtige These.A preliminary approach to a considerable theme: How does feminism change in relation to the “academic development” of feminist theory? Sabine Hark mixes critique of theory with sociology of knowledge and university sociology. Her results are ultimately rather careful, ambivalent assessments occurring from a perspective somewhere above feminist discourse, which is a very difficult place to pinpoint. Chapter five does contain a sound and important thesis.

  1. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  2. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  3. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Conceptual Knowledge of Decimal Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2 studies (Ns = 55 and 54), the authors examined a basic form of conceptual understanding of rational number arithmetic, the direction of effect of decimal arithmetic operations, at a level of detail useful for informing instruction. Middle school students were presented tasks examining knowledge of the direction of effects (e.g., "True or…

  5. Process generalization in conceptual models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    In conceptual modeling, the universe of discourse (UoD) is divided into classes which have a taxonomic structure. The classes are usually defined in terms of attributes (all objects in a class share attribute names) and possibly of events. For enmple, the class of employees is the set of objects to

  6. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  7. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate

  8. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  9. Attribute And-Or Grammar for Joint Parsing of Human Pose, Parts and Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Nie, Xiaohan; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2017-07-25

    This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style. The parse graph outputs human detection, pose estimation, and attribute prediction simultaneously, which are intuitive and interpretable. We conduct experiments on two tasks on two datasets, and experimental results demonstrate the advantage of joint modeling in comparison with computing poses and attributes independently. Furthermore, our model obtains better performance over existing methods for both pose estimation and attribute prediction tasks.

  10. Coupled multiview autoencoders with locality sensitivity for three-dimensional human pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jialin; Sun, Jifeng; Luo, Shasha; Duan, Bichao

    2017-09-01

    Estimating three-dimensional (3D) human poses from a single camera is usually implemented by searching pose candidates with image descriptors. Existing methods usually suppose that the mapping from feature space to pose space is linear, but in fact, their mapping relationship is highly nonlinear, which heavily degrades the performance of 3D pose estimation. We propose a method to recover 3D pose from a silhouette image. It is based on the multiview feature embedding (MFE) and the locality-sensitive autoencoders (LSAEs). On the one hand, we first depict the manifold regularized sparse low-rank approximation for MFE and then the input image is characterized by a fused feature descriptor. On the other hand, both the fused feature and its corresponding 3D pose are separately encoded by LSAEs. A two-layer back-propagation neural network is trained by parameter fine-tuning and then used to map the encoded 2D features to encoded 3D poses. Our LSAE ensures a good preservation of the local topology of data points. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  11. Monocular-Based 6-Degree of Freedom Pose Estimation Technology for Robotic Intelligent Grasping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots are expected to undertake ever more advanced tasks in the modern manufacturing industry, such as intelligent grasping, in which robots should be capable of recognizing the position and orientation of a part before grasping it. In this paper, a monocular-based 6-degree of freedom (DOF pose estimation technology to enable robots to grasp large-size parts at informal poses is proposed. A camera was mounted on the robot end-flange and oriented to measure several featured points on the part before the robot moved to grasp it. In order to estimate the part pose, a nonlinear optimization model based on the camera object space collinearity error in different poses is established, and the initial iteration value is estimated with the differential transformation. Measuring poses of the camera are optimized based on uncertainty analysis. Also, the principle of the robotic intelligent grasping system was developed, with which the robot could adjust its pose to grasp the part. In experimental tests, the part poses estimated with the method described in this paper were compared with those produced by a laser tracker, and results show the RMS angle and position error are about 0.0228° and 0.4603 mm. Robotic intelligent grasping tests were also successfully performed in the experiments.

  12. Using internal discharge data in a distributed conceptual model to reduce uncertainty in streamflow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C.; Lundin, L.

    2011-12-01

    Distributed hydrological models are important tools in water management as they account for the spatial variability of the hydrological data, as well as being able to produce spatially distributed outputs. They can directly incorporate and assess potential changes in the characteristics of our basins. A recognized problem for models in general is equifinality, which is only exacerbated for distributed models who tend to have a large number of parameters. We need to deal with the fundamentally ill-posed nature of the problem that such models force us to face, i.e. a large number of parameters and very few variables that can be used to constrain them, often only the catchment discharge. There is a growing but yet limited literature showing how the internal states of a distributed model can be used to calibrate/validate its predictions. In this paper, a distributed version of WASMOD, a conceptual rainfall runoff model with only three parameters, combined with a routing algorithm based on the high-resolution HydroSHEDS data was used to simulate the discharge in the Paso La Ceiba basin in Honduras. The parameter space was explored using Monte-Carlo simulations and the region of space containing the parameter-sets that were considered behavioral according to two different criteria was delimited using the geometric concept of alpha-shapes. The discharge data from five internal sub-basins was used to aid in the calibration of the model and to answer the following questions: Can this information improve the simulations at the outlet of the catchment, or decrease their uncertainty? Also, after reducing the number of model parameters needing calibration through sensitivity analysis: Is it possible to relate them to basin characteristics? The analysis revealed that in most cases the internal discharge data can be used to reduce the uncertainty in the discharge at the outlet, albeit with little improvement in the overall simulation results.

  13. How secondary school students conceptualize infrared radiation-matter interaction? Findings from a research study and implications for an instructional design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, María Isabel; Ríos, Raquel; Pintó, Roser

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out within the REVIR scenario, which is a project promoting that secondary school students have access to a computerized laboratory at the Faculty of Education of our university and work in small groups during four hours with specific instructional material. One of the laboratory sessions included in the REVIR project deals with IR radiation-matter interaction, and is addressed to post-compulsory secondary students (16–18 year-old students). Within this framework, we have conducted a research study to analyse students’ conceptualizations of the processes or mechanisms that take place in IR radiation-matter interaction (energy transfer, selective absorption), and its effects at a macroscopic level (temperature increase) and at a molecular level (vibration). For data collection, a question was posed to all students at the end of each REVIR session, asking students to relate what was described in an article about the application of an IR laser for acne treatment to what they had learnt throughout the session. The analysis of the 67 students’ answers to that question revealed that many students explained the effects of the IR laser in vague terms, often repeating information included in the article, without explaining absorption of IR radiation in terms of energy. In consecutive versions of the instructional material, more oriented application questions were added after the article and explicit discussion around synthesis and exploratory (of students’ previous ideas) questions was carried out during the session. From the analysis of 49 and 119 students’ answers in consecutive later versions, we found that the introduction of these changes resulted in a greater number of students’ descriptions in macroscopic and microscopic terms, and a lower number of answers simply repeating information extracted from the reading. Furthermore, more students explicitly explained absorption in terms of energy associated to IR light. Implications

  14. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  15. Head Pose Estimation on Eyeglasses Using Line Detection and Classification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setthawong, Pisal; Vannija, Vajirasak

    This paper proposes a unique approach for head pose estimation of subjects with eyeglasses by using a combination of line detection and classification approaches. Head pose estimation is considered as an important non-verbal form of communication and could also be used in the area of Human-Computer Interface. A major improvement of the proposed approach is that it allows estimation of head poses at a high yaw/pitch angle when compared with existing geometric approaches, does not require expensive data preparation and training, and is generally fast when compared with other approaches.

  16. Testing an integral conceptual model of frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbens, Robbert J; van Assen, Marcel A; Luijkx, Katrien G; Schols, Jos M

    2012-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test three hypotheses derived from an integral conceptual model of frailty.   The integral model of frailty describes the pathway from life-course determinants to frailty to adverse outcomes. The model assumes that life-course determinants and the three domains of frailty (physical, psychological, social) affect adverse outcomes, the effect of disease(s) on adverse outcomes is mediated by frailty, and the effect of frailty on adverse outcomes depends on the life-course determinants. In June 2008 a questionnaire was sent to a sample of community-dwelling people, aged 75 years and older (n = 213). Life-course determinants and frailty were assessed using the Tilburg frailty indicator. Adverse outcomes were measured using the Groningen activity restriction scale, the WHOQOL-BREF and questions regarding healthcare utilization. The effect of seven self-reported chronic diseases was examined. Life-course determinants, chronic disease(s), and frailty together explain a moderate to large part of the variance of the seven continuous adverse outcomes (26-57%). All these predictors together explained a significant part of each of the five dichotomous adverse outcomes. The effect of chronic disease(s) on all 12 adverse outcomes was mediated at least partly by frailty. The effect of frailty domains on adverse outcomes did not depend on life-course determinants. Our finding that the adverse outcomes are differently and uniquely affected by the three domains of frailty (physical, psychological, social), and life-course determinants and disease(s), emphasizes the importance of an integral conceptual model of frailty. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Does Conceptual Understanding of Limit Partially Lead Students to Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, B.; Hapizah

    2017-09-01

    This article talks about the result of preliminary research of my dissertation, which will investigate student’s retention of conceptual understanding. In my preliminary research, I surveyed 73 students of mathematics education program by giving some questions to test their retention of conceptual understanding of limits. Based on the results of analyzing of students’ answers I conclude that most of the students have problems with their retention of conceptual understanding and they also have misconception of limits. The first misconception I identified is that students always used the substitution method to determine a limit of a function at a point, but they did not check whether the function is continue or not at the point. It means that they only use the substitution theorem partially, because they do not consider that the substitution theorem \\mathop{{lim}}\\limits\\text{x\\to \\text{c}}f(x)=f(c) works only if f(x) is defined at χ = c. The other misconception identified is that some students always think there must be available of variables χ in a function to determine the limit of the function. I conjecture that conceptual understanding of limit partially leads students to misconceptions.

  18. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  19. Emphasizing the process of science using demonstrations in conceptual chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Courtney A.

    The purpose of this project was to teach students a method for employing the process of science in a conceptual chemistry classroom when observing a demonstration of a discrepant event. Students observed six demonstrations throughout a trimester study of chemistry and responded to each demonstration by asking as many questions as they could think of, choosing one testable question to answer by making as many hypotheses as possible, and choosing one hypothesis to make predictions about observed results of this hypothesis when tested. Students were evaluated on their curiosity, confidence, knowledge of the process of science, and knowledge of the nature of science before and after the six demonstrations. Many students showed improvement in using or mastery of the process of science within the context of conceptual chemistry after six intensive experiences with it. Results of the study also showed students gained confidence in their scientific abilities after completing one trimester of conceptual chemistry. Curiosity and knowledge of the nature of science did not show statistically significant improvement according to the assessment tool. This may have been due to the scope of the demonstration and response activities, which focused on the process of science methodology instead of knowledge of the nature of science or the constraints of the assessment tool.

  20. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  1. Areva: questions about a champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  2. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  3. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  4. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  5. Trotting Gait of a Quadruped Robot Based on the Time-Pose Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai RunBin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the Time-Pose control method for the trotting gait of a quadruped robot on flat ground and up a slope. The method, with brief control structure, real-time operation ability and high adaptability, divides quadruped robot control into gait control and pose control. Virtual leg and intuitive controllers are introduced to simplify the model and generate the trajectory of mass centre and location of supporting legs in gait control, while redundancy optimization is used for solving the inverse kinematics in pose control. The models both on flat ground and up a slope are fully analysed, and different kinds of optimization methods are compared using the manipulability measure in order to select the best option. Simulations are performed, which prove that the Time-Pose control method is realizable for these two kinds of environment.

  6. Risks posed by large seismic events in the gold mining districts of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available buildings are considered vulnerable to damage by large seismic events, posing safety and financial risks. It is recommended that an earthquake engineer inspect the building stock and review the content and enforcement of building codes. Appropriate training...

  7. A Grasp-Pose Generation Method Based on Gaussian Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM-based grasp-pose generation method is proposed in this paper. Through offline training, the GMM is set up and used to depict the distribution of the robot's reachable orientations. By dividing the robot's workspace into small 3D voxels and training the GMM for each voxel, a look-up table covering all the workspace is built with the x, y and z positions as the index and the GMM as the entry. Through the definition of Task Space Regions (TSR, an object's feasible grasp poses are expressed as a continuous region. With the GMM, grasp poses can be preferentially sampled from regions with high reachability probabilities in the online grasp-planning stage. The GMM can also be used as a preliminary judgement of a grasp pose's reachability. Experiments on both a simulated and a real robot show the superiority of our method over the existing method.

  8. On Teaching About Terrorism: A Conceptual Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton

    1986-01-01

    Recommends the use of conceptual mapping, case studies, and springboards to discussion and inquiry as viable approaches to the study of terrorism in secondary classrooms. Provides numerous examples of conceptual maps. (JDH)

  9. Improved pose and affinity predictions using different protocols tailored on the basis of data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathipati, Philip; Nagao, Chioko; Ahmad, Shandar; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    The D3R 2015 grand drug design challenge provided a set of blinded challenges for evaluating the applicability of our protocols for pose and affinity prediction. In the present study, we report the application of two different strategies for the two D3R protein targets HSP90 and MAP4K4. HSP90 is a well-studied target system with numerous co-crystal structures and SAR data. Furthermore the D3R HSP90 test compounds showed high structural similarity to existing HSP90 inhibitors in BindingDB. Thus, we adopted an integrated docking and scoring approach involving a combination of both pharmacophoric and heavy atom similarity alignments, local minimization and quantitative structure activity relationships modeling, resulting in the reasonable prediction of pose [with the root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 1.75 Å for mean pose 1, 1.417 Å for the mean best pose and 1.85 Å for the mean all poses] and affinity (ROC AUC = 0.702 at 7.5 pIC50 cut-off and R = 0.45 for 180 compounds). The second protein, MAP4K4, represents a novel system with limited SAR and co-crystal structure data and little structural similarity of the D3R MAP4K4 test compounds to known MAP4K4 ligands. For this system, we implemented an exhaustive pose and affinity prediction protocol involving docking and scoring using the PLANTS software which considers side chain flexibility together with protein-ligand fingerprints analysis assisting in pose prioritization. This protocol through fares poorly in pose prediction (with the RMSD values of 4.346 Å for mean pose 1, 4.69 Å for mean best pose and 4.75 Å for mean all poses) and produced reasonable affinity prediction (AUC = 0.728 at 7.5 pIC50 cut-off and R = 0.67 for 18 compounds, ranked 1st among 80 submissions).

  10. Web-based Visualisation of Head Pose and Facial Expressions Changes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Vidakis, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant recent advances in the field of head pose estimation and facial expression recognition, raising the cognitive level when analysing human activity presents serious challenges to current concepts. Motivated by the need of generating comprehensible visual representations from...... and accurately estimate head pose changes in unconstrained environment. In order to complete the secondary process of recognising four universal dominant facial expressions (happiness, anger, sadness and surprise), emotion recognition via facial expressions (ERFE) was adopted. After that, a lightweight data...

  11. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  12. A review of cooperative and uncooperative spacecraft pose determination techniques for close-proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-08-01

    The capability of an active spacecraft to accurately estimate its relative position and attitude (pose) with respect to an active/inactive, artificial/natural space object (target) orbiting in close-proximity is required to carry out various activities like formation flying, on-orbit servicing, active debris removal, and space exploration. According to the specific mission scenario, the pose determination task involves both theoretical and technological challenges related to the search for the most suitable algorithmic solution and sensor architecture, respectively. As regards the latter aspect, electro-optical sensors represent the best option as their use is compatible with mass and power limitation of micro and small satellites, and their measurements can be processed to estimate all the pose parameters. Overall, the degree of complexity of the challenges related to pose determination largely varies depending on the nature of the targets, which may be actively/passively cooperative, uncooperative but known, or uncooperative and unknown space objects. In this respect, while cooperative pose determination has been successfully demonstrated in orbit, the uncooperative case is still under study by universities, research centers, space agencies and private companies. However, in both the cases, the demand for space applications involving relative navigation maneuvers, also in close-proximity, for which pose determination capabilities are mandatory, is significantly increasing. In this framework, a review of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms developed in the last decades for cooperative and uncooperative pose determination by processing data provided by electro-optical sensors is herein presented. Specifically, their main advantages and drawbacks in terms of achieved performance, computational complexity, and sensitivity to variability of pose and target geometry, are highlighted.

  13. The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 researchers have sought to better understand the macroeconomic consequences of terrorism. Despite a...The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups A Monograph by MAJ Joshua Glonek...SUBTITLE The Economic Impact of Terrorism in the Near East: Understanding the Threats Posed by Militant Groups 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  14. Pose Estimation with a Kinect for Ergonomic Studies: Evaluation of the Accuracy Using a Virtual Mannequin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Plantard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing human poses with a Kinect is a promising method to evaluate potentials risks of musculoskeletal disorders at workstations. In ecological situations, complex 3D poses and constraints imposed by the environment make it difficult to obtain reliable kinematic information. Thus, being able to predict the potential accuracy of the measurement for such complex 3D poses and sensor placements is challenging in classical experimental setups. To tackle this problem, we propose a new evaluation method based on a virtual mannequin. In this study, we apply this method to the evaluation of joint positions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist, joint angles (shoulder and elbow, and the corresponding RULA (a popular ergonomics assessment grid upper-limb score for a large set of poses and sensor placements. Thanks to this evaluation method, more than 500,000 configurations have been automatically tested, which would be almost impossible to evaluate with classical protocols. The results show that the kinematic information obtained by the Kinect software is generally accurate enough to fill in ergonomic assessment grids. However inaccuracy strongly increases for some specific poses and sensor positions. Using this evaluation method enabled us to report configurations that could lead to these high inaccuracies. As a supplementary material, we provide a software tool to help designers to evaluate the expected accuracy of this sensor for a set of upper-limb configurations. Results obtained with the virtual mannequin are in accordance with those obtained from a real subject for a limited set of poses and sensor placements.

  15. Muscle utilization patterns vary by skill levels of the practitioners across specific yoga poses (asanas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Mooney, Kiersten; Balachandran, Anoop; Richards, Luca; Harriell, Kysha; Signorile, Joseph F

    2014-08-01

    To compare muscle activation patterns in 14 dominant side muscles during different yoga poses across three skill levels. Mixed repeated-measures descriptive study. University neuromuscular research laboratory, Miami, US. A group of 36 yoga practitioners (9 M/27 F; mean ± SD, 31.6 ± 12.6 years) with at least 3 months yoga practice experience. Each of the 11 surya namaskar poses A and B was performed separately for 15s and the surface electromyography for 14 muscles were recorded. Normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (NrmsEMG) for 14 muscles (5 upper body, 4 trunk, 5 lower body). There were significant main effects of pose for all fourteen muscles except middle trapezius (p<.02) and of skill level for the vastus medialis; p=.027). A significant skill level × pose interaction existed for five muscles (pectoralis major sternal head, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, upper rectus abdominis and gastrocnemius lateralis; p<.05). Post hoc analyses using Bonferroni comparisons indicated that different poses activated specific muscle groups; however, this varied by skill level. Our results indicate that different poses can produce specific muscle activation patterns which may vary due to practitioners' skill levels. This information can be used in designing rehabilitation and training programs and for cuing during yoga training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  17. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  18. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  19. Using Knowledge Building to Foster Conceptual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hong, Huang-Yao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many exchanges of perspectives and debates in the field of conceptual change. Most of the classical views on conceptual change have been criticized, and there have been recent discussions around bridging the cognitive and socio-cultural approaches in the research on conceptual change. On the other hand, researchers…

  20. Rare isotope accelerator—conceptual design of target areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Georg; Baek, Inseok; Blideanu, Valentin; Lawton, Don; Mantica, Paul F.; Morrissey, David J.; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Sherrill, Bradley S.; Zeller, Albert; Beene, James R.; Burgess, Tom; Carter, Kenneth; Carrol, Adam; Conner, David; Gabriel, Tony; Mansur, Louis; Remec, Igor; Rennich, Mark; Stracener, Dan; Wendel, Mark; Ahle, Larry; Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2006-06-01

    The planned rare isotope accelerator facility RIA in the US would become the most powerful radioactive beam facility in the world. RIA's driver accelerator will be a device capable of providing beams from protons to uranium at energies of at least 400 MeV per nucleon, with beam power up to 400 kW. Radioactive beam production relies on both the in-flight separation of fast beam fragments and on the ISOL technique. In both cases the high beam power poses major challenges for target technology and handling and on the design of the beam production areas. This paper will give a brief overview of RIA and discuss aspects of ongoing conceptual design work for the RIA target areas.

  1. Rare Isotope Accelerator - Conceptual Design of Target Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Georg [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Baek, Inseok [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Blideanu, Valentin [CEA, Saclay, France; Lawton, Don [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Mantica, Paul F. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Morrissey, David J. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ronningen, Reginald M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Sherrill, Bradley S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zeller, Albert [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Beene, James R [ORNL; Burgess, Tom [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Carter, Kenneth [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Carrol, Adam [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Conner, David [ORNL; Gabriel, Tony A [ORNL; Mansur, Louis K [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Rennich, Mark J [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Ahle, Larry [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Boles, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Reyes, Susana [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Stein, Werner [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Heilbronn, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2006-01-01

    The planned rare isotope accelerator facility RIA in the US would become the most powerful radioactive beam facility in the world. RIA s driver accelerator will be a device capable of providing beams from protons to uranium at energies of at least 400MeV per nucleon, with beam power up to 400 kW. Radioactive beam production relies on both the in-flight separation of fast beam fragments and on the ISOL technique. In both cases the high beam power poses major challenges for target technology and handling and on the design of the beam production areas. This paper will give a brief overview of RIA and discuss aspects of ongoing conceptual design work for the RIA target areas.

  2. Rare isotope accelerator - conceptual design of target areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Georg; Baek, Inseok; Blideanu, Valentin; Lawton, Don; Mantica, Paul F.; Morrissey, David J.; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Sherrill, Bradley S.; Zeller, Albert; Beene, James R; Burgess, Tom; Carter, Kenneth; Carrol, Adam; Conner, David; Gabriel, Tony A; Mansur, Louis K; Remec, Igor; Rennich, Mark J; Stracener, Daniel W; Wendel, Mark W; Ahle, Larry; Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The planned rare isotope accelerator facility RIA in the US would become the most powerful radioactive beam facility in the world. RIA's driver accelerator will be a device capable of providing beams from protons to uranium at energies of at least 400MeV per nucleon, with beam power up to 400 kW. Radioactive beam production relies on both the in-flight separation of fast beam fragments and on the ISOL technique. In both cases the high beam power poses major challenges for target technology and handling and on the design of the beam production areas. This paper will give a brief overview of RIA and discuss aspects of ongoing conceptual design work for the RIA target areas

  3. Rare isotope accelerator-conceptual design of target areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Georg [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)]. E-mail: bollen@nscl.msu.edu; Baek, Inseok; Blideanu, Valentin; Lawton, Don; Mantica, Paul F.; Morrissey, David J.; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Sherrill, Bradley S.; Zeller, Albert [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beene, James R.; Burgess, Tom; Carter, Kenneth; Carrol, Adam; Conner, David; Gabriel, Tony; Mansur, Louis; Remec, Igor; Rennich, Mark; Stracener, Dan; Wendel, Mark [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Ahle, Larry; Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner [Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Heilbronn, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-06-23

    The planned rare isotope accelerator facility RIA in the US would become the most powerful radioactive beam facility in the world. RIA's driver accelerator will be a device capable of providing beams from protons to uranium at energies of at least 400 MeV per nucleon, with beam power up to 400 kW. Radioactive beam production relies on both the in-flight separation of fast beam fragments and on the ISOL technique. In both cases the high beam power poses major challenges for target technology and handling and on the design of the beam production areas. This paper will give a brief overview of RIA and discuss aspects of ongoing conceptual design work for the RIA target areas.

  4. Recruiting Transcultural Qualitative Research Participants: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Eide

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.

  5. Socrates was not a pimp: changing the paradigm of questioning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Amanda; Chen, Frederick M

    2015-01-01

    The slang term "pimping" is widely recognized by learners and educators in the clinical learning environment as the act of more senior members of the medical team publicly asking questions of more junior members. Although questioning as a pedagogical practice has many benefits, pimping, as described in the literature, evokes negative emotions in learners and leads to an environment that is not conducive to adult learning. Medical educators may employ pimping as a pedagogic technique because of beliefs that it is a Socratic teaching method. Although problems with pimping have previously been identified, no alternative techniques for questioning in the clinical environment were suggested. The authors posit that using the term "pimping" to describe questioning in medical education is harmful and unprofessional, and they propose clearly defining pimping as "questioning with the intent to shame or humiliate the learner to maintain the power hierarchy in medical education." Explicitly separating pimping from the larger practice of questioning allows the authors to make three recommendations for improving questioning practices. First, educators should examine the purpose of each question they pose to learners. Second, they should apply historic and modern interpretations of Socratic teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills. Finally, they should consider adult learning theories to make concrete changes to their questioning practices. These changes can result in questioning that is more learner centered, aids in the acquisition of knowledge and skills, performs helpful formative and summative assessments of the learner, and improves community in the clinical learning environment.

  6. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  7. Conceptual design of repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Engelmann, H.J.; Souquet, G.; Mayence, M.; Hamstra, J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the European Economic Communities programme of research into underground disposal of radioactive wastes repository design studies have been carried out for application in salt deposits, argillaceous formations and crystalline rocks. In this paper the design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual designs are presented in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Emphasis has been placed on the disposal of vitrified high level radioactive wastes although consideration has been given to other categories of radioactive waste

  8. IFMIF accelerator conceptual design activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Lagniel, J.M.; Sugimoto, M.; Kein, H.; Piaszczyk, C.; Tiplyakov, V.

    1998-01-01

    A Conceptual Design Evaluation (CDE) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) began in 1997 and will be completed in 1998, as an international program of the IEA involving the European Community, Japan, Russia and the United States. The IFMIF accelerator system, comprising two 125 mA, 40 MeV deuterium accelerators operating at 175 MHz, is a key element of the IFMIF facility. The objectives and accomplishments of the CDE accelerator studies are outlined

  9. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  10. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume of the conceptual design report contains detailed information on the following: (1) plasma engineering, (2) tandem mirror optimization code, (3) configuration, (4) assembly and maintenance, (5) availability, (6) site and facilities, (7) magnet design, (8) end-cell shielding, (9) drift pumping system, (10) rf systems, (11) negative-ion neutral beam injection system, (12) sloshing-ion beamline, and (13) power balance and electrical systems

  11. Conceptualizing Multicultural Perspective Taking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    34 ( Fetterman , 1989, p. 27). This perspective highlights the cognitive aspects of culture at the exclusion of behavior. Kroeber and Parsons (1958... Fetterman , 1989; Kluckhohn, 1951; Ong, 1987). Sociologists have a similar perspective on culture and highlight that it is transmitted, is created, is...knowledge ( Fetterman , 1989). Cognition provides the cultural lens with acuity. In this regard, culture is conceptualized, in part, as a schema (organized

  12. Theorising international monetary relations: three questions about the significance of materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.

  13. The conceptualization and measurement of cognitive health sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Collins, William B; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, Lashara A; Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a conceptualization and measure of cognitive health sophistication--the complexity of an individual's conceptual knowledge about health. Study 1 provides initial validity evidence for the measure--the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument--by showing its association with other cognitive health constructs indicative of higher health sophistication. Study 2 presents data from a sample of low-income adults to provide evidence that the measure does not depend heavily on health-related vocabulary or ethnicity. Results from both studies suggest that the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument can be used to capture variability in the sophistication or complexity of an individual's health-related schematic structures on the basis of responses to two simple open-ended questions. Methodological advantages of the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument and suggestions for future research are highlighted in the discussion.

  14. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Conceptual scheme of a hybrid mesocatalytic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    To test the practical realization of the mesocatalytic method for energy production a preliminary engineering analysis and calculation of the separate units of the conceptual scheme of the hybrid mesocatalytic reactor was made. The construction and efficiency of the most characteristic separate blocks of the conceptual scheme for muon-catalyzed fusion are examined. The muon catalysis cycle in a dt mixture was assessed. The kinetics and energetics of muon production through a pion-forming target and a converter were evaluated. Concomitant questions, particularly the removal of helium from hydrogen, are discussed. Fusion chamber requirements were calculated and problems of heat removal were assessed. Blanket construction and efficiency were examined. The efficiency of different methods for power generation were comparatively reviewed including hybrid thermonuclear, electronuclear nuclear, and hybrid mesocatalytic methods. Energy balances and economic restrictions were examined

  16. On the safety of conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.; Badham, V.; Caspi, S.; Chan, C.K.; Ferrell, W.J.; Frederking, T.H.K.; Grzesik, J.; Lee, J.Y.; McKone, T.E.; Pomraning, G.C.; Ullman, A.Z.; Ting, T.D.; Kim, Y.I.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary examination of some potential safety questions for conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors is presented in this paper. The study and subsequent analysis was largely based upon one design, a conceptual mirror fusion-fission reactor, operating on the deuterium-tritium plasma fusion fuel cycle and the uranium-plutonium fission fuel cycle. The major potential hazards were found to be: (a) fission products, (b) actinide elements, (c) induced radioactivity, and (d) tritium. As a result of these studies, it appears that highly reliable and even redundent decay heat removal must be provided. Loss of the ability to remove decay heat results in melting of fuel, with ultimate release of fission products and actinides to the containment. In addition, the studies indicate that blankets can be designed which will remain subcritical under extensive changes in both composition and geometry. Magnet safety and the effects of magnetic fields on thermal parameters were also considered. (Auth.)

  17. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues are raised by various critics. In this paper I provide some perspective on issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass-action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes

  18. Enhancing the Connection between Conceptual Reasoning and Quantitative Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Linda R.; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2004-10-01

    Introductory physics students often solve physics problems by equation hunting or pattern matching. These techniques can leave students ill-prepared to work on problems that require a careful analysis of the situation and logical reasoning using fundamental physical concepts. We have designed worksheets for challenging problems that guide the students through the conceptual part of the problem using expert problem solving techniques, namely, draw sketches, collect the available information, determine the question, identify applicable physical principles, and find relationships that can lead to a solution. The worksheets only help the student plan how to reach a solution; the actual execution of the planned solution is left to the student. Student feedback on the worksheets has been positive and suggests that they are helpful in enhancing the connection between conceptual reasoning and quantitative skills in problem solving. We are currently evaluating quizzes, exams, and homework to further investigate the effectiveness of the approach.

  19. Questions raised in developing fast reactor steam generator designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P A; Hayden, O

    1975-07-01

    The most important component in the achievement of satisfactory LMFBR reliability is the steam generator. When the failure statistics of other nuclear steam generators and the implications of a sodium water reaction are considered, there is some cause for concern. It is apparent that considerable improvement in technology is necessary and until more experience on operating plant is available a conservative design approach must be taken. Many solutions have been proposed, varying from forced circulation straight tube modular to large single vessel once through helical designs. The paper poses what are considered to be the main questions which arise when making a choice of fast reactor steam generator type and tube configuration. The aim is to promote discussion amongst the assembled experts on their relative design approaches and the importance placed upon the various factors in reaching our common goal of ensuring the success of the LMFBR in its essential role of conserving world energy resources. (author)

  20. Questions raised in developing fast reactor steam generator designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Hayden, O.

    1975-01-01

    The most important component in the achievement of satisfactory LMFBR reliability is the steam generator. When the failure statistics of other nuclear steam generators and the implications of a sodium water reaction are considered, there is some cause for concern. It is apparent that considerable improvement in technology is necessary and until more experience on operating plant is available a conservative design approach must be taken. Many solutions have been proposed, varying from forced circulation straight tube modular to large single vessel once through helical designs. The paper poses what are considered to be the main questions which arise when making a choice of fast reactor steam generator type and tube configuration. The aim is to promote discussion amongst the assembled experts on their relative design approaches and the importance placed upon the various factors in reaching our common goal of ensuring the success of the LMFBR in its essential role of conserving world energy resources. (author)

  1. Conceptual Models as Tools for Communication Across Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heemskerk

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand and manage complex social-ecological systems, social scientists and ecologists must collaborate. However, issues related to language and research approaches can make it hard for researchers in different fields to work together. This paper suggests that researchers can improve interdisciplinary science through the use of conceptual models as a communication tool. The authors share lessons from a workshop in which interdisciplinary teams of young scientists developed conceptual models of social-ecological systems using data sets and metadata from Long-Term Ecological Research sites across the United States. Both the process of model building and the models that were created are discussed. The exercise revealed that the presence of social scientists in a group influenced the place and role of people in the models. This finding suggests that the participation of both ecologists and social scientists in the early stages of project development may produce better questions and more accurate models of interactions between humans and ecosystems. Although the participants agreed that a better understanding of human intentions and behavior would advance ecosystem science, they felt that interdisciplinary research might gain more by training strong disciplinarians than by merging ecology and social sciences into a new field. It is concluded that conceptual models can provide an inspiring point of departure and a guiding principle for interdisciplinary group discussions. Jointly developing a model not only helped the participants to formulate questions, clarify system boundaries, and identify gaps in existing data, but also revealed the thoughts and assumptions of fellow scientists. Although the use of conceptual models will not serve all purposes, the process of model building can help scientists, policy makers, and resource managers discuss applied problems and theory among themselves and with those in other areas.

  2. Pose measurement method with six parameters for microassembly based on an optical micrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-jing; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-feng

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a new pose measurement method of microminiature parts that is capable of transforming one dimension (1D) contour size obtained by optical micrometer to three dimension (3D) data with six parameters for microassembly. Pose measurement is one of the most important processes for microminiature parts' alignment and insertion in microassembly. During the past few years, researchers have developed their microassembly systems focusing on visual identification to obtain two or three dimension data with no more than three parameters. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and stereomicroscope are applied in their systems. However, as structures of microminiature parts become increasingly complex, six parameters to represent their position and orientation are specifically needed. Firstly, The pose measurement model is established based on the introduction of measuring objects and measuring principle of optical micrometer. The measuring objects are microminiature parts with complex 3D structure. Two groups of two dimension (2D) data are gathered at two different measurement positions. Then part pose with 6 parameters is calculated, including 3 position parameters of feature point of the part and 3 orientation parameters of the part axis. Secondly, pose measurement process for a small shaft, vertical orientation determination, and position parameters obtaining are presented. 2D data is gathered by scanning the generatrix of the part, and valid data is extracted and saved in arrays. A vertical orientation criterion is proposed to determine whether the part is parallel to the Z-axis of the coordinate. If not, 2D data will be fixed into a linear equation using least square algorithm. Then orientation parameters are calculated. Center of Part End (CPE) is selected as feature point of the part, and its position parameters are extracted form two group of 2D data. Finally, a fast pose measurement device is developed and representative

  3. Generalized Hough transform based time invariant action recognition with 3D pose information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, David; Huebner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Human action recognition has emerged as an important field in the computer vision community due to its large number of applications such as automatic video surveillance, content based video-search and human robot interaction. In order to cope with the challenges that this large variety of applications present, recent research has focused more on developing classifiers able to detect several actions in more natural and unconstrained video sequences. The invariance discrimination tradeoff in action recognition has been addressed by utilizing a Generalized Hough Transform. As a basis for action representation we transform 3D poses into a robust feature space, referred to as pose descriptors. For each action class a one-dimensional temporal voting space is constructed. Votes are generated from associating pose descriptors with their position in time relative to the end of an action sequence. Training data consists of manually segmented action sequences. In the detection phase valid human 3D poses are assumed as input, e.g. originating from 3D sensors or monocular pose reconstruction methods. The human 3D poses are normalized to gain view-independence and transformed into (i) relative limb-angle space to ensure independence of non-adjacent joints or (ii) geometric features. In (i) an action descriptor consists of the relative angles between limbs and their temporal derivatives. In (ii) the action descriptor consists of different geometric features. In order to circumvent the problem of time-warping we propose to use a codebook of prototypical 3D poses which is generated from sample sequences of 3D motion capture data. This idea is in accordance with the concept of equivalence classes in action space. Results of the codebook method are presented using the Kinect sensor and the CMU Motion Capture Database.

  4. Combining Front Vehicle Detection with 3D Pose Estimation for a Better Driver Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistant systems enhance traffic safety and efficiency. The accurate 3D pose of a front vehicle can help a driver to make the right decision on the road. We propose a novel real-time system to estimate the 3D pose of the front vehicle. This system consists of two parallel threads: vehicle rear tracking and mapping. The vehicle rear is first identified in the video captured by an onboard camera, after license plate localization and foreground extraction. The 3D pose estimation technique is then employed with respect to the extracted vehicle rear. Most current 3D pose estimation techniques need prior models or a stereo initialization with user cooperation. It is extremely difficult to obtain prior models due to the varying appearance of vehicles' rears. Moreover, it is unsafe to ask for drivers' cooperation when a vehicle is running. In our system, two initial keyframes for stereo algorithms are automatically extracted by vehicle rear detection and tracking. Map points are defined as a collection of point features extracted from the vehicle's rear with their 3D information. These map points are inferences that relate the 2D features detected in following vehicles' rears with the 3D world. The relative 3D pose of the onboard camera to the front vehicle rear is then estimated through matching the map points with point features detected on the front vehicle rear. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system by testing on real-time and synthesized videos. In order to make the experimental analysis visible, we demonstrated an estimated 3D pose through augmented reality, which needs accurate and real-time 3D pose estimation.

  5. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  7. "To Obey or Disobey? This Is the Question" NDE: Nonviolent Disobedience Education in Israeli and US Civics Textbooks (1980-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firer, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    "To Obey or Disobey" should be a life question for all free people, but for the Israelis, who are in intractable war with their neighbors while facing constant rifts among themselves, it is a concrete problem they have to face every day. Therefore, the research question posed by this article is: How is obedience of laws or military…

  8. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael F; Peelle, Jonathan E; Cook, Philip A; Grossman, Murray

    2013-05-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina-Ștefania Dîrzu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress and rapid structural adjustments have characterized a lot of economies in the last century and they still feature pronounced structures. An important observation is that economic activities tend to agglomerate in space as a result of some kind increasing returns, forming eventually economic agglomerations. When various companies gather together, they establish specific forms of interaction. Increasing returns produce when this mutual interplay creates positive externalities for those firms which operate into an agglomeration. In this context, it is crucial to raise a question: what is an economic agglomeration and what do different scientists imply when using the concept? The phenomenon of agglomeration has attracted researchers from various disciplines employing a hybrid set of analytical perspectives. This whole framework is still puzzled with contradictory conceptualizations which are often used in an ambiguous way. Scientists tend to utilize notions such as agglomeration, cluster, territorial network, specialization, concentration somewhat interchangeably and with little concern about how to operationalize them. To shed a light on this issue, the aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analyze of different theoretical framework in which economic agglomerations have been debated and researched.

  10. An anti-disturbing real time pose estimation method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Xiao-hu

    2011-08-01

    Pose estimation relating two-dimensional (2D) images to three-dimensional (3D) rigid object need some known features to track. In practice, there are many algorithms which perform this task in high accuracy, but all of these algorithms suffer from features lost. This paper investigated the pose estimation when numbers of known features or even all of them were invisible. Firstly, known features were tracked to calculate pose in the current and the next image. Secondly, some unknown but good features to track were automatically detected in the current and the next image. Thirdly, those unknown features which were on the rigid and could match each other in the two images were retained. Because of the motion characteristic of the rigid object, the 3D information of those unknown features on the rigid could be solved by the rigid object's pose at the two moment and their 2D information in the two images except only two case: the first one was that both camera and object have no relative motion and camera parameter such as focus length, principle point, and etc. have no change at the two moment; the second one was that there was no shared scene or no matched feature in the two image. Finally, because those unknown features at the first time were known now, pose estimation could go on in the followed images in spite of the missing of known features in the beginning by repeating the process mentioned above. The robustness of pose estimation by different features detection algorithms such as Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) feature, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF) were compared and the compact of the different relative motion between camera and the rigid object were discussed in this paper. Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) parallel computing was also used to extract and to match hundreds of features for real time pose estimation which was hard to work on Central Processing Unit (CPU). Compared with other pose estimation methods, this new

  11. Urban Planning and Sustainable Development in The 21st Century, Conceptual and Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpeitia Santander, Arturo; Azkarate Garai-Olaun, Agustín

    2016-10-01

    Urban areas in historic cities resemble a living organism that evolves in parallel to social transformation processes, shaping the material substrate that expresses identity and collective memory. In the twenty-first century, exponential population growth, globalization and the information society have resulted in many of these socio-economic processes accelerating, with consequences that we are not yet able to discern in their entirety. In this context, cities need to adapt to the general dynamics of urban development by incorporating the environmental, economic and social aspects of the "sustainability paradigm". With good planning, urban heritage is a key sustainable resource that needs promoting as part of the existing territorial competitiveness in a scenario marked by an increase in rivalry between cities. This requires the development of a conceptual framework that, based on a global, holistic and integrative approach, covers equity and social justice, respect for human rights, the gender perspective, public health and environmental quality, among other aspects. In this sense, the purpose of this paper is to study the concept of landscape applied to urban planning in greater depth, paying special attention to the analysis of the notion of Historic Urban Landscapes from a critical point of view, since the economic pressures arising from the reality of today's globalized world pose a serious threat that hinders their custody and protection, complicating this new comprehensive approach: how to bring this new systemic and transversal concept to the current regulatory framework in order to achieve real legal protection and effective governance models in urban areas? What should be the acceptable limits to ensure that "managing this change" does not result in public spaces being at the service of the interests of financial capitalism? These, along with many other questions, make the work of the professionals in charge of urban conservation more challenging in

  12. A pose estimation method for unmanned ground vehicles in GPS denied environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamjidi, Amirhossein; Ye, Cang

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a pose estimation method based on the 1-Point RANSAC EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) framework. The method fuses the depth data from a LIDAR and the visual data from a monocular camera to estimate the pose of a Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) in a GPS denied environment. Its estimation framework continuy updates the vehicle's 6D pose state and temporary estimates of the extracted visual features' 3D positions. In contrast to the conventional EKF-SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) frameworks, the proposed method discards feature estimates from the extended state vector once they are no longer observed for several steps. As a result, the extended state vector always maintains a reasonable size that is suitable for online calculation. The fusion of laser and visual data is performed both in the feature initialization part of the EKF-SLAM process and in the motion prediction stage. A RANSAC pose calculation procedure is devised to produce pose estimate for the motion model. The proposed method has been successfully tested on the Ford campus's LIDAR-Vision dataset. The results are compared with the ground truth data of the dataset and the estimation error is ~1.9% of the path length.

  13. Did Buddha turn the other cheek too? A comparison of posing biases between Jesus and Buddha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Kari N; Friedrich, Trista E; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-10-02

    People tend to exhibit a leftward bias in posing. Various studies suggest that posing to the left portrays a stronger emotion, whereas posing to the right portrays a more neutral emotion. Religions such as Christianity emphasize the role of strong emotions in religious experience, whereas religions such as Buddhism emphasize the calming of emotions as being important. In the present study, we investigated if the emphasis on emotionality of a religion influences the depiction of their religious figures. Specifically, we coded 484 paintings of Jesus and Buddha from online art databases for whether the deity exhibited a left bias, right bias, or central face presentation. The posing biases were analysed to discover whether paintings of Jesus would more frequently depict a leftward bias than paintings of Buddha. Jesus is more commonly depicted with a leftward bias than Buddha, and Buddha is more commonly depicted with a central face presentation than Jesus. These findings support the idea that the amount of emotionality that is to be conveyed in artwork influences the whether the subject is posed with a leftward bias.

  14. Recovering the 3d Pose and Shape of Vehicles from Stereo Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, M.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2018-05-01

    The precise reconstruction and pose estimation of vehicles plays an important role, e.g. for autonomous driving. We tackle this problem on the basis of street level stereo images obtained from a moving vehicle. Starting from initial vehicle detections, we use a deformable vehicle shape prior learned from CAD vehicle data to fully reconstruct the vehicles in 3D and to recover their 3D pose and shape. To fit a deformable vehicle model to each detection by inferring the optimal parameters for pose and shape, we define an energy function leveraging reconstructed 3D data, image information, the vehicle model and derived scene knowledge. To minimise the energy function, we apply a robust model fitting procedure based on iterative Monte Carlo model particle sampling. We evaluate our approach using the object detection and orientation estimation benchmark of the KITTI dataset (Geiger et al., 2012). Our approach can deal with very coarse pose initialisations and we achieve encouraging results with up to 82 % correct pose estimations. Moreover, we are able to deliver very precise orientation estimation results with an average absolute error smaller than 4°.

  15. Enhancing students’ mathematical problem posing skill through writing in performance tasks strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir; Adelina, R.; Fatma, M.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the Writing in Performance Task (WiPT) strategy in learning, but only a few paid attention on its relation to the problem-posing skill in mathematics. The problem-posing skill in mathematics covers problem reformulation, reconstruction, and imitation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of WiPT strategy on students’ mathematical problem-posing skill. The research was conducted at a Public Junior Secondary School in Tangerang Selatan. It used a quasi-experimental method with randomized control group post-test. The samples were 64 students consists of 32 students of the experiment group and 32 students of the control. A cluster random sampling technique was used for sampling. The research data were obtained by testing. The research shows that the problem-posing skill of students taught by WiPT strategy is higher than students taught by a conventional strategy. The research concludes that the WiPT strategy is more effective in enhancing the students’ mathematical problem-posing skill compared to the conventional strategy.

  16. Improving attitudes toward mathematics learning with problem posing in class VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionita, Alfha; Purboningsih, Dyah

    2017-08-01

    This research is classroom action research which is collaborated to improve student's behavior toward math and mathematics learning at class VIII by using problem posing approach. The subject of research is all of students grade VIIIA which consist of 32 students. This research has been held on two period, first period is about 3 times meeting, and second period is about 4 times meeting. The instrument of this research is implementation of learning observation's guidance by using problem posing approach. Cycle test has been used to measure cognitive competence, and questionnaire to measure the students' behavior in mathematics learning process. The result of research shows the students' behavior has been improving after using problem posing approach. It is showed by the behavior's criteria of students that has increasing result from the average in first period to high in second period. Furthermore, the percentage of test result is also improve from 68,75% in first period to 78,13% in second period. On the other hand, the implementation of learning observation by using problem posing approach has also improving and it is showed by the average percentage of teacher's achievement in first period is 89,2% and student's achievement 85,8%. These results get increase in second period for both teacher and students' achievement which are 94,4% and 91,11%. As a result, students' behavior toward math learning process in class VIII has been improving by using problem posing approach.

  17. Single leg balancing in ballet: effects of shoe conditions and poses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo da Costa, Paula H; Azevedo Nora, Fernanda G S; Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of lower limb positioning and shoe conditions on stability levels of selected single leg ballet poses performed in demi-pointe position. Fourteen female non-professional ballet dancers (mean age of 18.4±2.8 years and mean body mass index of 21.5±2.8kg/m(2)) who had practiced ballet for at least seven years, without any musculoskeletal impairment volunteered to participate in this study. A capacitive pressure platform allowed for the assessment of center of pressure variables related to the execution of three single leg ballet poses in demi pointé position: attitude devant, attitude derriére, and attitude a la second. Peak pressures, contact areas, COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral COP oscillations and velocities were compared between two shoe conditions (barefoot versus slippers) and among the different poses. Barefoot performances produced more stable poses with significantly higher plantar contact areas, smaller COP oscillation areas and smaller anterior-posterior COP oscillations. COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior COP oscillations and medio-lateral COP velocities indicated that attitude a la second is the least challenging and attitude derriére the most challenging pose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm for low-cost modular manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.

  19. Diagnosing Students’ conception on atomic structure using open ended questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriza, Z.; Gazali, F.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to diagnose students’ conception on atomic structure concepts using open ended questions. For this reason, a 7 items of assay test was administered to 135 senior high school students from different schools in West Sumatera. The data were collected using a an open ended test which is covering the concept used in the topic Atomic Structure. The open ended test of students’ conceptual was developed to identify the alternative conceptions that student might have regarding the concepts in Atomic Structure, to measure the level of students’ conceptions, and the way of students’ thinking concerning the concepts. The results showed that students find difficulties about some concepts of Atomic structure such as atom, atomic model, electron configuration, period and group.The result of this study illuminated the concepts to be underlined in developing teaching and learning approach concerning the topic of Atomic Structure.

  20. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…