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Sample records for portuguese colonial war

  1. The subversive war deals with the Portuguese Strategic School and the portuguese experience in the African colonial wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Horta Fernandes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subversive war has returned to have increased importance in different international scenarios in which major Western powers are involved. These complex scenarios, in some cases even insurgency and counter-insurgency phenomena, were joined by a very different phenomenon: terrorism. Therefore, and given the conceptual confusion and baneful practical consequences of a misevaluation of what a subversive war and concomitant strategies mean, it is imperative to revisit through the doctrine of the Portuguese School of Strategy and the Portuguese experience in the field, as they configure, even today, judicious axes to understand the nature of the typology of the conflict in question.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Trauma Specific (AAQ-TS): A study with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Duarte, Joana; Walser, Robyn D

    2015-10-01

    The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Trauma Specific (AAQ-TS) is a self-report measure designed to assess-trauma-related psychological (in)flexibility, as conceptualized in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. However, there are no studies to date regarding its psychometric properties. This study explores such properties in the Portuguese version of the AAQ-TS, in Portuguese Colonial War Veterans. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted in a sample from the general population of war Veterans (N=371). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) as well as reliability and convergent validity studies were performed in a different sample from the same population (N=312). For the discriminant validity a clinical sample with a war-related PTSD (N=42) and a non-clinical sample without PTSD (N=44) were used. The CFA suggested a re-specified 15-item model with good global adjustment and factorial validity. The AAQ-TS showed internal consistency, a good temporal reliability, convergent validity with psychopathological symptoms (related to PTSD, anxiety, depression and stress) and peritraumatic dissociation (altered awareness and depersonalization/derealization). The questionnaire also discriminates between war Veterans with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The major limitation relates to the samples' characteristics and sampling methods, which can limit the generalization of results. The Portuguese version of the AAQ-TS is a reliable and valid measure to assess experiential avoidance related to trauma in Portuguese Colonial War Veterans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

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    João Feijó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of the colonization and decolonization processes among young people from a former European colonial power (Portugal and from an African ex-colony (Mozambique were investigated through surveys using open- and closed-ended questions about national history, focusing on the identity functions of collective memories. Hegemonic and contested representations were found of the most prominent events related to Portuguese colonization of Mozambique, arousing a range of collective emotions. A central place is occupied by memories of the Colonial War, which ended with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal and the subsequent independence of the Portuguese African colonies. Overall, the depiction of colonialism was more negative for Mozambican than for Portuguese participants. The violent effects of colonial action were very salient in Mozambican memories, which stressed the most oppressive aspects of the colonial period, associated with slave trade and brutal repression. On the Portuguese side, the idealization of the voyages of discovery persisted, obscuring the most violent effects of colonial expansion. However, collective memories of colonization of former colonizer and former colonized do not simply stand opposed. Both Mozambican and Portuguese participants reported ambivalent feelings towards the colonization process.

  4. The Portuguese man-of-war: Gone with the wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrer, Luis; Pastor Rollan, Ane

    2017-01-01

    ), causing a great socio-economic impact. Here we investigate the most likely region of origin and routes of these individuals using the Sediment, Oil spill and Fish Tracking model (SOFT). This model was run backwards in time using only the wind drag velocity (i.e., the wind velocity multiplied by a wind...... located near or on the northwest and southwest coasts of France and England, respectively, and in the English Channel, the southern Celtic Sea and the northwestern Bay of Biscay. However, at the end of the simulation period (i.e., at the beginning of August 2009), most of these Portuguese man-of-war were...

  5. Language Policy in Portuguese Colonies and Successor States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    In studying language policy, it is not enough to look at central government management, but also at the influence of managers at levels ranging from the family to international organizations. Actual cases reveal that there are also non-linguistic forces such as demography, war, civil strife, and economic breakdowns which have major effects. This…

  6. MASCULINITY AND COLONIALISM: TOWARDS THE "NEW MAN" (SUBSIDIES FOR GENDER AND POST-COLONIAL STUDIES IN PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE CONTEXT

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    Mário César Lugarinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at introducing a number of problems found in contempo­rary gender studies when it comes to the observation of the constitution of male identities and masculinities within colonial contexts. The emphasis traditionally given to the female identity along with its literary representa­tions has created a “heteroeurologofalocentric” stereotype that homogeniz­es male identities disregarding historical and cultural contingences which make them plural. The attention to the concept of “new man”, a model re­quired both by the Portuguese Estado Novo as by the groups who consti­tuted the independence movements of the Portuguese-Speaking African Countries, shows that in the quest for victory ideals of masculinity, which were often away from the traditions of each alleged side, also competed.

  7. Defending metropolitan identity through colonial politics: The role of Portuguese naturalists (1870-91).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito-Marques, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    This paper explores how João de Andrade Corvo and José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage, two nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalists, were able to reach prominent political positions in their country by means of their work in, respectively, botany and agriculture, and zoology. The authority they derived from their scientific activities and the knowledge they acquired in the process, favored by their proximity to particular political quarters, elevated them to important governmental offices, in the context of which they implemented policies that reinforced Portugal's identity as an imperial nation. The colonial policies and agreements signed by Corvo and Bocage aimed at securing Portuguese colonial territories, which, aside from their economic relevance, constituted a symbol of power that reinforced the sovereignty of a small nation in a Europe dominated by the rule of increasingly vaster and stronger states. In spite of their different scientific careers and personal interests, both naturalists played key roles in Portuguese foreign affairs and colonial negotiations of the late nineteenth century, especially during the Scramble for Africa.

  8. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  9. The Clash of Empires in Africa: The First World War in the British and German Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Exhibited at the second Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 13th 2007 From its very beginnings the First World War was a global war. The most severe fighting outside Europe took place in the tropical German colonies of the Cameroons and German East Africa (present-day Tanzania), as well as in the deserts of German Southwest Africa (present-day Namibia). The main burden of the war was carried on the shoulders of the Africans who either were enlisted as regular soldiers or forced into servi...

  10. Art and politics in the former "Portuguese Colonial Empire". The monument to Mouzinho de Albuquerque in Lourenço Marques

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    Verheij, Gerbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1940, a monument to Mouzinho de Albuquerque is inaugurated in the former capital of the Portuguese Colony of Mozambique, Lourenço Marques. The result of a lenghty commissioning process, this homage to one of the main heroes of the colonial pantheon becomes a center-piece in the many political rituals which had become common-place during the 1930s. The concepts of aura and cult value are used to analyse its "traditionalist" aesthetics and the role it played in political spectacles, arguing that it obeys a strategy of representation of the public space as "Empire".

  11. East and West: Orientalism, war and the colonial present Este e Oeste: Orientalismo, guerra e a contemporaneidade colonial

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    Jackie Assayag

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For at least two hundred years, Western countries have exercized a "benevolent" violence through colonization. Advocated in the name of the "civilizing mission" of the West and inspired by eschatology, this calling held the promise of redemption, both for the colonizer and for the colonized. The "war declared on terrorism" after the massacre of 9/11 in New York, with the subsequent military operations in Afghanistan and in Iraq, revives this tradition of ameliorative interventionism by carrying on the old orientalist-related topoi. Far from effacing the Great Divide between the West and the Rest, the wars of a putatively new type reinforce and polarize the division between "civilized" and "barbaric" in the era of "globalization". The unfolding ideology of the American, according to which there would no longer be "outside" or "inside", because no country would now be exempt from terrorism, obscures at little cost, but not ineffectually, the "colonial present". What now prevails is a sombre vision of globalization, that of a fight to the death between two worlds, extending over all continents, between the "Empire of the Good", incarnated by America, and the "Empire of Evil", incarnated by Islamic terrorism. But this novelty goes back to schemas that are as old as the United States itself, insofar as this self-proclaimed "exceptional", "unilateral" and "providential" "imperial republic" has an idealistic or utopian component qualified as "indispensable". Welcome the the "Wilsonism in boots"!Ao longo de pelo menos duzentos anos, os países ocidentais exercitaram uma violência "benevolente" através do colonialismo. Advogado, à época, em nome de uma "missão civilizadora" do Ocidente e inspirado na escatologia, este chamamento invocava a promessa da redenção, tanto para o colonizador como para o colonizado. A declaração de "guerra ao terrorismo" depois do massacre de 11 de Setembro em Nova Iorque, e as subsequentes operações militares no

  12. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : III Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA) during the early twentieth century. For the

  13. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  14. Disencounters with Africa in the Portuguese language: Postcolonial literature and theory in the Portuguese postempire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schor, P.

    2017-01-01

    The imaginary of the Portuguese empire in Africa has been strongly present in the narratives of Portuguese national identity. With the Carnation Revolution of 1974 and the recognition of the independence of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa in 1975, the Portuguese language became the trope

  15. Worms at war: interspecific parasite competition and host resources alter trematode colony structure and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Kim N; Andersen, Cecillie

    2017-09-01

    Parasites competing over limited host resources are faced with a tradeoff between reproductive success and host overexploitation jeopardizing survival. Surprisingly little is known about the outcome of such competitive scenarios, and we therefore aimed at elucidating interactions between the trematodes Himasthla elongata and Renicola roscovita coinfecting the periwinkle first intermediate host. The results show that the success of Himasthla colonies (rediae) in terms of cercarial emission is unaffected by Renicola competition (sporocysts), whereas deteriating host condition decreases fitness. Furthermore, double infection has no bearing on Himasthla's colony size but elevated the proportion of non-reproductive rediae that play a decisive role in colony defence. Opposite, the development of the Renicola colony (size/maturity), and in turn fitness, is markedly reduced in presence of Himasthla, whereas the nutritional state of the host appears less important. Hence, the intramolluscan competition between Himasthla and Renicola is asymmetrical, Himasthla being the superior competitor. Himasthla not only adjusts its virulence according to the hosts immediate nutritional state, it also nullifies the negative impact of a heterospecific competitor on own fitness. The latter is argued to follow in part from direct predation on the competitor, for which purpose more defensive non-reproductive rediae are strategically produced.

  16. Learning About Our Shameful Past: A Socio-Psychological Analysis of Present-Day Historical Narratives of Italian Colonial Wars

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    Giovanna Leone

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer-assisted content analysis (Bolasco 2000 of seven textbooks currently used for history teaching in Italian high schools was carried out to ex- amine to what extent past atrocities perpetrated during Italy’s African colonial wars are acknowledged and taught. More specifically, we investigated the relative importance these texts devote to teaching established historical facts or to achieve socio-psychological aims, such as advancing reconciliation processes and protecting the in-group’s social identity. Social psychologists working in the field of intergroup reconciliation usually consider these two aims as partially competing. The models reviewed by Nadler et al. (2008a all consider the need to protect personal social identity as a source of biases, which the search for historical truth has to accommodate. In contrast, a recent work by Pratto and Glasford (2008 stresses that social identity can play a positive role as a powerful motivation for reconciliation. They suggest that acknowledging historical faults may assist the difficult process of finding a balance between the need for self-esteem and self-integrity and the need to belong. Our results seem to confirm certain aspects of the first group of models, and other aspects of Pratto and Glasford’s review. The crucial point seems to be the use of abstract or concrete terms to describe in-group wrongdoings. Strikingly, more than seventy years after the Italian colonial wars only three textbooks out of seven fully describe atrocities perpetrated by the in-group using clear, concrete terminology; this is consistent with the idea of a tension between reconciliation and justice. On the other hand, the more concrete descriptions, although less frequent, seem better able to protect the in-group’s self-integrity by showing their young readers a clearer acceptance of moral responsibility for the historical faults of their group.

  17. O Gabinete de Urbanização Colonial e o traçado das cidades luso-africanas na última fase do período colonial português The Colonial Planning Office and the layout of Luso-African cities in the last stage of the Portuguese colonial time

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    Ana Cristina Fernandes Vaz Milheiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 1944, antes mesmo do fim da Segunda Grande Guerra, o regime político de António Oliveira Salazar(1889-1970 cria, por meio do Ministério das Colónias, uma estrutura oficial de projectos de arquitectura e de engenharia, sediada em Lisboa, com o objectivo de traçar novos planos urbanos para as colónias portuguesas, designada Gabinete de Urbanização Colonial (GUC. Com sua fundação pretende-se igualmente concentrar o know-how dos técnicos portugueses no que diz respeito à abordagem à cidade tropical.Genericamente, o Estado Novo (1933-1974 de Oliveira Salazar irá servir-se do GUC como veículo de modernizaçãoe, simultaneamente, de homogeneização da paisagem construida nos diversos territórios coloniais,com especial destaque para áfrica e para os actuais países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa. O programa seguido alicerça-se num forte impulso de urbanização que se reflecte na consolidação das estruturas urbanas herdadas da primeira República (1910-1926 e na padronização dos edifícios públicos que representam a presença colonial portuguesa desde o continente africano até a índia, então chamada “índia Portuguesa”, Timor e Macau. Apesar da importância do mundo rural na caracterização do regime ditatorial português, as intervenções desencadeadas nesses lugares sob administração colonial definem-se, a partir da segunda metade do século, por um forte sentido desenvolvimentista de perfil urbano, como se pretende demonstrar por meio de casos de estudo localizados na Guiné-Bissau, em Angola e em São Tomé e Príncipe.

  18. On ‘war task’ and ‘peace work’. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross between the colonial wars and the Second World War

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    van Bergen, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the wars against Atjeh (1873-1907 finished, Dutch rule over the Dutch East India was total. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross (DEIRC awaited a new task, preparing to give aid in the case of a foreign invasion. The problem was that the end of the wars against the autochthonous “rebellions” also meant the end of Red Cross visibility and in the minds of many, the end to Red Cross urgency. Aid in wars against a real opponent is from a point of public relations much more important than the preparation of aid against an unknown opponent. “Work in times of peace” had to be the answer to this problem, but this work was only in name, and not de facto different from preparation of aid in times of war. Through “peace work” the DEIRC prepared itself for the war-task. To be able to fulfil the war-task the Red Cross had to have enough doctors, nurses, and stretcher-bearers. Visible peace-work had to provide for that. It enlarged the Red Cross’ popularity and trained its volunteers. However, at the beginning of 1942, when the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies, it turned out to be too little, too late.Tras el fin de las guerras contra Aceh (1873-1907, el dominio holandés sobre la India Oriental Holandesa fue total. La Cruz Roja de las Indias Orientales Holandesas (DEIRC quedaba a la espera de una nueva tarea: prepararse para proporcionar ayuda en caso de una invasión extranjera. El problema era que el final de las guerras contra las “rebeliones” autóctonas también significaba el fin de la visibilidad de la Cruz Roja y, a juicio de muchos, el final de la perentoriedad de la Cruz Roja. El socorro en guerras contra un adversario real era desde el punto de vista de las relaciones públicas mucho más importante que los preparativos de socorro contra un enemigo desconocido. El “trabajo en tiempo de paz” debía ser la respuesta a este problema, si bien resultó diferente solo de palabra, no de hecho, en relación a los preparativos

  19. Portuguese version of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)-I: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2015-03-30

    The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) is a brief self-report instrument widely used to assess Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in war Veterans, according to DSM-IV. This study sought out to explore the factor structure and reliability of the Portuguese version of the PCL-M. A sample of 660 Portuguese Colonial War Veterans completed the PCL-M. Several Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to test different structures for PCL-M PTSD symptoms. Although the respecified first-order four-factor model based on King et al.'s model showed the best fit to the data, the respecified first and second-order models based on the DSM-IV symptom clusters also presented an acceptable fit. In addition, the PCL-M showed adequate reliability. The Portuguese version of the PCL-M is thus a valid and reliable measure to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms as described in DSM-IV. Its use with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans may ease screening of possible PTSD cases, promote more suitable treatment planning, and enable monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On ‘war task’ and ‘peace work’. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross between the colonial wars and the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Antonio, Francisco Javier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century, Morocco’s modernizing projects included plans for signing up to the Geneva Convention and creating a local Red Cross/Crescent society. These plans initially stemmed from the convergence of Moroccan administrative/military reforms and Spanish “regenerationist” interventions. They ran parallel to developments in leading Islamic countries such as Egypt, Persia and the Ottoman Empire though they would have to wait till the country’s independence from Franco-Spanish domination in 1956 to become a reality. Beyond their lack of actual results, those early initiatives would serve as legal ground for Morocco’s “humanitarian sovereignty”, tacitly confirmed by the provisions of the Algeciras Act of 1906. In the following two decades, the resilience of this sovereignty would reveal itself in the sustained competition between the Spanish and the French Red Cross for “humanitarian hegemony” in the country, and also in the repeated and nearly successful demands to establish a local Red Cross/Crescent that were made to the International Committee of the Red Cross by the insurgent leader Abdelkrim during the so-called Rif War.Hacia finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, los proyectos de modernización de Marruecos incluyeron planes de adhesión a la Convención de Ginebra y de creación de una sociedad local de la Cruz/Media Luna Roja. Estos planes surgieron de la convergencia entre las reformas administrativas/militares marroquíes y las intervenciones “regeneracionistas” españolas. Transcurrieron en paralelo con los desarrollos en países islámicos líderes como Egipto, Persia y el Imperio Otomano, aunque habrían de esperar para hacerse realidad hasta la independencia del país de la dominación franco-española en 1956. Más allá de la falta de resultados concretos, estas tempranas iniciativas servirían como marco legal a la “soberanía humanitaria” de Marruecos

  1. Christianisation, Frenchification and Malgachisation: Mission Education during War and Rebellion in French Colonial Madagascar in the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnes, Ellen Vea

    2017-01-01

    Education was an instrument in Christian missions' and colonial powers' civilisation projects. At the same time, education was also instrumental in fostering opposition. This article approaches perceptions of education mainly from the perspective of Norwegian Lutheran missionaries in French colonial Madagascar during the 1940s. The focus is on how…

  2. Human envenomations caused by Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis in urban beaches of São Luis City, Maranhão State, Northeast Coast of Brazil

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    Denise Maria Ramalho Ferreira Bastos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The clinical and epidemiological aspects associated with Portuguese man-of-war envenomation were investigated and characterized. METHODS: Data from recorded envenomation events between 2005 and 2013 were provided by the GBMar (Group of Firemen Maritime of Maranhão State and SEMUSC (Municipal Secretary of Security with Citizenship. RESULTS: Most victims were children, and clinical manifestations included intense pain, edema, erythema, and rare systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: The envenomation events were predictable and based on patterns involving multiple factors (environmental and/or human behavior; however, the initially applied measures did not match the current recommendations of the Health Ministry of Brazil.

  3. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  4. Warring arthropod societies: Social spider colonies can delay annihilation by predatory ants via reduced apparency and increased group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Carl N; Wright, Colin M; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2015-10-01

    Sociality provides individuals with benefits via collective foraging and anti-predator defense. One of the costs of living in large groups, however, is increased apparency to natural enemies. Here, we test how the individual-level and collective traits of spider societies can increase the risk of discovery and death by predatory ants. We transplanted colonies of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola into a habitat dense with one of their top predators, the pugnacious ant Anoplolepis custodiens. With three different experiments, we test how colony-wide survivorship in a predator-dense habitat can be altered by colony apparency (i.e., the presence of a capture web), group size, and group composition (i.e., the proportion of bold and shy personality types present). We also test how spiders' social context (i.e., living solitarily vs. among conspecifics) modifies their behaviour toward ants in their capture web. Colonies with capture webs intact were discovered by predatory ants on average 25% faster than colonies with the capture web removed, and all discovered colonies eventually collapsed and succumbed to predation. However, the lag time from discovery by ants to colony collapse was greater for colonies containing more individuals. The composition of individual personality types in the group had no influence on survivorship. Spiders in a social group were more likely to approach ants caught in their web than were isolated spiders. Isolated spiders were more likely to attack a safe prey item (a moth) than they were to attack ants and were more likely to retreat from ants after contact than they were after contact with moths. Together, our data suggest that the physical structures produced by large animal societies can increase their apparency to natural enemies, though larger groups can facilitate a longer lag time between discovery and demise. Lastly, the interaction between spiders and predatory ants seems to depend on the social context in which spiders reside

  5. The Second Factory of Havana before the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies 1760-1779. A Reading from the Spanish Estanco

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    Santiago de LUXÁN MELÉNDEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our main objective is to verify the Spanish problems of Spanish estanco relative to its main supplier, the Island of Cuba. The return to direct management by the Monarchy of the production, sale and export of Cuban tobacco as a leading provider of Metropolitan estanco, once passed the accident of taking of Havana by the English, was accompanied by the expansion of culture in the Island, but not the increase in longterm consumption of the product in the Metropolitan estanco. Two types of tobacco, the Virginian, and especially the Brazilian one, continued to maintain a privileged position in the Spanish market. On the other hand, the more opening of Havana to American market coincides with the creation of estancos in the rest of America. According to the known estimations, at least until the period of the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies, the solution to the problems of excess production did not take place in the Antillean Island

  6. Envenoming caused by a Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia physalis manifesting as purpuric papules Envenenamento por caravela (Physalia physalis manifestando-se com erupção papulopurpurica

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    Yamin José Risk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42-year old woman who was envenomed by a Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia physalis. She presented an anomalous reaction manifested by purpuric papules that appeared after the initial phase of envenoming (around 24 hours later, when linear erythematous and edematous papules were observed. Late-onset reactions in accidents involving cnidarians commonly include chronic eruptions and local pigmentation.Os autores relatam um envenenamento causado por um cnidário, a caravela (Physalia physalis, em uma mulher de 42 anos. A paciente apresentou uma reação incomum manifestada por pápulas purpúricas surgidas após a fase inicial de envenenamento (cerca de 24 horas depois quando foram observadas pápulas lineares edematosas e eritematosas. As reações tardias nos acidentes por cnidários comumente apresentam erupções recorrentes e pigmentações locais.

  7. Understanding the Causes of Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Case study: Sierra Leone and the Role of women in the Search for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Adama

    2013-01-01

    It is widely understood or assumed among scholars like Thomas Weiss, that civil wars in Africa are mainly wars for natural resources. This statement needs careful evaluation, and it is for this reason that this study will use Weiss`s theories on the causes of wars in sub-Sahara Africa as a background for understanding the Sierra Leone conflict. In addition, as the title implies, this paper further aims to investigate the war in Sierra Leone and most...

  8. THE THIRD MARGIN OF HISTORY. NOTES ON THE TWO FACES OF WAR BY DIANA ANDRINGA AND FLORA GOMES

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    Livia Apa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay intends to approach, taking the documentary authored by the Portuguese journalist Diana Andringa and the Guinea producer Flora Gomes as a starting point, the theme of the memories in conflict, and to reflect upon the manners in which the image archives may function in the process of construction of a collective and shared memory. In this sense, the Portuguese documentary in question seems to present a route that passes by the issue of the “war of memories” proposing a common reading of the histories which occurred on the Guinean front during the colonial war; proposing a reading of the facts which stress how, in accordance to what Amílcar Cabral affirmed, the fate of the two sides, in this particular case, Portugal and Guinea- Bissau, were indissolubly connected.

  9. Lusitanization and Bakhtinian Perspectives on the Role of Portuguese in Angola and East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree Bullock; Severo, Cristine

    2015-01-01

    A vast amount of literature addresses issues surrounding English and French in colonial and post-colonial communities. However, relative to the spread of English and French language ideology, a limited amount of literature exists on Lusitanization (i.e. the spread of Portuguese colonial ideology by Portugal during colonialism and the role of…

  10. Chemistry and metallurgy in the Portuguese Empire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F. [Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    The foundation and expansion of the Portuguese Empire is sketched, with emphasis on the development of a new type of ship by Prince Henrique the Navigator (AD 1385-1460), known as the caravel. By virtue of its advanced design, it was capable of sailing the stormy seas at high speeds, and thereby was instrumental in extending Portuguese influence over vast territories in South America, Asia and Africa, extending Portuguese know-how in mining, metallurgy, chemistry and trade along with Christianity. The role played by the University of Coimbra, founded in 1306, and the contribution of the Brazilian Geological Survey, established in 1875, and of the School of Mines in Ouro Preto in Brazil in 1876, in the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the Portuguese colonies is chronicled.

  11. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  12. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  13. “The War Took Its Origins in a Mistake”: The Third War of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The early colonial wars on the Cape Colony's eastern borderlands and western Xhosaland, such as the 1799–1803 war, have not received as much attention from military historians as the later wars. This is unexpected since this lengthy conflict was the first time the British army fought indigenous people in southern Africa.

  14. Reconstructing multiple identities: portuguese and afro-portuguese immigrantes in São Paolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demartini, Zeila de Brito Fabri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s and 1980s, migratory flows of Portuguese and luso-Africans from old Portuguese African colonies towards to São Paulo were the result of the pressures of difficult and complex African and Portuguese politics. Three very different cultural experiences were in play: that of the portuguese colony, the african context, and the Brazilian character of the destination, Sao Paulo. This paper explores the migrant's complex displacement experiences, the insertion of the migrant into the new context and the conflicts of identity that this migratory process entailed. We concentrate on the recent past, which has not been extensively researched. We use a method we call "summarized life-histories", which seemed appropriate, as we didn’t know what the immigrants would tell us. We present a number of specific cases to exemplify our analysis. Through them, we can see that memories refer to events, people and places from the three continents, through the conscious and unconscious construction of multiple identities.

  15. The sea, the ship, the batle: survival of forms in 'Antologia da memória poética da Guerra Colonial'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Carvalho Vasconcellos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The book Antologia da memória poética da guerra colonial was published in 2011 by Roberto Vecchi and Margarida Calafate Ribeiro. As a poetry anthology, its purpose was to collect and give meaning to the poetical ma­terial that was created and inspired by the wars that have taken place in 1962-74 between Portugal and it´s old colonies. Among the many themes and problems proposed by the poems compiled in the volume, the review and the reclaim of the ancient Portuguese literary tradition is the one that interest us. In Antologia da memória poética da guerra colonial, the old lite­rary forms – the Galician-Portuguese love lyric, the navigation chronicles, The Lusiads’, the historical figures and heroic myths – are revisited in a creative and imaginative way. Our hypothesis is that the presence of archaic and traditional elements in the Antologia indicates a form of survival (Na­chleben of past forms and tensions (cf. Aby Warburg, they are the traces of a literary tradition that renews itself from the same points (the sea, the conquer, the lost and the destruction.

  16. The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosaleen

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

  17. STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking Africa: a review of the recent literature in the social sciences and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    The article reviews academic literature in the social sciences and health on the problems and challenges of STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries. Based on a bibliographic survey of the SciELO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts databases between 1997 and 2007, the research under review was organized into two groups, according to content. The first group of studies sought to understand STD/AIDS vulnerability among social groups by examining local cultural and socioeconomic factors as related to gender dynamics, sexuality, color/race, religion and health care. The second group encompassed critical assessments of shortcomings in the STD/AIDS educational messages delivered by governments and international agencies. Attention is called to the way in which the presence of traditional medicine systems and the occurrence of civil wars in the post-colonial period impact the STD/AIDS epidemic in the African countries under study.

  18. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  19. Retraction in Cariocan Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Isaias

    This study looks at the retraction phenomenon of the alveolar fricatives [s] and [z] in Cariocan Portuguese, the dialect used in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and its correlation with selected social characteristics of the study's informants. No prior study exists that focuses only on this phonological feature in this dialect. Before describing…

  20. A portuguese perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Commentary on the Nuffield Report from a Portuguese Perspective (Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2007). The forensic use of bioinformation: ethical issues. Cambridge (18 September) (retrieved from http://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/fileLibrary/pdf/ The_forensic_use_of_bioinformation_-_ethical_issues.pdf). This is a document which is of considerable interest to professionals working in the criminal justice system, to key stakeholders, and to scholars and students focused on the forensic ap...

  1. 178 MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN WESTERN SAHARA Macharia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Civil War, the colony had also been a possible bargaining chip with Adolph Hitler when ... Morocco gave rise to an Army of Liberation that inspired the Sahrawi to fight ..... or defense, matters, and promised the Sahrawi the right to vote for their ...

  2. Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Wars and conflicts in African history during the Cold War were generally seen by .... Gonja was destroyed by the German and British colonial enterprise .... illustrated the position of the sub-chiefs as he expressed the optimism ...

  3. Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

  4. 'Goodwill Ambassador': the Legacy of Dutch Colonial Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Jansen Hendriks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks back at the films commissioned and produced by the Dutch governments about their colony in teh East-Indies between 1912 and 1962. The main focus is on the newsreels and documentaries about the colonial war between the Netherlands and Indonesia  from 1945 to 1949. The article reviews these films and the re-use of their footage in later television programs. The programs often look back at the colonial war in ways that go beyond the purpose of the original films and the article aims to show the methods that are used to do this.

  5. The Portuguese Climate Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sandra; Deus, Ricardo; Nogueira, Miguel; Viterbo, Pedro; Miranda, Miguel; Antunes, Sílvia; Silva, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The Portuguese Local Warming Website (http://portaldoclima.pt) has been developed in order to support the society in Portugal in preparing for the adaptation to the ongoing and future effects of climate change. The climate portal provides systematic and easy access to authoritative scientific data ready to be used by a vast and diverse user community from different public and private sectors, key players and decision makers, but also to high school students, contributing to the increase in knowledge and awareness on climate change topics. A comprehensive set of regional climate variables and indicators are computed, explained and graphically presented. Variables and indicators were built in agreement with identified needs after consultation of the relevant social partners from different sectors, including agriculture, water resources, health, environment and energy and also in direct cooperation with the Portuguese National Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation (ENAAC) group. The visual interface allows the user to dynamically interact, explore, quickly analyze and compare, but also to download and import the data and graphics. The climate variables and indicators are computed from state-of-the-art regional climate model (RCM) simulations (e.g., CORDEX project), at high space-temporal detail, allowing to push the limits of the projections down to local administrative regions (NUTS3) and monthly or seasonal periods, promoting local adaptation strategies. The portal provides both historical data (observed and modelled for the 1971-2000 period) and future climate projections for different scenarios (modelled for the 2011-2100 period). A large effort was undertaken in order to quantify the impacts of the risk of extreme events, such as heavy rain and flooding, droughts, heat and cold waves, and fires. Furthermore the different climate scenarios and the ensemble of RCM models, with high temporal (daily) and spatial (~11km) detail, is taken advantage in order to

  6. Skin lesions in envenoming by cnidarians (Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish: etiology and severity of accidents on the Brazilian coast Lesões dermatológicas observadas nos acidentes por cnidários (águas-vivas e caravelas: etiologia e gravidade dos envenenamentos no litoral do Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to establish dermatological identification patterns for Brazilian cnidarian species and a probable correlation with envenoming severity. In an observational prospective study, one hundred and twenty-eight patients from the North Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil were seen between 2002 and 2008. About 80% of these showed only local effects (erythema, edema, and pain with small, less than 20 cm, oval or round skin marks and impressions from small tentacles. Approximately 20% of the victims had long, more than 20 cm, linear and crossed marks with frequent systemic phenomena, such as malaise, vomiting, dyspnea, and tachycardia. The former is compatible with the common hydromedusa from Southeast and Southern Brazil (Olindias sambaquiensis. The long linear marks with intense pain and systemic phenomena are compatible with envenoming by the box jellyfish Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and the hydrozoan Portuguese man-of-war (Physalis physalis. There was an association between skin marks and probable accident etiology. This simple observation rule can be indicative of severity, as the Cubozoa Class (box jellyfish and Portuguese man-of-war cause the most severe accidents. In such cases, medical attention, including intensive care, is important, as the systemic manifestations can be associated with death.Cnidários são animais que apresentam no corpo (especialmente nos tentáculos organelas de defesa chamadas nematocistos, podendo causar graves envenenamentos. Este trabalho procura estabelecer padrões clínicos auxiliares na identificação das espécies de cnidários brasileiros e pesquisar provável correlação das lesões na pele com a gravidade do acidente. Cento e vinte e oito pacientes foram observados no Pronto-Socorro de Ubatuba (Litoral Norte do estado de São Paulo em período de seis anos (2002-2008. Cerca de 80% dos acidentes mostraram apenas manifestações locais (dor, eritema e edema. Nestes casos

  7. El nudo gordiano del régimen : Marcelo Caetano y la cuestión colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Sánchez Cervelló

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Salazar y Caetano tuvieron plenos poderes para imponer su política colonial, pero no era posible parar el proceso descolonizador que sacudía el mundo y contra el cual no tenían ninguna política que no fuese la guerra y a ella se dedicaron con todas sus fuerzas pero fracasaron. La diferencia entre ambos presidentes del gobierno era que Caetano no solo supo que no podía ganar la guerra sino que tenía la certeza de que la perdería pero, al final, se mantuvo inflexible en la línea de conducta que consideraba era irrenunciable y que estaba en la base misma de la ideología del Estado Novo. Prefirió ser depuesto que acabar con la herencia secular de la Nación y después de haber dicho lo contrario, al final él también creyó que un Portugal sin las colonias se desnaturalizaría y, más pronto que tarde, comportaría la pérdida de la independencia y, aunque no lo dijese, estaba implícito, en ese pensamiento estratégico, el abrazo del oso español.Salazar and Caetano had full powers to impose their colonial policy, but it wasn’t possible to stop the decolonization process which was shaking the world .They had no policy but the war to which they devoted themselves although they failled. The difference between both presidents was that Caetano was sure that he was going to lose the war, nevertheless, he fought until the end because he thought that the colonization was the foundation of the Estado Novo’s ideology. He preferred to be demoted instead of finishing with the secular inheritance of the Nation because he was convinced that Portgual without colonies would become denaturalized and then it would lose its independence and, although he didn’t say it, the Spanish hug was implicit in that strategic thought In my opinion there was another problem: the Empire only could stay by means the dictatorship and, although the colonialism was widespread among Portuguese society, 13 years of war couldn’t have been suffered by a democratic

  8. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  9. Population genetic structure of Helicobacter pylori strains from Portuguese-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleastro, Mónica; Rocha, Raquel; Vale, Filipa F

    2017-08-01

    The human gastric colonizer Helicobacter pylori is useful to track human migrations given the agreement between the bacterium phylogeographic distribution and human migrations. As Portugal was an African and Brazilian colonizer for over 400 years, we hypothesized that Portuguese isolates were likely genetically closer with those from countries colonized by Portuguese in the past. We aimed to characterize the population structure of several Portuguese-speaking countries, including Portugal, Brazil, Angola, and Cape Verde. We included strains isolated in Portugal from Portuguese and from former Portuguese colonies. These strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for seven housekeeping genes. We also retrieved from Multi Locus Sequence Typing Web site additional housekeeping gene sequences, namely from Angola and Brazil. We provided evidence that strains from Portuguese belong to hpEurope and that the introgression of hpEurope in non-European countries that speak Portuguese is low, except for Brazil and Cape Verde, where hpEurope accounted for one quarter and one half of the population, respectively. We found genetic similarity for all strains from Portuguese-speaking countries that belong to hpEurope population. Moreover, these strains showed a predominance of ancestral Europe 2 (AE2) over ancestral Europe 1 (AE1), followed by ancestral Africa 1. H. pylori is a useful marker even for relative recent human migration events and may become rapidly differentiated from founder populations. H. pylori from Portuguese-speaking countries assigned to hpEurope appears to be a hybrid population resulting from the admixture of AE1, AE2 and ancestral hpAfrica1. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. I think in portuguese I think in portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Oksefjell Ebeling

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes Aijmer (1997, 1998 and Simon-Vandenbergen’s (1998 contrastive work on I think as its starting point. In their studies, both Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen show that English think is a fuzzy verb and that this becomes particularly evident in a cross-linguistic perspective. Neither Swedish, Dutch or French seems to have one verb corresponding to the whole semantic range of think. In this article, the polysemous nature of think will be further explored in an English-Portuguese contrastive perspective. The data for the study will be taken from the English- Portuguese parallel corpus COMPARA. Portuguese equivalents of (I think will be analysed and the results compared to the findings of Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen. This paper takes Aijmer (1997, 1998 and Simon-Vandenbergen’s (1998 contrastive work on I think as its starting point. In their studies, both Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen show that English think is a fuzzy verb and that this becomes particularly evident in a cross-linguistic perspective. Neither Swedish, Dutch or French seems to have one verb corresponding to the whole semantic range of think. In this article, the polysemous nature of think will be further explored in an English-Portuguese contrastive perspective. The data for the study will be taken from the English- Portuguese parallel corpus COMPARA. Portuguese equivalents of (I think will be analysed and the results compared to the findings of Aijmer and Simon-Vandenbergen.

  11. FRANCHISOR TYPES IN PORTUGUESE FRANCHISING

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Navarro García; Enrique Carlos Díez de Castro; Francisco Javier Rondán Cataluña

    2006-01-01

    The identification of the existence of strategic groups within Portuguese franchising constitutes the main aim of the present paper. An empirical study starting from 128 franchising chains operating in Portugal was carried out. The results reveal the existence of five perfectly differentiated strategic groups {franchisor types), which are described starting from the strategic variables that define them. Our main contribution is that the results obtained in the Portuguese franchising sy...

  12. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  13. História e etnicidade: apontamentos sobre a produção de narrativas identitárias em uma colônia de refugiados da segunda guerra mundial no Paraná / History and ethnicity: notes about the production of identity narratives in a colony of second world war refugees in Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nestor Stein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Localizada no município de Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, a Colônia Entre Rios surgiu a partir da vinda e fixação, em 1951, de refugiados da Segunda Guerra Mundial, que se identificam como Suábios do Danúbio (Donauschwaben. No Paraná, verifica-se a produção e reprodução de narrativas que visam preservar essa identificação. Este texto aborda algumas narrativas que produzem a identificação suábia-danubiana nesta Colônia.Abstract Entre Rios Colony, located in the city of Guarapuava, Parana State, Brazil, arose in 1951 from the arrival and establishment of refugees from Second World War, known as Danube Swabians (Donauschwaben. In the Parana State, there is a production and 186 reproduction of narratives that aim to preserve that identity. This text shows some of this narratives that produce idenfication Danube-Swabian this colony.

  14. Para um melhor conhecimento dos domínios coloniais: a constituição de redes de informação no Império português em finais do Setecentos For a better understanding of colonial domains: the creation of an information net during the Portuguese Empire at the end of the eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Domingues

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da atuação de cientistas, funcionários portugueses e mesmo nativos, inclusive indígenas, na sustentação de uma rede de informações sobre as potencialidades econômicas dos territórios administrados pela coroa portuguesa, tendo como principal foco o Brasil. Visando o desenvolvimento econômico do reino, amostras representativas da fauna e flora locais eram enviadas às instituições da corte, como o Jardim Botânico da Ajuda, o Arsenal Real do Exército e o Hospital Real Militar de Lisboa, onde eram analisadas para posterior utilização na agricultura, comércio e farmácia.This article focus on the participation of scientists, Portuguese agents and even natives - including Indians - in the developing of an information net that focused on the economic potential of territories subject to the Portuguese Crown, mainly of Brazil. Aiming at the Crown's economic development, Brazilian fauna and flora samples were sent to some institutions in Portugal, such as Jardim Botânico da Ajuda, Arsenal Real do Exército and Hospital Real Militar in Lisbon, where they were analyzed for future application to agriculture, trade and medicine making.

  15. THE PORTUGUESE SCHOOL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los discursos del personal docente sobre las jóvenes lesbianas en las escuelas portuguesas. Para ello, llevamos a cabo entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 24 docentes portugueses de las escuelas intermedias y secundarias. Desde el análisis de las entrevistas, se identificaron cuatro temas principales: la polarización de género, la invisibilidad de las lesbianas, la homofobia y ciertas medidas para luchar contra la homofobia. Con base en los discursos hemos llegado a la conclusión de que quienes educan cuentan con pocos conocimientos acerca de la sexualidad de las mujeres lesbianas. A pesar de los avances legislativos en relación con los derechos de las personas Lesbianas, Gays, Bisexuales y Transgénero en Portugal, el cuerpo docente no está preparado para hacer frente a esta cuestión, tanto dentro como fuera de la escuela. Aunado a lo anterior, esta investigación incluye una serie de recomendaciones para luchar contra la homofobia en el contexto de las escuela portuguesas. Este estudio contribuirá a una mejor comprensión de los discursos y prácticas hacia las jóvenes lesbianas en el contexto de la escuela, así como a la promoción de actitudes no discriminatorias en los centros educativos de Portugal.

  16. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  17. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  18. On colonial grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, Peter Alexander René van

    1998-01-01

    As a study of the colonial situations of first millennium BC Sardinia, this book is as much an investigation into colonialism as a sociological category, as it explores the specific historical conditions of a particular region. Taking a fresh look at colonialism in Mediterranean archaeology from a

  19. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  20. Fred P. Ellison and Portuguese Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2016-01-01

    The written record of Ellison's involvement in Portuguese program development begins in 1964 when he became chairman of the Portuguese Language Development Group that met at several Modern Language Association meetings before being accepted by the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese (AATSP) in 1967. The record ends in the…

  1. Colonial Connections: A Review of Redrawing French Empire in Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Tannahill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of France's colonial past and wars in Algeria and Indochina are still very relevant in modern, multicultural France. 'Redrawing French Empire In Comics '(2013 examines how this colonial history is depicted in the francophone comic or 'bande dessinée', by authors with links to both the colonised population and the French colonisers and military forces, and how their depictions of events reinforces or diminishes barriers between those on both sides.

  2. The Interrelated Effects of Culture and Relationship Quality on the Relations Between Portuguese Exporters and Angolan Distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Alves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the role of the relationship quality and culture between Portuguese companies and their export market intermediaries in Angola. In particular, we aim to understand the importance that the quality of the relationship has and the role of cultures in export activities. In terms of methodology we opted for a qualitative analysis; we present the results of two case studies of Portuguese exporting companies and one case study on an Angolan intermediate. In general, the results show that the business relationships are influenced by trust, commitment, culture and similar values. As known, Angola was once a Portuguese colony, so communication is easy because these countries share some common cultural traits. Such factors will influence the trade relations between Portuguese exporters and their Angolan distributors.

  3. Dividing and Ruling the World? A Statistical Test of the Effects of Colonialism on Postcolonial Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthew; Dawson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    To test claims that postcolonial civil violence is a common legacy of colonialism, we create a dataset on the colonial heritage of 160 countries and explore whether a history of colonialism is related to indicators of inter-communal conflict, political rebellion and civil war in the years 1960-1999. The analysis provides evidence against sweeping…

  4. Clinical Practice in Portuguese Sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Violeta; Ribeiro, Sofia; Almeida, Joana; Giami, Alain

    2017-11-17

    Few studies explore the clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexuality, despite their role in the sexual-health socialization process. This study focuses on Portuguese sexologists engaged in clinical practice. It aims to characterize sexologists' sex education and training and their clinical practices, including diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This research followed the methodology of an European survey on sexology as a profession (Euro-Sexo). From the 91 respondents who completed questionnaires, 51 (56%) were active in clinical practice. Results indicate that the Portuguese clinical sexologist is significantly older, predominantly male, has had training in sexology, performs more scientific research, and is more engaged in teaching activities when compared to nonclinical working sexologists. This article describes the main sexual problems presented by patients to Portuguese clinical sexologists and highlights differences in the professional groups and approaches toward treating these problems by medical doctors and nonmedical professionals. Results reinforce the idea that there are intra-European differences in the educational background of sexologists and reveal important variations in Portuguese sexologists' education, training, and clinical practice. The representations and practices of the sexologists in Portugal, as in other European countries, are embedded in cultural scenarios and sexual cultures, with implications for the clinical practice.

  5. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  6. Using Literature in a Course on the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jonathan

    1989-01-01

    Courses in Vietnam War history should incorporate Vietnamese, French, and English literary response to the war as complements to the history texts. Possibilities include an account of the French colonial experience, a required text in translation from the viewpoint of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and Vietnamese expatriate texts. (MSE)

  7. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  8. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  9. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  10. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and those of the Western Province regarding the prospect of war with the Xhosa. ... out, would be so limited in nature that a well organised police force would be able to ...... and way of life that followed in the wake of colonial rule, intolerable.

  11. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  12. Nouns in apposition : Portuguese data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Rio-Torto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of N1N2 constructions, or nouns in apposition, is controversial: depending on the theoretical framework, they can be considered as compounds or as syntactic constructions. Indeed, nouns in apposition function as a hybrid category, in a double way: (i the same lexical structure in apposition is viewed either as a coordinative construction, as a subordinative or as an attributive construction. (ii N2 functions as a modifier or as an attributive item of N1; in Portuguese, when plural is syntactically mandatory, N1 (the head is systematically pluralized; N2 either rejects inflection or behaves as a predicator, allowing inflectional marks. We claim that Romance NN behave as a specific type of compounds. This assumption is grounded on their behaviour by contrast with phrasal properties. Portuguese compounds are characterized by a narrow relationship between internal structure, headness and inflectional patterns. In Portuguese, by default, the head of compound is inflected. NN related by an attributive semantic link are nowadays particularly unstable and problematic regarding inflection. Inflectional variation — widely attested — helps in determining the status of NN in apposition: as two inflectional patterns are available, we must verify if they correspond to two different constructions or to one structure with two readings. The analysis addressed is supported by empirical data of contemporary Portuguese language extracted from Brazilian and European databases, and requires the theoretical articulation of a double predicative class of N2 (holistic and partitive with inflectional fluctuation of attributive N2 in the second situation: performing a continuum, double inflection is close to holistic predication and single inflection (of N1 is close to partitive predication; systematic double inflection is close to coordination and inflectional oscillation is close to attribution. The predicative power of nouns in apposition supports their

  13. The Portuguese Republic at One Hundred

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, Richard; Pinto, António Costa

    2012-01-01

    In October 1910 a revolution drove out the king of Portugal and established the Portuguese Republic. In 1926 a military coup overthrew the parliamentary system and led to the authoritarian regime of Salazar, but in April 1974 a revolution led by the military restored the parliamentary republic. In this book edited by Richard Herr (Berkeley) and António Costa Pinto (Lisbon), eighteen Portuguese and American authors present essays in celebration of the centennial of the Portuguese Republic. Wit...

  14. Portuguese migrants in Switzerland: healthcare and health status compared to Portuguese residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Barros, Henrique; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Most migrant studies have compared health characteristics between migrants and nationals of the host country. We aimed at comparing health characteristics of migrants with nationals from their home country. Portuguese national health survey (2005-6; 30,173 participants aged 18-75 years) and four national health surveys conducted in Switzerland (2002, 2004, 2007 and 2011, totalling 1,170 Portuguese migrants of the same age range). Self-reported data on length of stay, cardiovascular risk factors, healthcare use and health status were collected. Resident Portuguese were significantly older and more educated than migrants. Resident Portuguese had a higher mean BMI and prevalence of obesity than migrants. Resident Portuguese also reported more frequently being hypertensive and having their blood pressure screened within the last year. On the contrary, migrant Portuguese were more frequently smokers, had a medical visit in the previous year more frequently and self-rated their health higher than resident Portuguese. After adjustment for age, gender, marital status and education, migrants had a higher likelihood of smoking, of having a medical visit the previous year, and of self-rating their current health as good or very good than resident Portuguese. Compared to Portuguese residents, cholesterol screening in the previous year was more common only among migrants living in Switzerland for more than 17 years. Portuguese migrants in Switzerland do not differ substantially from resident Portuguese regarding most cardiovascular risk factors. Migrants consider themselves healthier than Portuguese residents and more often had a recent medical visit.

  15. Portuguese as a Minority Language: Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Studying Portuguese Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sonia Maria Nunes

    2011-01-01

    The differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) raise some interesting issues that are well worth considering through undergraduate university students' perceptions and attitudes. Instructors of undergraduate courses in Portuguese literature suggest that in terms of curriculum design, curriculum delivery, and…

  16. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  17. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  18. Domingos Vandelli and the deficit in royal Portuguese treasury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dalla Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to discuss the economic situation and policy recommendations of Vandelli to solve the difficulties in economic situation in Portugal at the end of seven hundred. Starting with a prior proposal for Vandelli on institutionalization of knowledge in Sciencia of Finance to further expose the difficulties in maintaining the Kingdom in not justifiable times as costly ordered and even military expenditures, investments in manufacturing, arts and science without there being at that time a real war economy. As a result, it failed to materialize the idea of a Portuguese Economic Society since it was transmuted into a Science Academy. With regard to the deficit in the Royal Treasury, there was an increase of Portuguese State spending concurrently with the drop in revenue from overseas, and finally opportunism behind the financial difficulties of the metropolis led Vandelli to do harsh criticism to financial managers and usurers who took advantage of an emblematic situation and suggest economic policies to balance public finances

  19. Academic Inbreeding in the Portuguese Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Carvalho, Teresa; Sousa, Sofia Branco; Santiago, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the inbreeding phenomena in Portuguese public universities. Inbreeding is defined as the recruitment of academics by the same institution that awarded their PhDs. Focusing on 1,217 PhD-holding Portuguese academics, belonging to four public universities and to six disciplinary areas, inbreeding is analysed in order to understand…

  20. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl W.

    This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

  1. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  2. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  3. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  4. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  5. Between Europeanisation and Domestic Influences: Portugal's Post-colonial Relations with Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Raimundo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on the Europeanization literature to explore the impact of EU membership on Portuguese foreign policy towards Angola. The analysis is centred on trade issues, focusing on Portugal’s accession negotiations and the reform of the Lomé Convention. Portugal is a small and open economy, with a colonial past in Angola. Trade is one of the most integrated policy areas of the EU, which has long and highly institutionalised relations with Africa. Preliminary results point to great evidence of Europeanization understood as national adaptation to the EU. However, the projection of Portuguese priorities onto the European level also received some support. History, cultural links and the presence of strong national interest groups appear to have limited the EU’s impact on Portuguese preferences. Such findings give support to studies stressing the need to adequately account for domestic conditions, even in highly integrated EU policy areas and for smaller member states.

  6. Perpetual War?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  7. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  8. Great war, ethics of Vidovdan, memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a characterization of contemporaneity (dominance of the financial sector and high technology, politicization of economy, ideological use of culture and control of the capacity for thought and a brief analysis of expansionism (political, economic, cultural on the eve of the Great War, the author embarks on a more detailed description of the spiritual situation in the wake of the Great War: in philosophy, literature, art, as well as the national-political programmatic texts and war propaganda publications of German intellectuals of the time. The continuity of the Austro-Hungarian colonial policy towards the Balkans and Serbia culminates in instigating a preventive war against Serbia by the elites in Berlin and Vienna, which is of importance with regard to the question of responsibility for the war, guided by concrete aims of war in which causes for war are reflected. These war elites wanted to declare the assassination in Sarajevo as the cause of war, which in fact was a political assassination and tyrannicide. The freedom movement of democratic youth, Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia, needs to be viewed in the European context as inspired by the Serbian tradition of the cult of Kosovo and the ethics of Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day which speaks both about the victim's sacrifice as sublimation of history and about just suffering as elements of identity. Historical memory suggests that historical responsibility is transgenerational. The epic proportions of Serbian suffering in the Great War have additionally encouraged the positing of the theme of St Vitus' Day Temple (Vidovdanski Hram as envisaged by Ivan Meštrović. The foundations of this idea were shaken by Miloš Crnjanski who, in his 'Lyrics of Ithaca', succeeds in returning to Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day the inexhaustible national power of validity. Because of enormous Serbian military and civilian casualties in recent history, the need to establish a Victim's Sacrifice Memorial, in our day

  9. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  10. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  11. O ensino jesuítico no período colonial brasileiro: algumas discussões Discussions on jesuit teaching in Brazil during the colonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Shigunov Neto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende realizar uma análise do ensino jesuítico implementado no período colonial brasileiro e demonstrar que a estrutura escolar fundada pelos padres jesuítas no Brasil era adequada para o momento histórico vivenciado, levando-se em consideração quatro aspectos: os objetivos do Projeto Português para o Brasil; o projeto educacional Jesuítico; a própria estrutura social brasileira da época; e o modelo de homem necessário para a época Colonial. Os jesuítas, com seu Projeto Educacional, e os portugueses que vieram para a colônia brasileira em busca de riquezas, tiveram papel fundamental na formação da estrutura social, administrativa e produtiva da sociedade que estava sendo formada. Partindo do pressuposto de que o fenômeno educacional não é um fenômeno independente e autônomo da realidade social de determinado momento histórico, devemos analisar o projeto jesuítico levando-se em conta o desenvolvimento social e produtivo da época colonial. Assim, pode-se supor que o modelo educacional proposto pelos jesuítas, que pretendia formar um modelo de homem, baseado nos princípios escolásticos, era coerente com as necessidades e aspirações de uma sociedade em formação na primeira fase do período colonial brasileiro.Jesuit teaching in Brazil during the colonial period is analyzed. It may even be proved that the schooling structure established by the Jesuit fathers was extremely adequate for that specific historical period. Four aspects may be taken into account: the aims of the Portuguese Project for Brazil; the Jesuit Educational Project; the Brazilian social structure at that time; and the human model needed for the colonial period. The Jesuits' Educational Project and the Portuguese colonizers that came to the colony in search of wealth have an important role in the formation of the social, administrative and productive structure of a society in constant evolution. Since the educational phenomenon

  12. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  13. BETWEEN MEN OF KNOWLEDGE, LETTERS AND SCIENCE: doctors and other curators in colonial Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Carvalho Viotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the centuries before the establishment of Portuguese court and, with them, the teaching and practice of essentially medicalactions in Brazil, there were many people and intercrossed understandingsurrounding the healing practices. In this article, the formation of therapeutic cognizance in the colonial scenario will be examined, a kind of knowledge which only could be formed by the interchange of ideas from the “Old World” and the needs – and possibilities – in the tropics.

  14. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  15. Lexicalization patterns in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Gonçalves Santos Filho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neolatin languages belong to a lexicalization pattern in which the verbal root expresses semantic primitives of MOVE and PATH, leaving MANNER or CAUSE to be expressed by an adverb or the gerund form. In German origin languages, on the contrary, verbs lexicalize the semantic primitives of MOVE, MANNER or CAUSE; as for the PATH, it is expressed by a grammatical element that is associated to the verb. Taking into consideration some of the concepts of event of move, guided by Cognitive Semantics, and an analysis of examples extracted from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings’ books, the present study aims at showing, at least, three lexicalization patterns in which Brazilian Portuguese fits in.

  16. Pulmonary function in portuguese firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, A G; Duarte, R; Mieiro, L; Paiva, C; Rodrigues, A M; Almeida, M H; Bárbara, C

    2007-01-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos, Portugal tem sido afectado por muitos incêndios florestais. O fumo produzido pela combustão de material orgânico é responsável por efeitos a curto e longo prazo na função respiratória de indivíduos expostos. Objectivo: Caracterizar a função respiratória de bombeiros voluntários portugueses no activo expostos a fumo de incêndio florestal. Métodos: Estudo descritivo transversal. Aplicou-se um questionário individual sobre hábitos pessoais e ocupacionais e mediram-s...

  17. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    at the same time they always are bound to fail to become ‘Swedish’ because of the same foreign origins. Although Swedish culture – partly by distancing itself from having a colonial past – has successfully built up an image of openness, we argue that without acknowledging and confronting the role...

  18. Health Information in Portuguese (português)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brigham Young University Drug Abuse Substance Abuse or Dependence - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations E Expand Section Exercise and Physical Fitness Starting an Exercise Program - português ( ...

  19. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.

    1979-04-12

    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  20. Language, Colonial Attitude and War in Emecheta's Destination Biafra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at examining the relevance of Sociolinguistic Functional Stylistics (SFS) in supplying a methodical structure upon which Emecheta's Destination Biafra can be appreciated. Much of the critical attention on Emecheta has been centred on issues of gender and sexuality to the extent that ideological implications ...

  1. Mau Mau War: British Counterinsurgency In Colonial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    supporters. 92 Colin P. Clarke, Molly Dunigan, Beth Grill, and Christopher Paul, Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies (Washington, DC: RAND...labor pool for imperial dirty work, the decision to deputize untrained and ill-disciplined volunteers backfired. A third example of how British

  2. EQ-5D Portuguese population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based measure. Normative data can be used as references to analyze the effects of healthcare, determine the burden of disease and enable regional or country comparisons. Population norms for the EQ-5D exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to derive EQ-5D Portuguese population norms. The EQ-5D was applied by phone interview to a random sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 1,500) stratified by age, gender and region. The Portuguese value set was used to derive the EQ-5D index. Mean values were computed by gender and age groups, marital status, educational attainment, region and other variables to obtain the EQ-5D Portuguese norms. Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men. These results are similar to other EQ-5D population health studies. This study provides Portuguese population health-related quality of life data measured by the EQ-5D that can be used as population norms. These norms can be used to inform Portuguese policy makers, health care professionals and researchers in issues related to health care policy and planning and quantification of treatment effects on health status.

  3. French Colonialism and the Battle against the WHO Regional Office for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Pearson-Patel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite support for the creation of a WHO Regional Office from the two independent states in sub-Saharan Africa, Liberia and South Africa, the creation of the Africa Regional Office was the most contested of all the organisation's regional branches. The reason for this was the concerted opposition from colonial regimes in the wake of the Second World War. This article explores the ways that colonial politics shaped the possibilities for international cooperation in Africa in this period. It argues that the broader context of anti-colonialism at the United Nations and the dire state of public health services after the war forced colonial doctors to adopt an ambivalent position to the WHO, an organization that they felt they could not fully reject, but that they feared would do much to undermine legitimations for empire.

  4. Kant's Second Thoughts on Colonialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Flikschuh, Katrin; Ypi, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Kant is widely regarded as a fierce critic of colonialism. In Toward Perpetual Peace and the Metaphysics of Morals, for example, he forcefully condemns European conduct in the colonies as a flagrant violation of the principles of right. His earlier views on colonialism have not yet received much

  5. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  6. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Anna

    2016-01-01

    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  7. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  8. Portuguese Universities Sharing Remote Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pedagogical assignment based on a cooperative work involving teachers/students from two Portuguese universities. As it happens one is the oldest in the country – University of Coimbra (UC - and the other the largest - University of Porto (UP, about 120 km apart. The authors, believing in the relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ITs in teaching/learning methodologies and in cooperative teaching methods worked together to plan this pedagogical experience and to run it in a one semester course. Students from UC have been introduced to the remote lab at UP and got the first contact with the remote experiments using easily available sound and image resources based on Skype and an IP camera for better image quality. This first contact has been conducted by the first author at UP with support of the second author at UC. The work will describe briefly the remote experiments used, their inclusion in the course at UC, the associated assessment criteria and, finally, student comments.

  9. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  10. Homogenization of time series from Portugal and its former colonies for the period from the late 19th to the early 21st century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bližňák, Vojtěch; Valente, M. A.; Bethke, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 9 (2015), s. 2400-2418 ISSN 0899-8418 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : homogenization methods * time series * abrupt breaks * metadata * Portugal * Portuguese ex-colonies Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4151/abstract

  11. Validation of the Otitis Media-6 Questionnaire for European Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lameiras

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the Otitis Media-6 questionnaire is a valid, reliable and sensitive instrument to evaluate the health-related quality of life in Portuguese children with otitis media.

  12. HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dražić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction. Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants.

  13. Just War Theory and Presidential Discourse Prior to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Topic This paper studies the public statements of US presidents to ascertain justifications for war or armed intervention. Edward J. Lordan used a... paradise , Grenada was “a Soviet- Cuban Colony, being readied as a major military bastion to export terror and undermine democracy.”29 Later in the speech

  14. Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Children's Hope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Susana C.; Pais-Ribeiro, J. L.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Portuguese version of the Children's Hope Scale and the examination of its psychometric properties. A sample of 367 Portuguese students completed the Portuguese-language versions of the Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991), Global…

  15. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  16. Contesting History and Pursuing "Other" Knowledge: A Study of Hip-Hop and Non-Formal Education among Native American Youth in San Francisco and Black Portuguese Youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop--a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music--to…

  17. Review of Portuguese Cistercian Monastic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana M. T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to present a contribution to the history of the reform and renewal in the Portuguese Cistercian monasteries throughout almost nine centuries of cultural and architectural history in this Country. The Cistercian Order played a remarkable role in the affirmation of Portugal (1143) and had unquestionable position, since the medieval period, in the construction of a significant part of the Portuguese culture. The reform of many Monasteries came with the Autonomous Congregation of Alcobaça (1567). In fact, the Portuguese Cistercian Monasteries absorbed the regional ways of construction with masonry (granite in the north and limestone in the south) but it is without a doubt in its architecture that change and renewal can be found as strength and a tool for achieving a status of cultural landmarks. The renewal and reform in the Portuguese Cistercian Monasteries was not restricted to the styles in vogue but also was related to the physical expansion of the monasteries. This could be achieved by adding new aisles and cloisters like in Alcobaça or Salzedas Monasteries. Though there are cases of unconventional renewals and reformations such as the existence of two churches in the Monastery of Salzedas and the example of the open air Museum of the Monastery of S. João de Tarouca were can be found the former medieval monastery, as a result of new archaeological research and a prospective hypothesis of its volumetric layout, in between the walls of the 17th century dormitories and the Church. This continuous architectonic renewal is still being carried out in the 21st century either by the Portuguese Government, through several heritage institutes since the 20th century, or a few individuals on their one.The history of the Portuguese Cistercian Monasteries blends itself with the history of Portugal as the continuous architectonic renewals and reforms were also a result of nine centuries of events and changes in this Country.

  18. Morocco : Spanish postal administration after 1912 and Morocco during the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of (parts of) APH 5 was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 125 / 2016: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies/postal areas : V Morocco", written by Ton Dietz.

  19. Analysis of Colonial Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkowski, Michael; Cangany, Catherine; Jordan, Louis; Manukyan, Khachatur; Schultz, Zachary; Wiescher, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This project entailed studying the cellulose in paper, the ink, colorants, and other materials used to produce American colonial currency. The technique primarily used in this project was X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF). XRF mapping was used to provide both elemental analysis of large-scale objects as well as microscopic examination of individual pigment particles in ink, in addition to the inorganic additives used to prepare paper. The combination of elemental mapping with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopies permits an efficient analysis of the currency. These spectroscopic methods help identify the molecular composition of the pigments. This combination of atomic and molecular analytical techniques provided an in-depth characterization of the paper currency on the macro, micro, and molecular levels. We have identified several of pigments that were used in the preparation of inks and colorants. Also, different inorganic crystals, such as alumina-silicates, have been detected in different papers. The FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to determine the type of cellulose fiber used in the production of paper currency. Our future research will be directed toward revealing important historical relationships between currencies printed throughout the colonies. ISLA Da Vinci Grant.

  20. The philosophy of the beyond sea: the contributions of Portuguese Enlightenment to educational assumptions in the years 700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Silva Medeiros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The eighteenth century in Portugal is marked by the development of an intellectual thought that tried to modernize not only anthe administrative machine, but the education and the knowledge production in the Metropolis and in its Colonies. The present work aims to contribute to the history of knowledge, more specifically, the contribution of the Portuguese Enlightenmentists to the educational assumptions as a conditioning element of the civilization process and the problems arising from the teachers' acting to the construction of this political and educational project of knowledge in the Northern Captaincies.Theoretically we will be guided by Norbert Elias when we think education as a conditioning in which men have become civilized in a historical process of teaching and learning that also became essential to the so-called development of manners and behaviors and directly responsible for the formation of a model of civilization and knowledge.As a methodological proposal we will be close to the perspective of the Social History of Knowledge of Peter Burke, because when we study the authors mentioned above, besides the Statute of the University of Coimbra and the Manuscripts of the Ultramarine Historical Archive we will analyze the practice, the reception and the behavior of the educational presuppositions of the Portuguese Enlightenment in the Captaincies of Pernambuco and annexes.From the documentary analysis we find that the educational presuppositions of the Portuguese Enlightenment had difficulties to be implanted in the colony, with that achieved few results in the Civilizing Process.

  1. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2017-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  2. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  3. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  4. British Widows of the South African War and the Origins of War Widows' Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedi, Eliza

    2018-06-01

    The South African War of 1899-1902 cost the lives of 22,000 British and colonial soldiers and created almost 5,000 British war widows. It was in this context that the first state pensions for the widows of rank and file soldiers were introduced in 1901. Triggered by unexpectedly high casualty rates and widespread dissatisfaction with charitable provision, the introduction of state pensions also reflected changing public attitudes towards soldiers and their dependants in the context of an imperial war. Dismissed in the historiography as insignificant because of its low rates and restrictive eligibility clauses, the 1901 scheme in fact delivered pensions to the majority of war widows and made the Edwardian state their most important source of financial support. This article, after discussing the social and political context in which widows' pensions were developed, analyses the economics of the scheme and how key eligibility rules were formulated, before investigating significant changes in the scheme to 1920, the point at which Boer War widows were finally granted full maintenance. Strongly influenced by the practices of Victorian armed forces charities and by contemporary ideologies of gender and class, the South African War pension regulations created precedents which would continue to shape pensions for military widows to the end of the twentieth century.

  5. Collaboration, Coproduction, and Code-Switching: Colonial Cinema and Postcolonial Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Aimee Kwon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reassesses the issue of colonial collaboration in the Japanese empire by examining the rise of cinematic coproductions between Japanese and Korean filmmakers. By the late 1930s, colonial Korea’s filmmaking industry had been fully subsumed into the Japanese film industry, and regulations were established that required all films to assimilate imperial policies. The colonial government’s active promotion of colonial “collaboration” and “coproduction” between the colonizers and the colonized ideologically worked to obfuscate these increasing restrictions in colonial film productions while producing complex and contentious desires across the colonial divide. The very concepts of “collaboration” and “coproduction” need to be redefined in light of increasingly complex imperial hierarchies and entanglements. Taking the concept of “code-switching” beyond its linguistic origins, this article argues that we must reassess texts of colonial collaboration and coproduction produced at a time when Korean film had to “code-switch” into Japanese—to linguistically, culturally, and politically align itself with the wartime empire. The article argues that recently excavated films from colonial and Cold War archives, such as Spring in the Korean Peninsula, offer a rare glimpse into repressed and contested histories and raise the broader conundrum of accessing and assessing uneasily commingled colonial pasts of Asian-Pacific nations in the ruins of postcolonial aftermath.

  6. Fungal contamination assessment in Portuguese elderly care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Almeida-Silva, M; Gomes, A Quintal; Wolterbeek, H T; Almeida, S M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend 80-90% of their day indoors and elderly subjects are likely to spend even a greater amount of time indoors. Thus, indoor air pollutants such as bioaerosols may exert a significant impact on this age group. The aim of this study was to characterize fungal contamination within Portuguese elderly care centers. Fungi were measured using conventional as well as molecular methods in bedrooms, living rooms, canteens, storage areas, and outdoors. Bioaerosols were evaluated before and after the microenvironments' occupancy in order to understand the role played by occupancy in fungal contamination. Fungal load results varied from 32 colony-forming units CFU m(-3) in bedrooms to 228 CFU m(-3) in storage areas. Penicillium sp. was the most frequently isolated (38.1%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (16.3%) and Chrysonilia sp. (4.2%). With respect to Aspergillus genus, three different fungal species in indoor air were detected, with A. candidus (62.5%) the most prevalent. On surfaces, 40 different fungal species were isolated and the most frequent was Penicillium sp. (22.2%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (17.3%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not detect the presence of A. fumigatus complex. Species from Penicillium and Aspergillus genera were the most abundant in air and surfaces. The species A. fumigatus was present in 12.5% of all indoor microenvironments assessed. The living room was the indoor microenvironment with lowest fungal concentration and the storage area was highest.

  7. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  8. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era.

  9. Cyberbullying in Portuguese Schools: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Armanda P. M.; Vieira, Cristina C.; Amado, João; Pessoa, Teresa; Martins, Maria José D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of cyberbullying in 23 Portuguese schools. A sample of 3,525 sixth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade students completed a self-response questionnaire assessing their perceptions and experiences of cyberbullying. The findings showed that 7.6% of students have been victimized, and 3.9% have bullied others at…

  10. Probing next Generation Portuguese Academic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friacas, Carlos; Massano, Emanuel; Domingues, Monica; Veiga, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide several viewpoints about monitoring aspects related to recent deployments of a new technology (IPv6). Design/methodology/approach: Several views and domains were used, with a common point: the Portuguese research and education network (RCTS). Findings: A significant amount of work is yet to be…

  11. "Modern Portuguese" and The Narration of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Portuguese: A Project of the Modern Language Association" was a package of film strips, prerecorded tapes, an instructor's manual, and a textbook first published by Knopf in 1971. It followed the model established by "Modern Spanish" that was also a project of the Modern Language Association (MLA) published in 1960.The…

  12. Building a Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, Maria; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The integration of food data from research, microbiological monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance is crucial to manage foodborne risk. Consequently, INSA launched the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) in a partnership with GS1 Portugal to create national food chain expert networks and sustainable databases on food composition, consumption and chemical and microbiological contamination. Presently, the Food Microbiological Inform...

  13. Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Manso, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion is presented. The experimental activity associated with the tokamak ISTTOK as well as the work carried out in the frame of international collaboration are summarized. The main technological features of ISTTOK are described along with studies on microwave reflectometry. Future plans are briefly described

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  15. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  16. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario; Olson, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We u...

  17. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  18. The construction of a "population problem" in colonial India, 1919-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the construction of a "population problem" among public health officials in India during the inter-war period. British colonial officials came to focus on India's population through their concern with high Indian infant and maternal mortality rates. They raised the problem of population as one way in which to highlight the importance of dealing with public health at an all-India basis, in a context of constitutional devolution of power to Indians where they feared such matters would be relegated to relative local unimportance. While they failed to significantly shape government policy, their arguments in support of India's 'population problem' nevertheless found a receptive audience in the colonial public sphere among Indian intellectuals, economists, eugenicists, women social reformers and birth controllers. The article contributes to the history of population control by situating its pre-history in British colonial public health and development policy and outside the logic of USA's Cold War strategic planning for Asia.

  19. Taxonomic redescription of the Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Siphonophorae, Cystonectae from Brazil Redescrição taxonômica da caravela-do-mar, Physalia physalis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Siphonophorae, Cystonectae do litoral do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758 is widely known from the Brazilian waters, specimens from this coast were never properly described. We describe Brazilian specimens of P. physalis including information on morphology, cnidome, SEM, and histological studies. Taxonomical issues concerning the development of the colonies and eventual synonymy with Physalia utriculus (La Martinière, 1787 are also added.Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758 é amplamente conhecida em águas brasileiras, mas os espécimes dessa costa nunca foram formalmente descritos. Descrevem-se os espécimes brasileiros, adicionando-se informações sobre a morfologia, cnidoma, MEV e histologia. Questões taxonômicas que envolvem o desenvolvimento das colônias e a eventual sinonímia com Physalia utriculus (La Martinière, 1787 também são abordadas.

  20. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  1. Growth Mechanism of Microbial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minhui; Martini, K. Michael; Kim, Neil H.; Sherer, Nicholas; Lee, Jia Gloria; Kuhlman, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Experiments on nutrient-limited E. coli colonies, growing on agar gel from single cells reveal a power-law distribution of sizes, both during the growth process and in the final stage when growth has ceased. We developed a Python simulation to study the growth mechanism of the bacterial population and thus understand the broad details of the experimental findings. The simulation takes into account nutrient uptake, metabolic function, growth and cell division. Bacteria are modeled in two dimensions as hard circle-capped cylinders with steric interactions and elastic stress dependent growth characteristics. Nutrient is able to diffuse within and between the colonies. The mechanism of microbial colony growth involves reproduction of cells within the colonies and the merging of different colonies. We report results on the dynamic scaling laws and final state size distribution, that capture in semi-quantitative detail the trends observed in experiment. Supported by NSF Grant 0822613.

  2. The Unintended Hegemonic Effects of a Limited Concession: Institutional Incorporation of Chinese Schools in Post-War Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of Chinese schools in post-Second World War Hong Kong, this paper explores the unintended consequences of an incomplete hegemonic project. After World War II, anti-imperialist pressures and rising educational demands in the local setting propelled the colonial authorities to be more active in providing and funding Chinese schools.…

  3. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  4. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  5. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  6. Sexual and reproductive health of Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Neuza; Palma, Fátima; Serrano, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    As adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major sources of morbidity, preventing them is an important health goal for Portuguese society. To review data on the knowledge, attitudes and statistics on sexual and reproductive health. A systematic review was conducted including peer-reviewed articles addressing issues influencing the sexuality of Portuguese adolescents (aged 13 to 19), published up to 2011 and conducted in any type of setting. After crossing-cleaning the reference list, 33 articles were included. The rate of sexual activity by Portuguese adolescents is high (44%-95%), but there has been an increase in the age of intercourse debut (currently 15.6 years). Early commencement of sexual intercourse is associated with smoking and regular alcohol consumption. Condoms are the most frequently chosen contraceptive method for first (76%-96%) and subsequent (52%-69%) sexual encounters. The perception of a double standard in sex still exists in teenage culture for both genders and influence behavior. There are significant differences between migrant and native adolescents: African adolescents initiate sexual intercourse at earlier ages and are more likely to have unprotected sex. Only one-third of Portuguese teenagers have ever visited a health facility to seek counseling concerning contraception or STIs, and less than half have ever attended classes on reproductive health. Very few (12%) have knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The prevalence of STIs in Portuguese youth is unknown. The adolescent fertility rate is still high (14.7 births per 1000 females aged 15-19 years), but it, as well as the rate of abortion, is steadily decreasing. There is still a long way to go towards promoting a resourceful young population. Citizens and institutions must focus on increasing both the competence of youths and external supports. Information must be provided systematically and health services must have greater accessibility. Studies

  7. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at www.japanfocus.org/ products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his...about their country’s remarkable economic resurgence after the Korean War. President Bush was referring to the recent anti- Japanese protests in...interests, the emotional debates surrounding 3 the history of World War II and Japanese colonialism are treated as mere shibboleths of competing elites

  8. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  9. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  10. 12th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Filomena; Moreira, António

    2017-01-01

    The biennial CONTROLO conferences are the main events promoted by The CONTROLO 2016 – 12th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control, Guimarães, Portugal, September 14th to 16th, was organized by Algoritmi, School of Engineering, University of Minho, in partnership with INESC TEC, and promoted by the Portuguese Association for Automatic Control – APCA, national member organization of the International Federation of Automatic Control – IFAC. The seventy-five papers published in this volume cover a wide range of topics. Thirty-one of them, of a more theoretical nature, are distributed among the first five parts: Control Theory; Optimal and Predictive Control; Fuzzy, Neural and Genetic Control; Modeling and Identification; Sensing and Estimation. The papers go from cutting-edge theoretical research to innovative control applications and show expressively how Automatic Control can be used to increase the well being of people. .

  11. Good prospects for Portuguese small hydro industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betamio de Almeida, A.; Serranho, H.

    2000-01-01

    The article outlines the history of hydro in Portugal and discusses the current position of small-scale hydro with particular reference to the Portuguese Small Hydro Association (AMPH). Encouraged by legislation, and the Valoren community programme (which defined investment incentives), many new small hydro projects sprang up in Portugal in the 1990s. In some areas of Portugal the water levels were higher than the urban centres where the water is required: how the problems of integrating power and water were addressed is described. The integration of power and irrigation schemes is also mentioned. In the wake of great expansion in the Portuguese hydro industry, there was a sharp reduction (in 1995-6) and the reasons for that are listed. The 1999 tariff was such that it is likely that small hydro will provide 3.8% of the electric power consumed nationally by 2010

  12. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer's health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B), 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G), and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic). Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg. PMID:22666128

  13. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B, 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G, and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic. Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg.

  14. The Portuguese background of Ludovicus Nonnius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricon Ferraz, A

    1996-01-01

    The Portuguese Renaissance was a period of great prestige for national arts and sciences. Innumerable acts concerning the teaching and practice of medicine at the universities and surgical schools of the kingdom were promulgated and contributed to the development of medicine and surgery. However, the 'Físico-Mor' (the principal physician of the country) and the 'Cirurgiäo-Mor' (the principal surgeon of the country) granted certificates to unqualified, non-graduated people. Therefore the medical assistance in Portugal began to decline. On the other hand the Portuguese Parliament did not allow Jews to practise medicine. When the Inquisition was established in Portugal, its extreme religious intolerance led many Jewish physicians to emigrate. Throughout history an important number of these physicians have been highly praised for their humanism, knowledge, pedagogy and with regard to the social repercussions of their medical practising abroad.

  15. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  16. Analysis of the Portuguese building regulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Meijer, F.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese building regulation system has undergone significant changes in the last 20 years. Almost all building regulations presently in force were approved during that period. Some of those building regulations resulted from the transposition of European Directives. Other building regulations were changed due to improvements in the scientific knowledge. The changes in the building control system were mainly driven by an adaptation to more pressing circumstances of practice. The lack...

  17. Organa: The First Portuguese Lesbian Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Ana Maria; Machado, Tânia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Organa magazine (1990-1992) is the first known lesbian publication in Portugal and exemplifies the distinct course of lesbian activism in Portugal, namely the late emergence and consolidation of a national lesbian community and subculture. Organa also bears similarities with the international gay and lesbian press regarding its alternative character, objectives, editorial contents, and trajectory. Despite having adopted an assimilationist strategy during most of its existence, it is argued that Organa fostered the political mobilization of Portuguese lesbians.

  18. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AT PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOK: SOME CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gaida Winch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  19. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of ...

  20. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested ...

  1. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  2. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: the portuguese version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Monteiro Amaral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is one of the most world widely used measures of perfectionism. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. METHODS: Two hundred and seventeen (178 females students from two Portuguese Universities filled in the scale, and a subgroup (n = 166 completed a retest with a four weeks interval. RESULTS: The scale reliability was good (Cronbach alpha = .857. Corrected item-total correlations ranged from .019 to .548. The scale test-retest reliability suggested a good temporal stability with a test-retest correlation of .765. A principal component analysis with Varimax rotation was performed and based on the Scree plot, two robust factorial structures were found (four and six factors. The principal component analyses, using Monte Carlo PCA for parallel analyses confirmed the six factor solution. The concurrent validity with Hewitt and Flett MPS was high, as well as the discriminant validity of positive and negative affect (Profile of Mood Stats-POMS. DISCUSSION: The two factorial structures (of four and six dimensions of the Portuguese version of Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale replicate the results from different authors, with different samples and cultures. This suggests this scale is a robust instrument to assess perfectionism, in several clinical and research settings as well as in transcultural studies.

  3. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  4. German War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This game became known as ajedrez in Spanish, xadres in Portuguese, and zatrikion in Greek. The game was introduced to Western Europe generally by...six companies, one or two cavalry squadrons, and a quarter or a half of a battery.59 A large game en - compassed the tactical exercise of forces up

  5. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  6. Arms Diffusion and War

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  7. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  8. Anti HIV-2 serological screening in Portuguese populations native from or having had close contact with Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, F; Sidibe, S; Alves-Cardoso, E; Terrinha, A; Gessain, A; Poirot, Y; Montagnier, L; Peries, J

    1987-01-01

    To gather epidemiologic information on the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 in Portugal, sera were collected in 1985 from 156 healthy adults currently living in Portugal but natives of Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde Islands, Saint Tome/Prince, Angola, and Mozambique and from 321 native Portuguese men and women who had close contact with local African populations. As a control, sera were collected from 102 health Portuguese with no previous contact with Africa or African natives. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by Diagnostic Pasteur was used to screen for antibodies to HIV. No positive reactions were recorded in the control population. In contracts, 9 (6%) of the African natives and 7 (2%) of the contacts of Africans were HIV-positive, 6 of the positive sera were from women and 10 were from men. Significantly, 1 of the HIV-2-positive serum samples was from a native of Mozambique and 3 were from natives of Angola. This suggests that HIV-2 infection may have spread to other former Portuguese colonies, and foreign army soldiers who were at 1 time residents of Mozambique or Angola should be considered a risk group capable of spreading HIV-2 infection to other countries.

  9. French Intervention: British Failure To Anticipate Transition In The American War of Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    responsibility of the war, especially because the colonists benefited greatly from the outcome of the conflict.26 In 1764, Parliament implemented the...coercive taxes were being placed on them to benefit wealthy British businessmen who had influence in Parliament and financial interest in the East...elite recognized the importance of the colonies to the British economy and feared tax hikes if the colonies were lost. Britain faced a difficult set

  10. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    14 Revolution, is an excellent account of social, economic, and political factors in colonial America that influenced the concept of the citizen ...THE MYTH OF THE CITIZEN -SOLDIER: RHODE ISLAND PROVINCIAL SOLDIERS IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A thesis presented to the...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

  11. Which nation is this? Entangled identities in Portuguese visual arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Vespeira de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the idea of nation in Portuguese visual arts, exploring what announces the strengthening of the debate on national identity. Based on ethnography of the artistic field, I will discuss the network of intentionalities that underlies this tendency of Portuguese arts.

  12. the portuguese influence on afrikaans with particular reference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Henry the Navigator, son of king Joao I of Portu- gal, the Portuguese ..... Mossel Bay retains two Portuguese names -. Cape St Blaize, where .... come part and parcel of Afrikaans early tradition. 11 many years .... Deeli, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii. Pretoria: ...

  13. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  14. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  15. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  16. Integration of nuclear power in the Portuguese network. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videira, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    The main characteristics of the Portuguese electric energy production system and their evolution in the past and near future are presented. Taking into consideration the Portuguese energy resources the alternatives to meet the additional long range electric energy needs are evaluated. Finally some comments are made about the present status of the nuclear option. (Auth.)

  17. How Portuguese and American Teachers Plan for Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Lopes, Joao; Oliveira, Celia; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study explored American and Portuguese elementary teachers' preferences in planning for literacy instruction using the Language Arts Activity Grid (LAAG; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009), on which teachers described their preferred instructional activities for a hypothetical 2-h language arts block. Portuguese teachers…

  18. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  19. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  20. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  1. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  2. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  3. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  4. Validation of the Portuguese DSM-IV-MR-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Youth problem gambling is viewed as an emergent public health issue in many countries, and is also an emerging area of public concern in Portugal. However, there is currently no Portuguese instrument that focuses specifically on the measurement of problem gambling among young people. Consequently, the present study aimed to validate the DSM-IV-MR-J for use among Portuguese adolescents and to examine its' psychometric properties. A cross-cultural adaption of this instrument to the Portuguese language was performed using the translation and back translation method. The final version of the instrument was administered to 753 Portuguese high school and first year college students. The findings revealed an acceptable internal reliability and replicated the one-factor structure of this scale. Based on these findings, the Portuguese DSM-IV-MR-J appears to be a valid and reliable instrument, and provides a much needed psychometric tool for the development of more research on youth gambling in Portugal.

  5. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... the electrochemical treatment. The removal rate was similar for the two anions so the chloride concentration reached the lowest concentration level first. At this point the electric resistance increased, but the removal of nitrate continued unaffected till similar low concentration. The sulfate concentration...... was successful. Based on the obtained results an important step is taken towards development of an electrochemical technique for desalination of tile panels....

  6. Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.

  7. Portuguese food composition database quality management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M; Castanheira, I P; Dantas, M A; Porto, A A; Calhau, M A

    2010-11-01

    The harmonisation of food composition databases (FCDB) has been a recognised need among users, producers and stakeholders of food composition data (FCD). To reach harmonisation of FCDBs among the national compiler partners, the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence set up a series of guidelines and quality requirements, together with recommendations to implement quality management systems (QMS) in FCDBs. The Portuguese National Institute of Health (INSA) is the national FCDB compiler in Portugal and is also a EuroFIR partner. INSA's QMS complies with ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardisation/International Electrotechnical Commission) 17025 requirements. The purpose of this work is to report on the strategy used and progress made for extending INSA's QMS to the Portuguese FCDB in alignment with EuroFIR guidelines. A stepwise approach was used to extend INSA's QMS to the Portuguese FCDB. The approach included selection of reference standards and guides and the collection of relevant quality documents directly or indirectly related to the compilation process; selection of the adequate quality requirements; assessment of adequacy and level of requirement implementation in the current INSA's QMS; implementation of the selected requirements; and EuroFIR's preassessment 'pilot' auditing. The strategy used to design and implement the extension of INSA's QMS to the Portuguese FCDB is reported in this paper. The QMS elements have been established by consensus. ISO/IEC 17025 management requirements (except 4.5) and 5.2 technical requirements, as well as all EuroFIR requirements (including technical guidelines, FCD compilation flowchart and standard operating procedures), have been selected for implementation. The results indicate that the quality management requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 in place in INSA fit the needs for document control, audits, contract review, non-conformity work and corrective actions, and users' (customers

  8. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  9. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  10. Colonial army recruitment patterns and post-colonial Military Coups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial, societies, states and state builders have been challenged and transformed by the need and quest for military manpower. European states relied on conscript armies to 'pacify' and retain colonies in parts of the non-European world. These facts underscore the meticulous attention paid by the British to ...

  11. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the study traces and shows that an uncritical support of the existing school bilingualism, a aspect of the general political objective of national unity and integration, hinges on a fictitious collective post-colonial dream about using the bilingual heritage of French and English, and the cultures that lie behind them, ...

  12. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  13. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  14. Cluster analysis in phenotyping a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, C C; Sa-Couto, P; Todo-Bom, A; Bousquet, J

    2015-09-03

    Unbiased cluster analysis using clinical parameters has identified asthma phenotypes. Adding inflammatory biomarkers to this analysis provided a better insight into the disease mechanisms. This approach has not yet been applied to asthmatic Portuguese patients. To identify phenotypes of asthma using cluster analysis in a Portuguese asthmatic population treated in secondary medical care. Consecutive patients with asthma were recruited from the outpatient clinic. Patients were optimally treated according to GINA guidelines and enrolled in the study. Procedures were performed according to a standard evaluation of asthma. Phenotypes were identified by cluster analysis using Ward's clustering method. Of the 72 patients enrolled, 57 had full data and were included for cluster analysis. Distribution was set in 5 clusters described as follows: cluster (C) 1, early onset mild allergic asthma; C2, moderate allergic asthma, with long evolution, female prevalence and mixed inflammation; C3, allergic brittle asthma in young females with early disease onset and no evidence of inflammation; C4, severe asthma in obese females with late disease onset, highly symptomatic despite low Th2 inflammation; C5, severe asthma with chronic airflow obstruction, late disease onset and eosinophilic inflammation. In our study population, the identified clusters were mainly coincident with other larger-scale cluster analysis. Variables such as age at disease onset, obesity, lung function, FeNO (Th2 biomarker) and disease severity were important for cluster distinction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Dutch Colonial Nostalgia Across Decolonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that nostalgia for colonialism in the Netherlands, the so called tempo doeloe culture, is not a specifically postcolonial phenomenon caused by the collapse of the Dutch empire in Asia. In fact, nostalgia for the Dutch East Indies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, when

  16. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  17. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...

  18. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  19. Geological testimonies of the Portuguese Empire in the East among the collections of the Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência (Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Brandão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mineralogical and Geological Museum of the Faculty of Sciences in Lisbon preserved until the fire of 1978 samples representing several geological units of Timor, collected willfully by agents of the colonial administration. The study of this unique collection in the mainland museums has helped to shed light on the geology of the most distant overseas Portuguese territory. The results were presented at the International Geological Congress, held in London in 1948. Most of the samples were lost in 1978, saving up however the collections sent by the governor of the province to the author of the study on the geology of Timor, former naturalist of the museum. This paper is based on scientific documentation and revisits the collections in order to contextualize its formation and composition, highlighting its role as landmark of sovereignty and the assertion of colonial science in the Portuguese Empire of the East.

  20. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  1. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  2. Revisiting and renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  3. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  4. The impact of financial crisis on portuguese firms' capital structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Jéssica Andreia Rocha

    2017-01-01

    G01, G32 This study aims to verify the impacts of financial crises in the capital structure for Portuguese companies. The purpose is to study different firm-specific determinants of a sample of general PSI Portuguese listed firms at the Euronext Lisbon stock exchange, during the recent crises that endured from 2011 until 2013 and test the impacts on short and long-term debt. In order to test the changes/impacts on Portuguese firms’ capital structure, the most important theor...

  5. Within salvation: girl hawkers and the colonial state in development era Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Abosede

    2011-01-01

    For almost two decades between the close of the Second World War and Nigerian independence in 1960, the British colonial state which faced a crisis of legitimacy in Lagos upheld city ordinances that made itinerant trading by young children in Lagos a punishable status offense. Although anti-trading regulations were gender-neutral in their language, girls were disproportionately sanctioned for engaging in street trading and related activities. In defending their concentration on girl sellers over boy sellers, colonial welfare officials painted a picture of the urban context as an inherently dangerous context and of girls as being particularly at risk of violent assault in the city, making them particularly in need of protection from town life. Sources which show that parents generally resisted or ignored the street trading regulations and continued permitting their daughters to sell despite entreaties, warnings, or fines from colonial officials, suggest that African parents and British colonial officials may have had conflicting views on the inherent danger of the city, on what constituted child endangerment, and on the gendered nature of childhood. This article argues that the girl saving campaigns of development era Lagos were as much about the legitimization of a colonial state facing a crisis of legitimacy as they were about debates between African parents and colonial welfare officials in Lagos concerning ideas of children and childhood and the dangers of street trading by African girls.

  6. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  7. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  8. Children of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)

  9. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  10. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  11. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  12. Maslow, Needs, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College

  13. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  14. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  15. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  16. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  17. Morocco : French postal administration after 1912 and Morocco's postal services during the First World War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of (parts of) APH 5 was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 125 / 2016: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies/postal areas : V Morocco", written by Ton Dietz.

  18. Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The cocoa trade in colonial West Africa, before World War II, had been operated through market forces. All attempts made by foreign trading firms to form 'cocoa buying pool' and eliminate market forces met with stiff opposition by African farmers and middlemen, the famous of which was the cocoa hold-up in Ghana ...

  19. 11th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, Aníbal; Veiga, Germano

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years the Portuguese association of automatic control, Associação Portuguesa de Controlo Automático, with the sponsorship of IFAC have established the CONTROLO conference as a reference international forum where an effective exchange of knowledge and experience amongst researchers active in various theoretical and applied areas of systems and control can take place, always including considerable space for promoting new technical applications and developments, real-world challenges and success stories. In this 11th edition the CONTROLO conference evolved by introducing two strategic partnerships with Spanish and Brazilian associations in automatic control, Comité Español de Automática and Sociedade Brasileira de Automatica, respectively.

  20. Knowledge management in Portuguese healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sofia Gaspar; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge management imposes itself as a pressing need for the organizations of several sectors of the economy, including healthcare. to evaluate the perception of healthcare institution collaborators in relation to knowledge management in the institution where they operate and analyze the existence of differences in this perception, based on the institution's management model. a study conducted in a sample consisting of 671 collaborators from 10 Portuguese healthcare institutions with different models of management. In order to assess the knowledge management perception, we used a score designed from and based on items from the scores available in the literature. the perception of moderate knowledge management on the healthcare institutions and the statistically significant differences in knowledge management perception were evidenced in each management model. management knowledge takes place in healthcare institutions, and the current management model determines the way staff at these institutions manage their knowledge.

  1. Valores e criatividade em trabalhadores portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Leonor; Nogueira, Sara Ibérico; Jesus, Adelaide Lopes; Mimoso, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Pretendeu-se caracterizar o sistema de valores e os níveis de criatividade de uma amostra de trabalhadores portugueses, bem como analisar as diferenças entre grupos com base nas variáveis: sexo, habilitações literárias, tipo de empresa e estatuto socioprofissional. O estudo da correlação entre os níveis de criatividade e os valores de vida foi, também, objeto de análise. A amostra foi constituída por 198 indivíduos, 91 do sexo masculino e 107 do sexo feminino. Para operacionalização das variá...

  2. Small Nominals in Brazilian Portuguese Copular Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is copular clauses in Brazilian Portuguese like Mulher(es é complicado, in which the predicate exhibits an unmarked form for gender and number (masculine singular, despite the presence of the feminine and/or plural form of the noun in subject position. We reject the analyses that propose that (i there is a hidden infinitive clause in the subject position, (ii the agreement is an instance of semantic agreement, and (iii the DP subject is in A-bar position, and argue that the subject is a Small Nominal (they are not projected as full DPs which lacks index features that trigger external agreement (Pereltsvaig 2006.

  3. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    podcasts.psu.edu/taxonomy/term/62]. Staple crops such as wheat , corn, and rice do not rely on insect pollination and are mostly wind pollinated...are interacting to weaken bee colonies and are allowing stress-related pathogens, such as fungi , thus causing a final collapse.27 Others note the...possible role of miticide resistance in bees. High levels of bacteria, viruses, and fungi have been found in the guts of the recoverable dead bees

  4. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  5. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David

    2011-01-01

    Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  6. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  7. Children and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  8. For a history of the histories of Portuguese cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cunha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the history of Portuguese cinema was made without historians or academics in the social sciences and humanities, but made by curious, enthusiasts and writers who were committed to the object itself. It was therefore that these early writings, although an essential role in collecting and inventariações sources, promoted the creation of myths, more implicitly or explicitly manipulated the past of Portuguese cinema and conditioned its historic narrative.This thematic dossier brings together four essays that analyze and reflect on different ideas and conceptions of Portuguese Cinema which have been outlined in stocks, texts and films over the decades. The purpose of this dossier is not to answer questions, but take advantage of them to review preconceived ideas and to launch reading hypotheses to classic and current issues in the history of Portuguese cinema.

  9. 'Of peasants, peacocks and priests; a Portuguese village'

    OpenAIRE

    Iturra, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Made on very early equipment, silent 8mm film and tape recorder. Narration by Sarah Harrison. An early product of the Rivers Video Project. A film about a north Portuguese village in 1985, based on the fieldwork of Raul Iturra

  10. Teachers’ discourses on young lesbians in the portuguese school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze teachers’ discourses on young lesbians in the Portuguese schools. To that end, we carried out semi-structured interviews with 24 Portuguese teachers of middle and secondary schools. After having analyzed the retrieved data from the interviews, we identified four main themes: gender polarization; lesbian invisibility; homophobia; and measures against homophobia. Based on their discourses, we concluded that these interviewees have a small amount of knowledge about lesbian women’s sexuality. Despite the legislative progress concerning the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People's rights in Portugal, teachers are not prepared to deal with this issue both inside and outside the school environment. Furthermore, this research includes some recommendations to deal with homophobia in the Portuguese school context. This study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the discourses and practices towards young lesbians in the school panorama, highlighting the importance of promoting non-discriminatory attitudes in the Portuguese schools

  11. Exploration of the Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh

    The history of Portuguese shipwrecks began in Goa water since the first quarter of the sixteenth century. The marine and other related documents state that between sixteenth and eighteenth centuries a number of ships has been wrecked off Goa, Cochin...

  12. Trad. Daniele Vitale, Arquitectos portugueses. Identidade, nacionalidade, modernidade

    OpenAIRE

    Marnoto, Rita

    2010-01-01

    (2010. Trad.). Daniele Vitale, Arquitectos portugueses. Identidade, nacionalidade, modernidade, JA Jornal Arquitectos. Publicação Trimestral da Ordem dos Arquitectos Portugal, 237, 93-101. ISSN 0870 1504 Trad. Daniele Vitale

  13. Os Portugueses No Sudoeste Da Nova Inglaterra E A Sua Literatura Infantil (The Portuguese in Southeast New England and Their Children's Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkscales, Rosalie Duggan

    The four sections of this paper deal with Portuguese immigrants in southeast New England and with Portuguese-language children's literature. The first section contains a description of Portuguese immigration to the United States from 1511 to the present and notes changes in immigration laws. The second section presents descriptions of the…

  14. Locative inversion and agreement syntax in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Ornelas de Avelar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the Minimalist Program framework (CHOMSKY 2000, 2001, this paper suggests that, in Brazilian Portuguese, sentences with a locative prepositional phrase in preverbal position can be characterized as instances of locative inversion in which prepositional constituents occupy the grammatical subject position. It will be proposed that particularities involving the patterns of locative inversion in Brazilian Portuguese derive from properties of the subject-verb agreement in this language.

  15. Decomposition of gender wage differentials among Portuguese top management jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Raquel Vale

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies gender wage differentials among top managers in the Portuguese economy. The objective is to investigate whether men and women within the same occupational group, with relatively high levels of human capital, and who are evaluated basically on their performance, are treated unequally in relation to pay. The Oaxaca wage differential decomposition method is used, relying on 1999 micro data gathered by the Portuguese Ministry of Social Security and Employment. The main findings...

  16. [Validation of the Otitis Media-6 Questionnaire for European Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameiras, Ana Rita; Silva, Deodato; O'Neill, Assunção; Escada, Pedro

    2017-05-31

    Otitis media is one of the most prevalent childhood diseases. The impact of otitis media on quality of life of Portuguese children is unknown, because of the unavailability of a tool validated in European Portuguese to assess this consequence of otitis media. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire (Otitis Media-6) is the most frequently used tool to assess health-related quality of life in children with otitis media. This study aims to create a version in the Portuguese language and culturally adapted to Portugal of the otitis media-6 questionnaire. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted to the Portuguese language and population. Then, to assess the instrument psychometric properties, it was applied to a sample of Portuguese children with chronic otitis media with effusion or recurrent acute otitis media. The Portuguese version of Otitis Media-6 questionnaire demonstrated the following psychometric properties: construct validity for baseline (rs = 0.98) and change scores (rs = 0.97), internal consistency (α = 0.780), test-retest reliability (rs = 0.89) and responsiveness to clinical change (t(59) = 10.104). The simplicity and brevity of application of the instrument make it ideal for use in research and in clinical practice, enabling a more objective assessment of the extension of the otitis media impact in children quality of life and a more targeted therapeutic decision. The Portuguese version of the Otitis Media-6 questionnaire is a valid, reliable and sensitive instrument to evaluate the health-related quality of life in Portuguese children with otitis media.

  17. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  18. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  19. Role of the Ottoman Geopolitics During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Çınar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ottoman Empire had the potential to influence policy on three continents, to expand the war broken out in Europe in 1914, thanks to its geographical position. To continue the war, Germany had to get rid of containment of the Triple Entente, and found the solution to maximize to benefit from the Ottoman geopolitics. Germans succeeded in driving the Ottomans. When the war spread with the Ottoman Empire’s entry into the war, Germany took a breath in Europe. Thanks to the newly emerging fronts Ottoman forces drew many Russian and British Colonial divisions on its own divisions. Accumulation of the British divisions in Egypt; reinforcement of fronts emerged in Gallipoli, Palestine and Iraq; and opening a second front to Russia was by courtesy of the Ottomans. This was providing strategic advantage to the Germans. And the Entente powers saw German defeat completing the containment after the Ottoman Empire out of war. Thus the British took on the Ottomans despite numerous fronts. This blow would change the Middle East map.

  20. Competitive strategies in fashion industries: Portuguese footwear industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. D.; Guedes, G.; Ferreira, F.

    2017-10-01

    Portugal is an important player in the European fashion industry. The Portuguese footwear industry, “low-tech” and traditional industry, dominated by SMEs and located in two main clusters, is a success case in the Portuguese economy. After a long period of decline until 2009, the footwear companies prepared new strategies that made big changes in the image and performance achieved. Since 2009, exports have increased more than 55% and the Portuguese footwear has grown in almost all the most important foreign markets. The competitive strategies followed by the Portuguese footwear companies are different and they can be clearly identified according Porter’s three generic competitive strategies: cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper had analysed seven Portuguese footwear companies (seven cases, case study strategy) and the results obtained shows how important is to have the right approach to the markets, according the internal and external resources that each firm has available. The footwear clusters in Portugal and the sectorial organizations are also very important in this competitive performance achieved by the companies. Last years the Portuguese governments recognize this increasing importance of the fashion industries and prepared several programs to promote these industries in Europe and other continents.

  1. STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY OF ADULT SPINE DEFORMITY FOR BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael de Rezende Pratali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To develop a consensus for translation of the most relevant terms used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity, from their original languages into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods : A panel of 12 experts in spine surgery from the five Brazilian regions was constituted. To obtain the standardization of terminology, the Delphi method with an electronic questionnaire was administered to participants about their opinion on the translation of 13 relevant terms chosen by literature review. Each term was considered standard when there was consensus, that is, concordance higher than 80% among participants as to the suggestion to be adopted, and then on the acceptance of the term and its abbreviation in Portuguese. Results : Initially there was consensus (over 80% concordance on the translation of seven terms in the electronic questionnaire. The other six terms that have not reached consensus were discussed at a meeting among the participants, relying on the opinion of a specialized professional in simultaneous translation of orthopedic terms in Portuguese and other professional majored in Portuguese language. It was decided how these terms should be translated and there was a consensus among all participants regarding their acceptance. Finally, there was consensus among the participants, who agreed with the translation and abbreviation of the 13 propose terms, defining its standardization for Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusion : We present a standard terminology used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity through consensus among experts, seeking uniformity in the use of these terms in Brazilian Portuguese.

  2. Reproducibility of the Portuguese version of the PEDro Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Shiwa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the inter-rater reproducibility of the Portuguese version of the PEDro Scale. Seven physiotherapists rated the methodological quality of 50 reports of randomized controlled trials written in Portuguese indexed on the PEDro database. Each report was also rated using the English version of the PEDro Scale. Reproducibility was evaluated by comparing two separate ratings of reports written in Portuguese and comparing the Portuguese PEDro score with the English version of the scale. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 1.00 for individual item and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.82 for the total PEDro score was observed. The standard error of the measurement of the scale was 0.58. The Portuguese version of the scale was comparable with the English version, with an ICC of 0.78. The inter-rater reproducibility of the Brazilian Portuguese PEDro Scale is adequate and similar to the original English version.

  3. Newspaper space for science (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Kanashiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, courses, events and incentive programs for scientific journalism and the divulgation of science have proliferated in Brazil. Part of this context is “Sunday is science day, history of a supplement from the post-war years”, a book published this year that is based on the Master’s degree research of Bernardo Esteves, a journalist specialized in science.

  4. The Fukushima War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We know that henceforth there will be a 'before' and an 'after' Fukushima, just as there is a before and an after Hiroshima-Nagasaki. However, these two nuclear-related events are quite different in nature, and the characteristics they do share are not those we might expect. Although atomic fission is the common denominator, the consequences of their respective origins diverge - an industrial accident for Fukushima, military attacks for Hiroshima-Nagasaki - even (paradoxically, as we shall see) with respect to radioactivity. Yet their catastrophic proportions and geopolitical implications draw them together. Represented in Japan by well-known numbers that refer to the dates on which they occurred - 3.11 for March 11, 2011; 8.6 and 8.9 for August 6 and 9, 1945 - Fukushima and Hiroshima-Nagasaki are geopolitical markers, each having both a temporal and a spatial dimension. In other words, to quote the late Pierre Gentelle, these are major spatial events generating widespread repercussions, both locally and globally, and affecting political action and ideological discourse in a number of countries. Their geography is fully fledged in that it comprises a physical and geophysical dimension, thus reflecting natural phenomena, nature itself, and the individualized perception that everyone has of it - scientists, individuals, and populations alike. This is also about war. An actual war that ended with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And a war now being fought against the invisible enemy of radiation at Fukushima and in other areas of Japan, with the country's 'hot spots' (hotto supoto), 'evacuation zones' (hinan kuiki), and other such 'exclusion zones' (haijo kuiki). A war with devastated landscape, theoretically unaffected hinterland, and a division of the land dictated by emerging battlefields; and with its front lines and a population caught in the crossfire or forced to leave. In this war against radiation, the 2011 US military (Japan's occupiers in 1945) limited Operation

  5. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  6. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  7. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  8. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  9. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  10. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  11. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  12. A economia colonial do Grão-Pará: uma avaliação crítica (1720-1822 The colonial economy of Grão-Pará: a critical evaluation (1720-1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base em exaustivo trabalho de reconstituição de séries que se estendem de 1720 a 1822, o artigo objetiva contribuir para a construção de perspectivas da economia colonial amazônica que enfatizem o contexto global - a capacidade demonstrada de se afirmar como subsistema do Império Colonial Português no contexto do mercado mundial. Ao discutir essa capacidade, avalia a evolução das condições fundamentais de escala e eficiência, entendendo-as como determinadas pelas condições locais de operação do projeto colonial. Tais condições, caracterizadas pelos fundamentos naturais únicos do bioma amazônico, são avaliadas na referência das mudanças institucionais que marcam, vigorosamente, no tempo, a trajetória da economia e sociedade regionais.Based on work of restoration of time series of some important economic variables that extend from 1720 to 1822, the paper aims to contribute to a vision of the Amazonian colonial economy that emphasizes the global context - it means a demonstrated ability to assert itself as sub-system of the Portuguese Colonial Empire in the context of world market. In discussing this capacity, the article evaluates the evolution of fundamental conditions of efficiency of the colony, considering them as determined by the peculiar features that assumed the local operation of the colonial project in Grão-Pará. These conditions, strongly characterized by the uniqueness of the natural foundations of the Amazonian biome, are evaluated in reference to the institutional changes that mark in time the trajectory of the regional economy and society.

  13. Prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Portuguese living in Portugal and Portuguese who migrated to Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Barros, Henrique; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2015-03-31

    Information regarding the health status of migrants compared to subjects who remain in the country of origin is scarce. We compared the levels and management of the main cardiovascular risk factors between Portuguese living in Porto (Portugal) and Portuguese migrants living in Lausanne (Switzerland). Cross-sectional studies conducted in Porto (EPIPorto, 1999 to 2003, n = 1150) and Lausanne (CoLaus, 2003 to 2006, n = 388) among subjects aged 35-65 years. Educational level, medical history and time since migration were collected using structured questionnaires. Body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose levels were measured using standardized procedures. Portuguese living in Lausanne were younger, more frequently male and had lower education than Portuguese living in Porto. After multivariate adjustment using Poisson regression, no differences were found between Portuguese living in Porto or in Lausanne: prevalence rate ratio (PRR) and (95% confidence interval) for Portuguese living in Lausanne relative to Portuguese living in Porto: 0.92 (0.71 - 1.18) for current smoking; 0.78 (0.59 - 1.04) for obesity; 0.81 (0.62 - 1.05) for abdominal obesity; 0.82 (0.64 - 1.06) for hypertension; 0.88 (0.75 - 1.04) for hypercholesterolemia and 0.92 (0.49 - 1.73) for diabetes. Treatment and control rates for hypercholesterolemia were higher among Portuguese living in Lausanne: PRR = 1.91 (1.15 - 3.19) and 3.98 (1.59 - 9.99) for treatment and control, respectively. Conversely, no differences were found regarding hypertension treatment and control rates: PRR = 0.98 (0.66 - 1.46) and 0.97 (0.49 - 1.91), respectively, and for treatment rates of diabetes: PRR = 1.51 (0.70 - 3.25). Portuguese living in Lausanne, Switzerland, present a similar cardiovascular risk profile but tend to be better managed regarding hypercholesterolemia than Portuguese living in Porto, Portugal.

  14. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major ... of the time (Germany, Russia, Serbia and Austria in particular), Stoessinger depicts ... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American ... to war. The nuclear option is available to both countries and the strategic.

  15. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  16. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  17. Escalated convergent artificial bee colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu

    2016-03-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.

  18. THE WARS IN THE KINGS OF JACUZZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the battles at the Jacuípe forest, between the provinces of Alagoas and Pernambuco in the 1840´s. There were several battles there since the Cabanos War (Cabanada until the early 1850´s, when Vicente de Paula and Pedro Ivo were arrested and two military colonies were established in the area. One in each province. This study deals with the political disputes at the time, how the press became involved in those debates and attempts to identify the forest dwellers who fought in the war, how they lived, how they fought. Beyond the battles, the hand to hand struggle at the trenches, the burning of crops and homes of the so-called Cabanos, there was also a battle for the construction of a memory about those people and events. Pedro Ivo is maybe the most disputed personage in this battle. He has been portrayed both as a coward deserter and a hero of the liberals.

  19. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Barbosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this paper are twofold: a to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65 for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs, and b to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP, the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. The strong theoretical claim is that in the Romance non-NSLs the pre-verbal subject is sitting in Spec of IP, while in the Romance NSLs it is Clitic Left-Dislocated (or is extracted by A-bar movement if it belongs to a restricted set of non-referential quantified expressions. The paper provides quantitative evidence that BP is losing the properties associated with the Null Subject Parameter. In its qualitative analysis, it shows that the contrasts between EP and BP are easily accounted for if the two derivations are assumed and if the null subjects in the two varieties are considered to be of a different nature: a pronoun in EP and a pronominal anaphor in BP.

  20. Multi-headed comparatives in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marques

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering a global picture of the subtype of comparative constructions known as ‘multi-headed comparatives’ (from the fact that they exhibit more than one comparative operator in semantic interdependence. As a prerequisite to the fulfilment of his goal, an attempt will be made to clarify the scope of the notion ‘comparative construction’ and to draw a general typology of such constructions. The boundaries of the notion ‘comparative construction’ are defined by contrasting a “genuine” class of comparative constructions with others that hold some syntactic or semantic resemblance to them. Different typologies will be taken into consideration. As for multi-headed comparatives, even though different examples of these constructions have been identified in the scarce literature on the matter, the discussion on their syntactic patterns and meaning is still embryonic. This paper suggests that the expressive power of these comparatives, which seem to provide a particular strategy of information compression, is higher than has been assumed. Four sub-kinds of multi-headed comparatives are identified, based on meaning differences, namely: multi-headed comparatives with a distributive reading, multi-headed comparatives with a cumulative reading, multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of ‘ratios’ reading, and multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of differences reading. While resorting to some classic English examples, the object language will predominantly be Portuguese.

  1. Evaluation protocol for amusia: Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Conceição; Martins, Jorge; Teixeira, Pedro; Alves, Marisa; Bastos, José; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Amusia is a disorder that affects the processing of music. Part of this processing happens in the primary auditory cortex. The study of this condition allows us to evaluate the central auditory pathways. To explore the diagnostic evaluation tests of amusia. The authors propose an evaluation protocol for patients with suspected amusia (after brain injury or complaints of poor musical perception), in parallel with the assessment of central auditory processing, already implemented in the department. The Montreal Evaluation of Battery of amusia was the basis for the selection of the tests. From this comprehensive battery of tests we selected some of the musical examples to evaluate different musical aspects, including memory and perception of music, ability concerning musical recognition and discrimination. In terms of memory there is a test for assessing delayed memory, adapted to the Portuguese culture. Prospective study. Although still experimental, with the possibility of adjustments in the assessment, we believe that this assessment, combined with the study of central auditory processing, will allow us to understand some central lesions, congenital or acquired hearing perception limitations.

  2. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  3. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  4. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  5. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...

  6. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  7. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  8. Education and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  9. Wars of Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...

  10. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  11. Aspectos linguisticos dos emprestimos em portugues (Linguistic Aspects of Adaptation into Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Ronald M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process through which modern Portuguese borrows from other languages, mainly French and English. Portuguese adapts these derivatives to conform to its own rules of phonology, morphology, and semantics. (four references) (Author/CK)

  12. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (pPortuguese speakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  13. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Patrão, Ivone M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT's items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals.

  14. Retention in mental health care of Portuguese-speaking patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marta; Cook, Benjamin; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Alegría, Margarita; Kinrys, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    We compared service outcomes of dedicated language and cultural competency services in adequacy of care, ER, and inpatient care among Portuguese-speaking patients in ethnic- and non-ethnic-specific behavioral health clinics. We assessed adequacy of mental health care, and use of inpatient emergency department among Portuguese-speaking patients, comparing individuals receiving care from a culturally and linguistically competent mental health care setting (the Portuguese Mental Health Program [PMHP]) with usual mental health care in a community health care system in the USA. Propensity score matching was used to balance patients in treatment and control groups on gender, marital status, age, diagnosis of mental disorder, and insurance status. We used de-identified, longitudinal, administrative data of 854 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving care from the PMHP and 541 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving usual care from 2005–2008. Adequate treatment was defined as receipt of at least eight outpatient psychotherapy visits, or at least four outpatient visits of which one was a psychopharmacological visit. PMHP patients were more likely to receive adequate care. No differences were found in rates of ER use or inpatient mental health care. The present study suggests increased quality of care for patients that have contact with a clinic that dedicates resources specifically to a minority/immigrant group. Advantages of this setting include greater linguistic and cultural concordance among providers and patients. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which culturally appropriate mental health care settings benefit minority/immigrant patients. PMID:23427258

  15. Cultural adaptation and validation of the "Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire"--Portuguese version

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, Maria da Lapa; Pereira, José Pascoalinho; da Fonseca, João Pedro; Branco, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Portuguese (Portugal) and to evaluate its reliability and validity by use with Portuguese--speaking patients with Fibromyalgia. After translating the FIQ into Portuguese we administered it to 68 patients with Fibromyalgia together with an informed consent, a Portuguese version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and a formulary with the socio-demographic characteristics and duration of the complai...

  16. From “Crocodile City” to “Ville Lumière”: Cinema Spaces on the Urban Landscape of Colonial Surabaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruppin, D.

    2014-01-01

    The development of exhibition spaces in Surabaya, from canvas and bamboo tents to luxurious cinema palaces, between 1897 and World War I demonstrates the burgeoning movie-going scene in this major colonial-era port city in Eastern Java. The evolution of these venues on the modernizing urban

  17. Vladimir Shubin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    the former Belgian Congo, the Portuguese colonies, Southern Africa and the Horn of. Africa. Chapter 7 analyses French intervention in various parts of its former colonial empire. Chapter 8 as concluding piece entitled, “From the Cold War to the War on. Terror, 1991–2010” is devoted to foreign intervention in Africa during ...

  18. Why Is It Difficult to Grasp the Impacts of the Portuguese Quality Assurance System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amélia; Rosa, Maria João; Dias, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the impacts of the Portuguese quality assurance system on academic cultures, using the Cultural Theory proposed by Douglas (1970, 1982) and developed by Thompson, Ellis and Wildavsky (1990) as an explanatory framework for Portuguese academics' preference formation in relation to quality assessment. The Portuguese higher…

  19. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  20. Negative Transfer from Spanish and English to Portuguese Pronunciation: The Roles of Inhibition and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Alison M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    We examined negative transfer from English and Spanish to Portuguese pronunciation. Participants were native English speakers, some of whom spoke Spanish. Participants completed a computer-based Portuguese pronunciation tutorial and then pronounced trained letter-to-sound correspondences in unfamiliar Portuguese words; some shared orthographic…

  1. Decay or defeat ? : an inquiry into the Portuguese decline in Asia 1580-1645

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Ernst van

    2000-01-01

    Already in the 1590s the Portuguese in Asia looked upon the Dutch as a threat and most historiography has not been able to get away from the part that the Dutch played in the Indo-Portuguese drama. The decline of the Portuguese-Asian empire was however the result of endogenous and extrageneous

  2. Understanding Long-Run African Growth : Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, J.; Bezemer, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: 'extractive colonial institutions' (Acemoglu et al., 2001), 'colonial legal origin' (La Porta et al., 2004), 'geography' (Gallup et al., 1998) and 'colonial human capital' (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test

  3. The Portuguese Cinema, Trans-temporality and the Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Castelo Branco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Lourenço has focused some of his research on the historical-mythical relationship of the Portuguese with their country, claiming that they have been living in a kind of hyper-identity, incorporating an obsession with the past, which co-exists with a waiting utopian by future, as is demonstrates the Sebastianism myth. Focused on the representations of trans-temporality, identity, collective memory and myth, The Portuguese Cinema, Trans-temporality and the Myth, concentrated especially in Eduardo Lourenço's work to propose a research on how the identity myths – created and disseminated by Portuguese literature over the centuries – earned imagistic representations in the twentieth and twenty-first century’s, through a cinema that built or deconstructed these historical and patriotic mythological, inscribing image capacities to continually rebuild one mythologized common heritage.

  4. The financial impact of quality audits in portuguese companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Passos Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main theme the financial implications that Portuguese companies with the implementation and subsequent certification of the Quality System and respective Quality Audits. The literature review shows that companies do not publish financial results on the subject in question, making it necessary to acquire information through a questionnaire. About 126 questionnaires were sent. Our sample is however 32 validados.Pode to complete questionnaires that the top 5 overall benefits or indirect financial benefits for Portuguese companies were, respectively: improving internal organization; improving the company's image; increasing customer satisfaction; continuous improvement in customer service; improving competitive position. In terms of direct financial benefits the 3 main benefits obtained by the companies were: turnover increase; Performance (cost reduction; Increased business productivity. So it is expected to contribute to the knowledge of the impact, notably financial of Quality Management Systems and respective audits in Portuguese companies.

  5. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  6. The Mark of Importance in Industry Portuguese Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Estrela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent creation of a collective brand to promote the Portuguese tooling cluster in international markets such as value appropriation half highlights the need to understand how important brand for Portuguese companies. This implies ascertain what the position that the brand is taking in customers' minds as well as their degree of notoriety and recognition. This study aims to analyze the importance of brand for the various cluster stakeholders, including businesses, educational institutions and research and development, suppliers, associations and customers. As this study at an early stage of implementation of the mark 'Engineering & Tooling from Portugal "it appears that this is seen as an important factor in the competitiveness of Portuguese companies, despite the brand recognition level is still reducing. This work also seeks to provide guidance to enable the cluster to maximize brand value, we propose the strengthening of the promotion plan and the targeting of key brand attributes. Corporate Social; Image tag. 

  7. Operational Research : Congress of APDIO, the Portuguese Operational Research Society

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, João; Oliveira, José; Pinto, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book presents selected contributions from the XVIII Congress of APDIO (the Portuguese Association of Operational Research) held in Valença on June 28–30, 2017. Prepared by leading Portuguese and international researchers in the field of operations research, it covers a wide range of complex real-world applications of operations research methods using recent theoretical techniques, in order to narrow the gap between academic research and practical applications. Of particular interest are the applications of, nonlinear and mixed-integer programming, data envelopment analysis, clustering techniques, hybrid heuristics, supply chain management, and lot sizing and job scheduling problems. In most chapters, the problems, methods and methodologies described are complemented by supporting figures, tables and algorithms.   The XVIII Congress of APDIO marked the 18th installment of the regular biannual meetings of APDIO – the Portuguese Association of Operational Research. The meetings bring toget...

  8. Brothers in arms? Portuguese and Brazilian journalistic worlds compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alexandre Novais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gauge if there is a ‘de-territorialized’ Portuguese speaking journalistic community or whether diverse professional self-perceptions prevail amongst Portuguese and Brazilian counterparts. Based upon an extensive and manifold comparative analysis of 200 questionnaires – comprising the ‘journalism cultures’, their trust on social institutions’ and the ‘perceived influences on news work’ - it contrasts the cultural proximity of both countries, alongside a degree of globalization, with their rather dissimilar respective political and media contexts. It concludes that notwithstanding the expected psychological proximity and some signs of convergence between the two countries, the comparative evidence displays considerable differences which are the result of their respective institutional, social and cultural embedding. Thus, those partially different professional cultures prevent the existence of a translocal Portuguese speaking journalistic culture and corroborate the importance the contextual conditions

  9. BROTHERS IN ARMS? PORTUGUESE AND BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC WORLDS COMPARED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alexandre Novais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gauge if there is a ‘de-territorialized’ Portuguese speaking journalistic community or whether diverse professional self-perceptions prevail amongst Portuguese and Brazilian counterparts. Based upon an extensive and manifold comparative analysis of 200 questionnaires – comprising the ‘journalism cultures’, their trust on social institutions’ and the ‘perceived influences on news work’ - it contrasts the cultural proximity of both countries, alongside a degree of globalization, with their rather dissimilar respective political and media contexts. It concludes that notwithstanding the expected psychological proximity and some signs of convergence between the two countries, the comparative evidence displays considerable differences which are the result of their respective institutional, social and cultural embedding. Thus, those partially different professional cultures prevent the existence of a translocal Portuguese speaking journalistic culture and corroborate the importance the contextual conditions

  10. Portuguese Cistercian Churches - An acoustic legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiel G.; Lanzinha, João C. G.; Martins, Ana M. T.

    2017-10-01

    The Cistercian Order (11th century) stands out as an apologist of the simplicity and austerity of the space. According to the Order of Cîteaux, only with an austere space, without any distractions, the true spiritual contemplation is achieved. This Order was an aggregator and consolidator pole during the Christian Reconquest. Thus, as it happens with other Religious Orders, Cîteaux has a vast heritage legacy. This heritage is witness, not only of the historical, but also social, political, and spiritual evolution. This legacy resumes the key principles to an austere liturgy, which requirements, in the beginning, are based on the simplicity of worship and of the connection between man and God. Later, these requirements allowed the development of the liturgy itself and its relation with the believers. Consequently, it can be concisely established an empirical approach between the Cistercian churches and the acoustics conditioning of these spaces. This outcome is fundamental in order to understand the connection between liturgy and the conception of the Cistercian churches as well as the constructed space and its history. So, an analysis of these principles is essential to establish the relation between acoustic and religious buildings design throughout history. It is also a mean of understanding the knowledge of acoustics principles that the Cistercian Order bequeathed to Portugal. This paper presents an empirical approach on Cistercian monastic churches acoustics. These spaces are the place where the greatest acoustic efforts are concentrated and it is also the space where the liturgy reaches greater importance. On the other hand, Portugal is a country which has an important Cistercian legacy over several periods of history. Consequently, the Portuguese Cistercian monastic churches are representative of the development of the liturgy, the design of spaces and of the acoustic requirements of their churches since the 12th century until the 21st century and it is of

  11. The Tokyo Trial and the Question of Colonial Responsibility: Korean Reactions to Allied Justice in Occupied Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-hwan Chong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the zainichi Korean media and organizations responded to the Tokyo Trial and its pursuit of war responsibility. Their critiques of the Tokyo Trial often presented a critical insight from the perspective of anti-colonialism. Zainichi Koreans correctly questioned the absence of colonial responsibility in the pursuit of justice and war responsibility in the trial. In this sense, the problems and limits of the Tokyo Trial that scholars started to “discover” in the 1970s had already been discussed by some zainichi Koreans in the late 1940s. By delving into previously under-explored historical sources, particularly the numerous newspapers published by zainichi Korean groups during the occupation period, this article demonstrates how zainichi Korean critics understood the limits of the Tokyo Trial beyond the binary of “victors' justice” and “the judgment of civilization.”

  12. Museums, Manga, Memorials and Korean-Japanese History Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff KINGSTON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines why the history wars between South Korea and Japan are intensifying in the 21st century and the prospects for reconciliation. South Korea’s history museums promote anti-Japanese nationalism, making it difficult to unshackle the present from the past. In 2014 there was controversy over a Japanese manga exhibit that resonates with broader bilateral disputes over colonial history ranging from the comfort women to forced labor. These battles over the shared past have become internationalized, stoking mutual vilification and jingoistic sentiments

  13. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional's corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior.

  14. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional’s corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior. PMID:26630138

  15. [The war at home: "war amenorrhea" in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.

  16. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  17. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.

  18. Hegemony and Accommodation in the History Curriculum in Colonial Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafela, Lily

    2014-01-01

    A reanalysis of colonial education is necessary in order to highlight its multifaceted and hybrid nature in specific colonial contexts. Although in general, colonial education served the socio-political needs of the colonial machinery, the colonial government's hegemonic authority over the school curriculum did not operate as a totalising project.…

  19. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  20. A social theory of war: Clausewitz and war reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    of war. I then show how this framework helps us understand some key problems in the political science literature on war and conflict. I attempt to show two main things: (1) that there are different types of wars (and that these differences are not necessarily related to the standing of the actors, i......This article presents a new theory of war that is grounded in the insights of Clausewitz on the social nature of conflict. Clausewitz had argued that war is a political process; he therefore distinguished between ‘war’—understood in political terms—and warfare—understood as fighting. He...... then created a typology covering a spectrum of war ranging from total to limited, the political stakes of a conflict determining where it would fall on the spectrum. I develop and modify this basic framework by arguing that the social organization of the actors has a determining role in predicting the stakes...

  1. In a world without faith and dominated by ambition: Representations of Brazil and the Portuguese in the First Half of the Eighteen Century European Travel Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues, Ângela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a reflection on Atlantic history, I intend to reread the travel literature written by Europeans who stayed briefly at the Brazilian shore, so as to learn about the Portuguese empire -and particularly Brazil- from the inside and understand how the Portuguese and Luso-Brazilians of the colony were perceived. Travelers registered their impressions based on their own principles, and in some cases exaggerated the cultural differences they observed. This rereading makes it possible to evaluate the differences between a Europe constituted by nations, kingdoms and empires, and Mediterranean Europe. The travel literature, which did not have Brazil as final destination, could have disproportionate and unsuspected repercussions. The accounts showed Portugal and its colonies as similar to Spain and very different from the rest of Europe, at a period of affirmation of the national States and aggressive imperial external policies aimed at the South Atlantic.Desde una reflexión en torno a la historia atlántica, pretendo releer la literatura de viajes escrita por europeos que permanecieron brevemente en el litoral brasileño, para así conocer el Imperio Portugués -y muy particularmente Brasil- desde adentro y comprender cómo eran percibidos los portugueses y luso-brasileños de la colonia. Los viajeros registraban sus impresiones a partir de sus propios principios, exagerando en algunos casos las diferencias culturales observadas. Esta relectura permite evaluar las diferencias entre una Europa constituida por naciones, reinos e imperios; y la Europa Mediterránea. La literatura de viajes, cuyo destino final no era Brasil, podía tener repercusiones desproporcionadas e insospechadas. Los relatos mostraban a Portugal y sus colonias similar a España y muy diferente del resto de Europa, en un período de afirmación de los estados nacionales y agresivas políticas externas imperialista que apuntaban al Atlántico Sur.

  2. Peace and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties, Albert Schweitzer fought for a policy of peace and warned of the dangers of nuclear war in speeches and publications. Reading his appeals again today, we find that they have lost nothing of their uncanny up-to-dateness. Just the opposite: The disaster predicted by Albert Schweitzer is a stronger threat now than it was at his time. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Technology of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1973-01-01

    This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner) [de

  4. Australia and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denborough, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe

  5. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    war, there was little role for air defense. In a 1924 memorandum, the air staff explicitly stated “as a principle that the bombing squa- drons ...pulling his squa- drons back from southeastern England, if the pressure on them became too great and then redeploying them forward again, if the...minute as more and more British air- craft arrived in the area. Before reality set in, the controllers had scrambled three squa- drons of Hurricanes and

  6. Ascetic tropics: Franciscans, missionary knowledge and visions of Empire in the Portuguese Atlantic at the turn of the eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, Federico

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the study of Franciscan written and intellectual culture in Portuguese America. Specifically, it analyzes the role the Franciscans played, through their writings, in the shaping of the Portuguese- American world, of the way that world was thought about, and of contemporary understandings of the place Brazil should occupy within the Portuguese monarchy. It examines the visions of the Empire which the so-called Seraphic Order developed in the Brazilian colonial context, the written strategies they used, and the missionary and colonial knowledge which they employed when constructing their perceptions of the American world. To that end, it looks in detail at the Franciscan friar António do Rosário and his text Frutas do Brasil (Lisbon, 1702, in which he used his knowledge of the natural world to construct a complex plant-based allegory with clear political connotations about Brazil.El presente trabajo centra su atención en el estudio de la cultura escrita e intelectual de los franciscanos en la América portuguesa. En concreto, analiza el papel que los franciscanos, a través de sus textos, desempeñaron en la configuración del mundo luso-americano, en el modo de pensarlo y en la forma de entender el lugar que Brasil debía ocupar dentro de la Monarquía portuguesa. Examina las visiones de imperio que la Orden seráfica construyó, las estrategias escritas que empleó a tal efecto y los saberes misioneros y coloniales que movilizó a la hora de elaborar sus percepciones del mundo americano. Para ello, se centra en la figura de Fr. António do Rosário y su obra Frutas do Brasil (Lisboa, 1702, en la que el autor hizo uso de su conocimiento del mundo natural para construir una compleja alegoría hortofrutícola de claras connotaciones políticas en torno a Brasil.

  7. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  8. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  9. Overweight and obesity in Portuguese children: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R

    2014-11-03

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  10. Tense Usage Analysis in Verb Distribution in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This section of a four-part research project investigating the syntax of Brazilian Portuguese presents data concerning tense usage in verb distribution. The data are derived from the analysis of selected literary samples from representative and contemporary writers. The selection of authors and tabulation of data are also described. Materials…

  11. Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanger JM

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison's is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water Dog although Addison's is known to be prevalent in the breed. Results The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison's disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0.49 (± 0.16; there were no differences in risk for disease across sexes (p > 0.49. Further, the complex segregation analysis provides suggestive evidence that Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog is inherited under the control of a single, autosomal recessive locus. Conclusion The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison's. Though the confirmation of Addison's disease as an autosomal recessive disorder must wait until the gene is identified, breeders of these dogs may wish to keep the present findings in mind as they plan their breeding programs to select against producing affected dogs.

  12. Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, A M; Bell, J S; Belanger, J M; Famula, T R

    2006-05-02

    Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison's is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water Dog although Addison's is known to be prevalent in the breed. The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison's disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0.49 (+/- 0.16); there were no differences in risk for disease across sexes (p > 0.49). Further, the complex segregation analysis provides suggestive evidence that Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog is inherited under the control of a single, autosomal recessive locus. The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison's. Though the confirmation of Addison's disease as an autosomal recessive disorder must wait until the gene is identified, breeders of these dogs may wish to keep the present findings in mind as they plan their breeding programs to select against producing affected dogs.

  13. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  14. Nature of Science and Models: Comparing Portuguese Prospective Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…

  15. Portuguese validation of the children's eating attitudes test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Carmen Bento Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT is the most widely used instrument for evaluating eating disorders in adults and adolescents in a variety of cultures and samples. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT. METHOD: Nine hundred and fifty-six Portuguese secondary students (565 girls and 391 boys answered the ChEAT. The test-retest reliability was obtained with data from 206 participants from the total sample who re-answered the questionnaire after 4-6 weeks. Psychometric analyses were carried out for the total sample and separately for girls and boys. RESULTS: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Principal components factorial analysis yielded four factors in the total sample, accounting for 42.35% of the total variance. Factor structure was similar in the total sample and in both genders. Factors were labelled: F1 "Fear of Getting Fat", F2 "Restrictive and Purgative Behaviours", F3 "Food Preoccupation" and F4 "Social Pressure to Eat". The concurrent validity, explored using the Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDRS was high. DISCUSSION: The Portuguese version of the ChEAT is a valid and useful instrument for the evaluation of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours among Portuguese adolescents.

  16. Students in Higher Education Governance: The Portuguese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sonia; dos Santos, Sergio Machado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at analysing and discussing student participation in Portuguese higher education institutions and, specifically, in university governance. In a first moment, it describes this participation under both the previous (1988-2007) and the new legal frameworks (since 2007). A discussion of the changes introduced by this last framework…

  17. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  18. The Faculty Conjugated as Feminine: A Portrait of Portuguese Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Sa, Maria Jose; de Lourdes Machado-Taylor, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Portuguese higher education is changing, with a significant impact on academic careers, reinforcing the academic "estate." The focus of this paper is the analysis not only of the gender differences per se, but it also relates them to other variables such as the higher education subsystem, career positioning, the sociocultural background…

  19. The portuguese research reactor: A tool for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.J.G.; Marques, J.G.; Cardeira, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A short presentation is made of the Portuguese Research Reactor utilisation, its problems and the solutions found. Starting with the initial calibration and experiments the routine operation at full power follows. The problems then encountered which drove to the refurbishment are referred. The present status of the system is then presented and from that conclusions for the future are derived. (author)

  20. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  1. The Approaches to Studying of Portuguese Students of Introductory Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Cláudia; Gomes, Delfina; Borges, Janete

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is an investigation into the approaches to studying of Portuguese students of introductory accounting using the short version of the ASSIST instrument. In doing so, it also examined the impact upon the strategy adopted of the discipline area of students and gender. The results validate the use of the inventory with students…

  2. The Portuguese Experience with Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget

  3. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 3. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and botanical varieties evaluated by ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers. A. Carvalho H. Guedes-Pinto J. Lima-Brito. Research Note Volume 88 Issue 3 December 2009 pp 363-367 ...

  4. Supplementary data: Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Passport data of the old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars (2n = 6x = 42;. AABBDD). Cultivar passport code Botanical variety. Cultivar name. 1 milturum. Alentejano. 23 milturum. Eborense. 33 milturum. Galego Rapado. 51 milturum. Mocho de Espiga Ruiva. 4 lutescens. Almadense. 34 lutescens. Gentil Rosso. 48.

  5. The Portuguese Language on the Gold Coast, 1471-1807

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mary

    spoken on the coast today make it possible to construct a glossary of well over 100 ... words] … and other Negro-Portuguese terms in their reports to their ..... 25 ananas 'pineapple'. deM; anassas Mül (216); Twi anansi B/H;; Ga ananse 'wild.

  6. Health Service Quality Scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira, Paulo Rocha; Song, Elaine Horibe; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-17

    The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  7. The Implementation of Sustainability Practices in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Ana Marta; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Leal, Susana

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to analyze the current state of implementation of sustainability development (SD) in Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed to measure the level of implementation of SD practices in HEIs as well as the number of rankings, certifications and…

  8. Towards a syntactic analysis of European Portuguese cognate objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celda Morgado Choupina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at discussing selected syntactic aspects of cognate objects in European Portuguese, along the lines of Distributed Morphology (Haugen, 2009. Cognate objects may be readily discovered in numerous human languages, including European Portuguese (Chovia uma chuva miudinha. It is assumed in papers devoted to their English counterparts that they belong to various subclasses. Indeed, some of them are genuine cognates (to sleep a sleep... or hyponyms (to dance a jig; Hale & Keyser, 2002. It turns out that in European Portuguese, they can be split into four different categories: (i genuine cognate objects (chorar um choro..., (ii similar cognate objects (dançar uma dança (iii objects hyponyms (dançar um tango and (iv prepositional cognate objects (morrer de uma morte .... There are, then, significant differences between various classes of cognate objects: whereas the genuine ones call imperatively for a restrictive modifier and a definite article, the remaining ones admit it only optionally. It might be concluded, then, that a lexicalist theory set up along the lines of Hale and Keyser is unable to deal successfully with distributional facts proper to various classes of cognate constructions in European Portuguese. That is why the present study is conducted more in accordance with syntactic principles of Distributed Morphology, with a strong impact of hypotheses put forward by Haugen (2009.

  9. Individualism and collectivism: what differences between Portuguese and Romanian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Laura; Faria, Luísa

    2009-11-01

    This article presents the results of a series of preliminary comparisons, between the Portuguese and Romanian cultural contexts, on the individualism-collectivism (IND/COL) cultural dimension. The IND/COL was evaluated with the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire - ICQ -, constructed in New Zealand by Shulruf, Hattie and Dixon (2003, Anonymous Questionnaire of Self-Attitudes - AQSA), and adapted to the Portuguese and Romanian contexts by Ciochină and Faria (2007), using studies of confirmatory factor analysis. The ICQ composed by 26 items, 15 evaluating the IND scale--with three subscales (Uniqueness, Competition and Responsibility)--, and 11 evaluating the COL scale--with two subscales (Harmony and Advice)--, was administered to 395 subjects, 200 Portuguese and 195 Romanian, 10th and 12th graders. On the whole, in the Portuguese and Romanian samples, the multivariate and univariate statistical analyses evidenced the existence of two independent variables--gender and cultural context--, with significant effects, main and of interaction, on the scales and subscales of the ICQ. The results were discussed taking into consideration the specificities of the educational systems in the two cultural contexts, which are inevitably shaped by socio-cultural factors characteristic of the two countries considered in the present study--Portugal and Romania.

  10. Clinical predictive factors for endometriosis in a Portuguese infertile population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calhaz-Jorge, C.; Mol, Ben W.; Nunes, J.; Costa, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an important clinical situation associated with subfertility. It would be very useful to identify patients at increased risk for endometriosis prior to laparoscopy. In the present study, we evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics in a cohort of Portuguese

  11. Competencia Comunicativa em Portuges (Communicative Competence in Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Ricardo

    A textbook designed to give speech and writing practice to intermediate and advanced students of Portuguese as a second language includes 14 units intended to cover two semesters' work with approximately five hours per week of instruction. The units typically include: a text forming the basis for free conversation and practice of language…

  12. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. Results One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. Conclusions The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality. PMID:23327598

  13. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  14. Brazilian Portuguese and German in contact in two virtual communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Cristina Iapechino Souto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of code-switching between Brazilian Portuguese and German language in two virtual communities on Facebook: Brasileiros em Berlim and Brasileiros e Brasileiras em Berlim. We have adopted the concepts of durability, permeability and liminality traced by Zinkhahn-Rhobodes (2015 to observe the permeability of the linguistic border between these two languages. 

  15. Lessons from the British Defeat Combating Colonial Hybrid Warfare in the 1781 Southern Theater of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Society for Army Historical Research 16, no. 61 (1937): 3-23; Henry Clinton, The Headquarters Papers of the British Army in North America During the War...Rejoinder to ‘Future Threats and Strategic Thinking,” Infinity Journal 2, no. 2 (Spring 2012): 24-29. 19Department of the Army, ADRP 3-0, Unified Land...represented his security zone. The colony provided food for Greene’s army, a staging base for manufactured material and forces from New England, and a

  16. Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew Partners : The Contributions of British Architects to Built Environment in Colonial Nigeria, 1946-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Akeem Oladiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the contributions of two British architects, Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew in the development of built environment in Nigeria after World War II. It analyses the historical development of the built environment in Nigeria’s public space with respect to modernize infrastructures such as banks, schools, teachers training colleges and the university needed in support of the colonial administration in Nigeria. The agitation of the nationalists and postwar reconstruction facilitated and encouraged the British Empire to develop the edifice or structures that would be suitable for the environment. This, to a large extent, influenced the Nigerian architecture and built environment. Their design principles yielded functional institutional spaces and a hybrid aesthetics that signifies modernist construction and colonial influence. The paper concludes that the designs of both Fry and Drew represent a milestone and significant contribution to the development of built environment in colonial Nigeria.

  17. STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking Africa: a review of the recent literature in the social sciences and health Prevenção das DST/AIDS nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa: revisão da literatura recente em ciências sociais e da saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Monteiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews academic literature in the social sciences and health on the problems and challenges of STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries. Based on a bibliographic survey of the SciELO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts databases between 1997 and 2007, the research under review was organized into two groups, according to content. The first group of studies sought to understand STD/AIDS vulnerability among social groups by examining local cultural and socioeconomic factors as related to gender dynamics, sexuality, color/race, religion and health care. The second group encompassed critical assessments of shortcomings in the STD/AIDS educational messages delivered by governments and international agencies. Attention is called to the way in which the presence of traditional medicine systems and the occurrence of civil wars in the post-colonial period impact the STD/AIDS epidemic in the African countries under study.O artigo analisa a produção acadêmica, no campo das ciências sociais e da saúde, sobre os problemas e desafios das ações de prevenção das DST/AIDS nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa. A partir do levantamento bibliográfico nas bases SciELO, PubMed e Sociological Abstracts, entre 1997 a 2007, o conteúdo dos trabalhos selecionados foi organizado em dois eixos. O primeiro centra-se na descrição dos estudos sobre a relevância dos fatores culturais e sócio-econômicos locais, relacionados às dinâmicas de gênero, à sexualidade, cor/raça, religião e cuidados em saúde, para o entendimento da vulnerabilidade às DST/AIDS dos diversos grupos sociais. O segundo eixo aborda as avaliações críticas acerca dos equívocos das mensagens educativas sobre DST/AIDS, promovidas pelos governos e agências internacionais, bem como as implicações da presença dos sistemas de medicinas tradicionais e da ocorrência de guerras civis no período pós-colonial para a dinâmica das DST

  18. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  19. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-10-26

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning &apos

  20. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning 'crisis stability', 'first-strike stability', and 'arms race

  1. A voz dos bandos: colectivos de justiça e ritos da palavra portuguesa em Timor-Leste colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as relações entre o discurso da justiça e a prática do ritual nos bandos do governo colonial português em Timor Leste, entre a segunda metade do século XIX e as primeiras décadas do século XX. Os bandos consistiam em ordens e instruções de comando emanadas pelo governador português em Díli, e comunicadas de forma cerimonial por oficiais às populações dos diversos reinos timorenses dispersos pelo país. Bandos eram um instrumento por excelência de governação colonial dos assuntos indígenas, servindo para arbitrar conflitos, punir transgressões e, em geral, instituir realidades no mundo timorense. Contudo, esta instituição assumiu igualmente uma singular expressão nos usos timorenses, servindo bandos para comunicar também as ordens de autoridades tradicionais, os liurais. O artigo acompanha as variações coloniais e indígenas que os bandos adquiriram em Timor Leste, conceptualizando-os enquanto colectivos de justiça. Ao considerar assim os bandos como colectivos - formações heterogéneas em que elementos linguísticos e não linguísticos se combinam na produção de efeitos de poder sobre as populações - o artigo propõe uma via conceptual alternativa às perspectivas linguísticas e literárias de análise do discurso colonial.This article examines the relations between juridical discourse and ritual practice in the bandos issued by the Portuguese colonial government in East Timor between the second-half of the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century. Bandos consisted of orders and instructions of command issued by the Portuguese governor in Dilly and ceremonially transmitted by colonial officers to the populations of the various Timorese kingdoms. Bandos were a principal tool of colonial governance with regards to indigenous matters. They were used by the Portuguese to arbitrate conflicts, punish transgressions and, generally, to institute realities in the Timorese

  2. Headhunting and Colonialism. Anthropology and the Circulation of Human Skulls in the Portuguese Empire, 1870-1930, Ricardo Roque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Durand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le livre de Ricardo Roque sur la chasse aux têtes et le colonialisme dans l’empire portugais est tiré d’une thèse de doctorat soutenue à l’université de Cambridge en 2007. Bien que son titre laisse envisager une aire d’extension large, son propos se limite en réalité essentiellement à des éléments et événements liés à la colonisation de la partie orientale de l’île de Timor, située entre l’Indonésie et l’Australie. Les Portugais y ont mené des activités commerciales et religieuses à partir de...

  3. War Without Politics: A Critique of Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sellers, Robin B

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps no aspect of Carl von Clausewitz's classic "On War" has more continuing relevance for strategists than his assertion that war "is an act of policy" and further that "war is not merely an act...

  4. Airpower in Three Wars (WWII, Korea, Vietnam)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momyer, William

    2003-01-01

    ... (Operation Allied Force), and the war in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom). It is not my intent to analyze air operations in these wars but to see if there are trends that might be appropriate for another war...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  6. Reexamining Fourth Generation War as a Paradigm for Future War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Charter of the League of Nations and the subsequent Kellogg -Briand Pact “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” To demonstrate...twenty-years after the Kellogg -Briand Pact. Although the 1945-1991 period did see a decline in major interstate war relative to the immediately

  7. THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE TOURISTIC VALUE OF PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS MONUMENTS: THE CASE OF ANGOLA (1959-1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mariz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the understanding of the touristic value of Portuguese overseas monuments during Estado Novo, having as case-study the then colony of Angola between 1959 and 1974, years marked by the creation of the Information and Tourism Centre and the fall of the regime. Thus, considering the reality of the metropolis, we aimed to identify and analyse the evolution of tourism in this territory, as well the understanding and use of historic monuments by a nationalist regime as points of touristic interest and legitimisers of the national colonialism. We argue that during two different but totally complementary moments devoted to the relation between tourism and historic monuments of Angola, there was a real understanding of their touristic value. Besides that we claim that the believers of the touristic value of those monuments were very often advocates of the preservation or restoration of their pristine characteristics, an idea that we can affiliate to the thought of António Ferro to whom the success of tourism was extremely dependent on preserving and emphasizing the picturesque and idiosyncratic characteristics of those tourist destinations. To achieve our goals we have identified and analysed some tourism-related periodicals, thematic studies and legislation.

  8. Echoes of the Great War: The recordings of African prisoners in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Hoffmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from army registers, some (often anonymous photographs and the files of anthropometric examination, the involvement of thousands of African soldiers in WWI and their presence in POW camps in Europe seems to have left few traces in European archives. Vis-à-vis a mass of autobiographic texts on the Great War, written by Europeans and Americans, there are very few published accounts of African soldiers that would allow for their historical experiences and views to be included in historiographies of WWI. A collection of sound recordings produced with African prisoners of war in German camps by a group of German linguists, musicologists and anthropologists between 1915-18 offers a notable documentation of their presence. Yet, similar to the anthropometric registration, these recordings were not designed to accommodate the soldiers’ accounts, but to create a collection of language recordings. If these cannot be considered as ‘authentic voices from the past’ and unmediated accounts of WWI, how do we understand and theorise these hitherto untranslated voice recordings, their form and content? This essay understands the recordings not as ‘voices’ but as echoes, that is, as mediated, often effaced reverberations of accounts of the self and the war. The notion of echo in this essay grapples with issues of extraction, attenuation, limitation, distance and distortion, or outright effacement, that is the result of the form and the mediation of those speech acts, the belatedness of listening to them, as well as, the gaps in meaning and intelligibility the recordings entail. By conceptualising the recorded voices and their translation as echoes, I seek to understand the status of the recordings, the effects of this linguistic practice and gain a sense of the situation in the camps, so as to position these subaltern articulations in their mediated, distorted form as part of the colonial archive.

  9. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  10. The Cost of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibey Asthappan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spending almost US$700 billion to combat insurgents in Afghanistan, the U.S. population should be hopeful that they “bought” something of value as the Afghan War concludes. This exploratory study focuses on evaluating operations within Afghanistan by accounting for enemy and civilian losses. Integration of civilian losses offers an opportunity to evaluate operations that represent societal losses to the Afghan people. Regression estimates using zero-inflated negative-binomial models indicate that military operations resulted in more civilian casualties than enemy losses.

  11. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  12. Fear of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radil, T.

    1987-01-01

    Problem of psychological consequences of nuclear war threat is considered. Two categories of persons are distinguished: persons who are not decision-making but whose life is threatened, and persons who make decisions but are not responsible for them. An active approach to problems, related to a possible nuclear disaster, appears to be a powerfull socio-political means against nuclear danger and also has both psychotherapeutic and preventive meaning from the viewpoint of at least a partial liberation and protecion of people against the fear of nuclear death. By their effective activity among people, physicians and psychologists can effectively struggle against the fear of nuclear death

  13. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  14. “Why shall wee have peace to bee made slaves”: Indian Surrenderers During and After King Philip’s War

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Linford D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the treatment of surrenderers in King Philip’s War (1675–1676) in New England, particularly with regard to enslavement. Fear of slavery was a tangible, deep concern for most New England natives involved in the war. Threats of enslavement influenced the involvement of native individuals and groups, driving some into deeper “rebellion” and others to surrender. Each colony had differing policies for surrendering natives, but generally the thousands of surrendere...

  15. AMS studies in Portuguese variscan granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Martins, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of Variscan granitic rocks outcrop in Central Iberian Zone which are well documented concerning geological mapping, petrography and geochemistry but whose magnetic characteristics and fabric remain unknown. In this study we summarize the available AMS data from approximately 644 sampling stations (5152 samples) on different massifs of Variscan Portuguese granites. Despite their different geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics, magnetic susceptibility (K) values obtained for the majority of the studied granites range from 15 to 300 × 10-6 SI. The dominant paramagnetic behaviour of the granite bodies reflects the presence of ilmenite as the main iron oxide. This feature indicates the reduced conditions involved in the granite melt formation during the Variscan orogeny. The two-mica granites show K values ranging between 15 to 70 × 10-6 SI which are lower than values displayed by the biotite-rich facies scattered within the interval of 70 and 300 × 10-6 SI. The magnetite-bearing granites are scarce but represented in Lavadores, Gerês and Manteigas. Even so, only the Lavadores body could be considered as a true magnetite-type granite (K >3.0 × 10-3 SI) in face of its K, comprised between 1550 and 19303 × 10-6 SI. Magnetic anisotropy can be used as a "marker" for the deformation experienced by granite mushes during their crustal emplacement and further cooling. Magnetic anisotropy can thus be correlated with the finite deformation of a rock, as record by mineral fabrics. Post-tectonic granites, such as those from Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Pedras Salgadas, Caria, Vila da Ponte, Chaves and Lamas de Olo, have a magnetic anisotropy <2.5% which corresponds to a deformation hardly visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, at microscopic scale, these granites display almost ubiquitous magmatic to submagmatic microstructures (rare wavy extinction in quartz, erratic subgrain boundaries in quartz and, eventually, folded or kinked biotites). For

  16. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  17. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  18. In search of better energy performance in the Portuguese buildings—The case of the Portuguese regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Pinheiro, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is an important European policy tool to improve energy performance of buildings and has been applied in 27 countries with specific adjustments. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of the Portuguese energy certification system and regulation to the residential sector using a case type, whilst considering a set of alternative and complementary solutions involving the regulation values for the envelope, interior and exterior thermal insulation, lower air renovation ratio, light colored exterior walls, better glazing system, shading elements and a Trombe Wall. In order to understand the role and the importance of bioclimatic measures in the Portuguese application of the EPBD, a comparison with the Passivhaus Norm applied to warm countries in Europe will be made. Due to the diversity of the Portuguese climate, three different climate regions were considered. Finally, we will discuss what new measures should be added to the Portuguese regulation, so that the proposed recast of the Directive might be transformed into a more effective tool in the search for better energy performance, passive house buildings and sustainable constructions. - Highlights: ► We have analyzed the Portuguese residential application of the EPBD. ► The analysis was based on a case-study building located in 3 climatic zones. ► We conducted a comparative study between the RCCTE demands and the Passivhaus ones. ► The energy demand was improved, introducing different measures by climatic zone. ► To improve buildings performance, the Regulation should consider more passive demands.

  19. The "Periphery Principle": Unesco and the International Commitment of Scientists After World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Petitjean, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    To be published in the proceedings of the 2nd ESHS conference (Krakow, September 2006); International audience; Before World War II, international science was mainly European and Eurocentric. The International Council of Scientific Unions and the International Institute for Intellectual Co-operation paid very little attention to science and scientists beyond Europe, which were mostly confined to colonial science institutions. Non-Western scientific achievements were ignored.When joining the n...

  20. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, E.; Kramer, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  1. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  2. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  3. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...

  4. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  5. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations

  6. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  7. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society

  8. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  9. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  10. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  11. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  12. Commemorating a war that never came

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war......The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  13. Compulsory Land Acquisitions In Tanganyika Revisiting The British Colonial Expropriation Principles And Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Eligius Ndjovu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The British took over Tanganyika from the Germans in 1919 after the First World War. In facilitating colonial economic policies the British Colonial Government enacted Land Ordinance Cap 113 of 1923 and Land Acquisition Ordinance Cap 118 of 1926. These laws facilitated the acquisition of native lands and considerably changed the way expropriation was handled leaving behind permanent marks on the later practice. The colonial practice exposed the inner most economic intents of the British government. Use of legal phrases like for public purpose embedded in the ordinance had multiple legal interpretations and loose definition befitting the colonial economic cravings of the time. Although major provisions of the colonial acquisition laws are reflected in the later laws evidence suggests that a few elements of colonial expropriation practices have also sneaked in as silent laws of expropriation but others have not. Quite a few practices had been deliberately discarded or inadvertently forgotten for lack of a political will to purify and emulate them or due to lack of good record keeping. Using historical data and archival records from the Tanzania National Archives this study explored colonial expropriations mainly by focusing on the principles laws practices and procedures used. The main objective of the study was to identify good practices used during the said era the intended and unintended consequences of these unreported practices especially those which need to be emulated by the current laws and practices. The study concluded by shedding light on bad practices which are being exercised to date uncritically but also acknowledging good colonial expropriation practices which existed then but could be emulated. First the study insists that public purpose clause in expropriation must be affected with good and fair intentions and a mechanism to check this be set. Secondly PAPs involvement in land acquisition and compensation negotiations

  14. Environmental radiological impact of some Portuguese uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, J.P.; Bettencourt, A.O.; Teixeira, M.M.G.R.; Elias, M.D.T.

    1988-01-01

    An environmental radiological surveillance programme has been in progress around the most significant Portuguese uranium mines, from 1976 to 1983. A short description is given of the mines of Urgeirica (including uranium milling), Freixiosa, Pinhal de Souto and Bica. The results of the surveillance programme developed in the vicinity of these facilities are presented and the identified critical pathways are discussed. One of these pathways is the consumption of cabbage, which is an important component in the diet of the Portuguese population. The exposure of the critical groups, due to the intake of 226 Ra through the diet, calculated from the results of this monitoring programme, range from 0.02 to 1.5 mSv.y -1 for the different mines under study. (author)

  15. Use of the word schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Nuno; Falcão de Almeida, Telma; Araújo, Filipa; Molodynski, Andrew; Venâncio, Ângela; Bouça, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Stigmatizing references to schizophrenia have a negative impact on self-esteem, deter treatment seeking and diminish the effectiveness of treatment. To analyze the reporting of schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers. We analyzed five high circulation Portuguese newspapers between 2007 and 2013. We selected all news containing the word "esquizofrenia" (schizophrenia). Several variables were collected. About 1058 news items contained the word schizophrenia. Schizophrenia was mentioned metaphorically in 40% of the cases and in the context of Crime in 22%. When used in a Criminal context, schizophrenia was mostly attributed to people who were the perpetrators of the crime (93%). When used metaphorically, schizophrenia had a negative connotation in 90% of cases. We found an increasing reporting of schizophrenia in the criminal news and serious crimes. Our results suggest the media has an active role promoting stigma, as well as passively broadcasting and thus passing on prejudices.

  16. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  17. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, N.

    1980-01-01

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  19. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  20. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  1. El Ateneo de Madrid y el problema colonial en las vísperas de la guerra de independencia cubana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Mora, Luis Miguel

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Spain’s colonial problem on the eve of the Cuban War of Independence was a deeply debated subject at the time in the Athenaeum of Madrid, like in Parliament. The author's argument is that, rather than sponsoring a scientific debate on the matter, the Athenaeum wanted to influence Spain’s public opinion and political élite of its own ideas on colonial reform.

    El problema colonial fue un tema debatido en profundidad en el Ateneo de Madrid en los momentos previos a la definitiva Guerra de Independencia Cubana (1895-1898. La idea que se defiende es que más que tener lugar un debate científico sobre el problema colonial contemporáneo, se trataba de aprovechar la plataforma ateneísta para concienciar a la opinión pública y la élite política española de la necesidad de una reforma colonial que por las mismas fechas se discutía en el Parlamento.

  2. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34 for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35 for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34 for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  3. Recognizing Textual Entailment: Challenges in the Portuguese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing textual entailment comprises the task of determining semantic entailment relations between text fragments. A text fragment entails another text fragment if, from the meaning of the former, one can infer the meaning of the latter. If such relation is bidirectional, then we are in the presence of a paraphrase. Automatically recognizing textual entailment relations captures major semantic inference needs in several natural language processing (NLP applications. As in many NLP tasks, textual entailment corpora for English abound, while the same is not true for more resource-scarce languages such as Portuguese. Exploiting what seems to be the only Portuguese corpus for textual entailment and paraphrases (the ASSIN corpus, in this paper, we address the task of automatically recognizing textual entailment (RTE and paraphrases from text written in the Portuguese language, by employing supervised machine learning techniques. We employ lexical, syntactic and semantic features, and analyze the impact of using semantic-based approaches in the performance of the system. We then try to take advantage of the bi-dialect nature of ASSIN to compensate its limited size. With the same aim, we explore modeling the task of recognizing textual entailment and paraphrases as a binary classification problem by considering the bidirectional nature of paraphrases as entailment relationships. Addressing the task as a multi-class classification problem, we achieve results in line with the winner of the ASSIN Challenge. In addition, we conclude that semantic-based approaches are promising in this task, and that combining data from European and Brazilian Portuguese is less straightforward than it may initially seem. The binary classification modeling of the problem does not seem to bring advantages to the original multi-class model, despite the outstanding results obtained by the binary classifier for recognizing textual entailments.

  4. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  5. Cultural organizations and communication in portuguese decentralization policy

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Maria João Anastácio

    2014-01-01

    This paper intends to show the Portuguese municipalities’ commitment, since the first decade of this century, in cultural facilities of municipal management and how it provided 12 of the 18 district capitals of mainland Portugal with cultural equipment, but after all we want to know if this effort resulted in a regular, diverse, and innovative schedule. Investing in urban regeneration, local governments have tried to convert cities’ demographic changes (strengthening of the most e...

  6. Accounting quality and the adoption of IASB standards: portuguese evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Ana Isabel; Curto, José Dias

    2008-01-01

    Through rule 1606/2002 by the European Commission, Portuguese listed firms were required to adopt IASB standards in the preparation and presentation of consolidated accounts for the periods beginning on or after 2005. IASB standards are developed in environments where accounting practices are especially directed at the private sector, reporting rules are largely unaffected by taxation requirements and capital is traditionally raised in public markets. However, in Portugal, financial reporting...

  7. Parenting and Adolescents’ Self-Esteem: The Portuguese Context

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Yara; Veiga, Feliciano; Fuentes, María C.; García, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent’s psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem) in the Portuguese culture. The sample was of 517 adolescents, 214 males (41.39 %), and aged 11 to 18 years. We used the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) to assess the parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and negligent), and the Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale Form-5 (AF5) that assesses five dimensions of self-esteem: academic, social, emotional, fa...

  8. Corporate social responsibility reporting: The case of Portuguese hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Joana Nicolau

    2012-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This research investigated Portuguese Hospitals’ Corporate Social Responsibility reporting practices, by analyzing Hospitals’ Annual Reports and websites. The main hospital stakeholders were presented and activities pertaining to each group included. Overall, it appears that there is a lack of strategic CSR reporting on both private and publ...

  9. In search of Six Sigma in Portuguese SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory research aims to study the reasons for the low implementation level of Six Sigma within Portuguese Small and Medium Enterprises. The results suggest that ISO 9001 certification, and Lean Management, are still regarded as enough for company success. The descriptive analysis and the statistical tests performed led to the conclusion that there are no significant differences for the motivations not to implement Six Sigma between small and medium companies. The qualitative researc...

  10. French Influence on Portuguese Architects in the Age of Enlightenment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayo, Mafalda

    2017-10-01

    This investigation shows the European influence on the work of Portuguese architects of the Enlightenment period. Based on previous studies we focus our attention on the design of “Praça do Comércio” square and on a hypothesis, that it was based on the French Royal Square. We demonstrate that the design of Lisbon from the second half of the eighteenth-century was influenced by the theories and best practices of the time. We also confirm that the architect Eugénio dos Santos e Carvalho, a member of the reconstruction team for the Baixa, had in his personal library several reference books of French architectural practice that certainly influenced his architecture. The plans for the main square of Lisbon’s lower city, “Praça do Comércio”, can be compared to the “Place de Nos Conquêtes”, predecessor of the “Place Vêndome”, in its design, architecture and dimensions. This research analysed the cartography and iconography of Lisbon’s reconstruction. In particular, the drawings of “Praça do Comércio” and “Place de nos Conquêtes” were exhaustively studied. The comparative study of the elements for both squares lead to the conclusion that the Portuguese square presents many aspects of the French Age of Enlightenment, and in particular those featured in the “Place de nos Conquêtes”. This paper concludes that the Portuguese urban design and architectural projects of the 18th century are the result of previous knowledge where it was always possible to articulate the vernacular with academic design, and where many different influences left their mark on the culture of the period. The plans for the lower part of Lisbon display a mixture of references that relate to architectural and urban planning traditions of the Portuguese military engineering and contemporary French urban planning.

  11. Using the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Persch, Karina Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has received influxes of people, mainly from Africa, Europe and Japan, forming one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world. Some groups, particularly in Southern Brazil, have retained their original cultural traditions, whilst acquiring elements of the typical local Brazilian cultural identity. This is the first study designed to formally evaluate biculturality in Brazil. To psychometrically assess and validate the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale (BS) in Brazil. The BS was adapted and translated to Portuguese and tested for the first time in Brazil in a sample of descendants (n = 160) from four immigrant groups and respective locations in Southern Brazil. A series of psychometric tests were conducted in order to examine the validity of the Portuguese version of the BS. Analyses of variance across scores for all subgroups were also conducted. Factor analysis revealed two main factors contributing to most of the variance in scores. The 10 items measuring affiliation with minority cultural characteristics and the typical Brazilian culture yielded Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.69 and 0.78 respectively, whereas the overall Cronbach's alpha for all 20 items of the BS was 0.67. There was a significant correlation between items related to the typical Brazilian culture and the generation since immigration of research participants (r = 0.23, p = 0.004). The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 7.4 minutes. The results indicate that the Portuguese version of the BS is a valid, reliable and easy-to-use instrument to assess biculturality experienced by descendants of immigrants in southern Brazil.

  12. Pioneers in angiography: The Portuguese School of Angiography, Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Pires, J.A.; Grainger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Master physician and researcher Egas Moniz and his innovative surgical colleague Reynaldo dos Santoz developed and established the Portugese School, which introduced the science of visualization of the arteries, veins, and lymphatics throughout the body. This second edition of the book on the Portuguese School benefits from the addition of several important documents by these two men, as well as by the inclusion of their brilliant and moving last lectures

  13. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  14. Impression Management and Organizational Performance: the Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Maria de Fátima Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of performance in the adoption of impression management strategies. The study conducts a content analysis of a sample of 45 chairman’s statements, included in the annual reports for 2010 Portuguese companies in the non-finance sector. Findings indicate that performance does not explain impression management.Consistent with social psychology theory of impression management, larger companies present a favourable image of the firm, however consistent with ...

  15. Sweet samosas: a new food product in the Portuguese market

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Since in the present times families have much less time to prepare meals or even deserts, and because sweets are always so well accepted to enjoy a moment of pleasure either alone or shared, it was the aim of this academic work to prepare an alternative desert, not at sale in the Portuguese market, and study its acceptance by the consumers. The product selected was sweet samosas, and these were prepared with different filings (apple & cinnamon, chocola...

  16. Drugs: The portuguese fallacy and the absurd medicalization of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pinto Coelho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drug decriminalization in Portugal is a failure, despite several published articles claiming exactly the opposite. This paper will show that there is an illogical campaign supporting the Portuguese drug policy and an unacceptable manipulation of factual information. A book written by Glenn Greenwald, a lawyer fluent in Portuguese, suggests the opposite of what the research data demonstrates. He claims that Portugal is a success.  Mr. Greenwald is a member of the Cato Institute, an American libertarian think-tank that has been advocating for drug legalization for many years. This complex issue has been broadcast worldwide by the press, both Portuguese and international, boosting the proliferation of the ‘good news’ about the Portuguese drug policy and distorting the real analysis of what is going on in this country. This is happening to an extent that Anand Grover, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right of Everyone to the Highest Attainable Standard of Physical and Mental Health, working in the area of drug dependence did invite the world to ‘reflect about human rights in drug use’ and ‘place health at the core of drug policy’. In their report, he highlighted two core issues, ‘health’ and ‘human rights.’ Could this be used to  justify the approach of legalization of drugs, at any price? Have they laid down their arms and are dangerously opening the way to the medicalization of drug dependency? Surprisingly, the two recent 2010 and 2011 EMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Reports, which emphasized the use of substitution drugs as a main tool to tackle opioid dependence, show clearly that Europe looks eager to follow this path.Is this the right path?

  17. Extracting BI-RADS Features from Portuguese Clinical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Houssam; Cunha, Filipe; Moreira, Inês C; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Sousa, Eliana; Page, David; Burnside, Elizabeth; Dutra, Inês

    2012-01-01

    In this work we build the first BI-RADS parser for Portuguese free texts, modeled after existing approaches to extract BI-RADS features from English medical records. Our concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BIRADS lexicon and on iterative transferred expert knowledge. We compare the performance of our algorithm to manual annotation by a specialist in mammography. Our results show that our parser's performance is comparable to the manual method.

  18. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  19. Colonialism, customary law and the post-colonial state in Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonialism became a fact of life in many African countries. An effect of colonialism especially in the former British colonized countries was the transplantation of the British legal system, which led to recognition of both systems and the gradual relegation of the indigenous system otherwise called customary law. The use and ...

  20. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A Critique and a Defense of the Argument from African Metaphysical Epistemology. ... Africa, as it has the advantageous result of helping in the search for truth concerning such offences, thereby promoting the delivery of effective legal justice, and thus contributing ...

  1. Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses: reading Mahmood Mamdani's citizen and subject. Sanya Osha. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 2, 1999: 155-161. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. THE ROLE OF QUALITY: SPANISH WOOL IN PORTUGUESE TRADE IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-referencing qualitative and quantitative statistics from handwritten Portuguese trade sources shows the Spanish in the first half of the 19th century using Portuguese trade to introduce their wool in English and other markets. High quality Spanish merino wool played a key role in Portuguese trade during this period, particularly in the golden years of 1809-1819 and 1825. Its quality intensified both legal trade and smuggling.

  3. Property, Plant and Equipment disclosure requirements and firm characteristics: the Portuguese Accounting Standardization System

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Rafaela; Azevedo, Graça; Costa, Alberto J.; Oliveira, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In the new Portuguese accounting frame of reference (Portuguese Accounting Standardization System – Sistema de Normalização Contabilística), the issues related to Property, Plant and Equipment assets are dealt with in the Accounting and Financial Reporting Standard (Norma Contabilística de Relato Financeiro – NCRF) 7 (Property, Plant & Equipment). The present study intends to assess the degree of compliance with the disclosure requirements of this accounting standard by Portuguese unlisted co...

  4. The cultural dimension of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kochetkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present article introduces the concept of the culture wars. Reviewed the features and characteristics of the culture wars. Described the basic methods of the culture wars. Сoncluded that the theoretical design concept of the culture wars can be a uniting point for a number of important areas of the science of international relations.

  5. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  6. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  7. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  8. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  9. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  10. The Falkland Islands War: An Image of War in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, J

    1997-01-01

    .... By any reckoning, it was a war that should never have been fought. It was a war unlike any other war in the twentieth century, and since 1945 it was the first war to erupt outside the construct of the Cold War paradigm...

  11. The War on War League: A South African pacifist movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Communist Party. This article however contends that it needs to be understood in its own terms, as a pacifist movement, reflecting a political moment of resistance to the plunge into global war. Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, First World War, Syndicalism, Internationalism, ...

  12. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...

  13. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  14. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  15. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  16. Mapping the Sorrows of War

    OpenAIRE

    West, Philip; Philip, West

    2007-01-01

    The two keywords in this essay, mapping and sorrows, are used as heuristic devices to explore the sticky problems of reconciliation among former enemies from the Asia Pacific War, 1931-1945, primarily Japan and China, but also Korea and the United States. Sorrows, as a word and concept, offers an innovative approach to healing the wounds of war by countering the powerful influence of war memories in the familiar narratives of self-pity and self-glorification. In the language of politics and d...

  17. Sintomatologia depressiva e ansiosa em utilizadores portugueses do Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Amorim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El Facebook se ha convertido en una de las herramientas más importantes de comu - nicación actual. Esta red social permite a los usuarios la interrelación, el intercambio de información y el sentido de pertenencia a un grupo o estilo social. En este estudio, se ha evaluado la sintomatología depresiva y ansiosa en los usuarios portugueses del Facebook. La muestra está compuesta de 201 usuarios portugueses del Face - book (123 del sexo femenino y 78 del sexo masculino con edades entre los 18 y los 73 años. Para llevar a cabo este trabajo, fueron hechos dos cuestionarios (uno socio- demográfico y el otro relativo al uso del Facebook, el Inventario de Depresión de Beck y la Escala de Autoevaluación de Ansiedad de Zung. Los resultados confirman que los valores de ansiedad y depresión varían de acuerdo con las variables sociode- mográficas, pero invalidan un aumento en los valores de ansiedad y depresión en los usuarios portugueses del Facebook.

  18. [Empowerment, stress vulnerability and burnout among Portuguese nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgambídez-Ramos, Alejandro; Borrego-Alés, Yolanda; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The work environment in Portuguese hospitals, characterized by economic cutbacks, can lead to higher levels of burnout experienced by nursing staff. Furthermore, vulnerability to stress can negatively affect the perception of burnout in the workplace. However, structural empowerment is an organizational process that can prevent and decrease burnout among nurses. Consequently, the aim of the study was to examine to what extent structural empowerment and vulnerability to stress can play a predictive role in core burnout in a sample of Portuguese nurses. A convenience sample of 297 nursing staff members from Portuguese hospitals was used in this study. Core burnout was negatively and significantly related to all the dimensions of structural empowerment, and it was positively and significantly related to vulnerability to stress. Regression models showed that core burnout was significantly predicted by access to funds, access to opportunities and vulnerability to stress. Organizational administrations must make every effort in designing interventions focused on structural empowerment, as well as interventions focused on individual interventions that enhance skills for coping with stress.

  19. Does Portuguese economy support crude oil conservation hypothesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz; Pires Manso, José R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines cointegration relationships and Granger causality nexus in a trivariate framework among oil consumption, economic growth and international oil price in Portugal. For this purpose, we employ two Granger causality approaches: the Johansen cointegration test and vector error correction model (VECM) and the Toda–Yamamoto approaches. Cointegration test proves the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among these variables and VECM and Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between crude oil consumption and economic growth (feed back hypothesis). Therefore, the Portuguese economy does not support crude oil conservation hypothesis. Consequently, policymakers should consider that implementing oil conservation and environmental policies may negatively impact on the Portuguese economic growth. - Highlights: ► We examine Granger causality among oil consumption, GDP and oil price in Portugal. ► VECM and Toda–Yamamoto tests found bidirectional causality among oil and GDP. ► Portuguese economy does not support the crude oil conservation hypothesis.

  20. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  1. Migration intentions among Portuguese junior doctors: Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Pedro; Alves, Hélio

    2017-12-01

    Migration of health personnel during periods of economic crisis represents a challenge for policymakers in origin and destination countries. Portugal is going through a period of economic hardship and much has been speculated about an increase in junior doctors' migration during this period. Using a questionnaire administered to a sample of Portuguese junior doctors who were still in the general residency (1st-year after medical school), we aim at determining the prevalence of migration intentions among Portuguese junior doctors and to identify the most important drivers of career choice for those who are considering emigrating in the near future. In our sample, 55% of Portuguese junior doctors are considering working abroad in the coming 10 years. Several variables were associated with an intention to work abroad: female sex (odds ratio [OR] 0.559; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.488-0.640), the National Medical Exam score (OR 0.978; 95% CI 0.961-0.996;), having studied abroad (OR 1.756; 95% CI 1.086-2.867) and considering income and research opportunities as key factors for future specialty choice (OR 1.356; 95% CI 1.132-1.626; OR 2.626; 95% CI 1.228-4.172). Our study warns of the shortages the country may face due to doctors' migration and the main factors behind migration intentions in Portugal. Developing physician retention strategies is a priority to appropriately address these factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  3. Life-cycle assessment of typical Portuguese cork oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-05-01

    Cork forest systems are responsible for making an important economic contribution to the Mediterranean region, especially Portugal where the cork oak woodlands or montados contain about 32% of the world's area. The environmental profile derived from reproduction cork production and extraction in two Portuguese regions (Tagus valley and Alentejo) representative of the Portuguese sector were assessed in detail using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology from a cradle-to-gate perspective. The production line was divided into four stages considering all the processes involved: stand establishment, stand management, cork stripping and field recovery. According to the environmental results, there were remarkable differences between the two production scenarios mainly due to the intensity and repetition of forest activities even though the cork yield was reported to be the same. The management system in the Alentejo region presented the worse environmental profile in almost all the impact categories under assessment, mainly due to the shorter cycle duration of the mechanical cleaning and pruning processes. Cork stripping was identified in both scenarios as the production stage with the highest contribution to the environmental profile due to the cleaning and pruning processes. A sensitivity assessment concerning the cork yield was performed since the average production yields in the Portuguese montados are lower than the ones used in this study. Thus, if the cork yield is reduced, the environmental profile in both scenarios gets worse since almost all the forest activities involved are the same. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Child abuse: validation of a questionnaire translated into Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Marengo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to validate the Portuguese translation of a questionnaire on maltreatment of children and adolescents, developed by Russell et al. and to test its psychometric properties for use in Brazil. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese using a standardized forward-backward linguistic translation method. Both face and content validity were tested in a small pilot study (n = 8. In the main study, a convenience sample of 80 graduate dentistry students with different specialties, from Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were invited to complete the final Brazilian version of the questionnaire. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the results obtained from the questionnaire for different specialties (pediatric dentistry, for example. The respondents completed the questionnaire again after 4 weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability. The comparison of test versus retest questionnaire answers showed good agreement (kappa > 0.53, intraclass correlation > 0.84 for most questions. In regard to discriminant validity, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the experience and interest domains, in which pediatric dentists showed more experience with and interest in child abuse compared with dentists of other specialties (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. The Brazilian version of the questionnaire was valid and reliable for assessing knowledge regarding child abuse by Portuguese-speaking dentists.

  5. Elemental composition by EDXRF of marine sponges from the Berlengas portuguese natural park - western portuguese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Maria Fatima; Conceicao, Ana; Barbosa, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Marine sponges are sedentary and unselective filter-feeding metazoans, which are nowadays represented by more than six thousand species with the Demospongiae being the most representative, inhabiting all aquatic environments. Due to their way of feeding, by filtering large amounts of water, these benthic organisms are particularly exposed to pollutants. Previous studies have demonstrated their aptitude in being used as environmental monitors. Besides, some authors have evidenced a selective bio-accumulation capability for some transition elements (e.g. Ni, Zn) which is dependent on the species. The present work aims at the investigation of marine sponges collected at the Berlengas Islands located at Western Portuguese Coastal area. These islands constitute a National Park with controlled access and low signal of anthropogenic influences, being a nearly ideal habitat to evaluate a possible selective bio-accumulation. Thirty-five sponges collected in August 1998, at the Berlengas National Park were classified and analysed by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The major, minor and some trace elements: Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, I and Pb were determined. Besides, sediment samples were also taken from the area to assess some lithological influence on the sponge composition. Due to the high percentage of elements that do not emit characteristic X-ray lines, absorption corrections for quantitative calculations were carried out taking into account the ratio between the inelastic and elastic scattered incident radiation of compounds and standard reference materials, from a silver secondary target. A lithological influence on the sponge major elemental composition is demonstrated. The absence of any trace metal contamination was confirmed and a clear selective bio-accumulation in some trace elements, such as Ni, Zn and As was detected

  6. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  7. The Tightrope: French Colonial Collapse and the Shaping of Cold War Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    States—did not buy it. On the other hand, the United States still needed France in NATO. For the French, their relationship with Algeria was far... franchise to the indigenous population. Regarding the latter, the pressure was enough for the Governor-General’s office in Algiers to blame the Sétif

  8. Is colonialism history? The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development : The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the claim that colonial history has left an enduring imprint on Africa's institutional and economic development. The literature following Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2001) and Sokoloff and Engerman (2000) maintains that different types of colonialism affected the

  9. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugos...

  10. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  11. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708

  12. Clausewitz Nuclear War and Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    .... The advent of nuclear weapons and their role in the evolving east-west struggle following the second world war created a situation, however, unforeseen by Clausewitz, where the most basic political...

  13. The Justice of Preventive War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, Henry

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions, including preventive war...

  14. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  15. [Endocrinology in Portugal - Census 2016. Board of the Portuguese College of Endocrinology and Nutrition of the Portuguese Medical Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joana; Afonso, António; Carvalho, Davide; Marques, Ana Paula; Martins, Teresa; Mascarenhas, Mário Rui; Pereira, Conceição; Rodrigues, Dírcea; Saraiva, Catarina; Cardoso, Helena

    2017-09-29

    On September 2016, the Board of the College of Endocrinology and Nutrition of the Portuguese Medical Association carried out a national survey, about all Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Departments of the public hospitals included in the Portuguese National Health Service and a simplified version of this survey was sent to all endocrinologists working in Portugal and registered with the Portuguese Medical Association. Data related to organizational and human resources were collected, reporting the situation by the end of year 2015. The census registered 107 individuals and 27 Departments. The ratio of endocrinologists-population was 1.4, much lower than in the other European countries (varies between 2 to 4), resulting in alarming shortages of services in some areas of Portugal and in worse quality indicators. These data suggest that actions should be taken to increase the number of endocrinologists and departments in the country. In recent years, the number of residents has significantly increased, which will make it possible to correct this situation.

  16. LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND IDENTITY: THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE AS A SYMBOLIC IDENTIFICATION SPACE ON DOCUMENTARY: LANGUAGE – LIVES IN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelton Duarte de Santana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language as a social element is constitutive to every human being. Language gives each person, as well as to his or her own linguistic community, an individual and peculiar way to figure out the world and its surroundings. Language is influenced by several processes, including sociocultural and historical ones. If we say that each language may allow its speaker to do a very own world reading, a question about its language behavior in other continents arises. This way we were able to understand how sociocultural influences could improve the whole cultural identity construction process. Both defining linguistic communities and specifying social groups, language becomes a symbolic space of identification. The movie – Language- lives In Portuguese reunites Portuguese speakers reports around the world aiming to illustrate Portuguese language as a nations identity construction, autoafirmation and legitimation factor through social, cultural and historic processes. This study is based on the belief in such a kind of dialogism between Language and Culture. The sociolinguistic studies nowadays do not intend, as they used to, understanding or describing structural language aspects and very individuals ones, but especially to reflect upon relations among subject, language, identity, culture and history.

  17. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  18. Cyber-Physical War Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Sullivan, D. T.; Kott, A

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents general strategies for cyber war gaming of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that are used for cyber security research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Since Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and other CPSs are operational systems, it is difficult or impossible to perform security experiments on actual systems. The authors describe how table-top strategy sessions and realistic, live CPS war games are conducted at ARL. They also discuss how the recorde...

  19. The colonial world as mission and mandate: leprosy and empire, 1900-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worboys, M

    2000-01-01

    The history of medicine in twentieth-century empires has been dominated by studies of "imperial tropical medicine" (ITM) and its consequences. Historians have been fascinated by the work of medical scientists and doctors in the age of high imperialism, and there are many studies of medicine as a "tool of empire." This paper reviews work that explores colonial medicine as a broader enterprise than ITM in three spheres: missionary activity, modernization, and protection of the health and welfare of indigenous peoples. To illustrate the themes of mission and mandate, it discusses the development of policies to control leprosy in the tropical African and Asian colonies of Britain in the first half of this century, especially the work of the British Empire Leprosy Relief Association (BELRA). Although BELRA's efforts did little to change imperial medical and health agendas, they had an important impact locally and ideologically, and show how closely interwoven the themes of Christian caring, medical humanism, colonial development, and welfare policy had become by the outbreak of the Second World War.

  20. Orientalism in Spain: Arab studies and colonialism in Morocco (1894-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Marín

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and analyzes the relationship between Arab studies and colonialism in Spain. Arabists like Julián Ribera promoted this relationship and were actively involved in the training of ‘colonial agents’ in the service of the Spanish administration. They supported several initiatives to this end, becoming members of various official institutions such as the ‘Junta de Enseñanza de Marruecos’. However, the Arabists’ departure from the ‘Centro de Estudios Históricos’ in 1916 signalled the abandonment of this line of action, as Arab studies became restricted to the academic arena, and focussed on the study of the Arab-Islamic period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula. The creation of the ‘Escuelas de Estudios Árabes’ in 1932, especially that of Granada, marked a new initiative in Spanish arabists’ attempts at colonial involvement. However, this new project was brought to an abrupt halt by the Spanish Civil War.

  1. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  2. Three wars that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W M S

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  3. Early Developmental Program Shapes Colony Morphology in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Mamou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When grown on a solid surface, bacteria form highly organized colonies, yet little is known about the earliest stages of colony establishment. Following Bacillus subtilis colony development from a single progenitor cell, a sequence of highly ordered spatiotemporal events was revealed. Colony was initiated by the formation of leading-cell chains, deriving from the colony center and extending in multiple directions, typically in a “Y-shaped” structure. By eradicating particular cells during these early stages, we could influence the shape of the resulting colony and demonstrate that Y-arm extension defines colony size. A mutant in ymdB encoding a phosphodiesterase displayed unordered developmental patterns, indicating a role in guiding these initial events. Finally, we provide evidence that intercellular nanotubes contribute to proper colony formation. In summary, we reveal a “construction plan” for building a colony and provide the initial molecular basis for this process.

  4. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  5. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Figueiró Santos

    Full Text Available Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB. Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  6. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mostafaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Post-modernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of violence in the Second World War, the Nazi genocide, the paranoiac politics of the Cold War and European colonialism have made fiction a medium for history. Chinua Achebe’s novels, indeed, are manifestation of colonialism and its subsequent impact on the literary text and dominant discourse. In exploring these terms, this dissertation endeavors to closely examine Gayatri Spivak’s concept of subaltern in the Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease. Furthermore, the present paper demonstrates Spivak’s voice to differences: that is, class categorization and marginalized subaltern subjects. By the emergence of colonialism, the significance of social class and social discourse became predominant; therefore, colonial discourses instilled into the social, cultural construction and literary text, particularly novel. In this regard, the investigation of the dominate discourses is pursued, and this helps to show how colonialism resulted in discourse inculcation. The resistant perspective against ruling ideology, as the Italian Marxist political activist, Antonio Gramsci calls it cultural hegemony is presented through language, tradition, and customs. Finally, the study focuses on Marxist concept of false consciousness from the viewpoint of Antonio Gramsci to Louis Althusser. Keywords: Colonial discourse, Subaltern, False Consciousness, Social Class, Change and Tradition, Language, Culture

  7. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms

  8. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J

    2005-01-01

    .... It is the foundation of joint professional military education and training, forming the basis for how the warfighter will prosecute a war, and is a reflection of the judgments of senior military leadership...

  9. Innominate artery war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  10. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  11. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  12. War of Images and Images of War: Rape and Sacrifice in the Iraq War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Rial

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.

  13. Ascenso social, consolidación y prestigio. El caso de los portugueses y sus redes sociofamiliares en el Buenos Aires tardocolonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Reitano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como propósito analizar el comportamiento y las estrategias sociales de los portugueses más destacados dentro de la comunidad porteña de Buenos Aires colonial tardío. Para este análisis, debemos tener en cuenta el crecimiento que tuvo la ciudad desde mediados del siglo XVIII lo que se denota claramente en la expansión del comercio atlántico. Es durante ese período que Buenos Aires pierde rápidamente las características de los pueblos predominantemente rurales para adquirir, en forma definitiva, los rasgos de una ciudad.

  14. Is the Discourse of Hybridity a Celebration of Mixing, or a Reformulation of Racial Division? A Multimodal Analysis of the Portuguese Magazine Afro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Carvalheiro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years the study of "race" relations was dominated by paradigms—of assimilationism and multiculturalism—which highlighted difference and division (as a problem, or a virtue. In more recent years the idea of racial and cultural mixing—creolization or hybridization—has become an important concept in ethnic and racial studies. The starting point of this article is the observation that the idea of racial and cultural mixture—hybridity or mestiçagem—was a key ideological feature of Portuguese colonialism in its last decades. If hybridity is not therefore a new discourse in Portugal, what is the place for it today and what kind of hybridity is being referred to? What might the Portuguese case tell us about discourses of hybridity more generally? The article explores these questions through a combined visual and linguistic analysis of the lifestyle magazine Afro as a site where contemporary discourses about "race" intertwine. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002247

  15. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  16. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  17. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  18. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  19. PRE-COLONIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    ideas between places and over-time and mediate relationship and interactions between individuals and ... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 9, No 1 ..... Colonial Times, “Ahiajoku Lecture Series, Owerri: Ministry of Information, Youth and Sports Government Press. Afigbo A.E ...

  20. Policing native pleasures: a colonial history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Naheem

    2012-12-01

    The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  1. Hyphal growth and colony expansion (Forum Commentary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Semenov, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Bailey et al. have used a quite simple but elegant experimental method and developed innovative concepts about phase transitions in colony behavior based on non-linearity of invasion probability with distance between substrate particles. This proves again the old adage that significant scientific

  2. 128 COLONIALISM: NEXUS FOR MYRIAD RELIGIOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, the version of Christians we have, who also practice ATR is ... Colonialism is not a new concept in the history of Africa. .... of their kits and kin still living. ..... believe that God could be reached through different media. ..... Hornby, A.S., (2006), Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, New York,.

  3. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony.

  4. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Tsimring, Lev S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell–cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony

  5. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  6. From “Crocodile City” to “Ville Lumière”: Cinema Spaces on the Urban Landscape of Colonial Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Ruppin, D.

    2014-01-01

    The development of exhibition spaces in Surabaya, from canvas and bamboo tents to luxurious cinema palaces, between 1897 and World War I demonstrates the burgeoning movie-going scene in this major colonial-era port city in Eastern Java. The evolution of these venues on the modernizing urban landscape came in the context of other processes of development and social change, which informed both the decisions of cinema entrepreneurs and the mobility of spectators. As a site in which technology, r...

  7. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  8. Computer Assisted Language Learning and the Internationalisation of the Portuguese Language in Higher Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Pavón, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The internationalisation of the Portuguese language has become a priority for academic institutions of different Portuguese-speaking countries which are trying to adapt to the current context of globalisation and ubiquitous communications through digital media. In order to achieve it, several challenges should be faced, namely providing…

  9. Masculinities and Sport: The Emphasis on Hegemonic Masculinity in Portuguese Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paula; Botelho-Gomes, Paula; Goellner, Silvana Vilodre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse representations of hegemonic masculinity in physical education (PE) mixed classes, the only curricular discipline having sport as its contents in the Portuguese educational system. The analysed data come from semi-structured interviews with Portuguese secondary school teachers and students and from class…

  10. Gaucher disease: N370S glucocerebrosidase gene frequency in the Portuguese population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacerda, L.; Amaral, O.; Pinto, R.; Oliveira, P.; Aerts, J.; Sá Miranda, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    In the Portuguese population the most frequent form of Gaucher disease is type 1. The N370S glucocerebrosidase gene mutation accounts for 63% of mutated alleles. The frequency of this mutation was accurately determined in the Portuguese population, which does not present an Ashkenazi Jewish genetic

  11. Organisational Cultures in Public and Private Portuguese Universities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aristides I.; Hill, Manuela M.

    2008-01-01

    Perceptions of organisational culture made by three categories of staff playing managerial roles in each of two Portuguese Universities (one public and the other private) were compared using a questionnaire adapted from the Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument and translated into Portuguese. The four scales of the questionnaire, designed…

  12. PMN-Portuguese Meteor Network and OLA-Observatório do Lago Alqueva agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, C.

    2018-01-01

    The PMN-Portuguese Meteor Network has two new video meteor detecting systems at OLA- Observartório do Lago Alqueva, situated at the South East Portuguese territory with a pristine night sky and more than 290 clear nights each year.

  13. Evaluating the Portuguese National Reading Plan: Teachers' Perceptions on the Impact in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, António Firmino; Pegado, Elsa; Ávila, Patrícia; Coelho, Ana Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on teachers' perceptions of the implementation and impact in Portuguese schools of a wide-ranging and long-term reading promotion programme. The Portuguese National Reading Plan (PNRP) was a public policy initiative whose purpose was to increase literacy levels and reading habits among the population. The Plan identified…

  14. Design Management, Learning and Innovation: Results from a Portuguese Online Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Barata, José M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an output of a Portuguese public research project: "DeSid"--"design as a company's strategic resource: a study of the impacts of design" (FCT). The "DeSid" research project was created with the main purpose to make a diagnosis of the use of design inside the Portuguese manufacturing industry. This paper…

  15. The Differential Use of Spanish and Portuguese along the Uruguayan-Brazilian Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermire, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, the Uruguayan Government has attempted to enforce cultural and linguistic norms along the border with Brazil through the prohibition of Portuguese, especially in schools, despite the fact that this is the heritage language of most border residents. This research focuses on the differential use of Spanish and Portuguese in…

  16. Syntactic Structure and Information Structure: The Acquisition of Portuguese Clefts and "Be"-Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Maria; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Soares-Jesel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of different types of clefts and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese. We first present the main syntactic and discourse properties of different cleft structures and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese, and we discuss how data from first language acquisition may contribute to…

  17. Age and Input Effects in the Acquisition of Mood in Heritage Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Cristina; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Jesus, Alice; Marques, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzes the effect of age and amount of input in the acquisition of European Portuguese as a heritage language. An elicited production task centred on mood choice in complement clauses was applied to a group of fifty bilingual children (six- to sixteen-year-olds) who are acquiring Portuguese as a minority language in a German…

  18. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast... navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This... Centennial Festa, which will include a fireworks presentation originating from a tug and barge combination in...

  19. Ter/Haver-Existential Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese: Variation and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callou, Dinah

    This paper discusses the details of existential sentences constructed with the Portuguese verbs "ter" and "haver" in the interpersonal form. The uses of these verbs are discussed and analyzed in detail. The history and evolution of linguistic changes in Brazilian Portuguese are discussed in an attempt to detect historical…

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND TEACHING: THE CHART OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS IN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lennertz Marcotulio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between research and teaching, concerning the rearrangements operated in the chart of possessive pronouns,  observing in which way sociolinguistic studies have been applied to the teaching of Portuguese through the didactic material prepared for High School and the courses of Portuguese as a Foreign Language.

  1. Parenting Practices and Quality of Life in Dutch and Portuguese Adolescents : A Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Cristina; Bodden, Denise; Lemos, Ida; Lorence, Barbara; Jimenez, Lucia; Bodden, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in Quality of life (QoL) and parenting practices, as well as the impact of parenting practices on QoL in Dutch and Portuguese adolescents. A total of 168 Portuguese (44.64% girls, 55.36% boys) and 155 Dutch adolescents (55.68% girls, 44.32% boys) aged

  2. Parenting Practices and Quality of Life in Dutch and Portuguese Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, C.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Lemos, I.; Lorence, B.; Jimenez, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in Quality of life (QoL) and parenting practices, as well as the impact of parenting practices on QoL in Dutch and Portuguese adolescents. A total of 168 Portuguese (44.64% girls, 55.36% boys) and 155 Dutch adolescents (55.68% girls, 44.32% boys) aged

  3. Factorial Validity and Invariance of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among Portuguese Youngsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Raposo, Jose; Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Teixeira, Carla M.; Bertelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (across gender, age and physical activity participation) of a Portuguese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The sample consisted of 1,763 Portuguese youngsters (731 male and 1,032 female) with ages between 15 and 20 years.…

  4. SIMOcean: Maritime Open Data and Services Platform for Portuguese Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno; Grosso, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Lamas, Luísa; Alves, Margarida; Almeida, Sara; Deus, Ricardo; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Portugal is the country with the largest EEZ in the EU and the 10th largest EEZ in the world, at 3,877,408 km2, rendering the existence of an integrated management of Portuguese marine system crucial to monitor a wide range of interdependent domains. A system like this assimilates data and information from different thematic areas, ranging from ocean and atmosphere state variables to higher level datasets describing human activities and related environmental, social and economic impacts. Currently, these datasets are collected by a wide number of public and private institutions with very diverse purposes (e.g., monitoring, research, recreation, vigilance) leading to dataset duplication, inexistence of common data and metadata standards across organizations, and the propagation of closed information systems with different implementation solutions. This lack of coordination and visibility hinders the marine management, monitoring and vigilance capabilities, not only by making it more difficult to access, or even be aware of, the existence of certain datasets, but also by minimizing the ability to create added value products or services through dataset integration from different sources. Adopting Open Data approach will bring significant benefits by reducing the cost of information exchange and data integration, promoting the extensive use of this data. SIMOcean (System for Integrated Monitoring of the Ocean), co-funded by the EEA Grants Programme, is integrated in the initiative of the Portuguese Government to develop a set of coordinated systems providing access to national marine data. These systems aim to improve the Portuguese marine management, monitoring and vigilance capabilities, aggregating different data, including specific human activities datasets (vessel traffic, fishing records, oil spills), and environment variables (waves, currents, wind). Those datasets, currently scattered among different departments of the Portuguese Meteorological (IPMA) and the

  5. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  6. Colonial Army Formats in Africa and Post-Colonial Military Coups:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSOS USER

    The centralised and autocratic features of Caliphate rule were .... latter's participation in the affairs of their respective societies, and leadership ..... deployment of the army by the NPC for internal colonial-style repression duties in the Middle Belt ...

  7. Physical activity, BMI and metabolic risk in Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p103   It has been reported, in the last decades, a significant decrease in physical activity (PA levels, with a consequent increase in obesity and metabolic risk factors among youth. The aims of this study were to describe PA levels, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and metabolic risk factors, and to examine the association between PA and body mass index (BMI with metabolic risk among Portuguese youth. The sample comprises 212 Portuguese adolescents (12-16 years old. Height and weight were measured. PA was estimated with the Bouchard questionnaire (3 days recall, as well as with the use of a pedometer (used for 5 consecutive days. Metabolic risk factors comprised fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference. Subjects were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to BMI; the maturational status was indirectly estimated with the maturity offset procedure. A continuous metabolic risk score was computed (zMR and PA values were divided into tertiles. Qui-square test, t-test and ANOVA were used in statistical analyses. SPSS 18.0 and WinPepi softwares were used and p<0.05. A moderate to high prevalence of overweight/obesity and HDL-cholesterol was found, as well as a high prevalence of high blood pressure and low to moderate PA levels among Portuguese youth. The relationship between BMI and zMR showed that obese adolescents have higher zMR when compared to normal weight or overweight adolescents. This finding suggests that increased levels of PA and reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may have a positive role against the development of metabolic risk factors.

  8. MOCASSIM - an operational forecast system for the Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, J.; Soares, C.; Almeida, S.; Rusu, E.; Pinto, J.

    2003-04-01

    An operational system for the forecast of oceanographic conditions off the Portuguese coast is presently being implemented at Instituto Hidrográfico (IH), in the framework of project MOCASSIM. The system is planned to use a broad range of observations provided both from IH observational networks (wave buoys, tidal gauges) and programs (hydrographic surveys, moorings) as well as from external sources. The MOCASSIM system integrates several numerical models which, combined, are intended to cover the relevant physical processes observed in the geographical areas of interest. At the present stage of development the system integrates a circulation module and a wave module. The circulation module is based on the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS), a primitive equation model formulated under the rigid lid assumption, which includes a data assimilation module. The wave module is based on the WaveWatch3 (WW3) model, which provides wave conditions in the North Atlantic basin, and on the SWAN model which is used to improve the wave forecasts on coastal or other specific areas of interest. The models use the meteorological forcing fields of a limited area model (ALADIN model) covering the Portuguese area, which are being provided in the framework of a close colaboration with Instituto de Meteorologia. Although still under devellopment, the MOCASSIM system has already been used in several operationnal contexts. These included the operational environmental assessment during both national and NATO navy exercises and, more recently, the monitoring of the oceanographic conditions in the NW Iberian area affected by the oil spill of MV "Prestige". The system is also a key component of ongoing research on the oceanography of the Portuguese continental margin, which is presently being conducted at IH in the framework of national and European funded projects.

  9. Portuguese pellets market: Analysis of the production and utilization constrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Eliseu; Mantha, Vishveshwar; Rouboa, Abel

    2012-01-01

    As opposite in Portugal, the wood pellets market is booming in Europe. In this work, possible reasons for this market behavior are foreseen according to the key indicators of biomass availability, costs and legal framework. Two major constrains are found in the Portuguese pellets market: the first one is the lack of an internal consumption, being the market based on exportations. The second one is the shortage of raw material mainly due to the competition with the biomass power plants. Therefore, the combination of the biomass power plants with pellet production plants seems to be the best option for the pellets production in the actual Portuguese scenario. The main constrains for pellets market has been to convince small-scale customers that pellets are a good alternative fuel, mainly due to the investment needed and the strong competition with natural gas. Besides some benefits in the acquisition of new equipment for renewable energy, they are insufficient to cover the huge discrepancy of the investment in pellets heating. However, pellets are already economic interesting for large utilizations. In order cover a large amount of households, additional public support is needed to cover the supplementary costs of the pellets heating systems. - Highlights: ► There is a lack of internal consumption being the pellets market based on exportation. ► The shortage of raw material is mainly due to the biomass power plants. ► Combining pellet plants with biomass power plants seems to be a wise solution. ► The tax benefits of renewable energy equipments are not enough to cover the higher investment. ► Pellets are already economic interesting for large utilizations in the Portuguese scenario.

  10. National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Teresa; Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina; Goulão, Beatriz; Mendonça, Nuno; Alarcão, Violeta; Santos, Nuno; de Oliveira, Rita Machado; Yngve, Agneta; Bye, Asta; Bergland, Astrid; Lopes, Carla; Nicola, Paulo; Santos, Osvaldo; Clara, João Gorjão

    2016-07-16

    Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly. Therefore, knowledge about nutritional status among the elderly is essential for the promotion and maintenance of healthy ageing and to support the development of health protection policies and equity in elderly health care. This is a nationwide nutrition survey of the Portuguese population over 65 years old, with data collection through face-to-face interviews. A representative and random sample of community dwelling elderly and nursing homes residents will be obtained by multistage sampling stratified per main Portuguese regions, sex and age groups. Minimum sample size was estimated to be 2077 elderly (979 in the community and 1098 in nursing homes). Data will be collected on food habits and eating patterns, nutritional status, food insecurity, lifestyle, self-rated general health status and self-reported diseases, functionality, loneliness, cognitive function, emotional status and demographic and socio-economic characterization. This is the first national survey to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition of the Portuguese population above 65 years old, including those living in nursing homes. It will allow the identification of population subgroups of elderly with increased odds of malnutrition and nutritional risk. In addition, this survey will contribute to the identification of psychosocial and clinical predictors of malnutrition among elderly, which is an important risk factor for other

  11. Climate wars and fat wars: A new role for law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Kroeze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Public trust in science is eroding because of a number of conflicts. In the sphere of climate science and of nutrition science, a basic methodological difference between scientists has escalated into what can be called wars. These wars are the result of influences such as personalities of leading scientists and powerful commercial and political interests. The wars have escalated to such an extent that leading scientists are being threatened with legal action and disciplinary procedures for advocating divergent views. These legal processes are not primarily about the procedural aspects of their actions, but are couched as being ‘about the science’. This means that legal processes are being used to ‘settle’ the science – something that the law has never been required to do. This new role for law has implications for legal education and requires that lawyers become more capable to understand empirical research.

  12. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Chuck J.; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows® operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh®, or Linux® operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size wo...

  13. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  14. Validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutão, João Miguel Raimundo Peres; Serra, Luis Filipe Cid; Alves, José Augusto Marinho; Leitão, José Carlos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2012-03-01

    In line with self-determination theory (SDT: Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2002) the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness has been identified as an important predictor of behavior and optimal functioning in various contexts including exercise. The lack of a valid and reliable instrument to assess the extent to which these needs are fulfilled among Portuguese exercise participants limits the evaluation of causal links proposed by SDT in the Portuguese exercise context. The aim of the present study was to translate into Portuguese and validate the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES: Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006). Using data from 522 exercise participants the findings provided evidence of strong internal consistency of the translated BPNES subscales while confirmatory factor analysis supported a good fit of the correlated 3-factor model to the data. The present findings support the use of the translated into Portuguese BPNES to assess the extent of basic psychological need fulfilment among Portuguese exercise participants.

  15. Portuguese validation of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory: Factor structure, reliability, and factor invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alexandra; Reis, Sibília; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-09-01

    The Short Health Anxiety Inventory is a brief instrument to assess health anxiety widely used across countries; however, no validated version is available for Portuguese-speaking population. Factorial structure, reliability, and equivalency factor with the Spanish version were analyzed with Portuguese adolescents aged 14-18 years. A Portuguese adolescent cohort ( N = 629) and a comparative Spanish adolescent cohort ( N = 1502) were evaluated. The original two-factor version was the best fitting model for the Portuguese version. The reliability was excellent. Complete measurement invariance across both countries was supported. The Portuguese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory is a valid screening inventory to assess health anxiety in adolescents.

  16. First hoisting of the Portuguese flag at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Unknown, Unknown

    1986-01-01

    First hoisting of the Portuguese flag at CERN, following the country's membership. Photo taken on January 22 (or 23), 1986. From left to right: António Costa Lobo (Portugal's ambassador to the UN in Geneva), Gaspar Barreira, Karin Wall (José Mariano Gago's wife), José Mariano Gago (Portugal's JNICT president), Catarina Wall Gago (José Mariano Gago's daughter), João Varela, Herwig Schopper (CERN's Director-General), Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira (Portugal's Secretary of State for Science), , Margarida Nesbitt Rebelo, , Mário Pimenta, , Gustavo Castelo Branco, João Seixas, Sérgio Ramos, and Peter Sonderegger.

  17. Study of 25 X-chromosome SNPs in the Portuguese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Amorim, António

    2011-01-01

    The importance of X-chromosome markers in individual identifications, population genetics, forensics and kinship testing is getting wide recognition. In this work, we studied the distributions of 25 X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (X-SNPs) in population samples from Northern, Central...... and Southern Portugal (n=305). The data were also compared with previous data from the Mediterranean area confirming a general genetic homogeneity among populations in the region. The X-SNP distribution in the three Portuguese regional samples did not show any significant substructure and the X...

  18. Mechano-sorptive creep of Portuguese pinewood chemically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Lopes Duarte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical modification on mechano-sorptive creep in bending was studied by experimental work. Stakes with 20 × 20 × 400 mm RTL of Portuguese wood species (Pinus pinaster Aiton modified with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5- dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU, m-methylated melamine resin (MMF, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and amid wax (WA were measured under asymmetric moistening conditions over a period of 42 days (app. 1000 hours with stress level (SL of 12 MPa, according to ENV 1156.

  19. Seaweeds from the Portuguese coast: A potential food resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, C.; Machado, S.; Vieira, E. F.; Morais, S.; Teles, M. T.; Correia, M.; Carvalho, A.; Domingues, V. F.; Ramalhosa, M. J.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Antunes, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Portuguese coast presents a large amount of potentially edible seaweeds that are underexploited. The identification of different macroalgae species and their availability in the northern and central coast of the continental territory was assessed. The nutritional value of seaweeds is discussed based on a literature review (when available) focused on data for species collected in Portugal with the aim to define the most important nutritional parameters that should be characterized in the samples. Possible health concerns related with the presence of contaminants are also considered.

  20. Modifications and modernization of the Portuguese research reactor (RPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardeira, F.M.; Menezes, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) reached its criticality in April 1961 and has successfully operated for more than 30 years without important incidents. Several replacements of equipment and improvements were introduced during this period, the most important occurring in the modernisation period (1987-1991), with the purpose of improving safety and reliability of the reactor exploitation. The reactor has been shut-down during more than two years for important works of replacement and refurbishment of the primary piping and pool lining. The objective of this paper is to describe the main works performed on RPI reactor during its life time concerning replacements, upgrading and modernisation of reactor equipment and installations. (orig.)