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Sample records for portions threshold intensities

  1. Swallowing thresholds of mandibular implant-retained overdentures with variable portion sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn-Tekamp, F.A.; Slagter, A.P.; Van der Bilt, A.; Van't Hof, M.A.; Kalk, W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We analysed the effect of three portion sizes Optocal Plus (small, medium and large) on swallowing thresholds in subjects with either conventional complete dentures or mandibular implant-retained overdentures (transmandibular and permucosal cylindric implants). Tests were carried out in 52 women and

  2. Near threshold behavior of photoelectron satellite intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Becker, U.; Heimann, P.A.; Langer, B.

    1987-09-01

    The historical background and understanding of photoelectron satellite peaks is reviewed, using He(n), Ne(1s), Ne(2p), Ar(1s), and Ar(3s) as case studies. Threshold studies are emphasized. The classification of electron correlation effects as either ''intrinsic'' or ''dynamic'' is recommended. 30 refs., 7 figs

  3. Comparison between intensity- duration thresholds and cumulative rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Rosi, Ascanio; Rossi, Guglielmo; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    This work makes a quantitative comparison between the results of landslide forecasting obtained using two different rainfall threshold models, one using intensity-duration thresholds and the other based on cumulative rainfall thresholds in an area of northern Tuscany of 116 km2. The first methodology identifies rainfall intensity-duration thresholds by means a software called MaCumBA (Massive CUMulative Brisk Analyzer) that analyzes rain-gauge records, extracts the intensities (I) and durations (D) of the rainstorms associated with the initiation of landslides, plots these values on a diagram, and identifies thresholds that define the lower bounds of the I-D values. A back analysis using data from past events can be used to identify the threshold conditions associated with the least amount of false alarms. The second method (SIGMA) is based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering: the statistical distribution of the rainfall series is analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) are used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. The name of the model, SIGMA, reflects the central role of the standard deviations in the proposed methodology. The definition of intensity-duration rainfall thresholds requires the combined use of rainfall measurements and an inventory of dated landslides, whereas SIGMA model can be implemented using only rainfall data. These two methodologies were applied in an area of 116 km2 where a database of 1200 landslides was available for the period 2000-2012. The results obtained are compared and discussed. Although several examples of visual comparisons between different intensity-duration rainfall thresholds are reported in the international literature, a quantitative comparison between thresholds obtained in the same area using different techniques and approaches is a relatively undebated research topic.

  4. Fatigue threshold studies in Fe, Fe-Si, and HSLA steel: Part II. thermally activated behavior of the effective stress intensity at threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Esaklul, K.; Gerberich, W. W.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that closure mechanisms alone cannot fully explain increasing fatigue thresholds with decreasing test temperature for a sequence of Fe-Si binary alloys and an HSLA steel. Implications are that fatigue crack propagation near threshold is a thermally activated process. The effective threshold stress intensity, which was obtained by subtracting the closure portion from the fatigue threshold, was examined. This effective stress intensity was found to correlate very well to the thermal component of the flow stress. A detailed fractographic study of the fatigue surface was performed. Water vapor in the room air was found to promote the formation of oxide and intergranular crack growth. At lower temperature, a brittle-type cyclic cleavage fatigue surface was observed but the ductile process persisted even at 123 K. Arrest marks were found on all three modes of fatigue crack growth. The regular spacings between these lines and dislocation modeling suggested that fatigue crack growth was controlled by the subcell structure near threshold. A model based on the slip-off of dislocations was examined. From this, it is shown that the effective fatigue threshold may be related to the square root of (one plus the strain rate sensitivity).

  5. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young

  6. Exercise Intensity Thresholds: Identifying the Boundaries of Sustainable Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Daniel A; Fontana, Federico Y; Robertson, Taylor C; Murias, Juan M; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M; Pogliaghi, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    Critical power (CP), respiratory compensation point (RCP), maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), and deoxyhemoglobin breakpoint ([HHb]BP) are alternative functional indices that are thought to demarcate the highest exercise intensity that can be tolerated for long durations. We tested the hypothesis that CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP occur at the same metabolic intensity by examining the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙)O2p and power output (PO) associated with each "threshold." Twelve healthy men (mean ± SD age, 27 ± 3 yr) performed the following tests on a cycle ergometer: i) four to five exhaustive tests for determination of CP, ii) two to three 30-min constant-power trials for MLSS determination, and iii) a ramp incremental exercise test from which the V˙O2p and PO at RCP and [HHb]BP were determined. During each trial, breath-by-breath V˙O2p and ventilatory variables were measured with a metabolic cart and flowmeter turbine; near-infrared spectroscopy-derived [HHb] was monitored using a frequency domain multidistance system, and arterialized capillary blood lactate was sampled at regular intervals. There were no differences (P > 0.05) among the V˙O2p values associated with CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP (CP, 3.29 ± 0.48; RCP, 3.34 ± 0.45; MLSS, 3.27 ± 0.44; [HHb]BP, 3.41 ± 0.46 L·min(-1)); however, the PO associated with RCP (262 ± 48 W) and [HHb]BP (273 ± 41 W) were greater (P 0.05). Although the standard methods for determination of CP, RCP, MLSS, and [HHb]BP are different, these indices occur at the same V˙O2p, suggesting that i) they may manifest as a result of similar physiological phenomenon and ii) each provides a valid delineation between tolerable and intolerable constant-power exercise.

  7. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.

    2009-01-01

    temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (Pmuscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast......The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (Pfibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41...

  8. The physical interpretation of the threshold-stress intensity range during fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marci, G.; Bazant, E.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the experimental results, the threshold-stress intensity range is given the physical interpretation that it characterizes a range of effective tensile stresses which need to be exceeded during a loading cycle for stage II fatigue crack growth to occur. The threshold stress intensity range is independent from its relative position in the range of effective tensile stress, has always the same magnitude and, furthermore, is independent of the Ksub(Imax) which produced the active plastic zone. The experimental results available from previous threshold stress intensity determinations are in good agreement with the concept developed. (orig.) [de

  9. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6 percent; however, it does not seem to be practical for a solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AM0) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  10. Threshold intensity factors as lower boundaries for crack propagation in ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Per-Ole

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow crack growth can be described in a v (crack velocity versus KI (stress intensity factor diagram. Slow crack growth in ceramics is attributed to corrosion assisted stress at the crack tip or at any pre-existing defect in the ceramic. The combined effect of high stresses at the crack tip and the presence of water or body fluid molecules (reducing surface energy at the crack tip induces crack propagation, which eventually may result in fatigue. The presence of a threshold in the stress intensity factor, below which no crack propagation occurs, has been the subject of important research in the last years. The higher this threshold, the higher the reliability of the ceramic, and consequently the longer its lifetime. Methods We utilize the Irwin K-field displacement relation to deduce crack tip stress intensity factors from the near crack tip profile. Cracks are initiated by indentation impressions. The threshold stress intensity factor is determined as the time limit of the tip stress intensity when the residual stresses have (nearly disappeared. Results We determined the threshold stress intensity factors for most of the all ceramic materials presently important for dental restorations in Europe. Of special significance is the finding that alumina ceramic has a threshold limit nearly identical with that of zirconia. Conclusion The intention of the present paper is to stress the point that the threshold stress intensity factor represents a more intrinsic property for a given ceramic material than the widely used toughness (bend strength or fracture toughness, which refers only to fast crack growth. Considering two ceramics with identical threshold limits, although with different critical stress intensity limits, means that both ceramics have identical starting points for slow crack growth. Fast catastrophic crack growth leading to spontaneous fatigue, however, is different. This growth starts later in those ceramic materials

  11. Neurovascular Saturation Thresholds Under High Intensity Auditory Stimulation During Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Van Nortwick, Amy S.; Meighan, Peter C.; Rector, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical imaging techniques to increasing intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during

  12. Threshold effect under nonlinear limitation of the intensity of high-power light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, S A; Podgaetskii, V M; Gerasimenko, A Yu; Savel'ev, M S

    2015-01-01

    A model is proposed to describe the properties of limiters of high-power laser radiation, which takes into account the threshold character of nonlinear interaction of radiation with the working medium of the limiter. The generally accepted non-threshold model is a particular case of the threshold model if the threshold radiation intensity is zero. Experimental z-scan data are used to determine the nonlinear optical characteristics of media with carbon nanotubes, polymethine and pyran dyes, zinc selenide, porphyrin-graphene and fullerene-graphene. A threshold effect of nonlinear interaction between laser radiation and some of investigated working media of limiters is revealed. It is shown that the threshold model more adequately describes experimental z-scan data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  13. Effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Miyazaki, Yuji; Hashikura, Yasuaki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for stress corrosion crack (K ISCC ) of stainless steel were studied. Tensile overload was applied to a wedge opening loaded (WOL) specimen of SUS316. Then, SCC tests were carried out to determine the resultant K ISCC . As a result, the apparent value of K ISCC increases as increasing a stress intensity factor by tensile overload (K OV ). The effects of tensile overload on K ISCC and the threshold stress intensity factor range for fatigue (ΔK th ) were compared. It was found that the effects of tensile overload on K ISCC were larger than that on ΔK th . (author)

  14. Increased intensity discrimination thresholds in tinnitus subjects with a normal audiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Hots, J.; Verhey, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent auditory brain stem response measurements in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms indicate the presence of hidden hearing loss that manifests as reduced neural output from the cochlea at high sound intensities, and results from mice suggest a link to deafferentation of auditory nerve...... fibers. As deafferentation would lead to deficits in hearing performance, the present study investigates whether tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds show impairment in intensity discrimination compared to an audiometrically matched control group. Intensity discrimination thresholds were...... significantly increased in the tinnitus frequency range, consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber deafferentation is associated with tinnitus....

  15. Invited perspectives: Hydrological perspectives on precipitation intensity-duration thresholds for landslide initiation: proposing hydro-meteorological thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Many shallow landslides and debris flows are precipitation initiated. Therefore, regional landslide hazard assessment is often based on empirically derived precipitation intensity-duration (ID) thresholds and landslide inventories. Generally, two features of precipitation events are plotted and labeled with (shallow) landslide occurrence or non-occurrence. Hereafter, a separation line or zone is drawn, mostly in logarithmic space. The practical background of ID is that often only meteorological information is available when analyzing (non-)occurrence of shallow landslides and, at the same time, it could be that precipitation information is a good proxy for both meteorological trigger and hydrological cause. Although applied in many case studies, this approach suffers from many false positives as well as limited physical process understanding. Some first steps towards a more hydrologically based approach have been proposed in the past, but these efforts received limited follow-up.Therefore, the objective of our paper is to (a) critically analyze the concept of precipitation ID thresholds for shallow landslides and debris flows from a hydro-meteorological point of view and (b) propose a trigger-cause conceptual framework for lumped regional hydro-meteorological hazard assessment based on published examples and associated discussion. We discuss the ID thresholds in relation to return periods of precipitation, soil physics, and slope and catchment water balance. With this paper, we aim to contribute to the development of a stronger conceptual model for regional landslide hazard assessment based on physical process understanding and empirical data.

  16. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  17. Spectral singularities, threshold gain, and output intensity for a slab laser with mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Keremcan; Mostafazadeh, Ali; Sarısaman, Mustafa

    2018-05-01

    We explore the consequences of the emergence of linear and nonlinear spectral singularities in TE modes of a homogeneous slab of active optical material that is placed between two mirrors. We use the results together with two basic postulates regarding the behavior of laser light emission to derive explicit expressions for the laser threshold condition and output intensity for these modes of the slab and discuss their physical implications. In particular, we reveal the details of the dependence of the threshold gain and output intensity on the position and properties of the mirrors and on the real part of the refractive index of the gain material.

  18. Analysis of the Threshold Effect of Financial Development on China’s Carbon Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongfeng Pan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data on 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2012, this paper conducts an empirical test on the threshold effect of the relationship between financial development and carbon emission intensity from the perspectives of financial scale and financial efficiency. The results show that at a low level of per capita GDP, the expansion of the financial scale and the enhancement of financial efficiency will increase carbon intensity. When the per capita GDP is greater than the threshold value (RMB 37,410, the expansion of the financial scale will also increase carbon intensity, but the potency of this effect will be weaker. At the same time, the improvement of financial efficiency will help reduce carbon intensity. Most provinces with per capita GDP greater than the threshold value (RMB 37,410 are located in the eastern coastal areas of China, whereas most provinces with per capita GDP less than the threshold value are located in the central and western areas of China. Both raising the level of openness and improving the industrial structure will have significantly positive effects on carbon intensity.

  19. The intensity threshold of colour vision in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud; Del Rey Granado, Maria; Bassoul, Marine; Degueldre, David; Perret, Philippe; Doutrelant, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Many vertebrates use colour vision for vital behaviour but their visual performance in dim light is largely unknown. The light intensity threshold of colour vision is known only for humans, horses and two parrot species. Here, we first explore this threshold in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using classic conditioning of colour cues to food rewards in three individuals, we find a threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 cd m(-2). Results are comparable to the two previously tested bird species. For tits, nest light conditions probably exceed that threshold, at least after sunrise. These results shed new light on the lively debate questioning the visual performance of cavity nesters and the evolutionary significance of egg and chick coloration. Although this needs further investigation, it is possible that blue tits exploit both colour and brightness cues when viewing their eggs, chicks or conspecifics in their nests. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Parasite threshold associated with clinical malaria in areas of different transmission intensities in north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno P; Lusingu, John P; Vestergaard, Lasse S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of ill health. Evaluation of malaria interventions, such as drugs and vaccines depends on clinical definition of the disease, which is still a challenge due to lack of distinct malaria specific clinical...... features. Parasite threshold is used in definition of clinical malaria in evaluation of interventions. This however, is likely to be influenced by other factors such as transmission intensity as well as individual level of immunity against malaria. METHODS: This paper describes step function and dose...... response model with threshold parameter as a tool for estimation of parasite threshold for onset of malaria fever in highlands (low transmission) and lowlands (high transmission intensity) strata. These models were fitted using logistic regression stratified by strata and age groups (0-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6...

  1. Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, Eric L.; Gerrits, Karin H.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Nollet, Frans; Beelen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Cohort study. Research laboratory. Individuals with PPS

  2. A novel optic bistable device with very low threshold intensity using photorefractive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sean X.; Sun, Yuankun; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Li, Guifang

    1994-08-01

    Brimrose Corporation of America reports the successful completion of the SBIR Phase I research in low-threshold intensity optical bistable devices using photorefractive nonlinearity. A thin photorefractive film optical bistable device was proposed in the Phase I proposal. The feasibility of this device was theoretically investigated. The theoretical feasibility study formulates the materials requirements in such a kind of configuration for Phase II research. In addition, we have proposed and investigated another configuration of optical bistable devices that do not require advanced photorefractive materials, namely, the self-pumped phase conjugator. We have successfully demonstrated a low-threshold optical bistable operation in a KNSBN:CU crystal. To the best of our knowledge, the threshold of 650 mW/sq. cm is the lowest of its kind to be achieved so far.

  3. Modeling jointly low, moderate, and heavy rainfall intensities without a threshold selection

    KAUST Repository

    Naveau, Philippe

    2016-04-09

    In statistics, extreme events are often defined as excesses above a given large threshold. This definition allows hydrologists and flood planners to apply Extreme-Value Theory (EVT) to their time series of interest. Even in the stationary univariate context, this approach has at least two main drawbacks. First, working with excesses implies that a lot of observations (those below the chosen threshold) are completely disregarded. The range of precipitation is artificially shopped down into two pieces, namely large intensities and the rest, which necessarily imposes different statistical models for each piece. Second, this strategy raises a nontrivial and very practical difficultly: how to choose the optimal threshold which correctly discriminates between low and heavy rainfall intensities. To address these issues, we propose a statistical model in which EVT results apply not only to heavy, but also to low precipitation amounts (zeros excluded). Our model is in compliance with EVT on both ends of the spectrum and allows a smooth transition between the two tails, while keeping a low number of parameters. In terms of inference, we have implemented and tested two classical methods of estimation: likelihood maximization and probability weighed moments. Last but not least, there is no need to choose a threshold to define low and high excesses. The performance and flexibility of this approach are illustrated on simulated and hourly precipitation recorded in Lyon, France.

  4. Re-visiting Trichuris trichiura intensity thresholds based on anemia during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W Gyorkos

    Full Text Available The intensity categories, or thresholds, currently used for Trichuris trichiura (ie. epg intensities of 1-999 (light; 1,000-9,999 epg (moderate, and ≥ 10,000 epg (heavy were developed in the 1980s, when there were little epidemiological data available on dose-response relationships. This study was undertaken to determine a threshold for T. trichiura-associated anemia in pregnant women and to describe the implications of this threshold in terms of the need for primary prevention and chemotherapeutic interventions.In Iquitos, Peru, 935 pregnant women were tested for T. trichiura infection in their second trimester of pregnancy; were given daily iron supplements throughout their pregnancy; and had their blood hemoglobin levels measured in their third trimester of pregnancy. Women in the highest two T. trichiura intensity quintiles (601-1632 epg and ≥ 1633 epg had significantly lower mean hemoglobin concentrations than the lowest quintile (0-24 epg. They also had a statistically significantly higher risk of anemia, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.67 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.62 and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.74, respectively.This analysis provides support for categorizing a T. trichiura infection ≥ 1,000 epg as 'moderate', as currently defined by the World Health Organization. Because this 'moderate' level of T. trichiura infection was found to be a significant risk factor for anemia in pregnant women, the intensity of Trichuris infection deemed to cause or aggravate anemia should no longer be restricted to the 'heavy' intensity category. It should now include both 'heavy' and 'moderate' intensities of Trichuris infection. Evidence-based deworming strategies targeting pregnant women or populations where anemia is of concern should be updated accordingly.

  5. Re-visiting Trichuris trichiura intensity thresholds based on anemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Larocque, Renée; Casapía, Martín; Montresor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The intensity categories, or thresholds, currently used for Trichuris trichiura (ie. epg intensities of 1-999 (light); 1,000-9,999 epg (moderate), and ≥ 10,000 epg (heavy)) were developed in the 1980s, when there were little epidemiological data available on dose-response relationships. This study was undertaken to determine a threshold for T. trichiura-associated anemia in pregnant women and to describe the implications of this threshold in terms of the need for primary prevention and chemotherapeutic interventions. In Iquitos, Peru, 935 pregnant women were tested for T. trichiura infection in their second trimester of pregnancy; were given daily iron supplements throughout their pregnancy; and had their blood hemoglobin levels measured in their third trimester of pregnancy. Women in the highest two T. trichiura intensity quintiles (601-1632 epg and ≥ 1633 epg) had significantly lower mean hemoglobin concentrations than the lowest quintile (0-24 epg). They also had a statistically significantly higher risk of anemia, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.67 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.62) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.74), respectively. This analysis provides support for categorizing a T. trichiura infection ≥ 1,000 epg as 'moderate', as currently defined by the World Health Organization. Because this 'moderate' level of T. trichiura infection was found to be a significant risk factor for anemia in pregnant women, the intensity of Trichuris infection deemed to cause or aggravate anemia should no longer be restricted to the 'heavy' intensity category. It should now include both 'heavy' and 'moderate' intensities of Trichuris infection. Evidence-based deworming strategies targeting pregnant women or populations where anemia is of concern should be updated accordingly.

  6. Rain intensity over specific rain thresholds in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philandras, C. M.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, J.; Repapis, C. C.

    2009-09-01

    It is well documented that climatic change has caused significant impacts in the water cycle and great spatial and temporal variability of the rain events. The rain scarcity in many cases is associated with extreme convective weather resulted in flash floods, which threatens the human life and the existed infrastructure. In this study, the annual mean rain intensity (mm/h) along with the annual number of rain days for rain events over specific rain thresholds, such as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm, in two Greek cities Athens and Thessaloniki, during the period 1930-2007, are examined. The meteorological data, which concern daily rain totals (mm) and duration (h), were acquired from the National Observatory of Athens and from the meteorological station of the University of Thessaloniki. Our findings show that, in Athens, an increase in the number of annual rain days and the mean rain intensity over the aforementioned rain thresholds appears at the end of 1980’s and continues until nowadays. On the contrary, concerning Thessaloniki, a decrease in the rain days is apparent from 1980, while the decrease in the mean rain intensity concerns only the rain thresholds of 10 and 20 mm. This analysis reveals that extreme rain events are more frequent in Athens, which is under a high urbanization rhythm, than in Thessaloniki at the north of Greece. Finally, the patterns of the atmospheric circulation, which are associated with specific extreme cases are analysed, using NCEP reanalysis data.

  7. Is there a minimum intensity threshold for resistance training-induced hypertrophic adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2013-12-01

    In humans, regimented resistance training has been shown to promote substantial increases in skeletal muscle mass. With respect to traditional resistance training methods, the prevailing opinion is that an intensity of greater than ~60 % of 1 repetition maximum (RM) is necessary to elicit significant increases in muscular size. It has been surmised that this is the minimum threshold required to activate the complete spectrum of fiber types, particularly those associated with the largest motor units. There is emerging evidence, however, that low-intensity resistance training performed with blood flow restriction (BFR) can promote marked increases in muscle hypertrophy, in many cases equal to that of traditional high-intensity exercise. The anabolic effects of such occlusion-based training have been attributed to increased levels of metabolic stress that mediate hypertrophy at least in part by enhancing recruitment of high-threshold motor units. Recently, several researchers have put forth the theory that low-intensity exercise (≤50 % 1RM) performed without BFR can promote increases in muscle size equal, or perhaps even superior, to that at higher intensities, provided training is carried out to volitional muscular failure. Proponents of the theory postulate that fatiguing contractions at light loads is simply a milder form of BFR and thus ultimately results in maximal muscle fiber recruitment. Current research indicates that low-load exercise can indeed promote increases in muscle growth in untrained subjects, and that these gains may be functionally, metabolically, and/or aesthetically meaningful. However, whether hypertrophic adaptations can equal that achieved with higher intensity resistance exercise (≤60 % 1RM) remains to be determined. Furthermore, it is not clear as to what, if any, hypertrophic effects are seen with low-intensity exercise in well-trained subjects as experimental studies on the topic in this population are lacking. Practical

  8. Proposing an Empirically Justified Reference Threshold for Blood Culture Sampling Rates in Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Stefanie; Schwab, Frank; Geffers, Christine; Bongartz, Hannah; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Gastmeier, Petra; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.

    2014-01-01

    Early and appropriate blood culture sampling is recommended as a standard of care for patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSI) but is rarely taken into account when quality indicators for BSI are evaluated. To date, sampling of about 100 to 200 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days is recommended as the target range for blood culture rates. However, the empirical basis of this recommendation is not clear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association between blood culture rates and observed BSI rates and to derive a reference threshold for blood culture rates in intensive care units (ICUs). This study is based on data from 223 ICUs taking part in the German hospital infection surveillance system. We applied locally weighted regression and segmented Poisson regression to assess the association between blood culture rates and BSI rates. Below 80 to 90 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days, observed BSI rates increased with increasing blood culture rates, while there was no further increase above this threshold. Segmented Poisson regression located the threshold at 87 (95% confidence interval, 54 to 120) blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days. Only one-third of the investigated ICUs displayed blood culture rates above this threshold. We provided empirical justification for a blood culture target threshold in ICUs. In the majority of the studied ICUs, blood culture sampling rates were below this threshold. This suggests that a substantial fraction of BSI cases might remain undetected; reporting observed BSI rates as a quality indicator without sufficiently high blood culture rates might be misleading. PMID:25520442

  9. Fatigue threshold studies in Fe, Fe-Si, and HSLA steel: Part II. Thermally activated behavior of the effective stress intensity at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.; Esaklul, K.; Gerberich, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that closure mechanisms alone cannot fully explain increasing fatigue thresholds with decreasing test temperature. Implications are that fatigue crack propagation near threshold is a thermally activated process. The effective threshold stress intensity correlate to the thermal component of the flow stress. A fractographic study of the fatigue surface was performed. Water vapor in room air promotes the formation of oxide and intergranular crack growth. At lower temperatures, a brittle-type cyclic cleavage fatigue surface was observed but the ductile process persisted even at 123 K. Arrest marks found on all three modes of fatigue crack growth suggest that fatigue crack growth controlled by the subcell structure near threshold. The effective fatigue threshold may be related to the square root of (one plus the strain rate sensitivity)

  10. Determining the anaerobic threshold in post-polio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.; Gerrits, K.H.L.; Koopman, F.S.; Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Design Cohort study. Setting Research

  11. Some remarks on non-monotonic effects at low radiation intensities, on the problem of extrapolating doses between high and low intensities and on the problem of thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, P.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of a general descriptive framework which takes into account the intensity factor and the time distribution of radiation, a detailed justification for which is to be found in earlier publications, the three fundamental problems mentioned in the title of this paper can be approached in a new way. If the biological effect e for a given dose D delivered at different radiation intensities phi is studied, we find that the curve e=f(phi) can exhibit non-monotonic shapes. This type of phenomenon is known in pharmacology and toxicology and may well exist also for low- or medium-intensity radiation effects. Extrapolation of the effects of a given dose between high and low radiation intensities phi is usually carried out by means of an empirical linear or linear-quadratic formulation. This procedure is insufficiently justified from a theoretical point of view. It is shown here that the effects can be written in the form e=k(phi)D and that the factor of proportionality k(phi) is a generally very complicated function of phi. Hence, the usual extrapolation procedures cannot deal with certain ranges of values of phi within which the effects observed at a given dose may be greater than when the dose is delivered at higher intensity. The problem of thresholds is actually far more difficult than the current literature on the subject would suggest. It is shown here, on the basis of considerations of qualitative dynamics, that several types of threshold must be defined, starting with a threshold for the radiation intensity phi. All these thresholds are interrelated hierarchically in fairly complex ways which must be studied case by case. These results show that it is illusory to attempt to define a universal notion of threshold in terms of dose. The conceptual framework used in the proposed approach proves also to be very illuminating for other studies in progress, particularly in the investigation of phenomena associated with ageing and carcinogenesis. (author)

  12. Threshold of musculoskeletal pain intensity for increased risk of long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers in eldercare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L Andersen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare. METHODS: Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004-2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0-9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks during one-year follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07-1.93], neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10-1.96] and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06-1.93] were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0-9, respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0. CONCLUSION: The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers.

  13. Modeling jointly low, moderate, and heavy rainfall intensities without a threshold selection

    KAUST Repository

    Naveau, Philippe; Huser, Raphaë l; Ribereau, Pierre; Hannart, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    context, this approach has at least two main drawbacks. First, working with excesses implies that a lot of observations (those below the chosen threshold) are completely disregarded. The range of precipitation is artificially shopped down into two pieces

  14. Threshold pump intensity effect on the refractive index changes in InGaN SQD: Internal constitution and size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat (Morocco); LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); A John Peter [P.G. & Research Department of Physics, Goverment Arts and Science College, Melur 625106, Madurai (India)

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, internal composition and size-dependent threshold pump intensity effects on on-center impurity-related linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index changes are investigated in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN unstrained spherical quantum dot. The calculation is performed within the framework of parabolic band and single band effective-mass approximations using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method. According to the results obtained, (i) a significant red-shift (blue shift) is obtained as the dot size (potential barrier) increases and (ii) a threshold optical pump intensity depending strongly on the size and the internal composition is obtained which constitutes the limit between two behaviors.

  15. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Edward H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thi...

  16. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for postfire debris-flow emergency-response planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Boldt, E.M.; Laber, J.L.; Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Following wildfires, emergency-response and public-safety agencies can be faced with evacuation and resource-deployment decisions well in advance of coming winter storms and during storms themselves. Information critical to these decisions is provided for recently burned areas in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. A compilation of information on the hydrologic response to winter storms from recently burned areas in southern California steeplands is used to develop a system for classifying magnitudes of hydrologic response. The four-class system describes combinations of reported volumes of individual debris flows, consequences of debris flows and floods in an urban setting, and spatial extents of the hydrologic response. The range of rainfall conditions associated with different magnitude classes is defined by integrating local rainfall data with the response magnitude information. Magnitude I events can be expected when within-storm rainfall accumulations (A) of given durations (D) fall above the threshold A = 0.4D0.5 and below A = 0.5D0.6 for durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude II events will be generated in response to rainfall accumulations and durations between A = 0.4D0.5 and A = 0.9D0.5 for durations less than 1 h, and between A = 0.5D0.6 and A = 0.9D0.5 or durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude III events can be expected in response to rainfall conditions above the threshold A = 0.9D0.5. Rainfall threshold-magnitude relations are linked with potential emergency-response actions as an emergency-response decision chart, which leads a user through steps to determine potential event magnitudes and identify possible evacuation and resource-deployment levels. Use of this information in planning and response decision-making process could result in increased safety for both the public and emergency responders. ?? 2011 US Government.

  17. Optimal Threshold Determination for Discriminating Driving Anger Intensity Based on EEG Wavelet Features and ROC Curve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Driving anger, called “road rage”, has become increasingly common nowadays, affecting road safety. A few researches focused on how to identify driving anger, however, there is still a gap in driving anger grading, especially in real traffic environment, which is beneficial to take corresponding intervening measures according to different anger intensity. This study proposes a method for discriminating driving anger states with different intensity based on Electroencephalogram (EEG spectral features. First, thirty drivers were recruited to conduct on-road experiments on a busy route in Wuhan, China where anger could be inducted by various road events, e.g., vehicles weaving/cutting in line, jaywalking/cyclist crossing, traffic congestion and waiting red light if they want to complete the experiments ahead of basic time for extra paid. Subsequently, significance analysis was used to select relative energy spectrum of β band (β% and relative energy spectrum of θ band (θ% for discriminating the different driving anger states. Finally, according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the optimal thresholds (best cut-off points of β% and θ% for identifying none anger state (i.e., neutral were determined to be 0.2183 ≤ θ% < 1, 0 < β% < 0.2586; low anger state is 0.1539 ≤ θ% < 0.2183, 0.2586 ≤ β% < 0.3269; moderate anger state is 0.1216 ≤ θ% < 0.1539, 0.3269 ≤ β% < 0.3674; high anger state is 0 < θ% < 0.1216, 0.3674 ≤ β% < 1. Moreover, the discrimination performances of verification indicate that, the overall accuracy (Acc of the optimal thresholds of β% for discriminating the four driving anger states is 80.21%, while 75.20% for that of θ%. The results can provide theoretical foundation for developing driving anger detection or warning devices based on the relevant optimal thresholds.

  18. Electricity intensity across Chinese provinces: New evidence on convergence and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Liu, G.

    2013-01-01

    Energy intensity has gone through different stages across Chinese regions. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic electricity-intensity convergence across the Chinese provinces. Unlike previous work, this paper highlights the relevance of the level of technology of each province and takes into account the economic geography through the examination of club convergence. We perform several unit root tests that introduce structural breaks, nonlinearities and time variation, with the aim to capture the economic transformation of the Chinese economy. Results indicate that the majority of the Chinese regions have converged according to the unit-root tests in time-series analysis, indicating that technological differences diminish over time. However, this convergence pattern occurs within groups of regions, according with club convergence test. Indeed, we find a dominant club and others smaller clubs that few regions belong. However, it is observed that there are regions that still diverge. These findings support our argument that special policy attention is required for those regions displaying divergence. - Highlights: ► Electricity-intensity convergence across the Chinese provinces is investigated. ► We use monthly data. ► We highlight the relevance of the level of technology of each province and the economic geography. ► Recent unit root tests are employed. ► We found club convergence

  19. Cry features reflect pain intensity in term newborns: an alarm threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo V; Sisto, Renata; Cordelli, Duccio M; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in sound spectra of crying of term newborns in relation to different pain levels. Fifty-seven consecutively born neonates were evaluated during heel-prick performed with different analgesic techniques. Crying was recorded and frequency spectrograms analyzed. A pain score on the DAN (Douleur Aiguë du Nouveau-né) scale was assigned to each baby after the sampling. Three features were considered and correlated with the corresponding DAN scores: 1) whole spectral form; 2) the fundamental frequency of the first cry emitted (F0); and 3) root mean square sound pressure normalized to its maximum. After emission of the first cry, babies with DAN scores >8, but not with DAN scores cry") characterized by a sequence of almost identical cries with a period on the order of 1 s. A statistically significant correlation was found between root mean square (r2 = 89%, p cry (r2 = 68.2%, p = 0.02), and DAN score. F0 did not show significant correlation with DAN score in the subset of neonates with DAN scores babies with a DAN score >8 had a significantly higher F0 than those with lower DAN scores (p = 0.016). An alarm threshold exists between high (>8) and low (cry at a high pitch is emitted, followed by the siren cry, with a sound level maintained near its maximum.

  20. Intensively exploited Mediterranean aquifers: resilience to seawater intrusion and proximity to critical thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, K.; Koussis, A. D.; Destouni, G.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate seawater intrusion in three prominent Mediterranean aquifers that are subject to intensive exploitation and modified hydrologic regimes by human activities: the Nile Delta, Israel Coastal and Cyprus Akrotiri aquifers. Using a generalized analytical sharp interface model, we review the salinization history and current status of these aquifers, and quantify their resilience/vulnerability to current and future seawater intrusion forcings. We identify two different critical limits of seawater intrusion under groundwater exploitation and/or climatic stress: a limit of well intrusion, at which intruded seawater reaches key locations of groundwater pumping, and a tipping point of complete seawater intrusion up to the prevailing groundwater divide of a coastal aquifer. Either limit can be reached, and ultimately crossed, under intensive aquifer exploitation and/or climate-driven change. We show that seawater intrusion vulnerability for different aquifer cases can be directly compared in terms of normalized intrusion performance curves. The site-specific assessments show that (a) the intruding seawater currently seriously threatens the Nile Delta aquifer, (b) in the Israel Coastal aquifer the sharp interface toe approaches the well location and (c) the Cyprus Akrotiri aquifer is currently somewhat less threatened by increased seawater intrusion.

  1. Intense cold and mortality in Castile-La Mancha (Spain): study of mortality trigger thresholds from 1975 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Isidro J.; Montero, Juan Carlos; Criado-Alvarez, Juan José; Linares, Cristina; Díaz, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Studies on temperature-mortality time trends especially address heat, so that any contribution on the subject of cold is necessarily of interest. This study describes the modification of the lagged effects of cold on mortality in Castile-La Mancha from 1975 to 2003, with the novelty of also approaching this aspect in terms of mortality trigger thresholds. Cross-correlation functions (CCFs) were thus established with 15 lags, after application of ARIMA models to the mortality data and minimum daily temperatures (from November to March), and the results for the periods 1975-1984, 1985-1994 and 1995-2003 were then compared. In addition, daily mortality residuals for the periods 1975-1989 and 1990-2003 were related to minimum temperatures grouped in 2°C intervals, with a cold threshold temperature being obtained in cases where such residuals increased significantly ( p economic conditions over the study period. Evidence was shown of the effects of cold on mortality, a finding that renders the adoption of preventive measures advisable in any case where intense cold is forecast.

  2. Correlated Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss theory of above-threshold double ionization of He in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Faisal, F.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a correlated Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss theory of laser-induced double ionization of a two-electron atom. The basic N-photon T matrix and the expression for N-photon triple-differential rates or cross sections (TDCS's) are derived. The theory is applied to investigate the TDCS's for very-high-order multiphoton double ionization of He with lasers of wavelength λ=248 nm and λ=617 nm. Comparison with the uncorrelated results reveals a dramatic influence of the final-state e-e correlation on the above-threshold TDCS's to be measured in coincidence experiments in intense laser fields. The limiting case of the TDCS's for weak-field double ionization of He by a synchrotron photon is also investigated; the results confirm the earlier theoretical findings and recent experimental results in that case

  3. Data-Intensive Science meets Inquiry-Driven Pedagogy: Interactive Big Data Exploration, Threshold Concepts, and Liminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Word, Andrea; Nair, Udasysankar

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts in any discipline are the core concepts an individual must understand in order to master a discipline. By their very nature, these concepts are troublesome, irreversible, integrative, bounded, discursive, and reconstitutive. Although grasping threshold concepts can be extremely challenging for each learner as s/he moves through stages of cognitive development relative to a given discipline, the learner's grasp of these concepts determines the extent to which s/he is prepared to work competently and creatively within the field itself. The movement of individuals from a state of ignorance of these core concepts to one of mastery occurs not along a linear path but in iterative cycles of knowledge creation and adjustment in liminal spaces - conceptual spaces through which learners move from the vaguest awareness of concepts to mastery, accompanied by understanding of their relevance, connectivity, and usefulness relative to questions and constructs in a given discipline. For example, challenges in the teaching and learning of atmospheric science can be traced to threshold concepts in fluid dynamics. In particular, Dynamic Meteorology is one of the most challenging courses for graduate students and undergraduates majoring in Atmospheric Science. Dynamic Meteorology introduces threshold concepts - those that prove troublesome for the majority of students but that are essential, associated with fundamental relationships between forces and motion in the atmosphere and requiring the application of basic classical statics, dynamics, and thermodynamic principles to the three dimensionally varying atmospheric structure. With the explosive growth of data available in atmospheric science, driven largely by satellite Earth observations and high-resolution numerical simulations, paradigms such as that of dataintensive science have emerged. These paradigm shifts are based on the growing realization that current infrastructure, tools and processes will not allow

  4. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young [Kyungbook National University Chilgok Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); MacFall, James R. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Payne, Martha E. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Jae Hyoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Woong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I{sub O}) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V{sub WMH}), and we establish the I{sub O} -V{sub WMH} relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  5. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young; MacFall, James R.; Payne, Martha E.; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Ki Woong

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I O ) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V WMH ), and we establish the I O -V WMH relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  6. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  7. Blood glucose responses of type-2 diabetics during and after exercise performed at intensities above and below anaerobic threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolysson C. Hiyane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p8 With the objective of analyzing the blood glucose responses during and after exercise performed at 90 and 110% of anaerobic threshold (AT, 10 type-2 diabetes patients (56.9±11.2years; 80.3±14.4kg performed an incremental test (IT on a cycle ergometer. After an initial IT to identify AT, the volunteers participated in three experimental sessions on three different days: 20 minutes’ of cycling at either 90 or 110% of AT, and a control session (CON. Blood glucose was measured at rest, and at the 10th and 20th minutes of exercise or control condition, as well as every 15 minutes during a 2-hour postexercise recovery period (Rec. One-way ANOVA did not detect significant differences in blood glucose levels between the sessions at 90 and 110% of AT. Compared to CON, a signifi cant decrease was observed at the 20th minute of exercise, and at the 15th and 60th minutes of Rec from the 90% AT session. Significant reductions were also observed at the 10th and 20th minutes of exercise and at the 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th and 90th minutes of Rec from the session at 110% AT. Exercise performed at the higher intensity (110% AT resulted in a tendency of a more pronounced and prolonged hypoglycemic effect during and after exercise, and may be an alternative intensity for glycemic control in type 2 diabetics who do not have cardiovascular complications or other contraindications to exercising at intensities above the AT.

  8. Data-Intensive Science Meets Inquiry-Driven Pedagogy: Interactive Big Data Exploration, Threshold Concepts, and Liminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Nair, U. S.; Word, A.

    2014-12-01

    Threshold concepts in any discipline are the core concepts an individual must understand in order to master a discipline. By their very nature, these concepts are troublesome, irreversible, integrative, bounded, discursive, and reconstitutive. Although grasping threshold concepts can be extremely challenging for each learner as s/he moves through stages of cognitive development relative to a given discipline, the learner's grasp of these concepts determines the extent to which s/he is prepared to work competently and creatively within the field itself. The movement of individuals from a state of ignorance of these core concepts to one of mastery occurs not along a linear path but in iterative cycles of knowledge creation and adjustment in liminal spaces - conceptual spaces through which learners move from the vaguest awareness of concepts to mastery, accompanied by understanding of their relevance, connectivity, and usefulness relative to questions and constructs in a given discipline. With the explosive growth of data available in atmospheric science, driven largely by satellite Earth observations and high-resolution numerical simulations, paradigms such as that of data-intensive science have emerged. These paradigm shifts are based on the growing realization that current infrastructure, tools and processes will not allow us to analyze and fully utilize the complex and voluminous data that is being gathered. In this emerging paradigm, the scientific discovery process is driven by knowledge extracted from large volumes of data. In this presentation, we contend that this paradigm naturally lends to inquiry-driven pedagogy where knowledge is discovered through inductive engagement with large volumes of data rather than reached through traditional, deductive, hypothesis-driven analyses. In particular, data-intensive techniques married with an inductive methodology allow for exploration on a scale that is not possible in the traditional classroom with its typical

  9. Xenon spectator and diagram L3-M4,5M4,5 Auger intensities near the L3 threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armen, G.B.; Levin, J.C.; Southworth, S.H.; LeBrun, T.; Arp, U.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Calculations based on the theory of radiationless resonant Raman scattering are employed in the interpretation of new XeL 3 -M 4,5 M 4,5 Auger spectra recorded using synchrotron radiation tuned to energies across the L 3 edge. Fits of theoretical line shapes to the spectra are employed in separating intensities due to nd spectator (resonant) and diagram Auger processes. Near-threshold Auger intensity, previously attributed to diagram decay, is found to be due to the large-n spectator lines that result from postcollision-interaction endash induced open-quotes recaptureclose quotes of threshold photoelectrons to nd orbitals. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Threshold stress intensity factor for delayed hydride cracking of a recrystallized N18 alloy plate along the rolling direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Chao, E-mail: sunchaonpic@yahoo.com.c [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu 610041 (China); Tan Jun; Ying Shihao; Peng Qian [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li Cong [Department of R and D, State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation Limited, Beijing (China)

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study is to obtain the threshold stress intensity factor, K{sub IH}, for an initiation of delayed hydride cracking in a recrystallized N18 (Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cr) alloy plate which was manufactured in China, gaseously charged with 60 ppm of hydrogen by weight. By using both the load increasing method and load drop method, the K{sub IH}'s along the rolling direction were investigated over a temperature range of 150-255 {sup o}C. The results showed that K{sub IH} along the rolling direction was found to be higher in the load increasing method than that in the load drop method. In the load increasing method, K{sub IH}'s of the N18 alloy plate appeared to be in the range of 31-32.5MPa{radical}(m), and K{sub IH} in the load drop method appeared to be in the range of 27.5-28.6MPa{radical}(m). This means that the N18 alloy plate has high tolerance for DHC initiation along the rolling direction. The texture of a N18 alloy plate was investigated using an X-ray diffraction and the K{sub IH} was discussed based on texture and analytically as a function of the tilting angle of hydride habit planes to the cracking plane.

  11. Threshold stress intensity factor for delayed hydride cracking of a recrystallized N18 alloy plate along the rolling direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chao; Tan Jun; Ying Shihao; Peng Qian; Li Cong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the threshold stress intensity factor, K IH , for an initiation of delayed hydride cracking in a recrystallized N18 (Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cr) alloy plate which was manufactured in China, gaseously charged with 60 ppm of hydrogen by weight. By using both the load increasing method and load drop method, the K IH 's along the rolling direction were investigated over a temperature range of 150-255 o C. The results showed that K IH along the rolling direction was found to be higher in the load increasing method than that in the load drop method. In the load increasing method, K IH 's of the N18 alloy plate appeared to be in the range of 31-32.5MPa√(m), and K IH in the load drop method appeared to be in the range of 27.5-28.6MPa√(m). This means that the N18 alloy plate has high tolerance for DHC initiation along the rolling direction. The texture of a N18 alloy plate was investigated using an X-ray diffraction and the K IH was discussed based on texture and analytically as a function of the tilting angle of hydride habit planes to the cracking plane.

  12. Standard test method for determining a threshold stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the environment-assisted cracking threshold stress intensity factor parameters, KIEAC and KEAC, for metallic materials from constant-force testing of fatigue precracked beam or compact fracture specimens and from constant-displacement testing of fatigue precracked bolt-load compact fracture specimens. 1.2 This test method is applicable to environment-assisted cracking in aqueous or other aggressive environments. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength as long as specimens are of sufficient thickness and planar size to meet the size requirements of this test method. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size may be variable and adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness is a variable independent of planar size. 1.5 Specimen configurations other than those contained in this test method may be used, provided that well-established stress ...

  13. Influence of regression model and initial intensity of an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Tucker, Ross; Granados, Cristina; Irazusta, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gil, Susana María

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the regression model and initial intensity during an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and performance in elite-standard runners. Twenty-three well-trained runners completed a discontinuous incremental running test on a treadmill. Speed started at 9 km · h(-1) and increased by 1.5 km · h(-1) every 4 min until exhaustion, with a minute of recovery for blood collection. Lactate-speed data were fitted by exponential and polynomial models. The lactate threshold was determined for both models, using all the co-ordinates, excluding the first and excluding the first and second points. The exponential lactate threshold was greater than the polynomial equivalent in any co-ordinate condition (P performance and is independent of the initial intensity of the test.

  14. Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Loaded Half Squat Exercise Executed at an Intensity Corresponding to the Lactate Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Raúl Domínguez, Manuel Barba, Antonio J. Monroy, Bárbara Rodríguez, Pedro Ruiz-Solano, Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the blood lactate threshold (LT2 for the half squat (HS and to examine cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables during a HS test performed at a work intensity corresponding to the LT2. Twenty-four healthy men completed 3 test sessions. In the first, their one-repetition maximum (1RM was determined for the HS. In the second session, a resistance HS incremental-load test was performed to determine LT2. Finally, in the third session, subjects performed a constant-load HS exercise at the load corresponding to the LT2 (21 sets of 15 repetitions with 1 min of rest between sets. In this last test, blood samples were collected for lactate determination before the test and 30 s after the end of set (S 3, S6, S9, S12, S15, S18 and S21. During the test, heart rate (HR was telemetrically monitored and oxygen consumption (VO2, carbon dioxide production (VCO2, minute ventilation (VE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE·VO2-1 and ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE·VCO2-1 were monitored using a breath-by-breath respiratory gas analyzer. The mean LT2 for the participants was 24.8 ± 4.8% 1RM. Blood lactate concentrations showed no significant differences between sets 3 and 21 of exercise (p = 1.000. HR failed to vary between S6 and S21 (p > 1.000. The respiratory variables VO2, VCO2, and VE·VCO2-1 stabilized from S3 to the end of the constant-load HS test (p = 0.471, p = 0.136, p = 1.000, while VE and VE·VO2-1 stabilized from S6 to S21. RER did not vary significantly across exercise sets (p = 0.103. The LT2 was readily identified in the incremental HS test. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables remained stable during this resistance exercise conducted at an exercise intensity corresponding to the LT2. These responses need to be confirmed for other resistance exercises and adaptations in these responses after a training program also need to be addressed.

  15. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, A. N.; van Dijk, P.

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration,

  16. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeringa, A N; van Dijk, P

    2014-06-01

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration, which is reflected in a decreased amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This suggests that, despite normal auditory thresholds, central auditory processing may be abnormal. We recorded changes in central auditory processing following a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed for 1 h to a pure tone of 11 kHz (124 dB sound pressure level). Hearing thresholds, amplitudes of ABR waves I and IV, and spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates in the inferior colliculus (IC) were assessed immediately, one week, two weeks, and four weeks post exposure. Hearing thresholds were elevated immediately following overexposure, but recovered within one week. The amplitude of the ABR wave I was decreased in all sound-exposed animals for all test periods. In contrast, the ABR wave IV amplitude was only decreased immediately after overexposure and recovered within a week. The proportion of IC units that show inhibitory responses to pure tones decreased substantially up to two weeks after overexposure, especially when stimulated with high frequencies. The proportion of excitatory responses to low frequencies was increased. Spontaneous activity was unaffected by the overexposure. Despite rapid normalization of auditory thresholds, our results suggest an increased central gain following sound exposure and an abnormal balance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the midbrain up to two weeks after overexposure. These findings may be associated with hyperacusis after a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of low-intensity laser therapy on spatial perception threshold and electroneurographic finding in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT can be applied in cases when patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN suffer from chronic severe neuropathic pain. Objective. We wanted to analyze influence of LILT on spatial perception threshold (SPT and electroneurographic (ENG parameters in patients with painful DPN. Method. We analyzed 45 patients (25 males, average age 54.3 years (54.3±10.9, with clinical and ENG signs of painful DPN. The patients were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patients with DPN who had 30 LILT treatments over the period of 12 weeks and group B consisted of 15 patients with DPN who received only vitamin therapy per os within the same period. Prior to and after 12 weeks of treatment, the following ENG parameters were determined using surface electrodes: motor (MCV and sensory conduction velocities (SCV values (in m/s of nervus (n. peroneus (NP, n. tibialis (NT and n. medianus (NM and their motor distal latency (MDL values (in ms. SPT value (score as number from 1 to 8 was determined with Tactile Circumferential Discriminator on dorsal part of foot’s big toe skin. For statistical analysis, we used Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation (sig. 2 tailed study. Results. We registered statistically significant difference between SPT (p<0.01 values prior to (5.25±1.11 and after (4.87±0.90 LILT, as well as NMMCV (p<0.05 values prior to (47.18±5.08 and after (49.12±3.72 LILT. Besides, we registered, only after LILT, statistically significant correlation between SPT and NMDML (p<0.01 values and also between SPT and NMSCV (p<0.05 values. The differences and correlations between other analyzed parameters before and after treatments were not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion. In this study we registered significant decrease of SPT and increase of NMMCV after LILT and that indicated a favorable effect of this treatment in analyzed patients with painful DPN. In our opinion these results need further

  18. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg-1 · min-1) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5–6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. Results The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p HIIT group. Both PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT treatment groups demonstrated significant (p HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Conclusions Our findings support the use of HIIT in combination with HMBFA to improve aerobic fitness in college age men and women. These data suggest that the addition of HMBFA supplementation may result in greater changes in VO2peak and VT than HIIT alone. Study registration The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368). PMID:24782684

  19. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5-6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p body composition. An independent-samples t-test confirmed that there were no significant differences between the training volumes for the PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Our findings support the use of HIIT in combination with HMBFA to improve aerobic fitness in college age men and women. These data suggest that the addition of HMBFA supplementation may result in greater changes in VO2peak and VT than HIIT alone. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368).

  20. Clinical feasibility of a myocardial signal intensity threshold-based semi-automated cardiac magnetic resonance segmentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U.J.; Suranyi, Pal; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Muscogiuri, Giuseppe [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Rome (Italy); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Cannao, Paola M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Milan, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Renker, Matthias [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ruzsics, Balazs [Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals, Department of Cardiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the accuracy and efficiency of a threshold-based, semi-automated cardiac MRI segmentation algorithm in comparison with conventional contour-based segmentation and aortic flow measurements. Short-axis cine images of 148 patients (55 ± 18 years, 81 men) were used to evaluate left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass (LVM) using conventional and threshold-based segmentations. Phase-contrast images were used to independently measure stroke volume (SV). LV parameters were evaluated by two independent readers. Evaluation times using the conventional and threshold-based methods were 8.4 ± 1.9 and 4.2 ± 1.3 min, respectively (P < 0.0001). LV parameters measured by the conventional and threshold-based methods, respectively, were end-diastolic volume (EDV) 146 ± 59 and 134 ± 53 ml; end-systolic volume (ESV) 64 ± 47 and 59 ± 46 ml; SV 82 ± 29 and 74 ± 28 ml (flow-based 74 ± 30 ml); ejection fraction (EF) 59 ± 16 and 58 ± 17 %; and LVM 141 ± 55 and 159 ± 58 g. Significant differences between the conventional and threshold-based methods were observed in EDV, ESV, and LVM measurements; SV from threshold-based and flow-based measurements were in agreement (P > 0.05) but were significantly different from conventional analysis (P < 0.05). Excellent inter-observer agreement was observed. Threshold-based LV segmentation provides improved accuracy and faster assessment compared to conventional contour-based methods. (orig.)

  1. Post-analysis methods for lactate threshold depend on training intensity and aerobic capacity in runners. An experimental laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate different mathematical post-analysis methods of determining lactate threshold in highly and lowly trained endurance runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental laboratory study, in a tertiary-level public university hospital. METHOD: Twenty-seven male endurance runners were divided into two training load groups: lowly trained (frequency < 4 times per week, < 6 consecutive months, training velocity ≥ 5.0 min/km and highly trained (frequency ≥ 4 times per week, ≥ 6 consecutive months, training velocity < 5.0 min/km. The subjects performed an incremental treadmill protocol, with 1 km/h increases at each subsequent 4-minute stage. Fingerprint blood-lactate analysis was performed at the end of each stage. The lactate threshold (i.e. the running velocity at which blood lactate levels began to exponentially increase was measured using three different methods: increase in blood lactate of 1 mmol/l at stages (DT1, absolute 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration (4 mmol, and the semi-log method (semi-log. ANOVA was used to compare different lactate threshold methods and training groups. RESULTS: Highly trained athletes showed significantly greater lactate thresholds than lowly trained runners, regardless of the calculation method used. When all the subject data were combined, DT1 and semi-log were not different, while 4 mmol was significantly lower than the other two methods. These same trends were observed when comparing lactate threshold methods in the lowly trained group. However, 4 mmol was only significantly lower than DT1 in the highly trained group. CONCLUSION: The 4 mmol protocol did not show lactate threshold measurements comparable with DT1 and semi-log protocols among lowly trained athletes.

  2. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bosgra, J.; Bosgra, J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly

  3. Low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation lowers action potential threshold and increases spike firing in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alexander D; Hong, Ivan; Boddington, Laura J; Garrett, Andrew R; Etherington, Sarah; Reynolds, John N J; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated. Here we investigated the acute effect of low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) on neuronal excitability and potential changes on the passive and active electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro. Whole-cell current clamp recordings were made at baseline prior to subthreshold LI-rMS (600 pulses of iTBS, n=9 cells from 7 animals) or sham (n=10 cells from 9 animals), immediately after stimulation, as well as 10 and 20min post-stimulation. Our results show that LI-rMS does not alter passive membrane properties (resting membrane potential and input resistance) but hyperpolarises action potential threshold and increases evoked spike-firing frequency. Increases in spike firing frequency were present throughout the 20min post-stimulation whereas action potential (AP) threshold hyperpolarization was present immediately after stimulation and at 20min post-stimulation. These results provide evidence that LI-rMS alters neuronal excitability of excitatory neurons. We suggest that regions outside the targeted region of high-intensity rTMS are susceptible to neuromodulation and may contribute to rTMS-induced plasticity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  4. Using pixel intensity as a self-regulating threshold for deterministic image sampling in Milano Retinex: the T-Rex algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, Michela; Modena, Carla Maria; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Milano Retinexes are spatial color algorithms, part of the Retinex family, usually employed for image enhancement. They modify the color of each pixel taking into account the surrounding colors and their position, catching in this way the local spatial color distribution relevant to image enhancement. We present T-Rex (from the words threshold and Retinex), an implementation of Milano Retinex, whose main novelty is the use of the pixel intensity as a self-regulating threshold to deterministically sample local color information. The experiments, carried out on real-world pictures, show that T-Rex image enhancement performance are in line with those of the Milano Retinex family: T-Rex increases the brightness, the contrast, and the flatness of the channel distributions of the input image, making more intelligible the content of pictures acquired under difficult light conditions.

  5. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  6. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  7. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  8. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  9. Cranial nerve threshold for thermal injury induced by MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU): preliminary results on an optic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnof, Sagi; Zibly, Zion; Cohen, Zvi; Shaw, Andrew; Schlaff, Cody; Kassel, Neal F

    2013-04-01

    Future clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) are moving toward the management of different intracranial pathologies. We sought to validate the production, safety, and efficacy of thermal injury to cranial nerves generated by MRgHIFU. In this study, five female domestic pigs underwent a standard bifrontal craniectomy under general anesthesia. Treatment was then given using an MRgHIFU system to induce hyperthermic ablative sonication (6 to 10 s; 50 to 2000 J.) Histological analyses were done to confirm nerve damage; temperature measured on the optic nerve was approximately 53.4°C (range: 39°C to 70°C.) Histology demonstrated a clear definition between a necrotic, transitional zone, and normal tissue. MRgHIFU induces targeted thermal injury to nervous tissue within a specific threshold of 50°C to 60°C with the tissue near the sonication center yielding the greatest effect; adjacent tissue showed minimal changes. Additional studies utilizing this technology are required to further establish accurate threshold parameters for optic nerve thermo-ablation.

  10. [Electromagnetic radiation of non-thermal intensity and short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianova, S N

    2013-01-01

    This work represents generalization and the analysis of the long-term own materials characterizing reaction of the brain on electromagnetic radiation of low intensity (energy flow density in the continuous regime or in the impulse approximately 500 microW/sm2) and a short exposition (approximately 30 min). A set of the experimental results received on separate neurons, formations and brain as a whole give an idea about the reaction of the central nervous system to the studied influence. Comparison of these data with the corresponding responses to the known incentives (light, sound, electric current) testifies to the electromagnetic radiation of low energy flow density and a short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system.

  11. Mapping sound intensities by seating position in a university concert band: A risk of hearing loss, temporary threshold shifts, and comparisons with standards of OSHA and NIOSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas Vedder, III

    Exposure to loud sounds is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in the United States. The purpose of the current research was to measure the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and determine if those levels exceeded permissible sound limits for exposure according to criteria set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Time-weighted averages (TWA) were obtained via a dosimeter during six rehearsals for nine members of the ensemble (plus the conductor), who were seated in frontal proximity to "instruments of power" (trumpets, trombones, and percussion; (Backus, 1977). Subjects received audiometer tests prior to and after each rehearsal to determine any temporary threshold shifts (TTS). Single sample t tests were calculated to compare TWA means and the maximum sound intensity exposures set by OSHA and NIOSH. Correlations were calculated between TWAs and TTSs, as well as TTSs and the number of semesters subjects reported being seated in proximity to instruments of power. The TWA-OSHA mean of 90.2 dBA was not significantly greater than the specified OSHA maximum standard of 90.0 dBA (p > .05). The TWA-NIOSH mean of 93.1 dBA was, however, significantly greater than the NIOSH specified maximum standard of 85.0 dBA (p OSHA, r = .20 for NIOSH); the correlation between TTSs and semesters of proximity to instruments of power was also considered weak (r = .13). TWAs cumulatively exceeded both association's sound exposure limits at 11 specified locations (nine subjects and both ears of the conductor) throughout the concert band's rehearsals. In addition, hearing acuity, as determined by TTSs, was substantially affected negatively by the intensities produced in the concert band. The researcher concluded that conductors, as well as their performers, must be aware of possible damaging sound intensities in rehearsals or performances.

  12. Stability, Bistability, and Critical Thresholds in Fire-prone Forested Landscapes: How Frequency and Intensity of Disturbance Interact and Influence Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Many aspects of disturbance processes can have large impacts on the composition of plant communities, and associated changes in land cover type in turn have biogeochemical feedbacks to climate. In particular, changes to disturbance regimes can potentially change the number and stability of equilibrial states, and plant community states can differ dramatically in their carbon (C) dynamics, energy balance, and hydrology. Using the Klamath region of northern California as a model system, we present a theoretical analysis of how changes to climate and associated fire dynamics can disrupt high-carbon, long-lived conifer forests and replace them with shrub-chaparral communities that have much lower biomass and are more pyrogenic. Specifically, we develop a tractable model of plant community dynamics, structured by size class, life-history traits, lottery-type competition, and species-specific responses to disturbance. We assess the stability of different states in terms of disturbance frequency and intensity, and quantitatively partition long-term low-density population growth rates into mechanisms that influence critical transitions from stable to bistable behavior. Our findings show how different aspects of disturbance act and interact to control competitive outcomes and stable states, hence ecosystem-atmosphere C exchange. Forests tend to dominate in low frequency and intensity regimes, while shrubs dominate at high fire frequency and intensity. In other regimes, the system is bistable, and the fate of the system depends both on initial conditions and random chance. Importantly, the system can cross a critical threshold where hysteresis prevents easy return to the prior forested state. We conclude that changes in disturbance-recovery dynamics driven by projected climate change can shift this system away from forest dominated in the direction of shrub-dominated landscape. This will result in a large net C release from the landscape, and alter biophysical ecosystem

  13. Missing portion sizes in FFQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Halldorson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    -nearest neighbours (KNN) were compared with a reference based on self-reported portion sizes (quantified by a photographic food atlas embedded in the FFQ). Setting: The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007–2008. Subjects: The study included 3728 adults with complete portion size data. Results: Compared...

  14. Enhancement of blurred image portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for image enhancement, comprising a first step ( 41 ) of distinguishing blurred and non-blurred image portions of an input image, and a second step ( 42 ) of enhancing at least one of said blurred image portions of said input image to produce an output image. Said

  15. Quantifying consumer portion control practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spence, M.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Stancu, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest...... predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion......, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution...

  16. On the effect of temperature on the threshold stress intensity factor of delayed hydride cracking in light water reactor fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holston, Anna-MariaAlvarez; Stjarnsater, Johan [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoping (Sweden)

    2017-06-15

    Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) was first observed in pressure tubes in Canadian CANDU reactors. In light water reactors, DHC was not observed until the late 1990s in high-burnup boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel cladding. In recent years, the focus on DHC has resurfaced in light of the increased interest in the cladding integrity during interim conditions. In principle, all spent fuel in the wet pools has sufficient hydrogen content for DHC to operate below 300°C. It is therefore of importance to establish the critical parameters for DHC to operate. This work studies the threshold stress intensity factor (K{sub IH}) to initiate DHC as a function of temperature in Zry-4 for temperatures between 227°C and 315°C. The experimental technique used in this study was the pin-loading testing technique. To determine the K{sub IH}, an unloading method was used where the load was successively reduced in a stepwise manner until no cracking was observed during 24 hours. The results showed that there was moderate temperature behavior at lower temperatures. Around 300°C, there was a sharp increase in K{sub IH} indicating the upper temperature limit for DHC. The value for K{sub IH} at 227°C was determined to be 2.6 ± 0.3 MPa √m.

  17. On the effect of temperature on the threshold stress intensity factor of delayed hydride cracking in light water reactor fuel cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Delayed hydride cracking (DHC was first observed in pressure tubes in Canadian CANDU reactors. In light water reactors, DHC was not observed until the late 1990s in high-burnup boiling water reactor (BWR fuel cladding. In recent years, the focus on DHC has resurfaced in light of the increased interest in the cladding integrity during interim conditions. In principle, all spent fuel in the wet pools has sufficient hydrogen content for DHC to operate below 300°C. It is therefore of importance to establish the critical parameters for DHC to operate. This work studies the threshold stress intensity factor (KIH to initiate DHC as a function of temperature in Zry-4 for temperatures between 227°C and 315°C. The experimental technique used in this study was the pin-loading testing technique. To determine the KIH, an unloading method was used where the load was successively reduced in a stepwise manner until no cracking was observed during 24 hours. The results showed that there was moderate temperature behavior at lower temperatures. Around 300°C, there was a sharp increase in KIH indicating the upper temperature limit for DHC. The value for KIH at 227°C was determined to be 2.6 ± 0.3 MPa √m.

  18. A study on magnetic relaxation times of various organs and body fluids using superconducting magnetic resonance imaging system part I: measurement of relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in various portions of brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Chang; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertake to determine if routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging sequences using only two different repetition times (TRs) and with only two sequential echo times (TEs) can be used to measure reproducible relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time for normal brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid using a 2.0T superconducting system. In 47 patients 6 different anatomic sites were measured. For each anatomic location, the mean and standard deviation of these values were determined. On T1-weighted (SE 500msec/30msec) images, in globus pallidus and thalamus, of the CSF, cortical gray matter and retrobulbar fat tissue varied more, with a standard deviation of 11-14% on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted (SE 3000msec/30msec and 3000msec/80msec) images, the relative signal intensity of all anatomic regions varied more than on T1-weighted images. The standard deviation of T2 relaxation times also varied from 10% (fat tissue) to 18% (CSF). These variations might be due to partial volume averaging, signal alteration of CSF secondary to CSF pulsatile motion, etc. Knowing that relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation times calculated from routine imaging sequences are reproducible in only limited area, these normal ranges can be used to investigate changes occurring in disease states of the limited regions.

  19. Keeping Portions Under Control (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it possible to bring portion sizes back to earth? Yes. But first we have to understand how ... recommend for a portion of pasta, rice, cereal, vegetables, and fruit. A meat portion should be about ...

  20. Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Marge; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-08-01

    The objectives were to determine who establishes restaurant portion sizes and factors that influence these decisions, and to examine chefs' opinions regarding portion size, nutrition information, and weight management. A survey was distributed to chefs to obtain information about who is responsible for determining restaurant portion sizes, factors influencing restaurant portion sizes, what food portion sizes are being served in restaurants, and chefs' opinions regarding nutrition information, health, and body weight. The final sample consisted of 300 chefs attending various culinary meetings. Executive chefs were identified as being primarily responsible for establishing portion sizes served in restaurants. Factors reported to have a strong influence on restaurant portion sizes included presentation of foods, food cost, and customer expectations. While 76% of chefs thought that they served "regular" portions, the actual portions of steak and pasta they reported serving were 2 to 4 times larger than serving sizes recommended by the U.S government. Chefs indicated that they believe that the amount of food served influences how much patrons consume and that large portions are a problem for weight control, but their opinions were mixed regarding whether it is the customer's responsibility to eat an appropriate amount when served a large portion of food. Portion size is a key determinant of energy intake, and the results from this study suggest that cultural norms and economic value strongly influence the determination of restaurant portion sizes. Strategies are needed to encourage chefs to provide and promote portions that are appropriate for customers' energy requirements.

  1. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention... process exceeds the threshold. (b) For the purposes of determining whether more than a threshold quantity... portion of the process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance in the...

  2. Conceptions of nuclear threshold status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews some alternative definitions of nuclear threshold status. Each of them is important, and major analytical confusions would result if one sense of the term is mistaken for another. The motives for nations entering into such threshold status are a blend of civilian and military gains, and of national interests versus parochial or bureaucratic interests. A portion of the rationale for threshold status emerges inevitably from the pursuit of economic goals, and another portion is made more attraction by the derives of the domestic political process. Yet the impact on international security cannot be dismissed, especially where conflicts among the states remain real. Among the military or national security motives are basic deterrence, psychological warfare, war-fighting and, more generally, national prestige. In the end, as the threshold phenomenon is assayed for lessons concerning the role of nuclear weapons more generally in international relations and security, one might conclude that threshold status and outright proliferation coverage to a degree in the motives for all of the states involved and in the advantages attained. As this paper has illustrated, nuclear threshold status is more subtle and more ambiguous than outright proliferation, and it takes considerable time to sort out the complexities. Yet the world has now had a substantial amount of time to deal with this ambiguous status, and this may tempt more states to exploit it

  3. Near threshold fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. C.; Strum, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10(exp -5) mm/cycle (4 x 10(exp -7) inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity are described.

  4. Alveolar bone-loss area localization in periodontitis radiographs based on threshold segmentation with a hybrid feature fused of intensity and the H-value of fractional Brownian motion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P L; Huang, P W; Huang, P Y; Hsu, H C

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis involves progressive loss of alveolar bone around the teeth. Hence, automatic alveolar bone-loss (ABL) measurement in periapical radiographs can assist dentists in diagnosing such disease. In this paper, we propose an effective method for ABL area localization and denote it as ABLIfBm. ABLIfBm is a threshold segmentation method that uses a hybrid feature fused of both intensity and texture measured by the H-value of fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model, where the H-value is the Hurst coefficient in the expectation function of a fBm curve (intensity change) and is directly related to the value of fractal dimension. Adopting leave-one-out cross validation training and testing mechanism, ABLIfBm trains weights for both features using Bayesian classifier and transforms the radiograph image into a feature image obtained from a weighted average of both features. Finally, by Otsu's thresholding, it segments the feature image into normal and bone-loss regions. Experimental results on 31 periodontitis radiograph images in terms of mean true positive fraction and false positive fraction are about 92.5% and 14.0%, respectively, where the ground truth is provided by a dentist. The results also demonstrate that ABLIfBm outperforms (a) the threshold segmentation method using either feature alone or a weighted average of the same two features but with weights trained differently; (b) a level set segmentation method presented earlier in literature; and (c) segmentation methods based on Bayesian, K-NN, or SVM classifier using the same two features. Our results suggest that the proposed method can effectively localize alveolar bone-loss areas in periodontitis radiograph images and hence would be useful for dentists in evaluating degree of bone-loss for periodontitis patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of the Portion Size Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAn increase in the portion size leads to an increase in energy intake, a phenomenon which is also referred to as the portion size effect. The increase in portion sizes in recent years is regarded as an important contributor to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Hence, the aim

  6. 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions. So, choosing smaller portions to begin with is important for maintaining your overall health and well-being.

  7. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling versus myofascial release on pain pressure thresholds, quality of life, fatigue, pain intensity, quality of sleep, anxiety, and depression in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Sánchez, Adelaida M; García López, Hector; Fernández Sánchez, Manuel; Pérez Mármol, José Manuel; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación; Luque Suárez, Alejandro; Matarán Peñarrocha, Guillermo Adolfo

    2018-04-23

    To compare the effectiveness of dry needling versus myofascial release on myofascial trigger points pain in cervical muscles, quality of life, impact of symptoms pain, quality of sleep, anxiety, depression, and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty-four subjects with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to a dry needling group or a myofascial release group. Pain pressure thresholds of myofascial trigger points were evaluated in the cervical muscles. In addition, quality of life, impact of fibromyalgia symptoms, quality of sleep, intensity of pain, anxiety and depression symptoms, impact of fatigue at baseline and post treatment after four weeks of intervention were evaluated. Significant improvement was found in most pain pressure thresholds of the myofascial trigger points in cervical muscles in the dry needling group compared to myofascial release (p quality of life of physical function (F = 12.74, p = 0.001), physical role (F = 11.24, p = 0.001), body pain (F =30.26, p quality of sleep (F = 11.96, p = 0.001), state anxiety (F = 7.40, p = 0.009), and trait anxiety (F = -14.63, p quality of life of physical role, body pain, vitality and social function, as well as the total impact of FMS symptoms, quality of sleep, state and trait anxiety, hospital anxiety-depression, general pain intensity and fatigue. Implications for rehabilitation Dry needling therapy reduces myofascial trigger point pain in the short term in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. This therapeutic approach improves anxiety, depression, fatigue symptoms, quality of life, and sleep after treatment. Dry needling and myofascial release therapies decrease intensity of pain, and the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms in this population. These intervention approaches should be considered in an independent manner as complementary therapies within a multidisciplinary setting.

  8. Rainfall thresholds as a landslide indicator for engineered slopes on the Irish Rail network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, Karlo; Gavin, Kenneth; Reale, Cormac; Mangan, Cathal

    2018-04-01

    Rainfall thresholds express the minimum levels of rainfall that need to be reached or exceeded in order for landslides to occur in a particular area. They are a common tool in expressing the temporal portion of landslide hazard analysis. Numerous rainfall thresholds have been developed for different areas worldwide, however none of these are focused on landslides occurring on the engineered slopes on transport infrastructure networks. This paper uses empirical method to develop the rainfall thresholds for landslides on the Irish Rail network earthworks. For comparison, rainfall thresholds are also developed for natural terrain in Ireland. The results show that particular thresholds involving relatively low rainfall intensities are applicable for Ireland, owing to the specific climate. Furthermore, the comparison shows that rainfall thresholds for engineered slopes are lower than those for landslides occurring on the natural terrain. This has severe implications as it indicates that there is a significant risk involved when using generic weather alerts (developed largely for natural terrain) for infrastructure management, and showcases the need for developing railway and road specific rainfall thresholds for landslides.

  9. Optical breakdown threshold investigation of 1064 nm laser induced air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Thompson, Shane

    2012-01-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental measurements and analysis of the optical breakdown threshold for dry air by 1064 nm infrared laser radiation and the significance of the multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization process on the breakdown threshold measurements over pressures range from 10 to 2000 Torr. Theoretical estimates of the breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are obtained using two distinct theories namely multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization theories. The theoretical estimates are validated by experimental measurements and analysis of laser induced breakdown processes in dry air at a wavelength of 1064 nm by focusing 450 mJ max, 6 ns, 75 MW max high-power 1064 nm IR laser radiation onto a 20 μm radius spot size that produces laser intensities up to 3 - 6 TW/cm 2 , sufficient for air ionization over the pressures of interest ranging from 10 to 2000 Torr. Analysis of the measured breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are carried out in relation with classical and quantum theoretical ionization processes, operating pressures. Comparative analysis of the laser air breakdown results at 1064 nm with corresponding results of a shorter laser wavelength (193 nm) [M. Thiyagarajan and J. E. Scharer, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 2512 (2008)] and a longer microwave wavelength (10 8 nm) [A. D. MacDonald, Microwave Breakdown in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966)]. A universal scaling analysis of the breakdown threshold measurements provided a direct comparison of breakdown threshold values over a wide range of frequencies ranging from microwave to ultraviolet frequencies. Comparison of 1064 nm laser induced effective field intensities for air breakdown measurements with data calculated based on the collisional cascade and multiphoton breakdown theories is used successfully to determine the scaled collisional microwave portion. The measured breakdown threshold of 1064 nm laser intensities are then scaled to

  10. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  12. Carving up Word Meaning: Portioning and Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, S.; Frazier, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments investigated the processing of mass nouns used as count nouns and count nouns used as mass nouns. Following Copestake and Briscoe (1995), the basic or underived sense of a word was treated as the input to a derivational rule (''grinding'' or ''portioning'') which produced the derived sense as output. It was…

  13. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  14. Rainfall characteristics and thresholds for periglacial debris flows in the Parlung Zangbo Basin, southeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingfeng; Chen, Ningsheng; Ding, Haitao

    2018-02-01

    The Parlung Zangbo Basin in the southeastern Tibet Plateau is affected by the summer monsoon from the Indian Ocean, which produces large rainfall gradients in the basin. Rainfall data during 2012-2015 from five new meteorological stations are used to analyse the rainfall characteristics. The daily rainfall, rainfall duration, mean rainfall intensity, and peak rainfall intensity are consistent, but sometimes contrasting. For example, these values decrease with increasing altitude, and the gradient is large downstream and small upstream, respectively. Moreover, the rainfall intensity peaks between 01:00 and 06:00 and increases during the afternoon. Based on the analysis of 14 debris flow cases in the basin, differences in the rainfall threshold differ depending on the location as sediment varieties. The sediment in the middle portions of the basin is wet and well structured; thus, long-duration, high-intensity rainfall is required to generate debris flows. Ravels in the upstream area are arid and not well structured, and short-duration rainfall is required to trigger debris flows. Between the above two locations, either long-duration, low-intensity rainfall or short-duration, high-intensity rainfall could provoke debris flows. Clearly, differences in rainfall characteristics and rainfall thresholds that are associated with the location must be considered in debris flow monitoring and warnings.

  15. Threshold current for fireball generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  16. Crossing the Petawatt threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.

    1996-01-01

    A revolutionary new laser called the Petawatt, developed by Lawrence Livermore researchers after an intensive three-year development effort, has produced more than 1,000 trillion (open-quotes petaclose quotes) watts of power, a world record. By crossing the petawatt threshold, the extraordinarily powerful laser heralds a new age in laser research. Lasers that provide a petawatt of power or more in a picosecond may make it possible to achieve fusion using significantly less energy than currently envisioned, through a novel Livermore concept called open-quotes fast ignition.close quotes The petawatt laser will also enable researchers to study the fundamental properties of matter, thereby aiding the Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship efforts and opening entirely new physical regimes to study. The technology developed for the Petawatt has also provided several spinoff technologies, including a new approach to laser material processing

  17. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  18. Leakage detection device for weld portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkawa, Toshio; Setokuchi, Sadayuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns leakage detection device for weld portions, for example, in a nuclear reactor cavity, which can rapidly detect by remote control. That is, a detection device capable of self running and stopping on a guide rail along a weld line is disposed. The detection device comprises a coating mechanism for automatically coating soap water to the weld portion, a vacuum box capable of evacuating the coated surface and a camera for detecting the presence or absence of the soap bubbles generated under the evacuation. Such a device can conduct, by remote control, self running/stopping along with the weld line, coating of the soap water, settling of the vacuum box and confirmation and recording of foaming by using a television monitor. Accordingly, leakage in the weld portion in the reactor cavity or the like can be inspected. As a result, it greatly contributes to improvement of danger upon worker's operation at high place, detection accuracy and reliability of detection and shortening of operation period. (I.S.)

  19. Threshold quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding

  20. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study ...

  1. Treinamento de natação na intensidade do limiar anaeróbio melhora a aptidão funcional de ratos idosos Swimming training at anaerobic threshold intensity improves the functional fitness of older rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verusca Najara de Carvalho Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do treinamento aeróbio em intensidade relativa ao limiar de lactato (LL foram analisados em 15 ratos idosos (~448 dias de vida. Os grupos de animais treinados (n=9 e controle (n=6 foram submetidos a um teste antes e após quatro semanas de treinamento. O teste incremental consistiu de uma carga inicial de 1% do peso corporal e incrementos de 1% a cada três minutos, com mensurações de lactato sanguíneo para identificação do LL por inspeção visual do ponto de inflexão da curva. O programa de treinamento consistiu de 30 minutos de natação/dia, cinco dias/semana, com sobrecarga de 5% do peso corporal (PC, ou controle sem exercício. Foi observado aumento significativo na intensidade do LL após o treinamento (pré = 4,5 ± 1,1 vs. Pós = 5.4 ± 0.9% PC. A carga máxima atingida ao final do teste incremental aumentou significativamente de 39,7 ± 7,5g no pré para 48,4 ± 10,5g no pós treinamento, sem mudanças para o grupo controle (44,7 ± 8 vs. 45,3 ± 9,3g. O peso corporal do grupo treinado não apresentou diferença como resultado de quatro semanas de natação em intensidade correspondente ao LL (641,0 ±62,0 para 636,0 ± 72.7g; p>0.05. Por outro lado, o grupo não treinado aumentou significativamente o PC de 614,0 ± 8,0 para 643,0 ± 74,1g. A carga máxima atingida expressa tanto em valores absolutos como relativos (%PC aumentou significativamente após o treinamento. Conclui-se que quatro semanas de treinamento de natação em intensidade correspondente ao limiar de lactato resultou em uma melhora da aptidão aeróbia e na manutenção do peso corporal em ratos idosos.The effects of aerobic training at the lactate threshold (LT intensity were analyzed in fifteen older rats (~448 days old. Both the trained (n = 9 and control (n = 6 groups were submitted to an incremental exercise test before and after four weeks of training. The incremental exercise test consisted of an initial load of 1% BM and 1% increments at each

  2. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  3. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  4. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  5. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  7. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  8. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  9. Thresholds in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Hofmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations of biological radiation effects frequently use the word 'threshold'. The meaning of this word is explored together with its relationship to the fundamental character of radiation effects and to the question of perception. It is emphasised that although the existence of either a dose or an LET threshold can never be settled by experimental radiobiological investigations, it may be argued on fundamental statistical grounds that for all statistical processes, and especially where the number of observed events is small, the concept of a threshold is logically invalid. (U.K.)

  10. Some considerations regarding the creep crack growth threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouless, M.D.; Evans, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The preceding analysis reveals that the existence of a threshold determined by the sintering stress does not influence the post threshold crack velocity. Considerations of the sintering stress can thus be conveniently excluded from analysis of the post threshold crack velocity. The presence of a crack growth threshold has been predicted, based on the existence of cavity nucleation controlled crack growth. A preliminary analysis of cavity nucleation rates within the damage zone reveals that this threshold is relatively abrupt, in accord with experimental observations. Consequently, at stress intensities below K /SUB th/ growth becomes nucleation limited and crack blunting occurs in preference to crack growth

  11. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures

  12. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  13. Threshold guidance update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Last years' activities (1984) included the development of a threshold guidance dose, the development of threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose, the development of supporting documentation, review by a technical peer review committee, and review by the DOE community. As a result of the comments, areas have been identified for more extensive analysis, including an alternative basis for selection of the guidance dose and the development of quality assurance guidelines. Development of quality assurance guidelines will provide a reasonable basis for determining that a given waste stream qualifies as a threshold waste stream and can then be the basis for a more extensive cost-benefit analysis. The threshold guidance and supporting documentation will be revised, based on the comments received. The revised documents will be provided to DOE by early November. DOE-HQ has indicated that the revised documents will be available for review by DOE field offices and their contractors

  14. Dynamical thresholds for complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    It is our purpose here to study the effect of nuclear dissipation and shape parametrization on dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. This is done by solving numerically classical equations of motion for head-on collisions to determine whether the dynamical trajectory in a multidimensional deformation space passes inside the fission saddle point and forms a compound nucleus, or whether it passes outside the fission saddle point and reseparates in a fast-fission or deep-inelastic reaction. Specifying the nuclear shape in terms of smoothly joined portions of three quadratic surfaces of revolution, we take into account three symmetric deformation coordinates. However, in some cases we reduce the number of coordinates to two by requiring the ends of the fusing system to be spherical in shape. The nuclear potential energy of deformation is determined in terms of a Coulomb energy and a double volume energy of a Yukawa-plus-exponential folding function. The collective kinetic energy is calculated for incompressible, nearly irrotational flow by means of the Werner-Wheeler approximation. Four possibilities are studied for the transfer of collective kinetic energy into internal single-particle excitation energy: zero dissipation, ordinary two body viscosity, one-body wall-formula dissipation, and one-body wall-and-window dissipation

  15. Portion size: a qualitative study of consumers' attitudes toward point-of-purchase interventions aimed at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-02-01

    This qualitative study assessed consumers' opinions of food portion sizes and their attitudes toward portion-size interventions located in various point-of-purchase settings targeting overweight and obese people. Eight semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 49 participants. Constructs from the diffusion of innovations theory were included in the interview guide. Each focus group was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analyzed with Atlas.ti 5.2 using the framework approach. Results showed that many participants thought that portion sizes of various products have increased during the past decades and are larger than acceptable. The majority also indicated that value for money is important when purchasing and that large portion sizes offer more value for money than small portion sizes. Furthermore, many experienced difficulties with self-regulating the consumption of large portion sizes. Among the portion-size interventions that were discussed, participants had most positive attitudes toward a larger availability of portion sizes and pricing strategies, followed by serving-size labeling. In general, reducing package serving sizes as an intervention strategy to control food intake met resistance. The study concludes that consumers consider interventions consisting of a larger variety of available portion sizes, pricing strategies and serving-size labeling as most acceptable to implement.

  16. Portion and Serving Sizes of Commonly Consumed Foods, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portion sizes were determined from weight equivalents of each food type consumed, average portion sizes for each food type were determined using the statistical ... Serving sizes determined: a serving of the various foods as expressed in household measures include; 1.3 slices of bread, 13.5 tablespoons of Ewedu soup, ...

  17. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to ‘eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight. PMID:25033958

  19. Threshold factorization redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  20. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  1. Food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Mutanen, Marja

    2013-09-01

    To assess the validity of food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent girls in Mozambique. The study was carried out in preparation for the larger ZANE study, which used the 24 h dietary recall method. Life-sized photographs of three portion sizes of two staple foods and three sauces were produced. Participants ate weighed portions of one staple food and one sauce. After the meal, they were asked to estimate the amount of food with the aid of the food photographs. Zambezia Province, Mozambique. Ninety-nine girls aged 13–18 years. The mean differences between estimated and actual portion sizes relative to the actual portion size ranged from 219% to 8% for different foods. The respective mean difference for all foods combined was 25% (95% CI 212, 2 %). Especially larger portions of the staple foods were often underestimated. For the staple foods, between 62% and 64% of the participants were classified into the same thirds of the distribution of estimated and actual food consumption and for sauces, the percentages ranged from 38% to 63%. Bland–Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement. Using life-sized food photographs among adolescent Mozambican girls resulted in a rather large variation in the accuracy of individuals’ estimates. The ability to rank individuals according to their consumption was, however, satisfactory for most foods. There seems to be a need to further develop and test food photographs used in different populations in Sub-Saharan Africa to improve the accuracy of portion size estimates.

  2. MRI enhancement of the facial nerve with Gd-DTPA, 2; Investigation of enhanced nerve portions in patients with facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    We performed enhanced MRI using Gd-DTPA in 84 patients with facial palsy. After assessing enhancement of the normal facial nerve, we examined enhancement in patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In 95% of patients with Bell's palsy, enhancement was obtained in the distal IAC and labyrinthine portions. In 72%, enhancement was significant from the distal IAC portion through the vertical portion. In some of the patients who underwent enhanced MRI twice, increased signal intensity was observed in distal portions such as the vertical portion. In many cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, enhancement was seen extensively in the IAC portion through the vertical portion. In the subjects with internal auditory symptoms such as vertigo and tinnitus, enhancement of the IAC portion was seen not only in the facial nerve but also in the vestibular and the cochlear nerves. These results suggest that the vascular permeability of lesions in Bell's palsy may be increased from the distal IAC portion to the vertical portion. Judging from the present findings with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, symptoms related to the enhanced portions suggest that accompanying internal auditory symptoms occur due to inflammation of the IAC portions of cochlear and vestibular nerves. (author).

  3. MRI enhancement of the facial nerve with Gd-DTPA, 2; Investigation of enhanced nerve portions in patients with facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro [Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    We performed enhanced MRI using Gd-DTPA in 84 patients with facial palsy. After assessing enhancement of the normal facial nerve, we examined enhancement in patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In 95% of patients with Bell's palsy, enhancement was obtained in the distal IAC and labyrinthine portions. In 72%, enhancement was significant from the distal IAC portion through the vertical portion. In some of the patients who underwent enhanced MRI twice, increased signal intensity was observed in distal portions such as the vertical portion. In many cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, enhancement was seen extensively in the IAC portion through the vertical portion. In the subjects with internal auditory symptoms such as vertigo and tinnitus, enhancement of the IAC portion was seen not only in the facial nerve but also in the vestibular and the cochlear nerves. These results suggest that the vascular permeability of lesions in Bell's palsy may be increased from the distal IAC portion to the vertical portion. Judging from the present findings with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, symptoms related to the enhanced portions suggest that accompanying internal auditory symptoms occur due to inflammation of the IAC portions of cochlear and vestibular nerves. (author).

  4. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report)

  5. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  6. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Resonance phenomena near thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1995-12-01

    The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with both discrete and resonance states is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the discrete states can trap the resonance ones and also that the discrete states can directly influence the scattering cross section. (orig.)

  8. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Popkin, Barry M

    While general consensus holds that food portion sizes are increasing, no empirical data have documented actual increases. To determine trends in food portion sizes consumed in the United States, by eating location and food source. Nationally representative data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1977-1978) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1998). The sample consists of 63 380 individuals aged 2 years and older. For each survey year, average portion size consumed from specific food items (salty snacks, desserts, soft drinks, fruit drinks, french fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, pizza, and Mexican food) by eating location (home, restaurant, or fast food). Portion sizes vary by food source, with the largest portions consumed at fast food establishments and the smallest at other restaurants. Between 1977 and 1996, food portion sizes increased both inside and outside the home for all categories except pizza. The energy intake and portion size of salty snacks increased by 93 kcal (from 1.0 to 1.6 oz [28.4 to 45.4 g]), soft drinks by 49 kcal (13.1 to 19.9 fl oz [387.4 to 588.4 mL]), hamburgers by 97 kcal (5.7 to 7.0 oz [161.6 to 198.4 g]), french fries by 68 kcal (3.1 to 3.6 oz [87.9 to 102.1 g]), and Mexican food by 133 kcal (6.3 to 8.0 oz [178.6 to 226.8 g]). Portion sizes and energy intake for specific food types have increased markedly with greatest increases for food consumed at fast food establishments and in the home.

  9. Estimation of portion size in children's dietary assessment: lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Adamson, A J; Anderson, A S; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L

    2009-02-01

    Assessing the dietary intake of young children is challenging. In any 1 day, children may have several carers responsible for providing them with their dietary requirements, and once children reach school age, traditional methods such as weighing all items consumed become impractical. As an alternative to weighed records, food portion size assessment tools are available to assist subjects in estimating the amounts of foods consumed. Existing food photographs designed for use with adults and based on adult portion sizes have been found to be inappropriate for use with children. This article presents a review and summary of a body of work carried out to improve the estimation of portion sizes consumed by children. Feasibility work was undertaken to determine the accuracy and precision of three portion size assessment tools; food photographs, food models and a computer-based Interactive Portion Size Assessment System (IPSAS). These tools were based on portion sizes served to children during the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. As children often do not consume all of the food served to them, smaller portions were included in each tool for estimation of leftovers. The tools covered 22 foods, which children commonly consume. Children were served known amounts of each food and leftovers were recorded. They were then asked to estimate both the amount of food that they were served and the amount of any food leftover. Children were found to estimate food portion size with an accuracy approaching that of adults using both the food photographs and IPSAS. Further development is underway to increase the number of food photographs and to develop IPSAS to cover a much wider range of foods and to validate the use of these tools in a 'real life' setting.

  10. Wafer plane inspection with soft resist thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carl; Shi, Rui-fang; Wihl, Mark; Xiong, Yalin; Pang, Song

    2008-10-01

    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is an inspection mode on the KLA-Tencor TeraScaTM platform that uses the high signalto- noise ratio images from the high numerical aperture microscope, and then models the entire lithographic process to enable defect detection on the wafer plane[1]. This technology meets the needs of some advanced mask manufacturers to identify the lithographically-significant defects while ignoring the other non-lithographically-significant defects. WPI accomplishes this goal by performing defect detection based on a modeled image of how the mask features would actually print in the photoresist. There are several advantages to this approach: (1) the high fidelity of the images provide a sensitivity advantage over competing approaches; (2) the ability to perform defect detection on the wafer plane allows one to only see those defects that have a printing impact on the wafer; (3) the use of modeling on the lithographic portion of the flow enables unprecedented flexibility to support arbitrary illumination profiles, process-window inspection in unit time, and combination modes to find both printing and non-printing defects. WPI is proving to be a valuable addition to the KLA-Tencor detection algorithm suite. The modeling portion of WPI uses a single resist threshold as the final step in the processing. This has been shown to be adequate on several advanced customer layers, but is not ideal for all layers. Actual resist chemistry has complicated processes including acid and base-diffusion and quench that are not consistently well-modeled with a single resist threshold. We have considered the use of an advanced resist model for WPI, but rejected it because the burdensome requirements for the calibration of the model were not practical for reticle inspection. This paper describes an alternative approach that allows for a "soft" resist threshold to be applied that provides a more robust solution for the most challenging processes. This approach is just

  11. Creating a measure of portion control self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Lindsey C; Harman, Jennifer J; Maertens, Julie A; Burnette, Jeni L; Dreith, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, food portion sizes have steadily increased by as much as 700% (Young & Nestle, 2002). Food portions are often much larger than dietary guidelines recommend, leaving individuals to manage their food consumption on their own and making it necessary to understand individual factors impacting food consumption. In the current paper, we focus on self-efficacy for portion control. Specifically, across three studies, we developed and validated a new measure of portion control self-efficacy (PCSE). The PCSE measure yielded good fit statistics and had acceptable test-retest reliability using two cross-sectional surveys (Studies 1(a) and 1(b)). Results from Study 2 demonstrated construct and predictive validity of the PCSE using the Food Amount Rating Scale (FARS; Dohm, & Striegel-Moore, 2002). Study 3 offered additional support for reliability and validity with a sample of overweight and obese adults currently trying to lose weight. Overall, findings indicate that the new PCSE measure is reliable and valid. Individuals often make inaccurate food portion estimates (Slawson & Eck, 1997; Yuhas, Bolland, & Bolland, 1989) which can lead to overeating and weight-gain. Thus, the discussion centers on the need to incorporate PCSE in future research and intervention work targeting weight loss, health, and food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa R; Nestle, Marion

    2007-07-01

    Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading chains and comparing them to sizes observed in 1998 and 2002. Although McDonald's recently phased out its largest offerings, current items are similar to 1998 sizes and greatly exceed those offered when the company opened in 1955. Burger King and Wendy's have increased portion sizes, even while health authorities are calling for portion size reductions. Fast-food portions in the United States are larger than in Europe. These observations suggest that voluntary efforts by fast-food companies to reduce portion sizes are unlikely to be effective, and that policy approaches are needed to reduce energy intake from fast food.

  13. Obstructing Gangliocytic Paraganglioma in the Third Portion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Nuño-Guzmán

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gangliocytic paragangliomas are infrequent tumors almost exclusively found in the second portion of the duodenum. An unusual case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma in the third portion of the duodenum with obstructive symptoms is herein reported. A 16-year-old male patient presented with epigastric pain, postprandial plenitude and reflux. A barium swallow failed to demonstrate abnormalities. Endoscopy showed a pedunculated submucosal tumor, originating at the third duodenal portion and causing partial obstruction. Biopsy was not performed due to the risk of bleeding. CT scan demonstrated a polypoid lesion. Through a transmesocolic approach and an anterior duodenotomy, resection of the tumor was performed. No lymph node or other organ affection was found. Histologic examination revealed a gangliocytic paraganglioma. Immunohistochemical examination was performed. Gangliocytic paragangliomas originating in the third or fourth portion of the duodenum, as in the present case, are extremely rare. Characteristic histologic features including epithelioid cells, spindle-shaped cells and ganglion-like cells were met. The majority of cases manifest with a similar benign behavior. Local resection of the tumor is recommended for these cases. An infrequent case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a less common clinical presentation, is herein reported.

  14. Energy intake and obesity: ingestive frequency outweighs portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35 years indicates that there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides and energy intake, there has been an emphasis on the contribution of portion size to positive energy balance. However, this orientation may not appropriately weight the contribution of ingestive frequency. Gut peptides are not purely satiation factors and metabolic and environmental cues may more strongly guide the onset and number of ingestive events. Evidence is presented that while both portion size and ingestive frequency have increased in the population, the latter may be more problematic for weight gain. The magnitude and time course of increments in ingestive frequency map better onto energy intake and BMI trends than changes of portion size. This may occur, in part, because dietary compensation and thermogenic effects are weaker for increases in ingestive frequency than portion size. Though not to the exclusion of consideration of portion size effects, improved weight management may be achieved with greater attention to the drivers of eating and drinking frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  16. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  17. Children's estimates of food portion size: the development and evaluation of three portion size assessment tools for use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Matthews, J N S; Lloyd, J; Marshall, L; Mathers, J C; Nelson, M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Cornelissen, P; Harris, J; Adamson, A J

    2008-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to assist subjects in providing an estimate of portion size but their application in improving portion size estimation by children has not been investigated systematically. The aim was to develop portion size assessment tools for use with children and to assess the accuracy of children's estimates of portion size using the tools. The tools were food photographs, food models and an interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS). Children (n 201), aged 4-16 years, were supplied with known quantities of food to eat, in school. Food leftovers were weighed. Children estimated the amount of each food using each tool, 24 h after consuming the food. The age-specific portion sizes represented were based on portion sizes consumed by children in a national survey. Significant differences were found between the accuracy of estimates using the three tools. Children of all ages performed well using the IPSAS and food photographs. The accuracy and precision of estimates made using the food models were poor. For all tools, estimates of the amount of food served were more accurate than estimates of the amount consumed. Issues relating to reporting of foods left over which impact on estimates of the amounts of foods actually consumed require further study. The IPSAS has shown potential for assessment of dietary intake with children. Before practical application in assessment of dietary intake of children the tool would need to be expanded to cover a wider range of foods and to be validated in a 'real-life' situation.

  18. Relationship of extinction to perceptual thresholds for single stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, K J; Ray, P G; Day, L J; Loring, D W

    2001-04-24

    To demonstrate the effects of target stimulus intensity on extinction to double simultaneous stimuli. Attentional deficits contribute to extinction in patients with brain lesions, but extinction (i.e., masking) can also be produced in healthy subjects. The relationship of extinction to perceptual thresholds for single stimuli remains uncertain. Brief electrical pulses were applied simultaneously to the left and right index fingers of 16 healthy volunteers (8 young and 8 elderly adults) and 4 patients with right brain stroke (RBS). The stimulus to be perceived (i.e., target stimulus) was given at the lowest perceptual threshold to perceive any single stimulus (i.e., Minimal) and at the threshold to perceive 100% of single stimuli. The mask stimulus (i.e., stimulus given to block the target) was applied to the contralateral hand at intensities just below discomfort. Extinction was less for target stimuli at 100% than Minimal threshold for healthy subjects. Extinction of left targets was greater in patients with RBS than elderly control subjects. Left targets were extinguished less than right in healthy subjects. In contrast, the majority of left targets were extinguished in patients with RBS even when right mask intensity was reduced below right 100% threshold for single stimuli. RBS patients had less extinction for right targets despite having greater left mask - threshold difference than control subjects. In patients with RBS, right "targets" at 100% threshold extinguished left "masks" (20%) almost as frequently as left masks extinguished right targets (32%). Subtle changes in target intensity affect extinction in healthy adults. Asymmetries in mask and target intensities (relative to single-stimulus perceptual thresholds) affect extinction in RBS patients less for left targets but more for right targets as compared with control subjects.

  19. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentel Paul R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study experimentally examined the effects of repeated exposure to different meal portion sizes on energy intake. Methods Nineteen employees of a county medical center were given free box lunches for two months, one month each of 1528 and 767 average kcal. Foods were identical in the two conditions, but differed in portion size. Meals averaged 44% calories from fat. Participants self-reported how much of each lunch was eaten. Unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls were also conducted by phone twice per week during each exposure period. Results Mean energy intake at the lunch meal was 332 kcal/day higher in large lunch than in small lunch periods (p Conclusion This study suggests that chronic exposure to large portion size meals can result in sustained increases in energy intake and may contribute to body weight increases over time.

  20. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

  1. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W; Zhang, Li I; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity.

  2. THRESH—Software for tracking rainfall thresholds for landslide and debris-flow occurrence, user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Fischer, Sarah J.; Vigil, Jacob C.

    2018-02-28

    Precipitation thresholds are used in many areas to provide early warning of precipitation-induced landslides and debris flows, and the software distribution THRESH is designed for automated tracking of precipitation, including precipitation forecasts, relative to thresholds for landslide occurrence. This software is also useful for analyzing multiyear precipitation records to compare timing of threshold exceedance with dates and times of historical landslides. This distribution includes the main program THRESH for comparing precipitation to several kinds of thresholds, two utility programs, and a small collection of Python and shell scripts to aid the automated collection and formatting of input data and the graphing and further analysis of output results. The software programs can be deployed on computing platforms that support Fortran 95, Python 2, and certain Unix commands. The software handles rainfall intensity-duration thresholds, cumulative recent-antecedent precipitation thresholds, and peak intensity thresholds as well as various measures of antecedent precipitation. Users should have predefined rainfall thresholds before running THRESH.

  3. 36 CFR 1275.58 - Deletion of restricted portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of restricted... HISTORICAL MATERIALS OF THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Access by the Public § 1275.58 Deletion of restricted... materials after the deletion of the portions which are restricted under this § 1275.50 or § 1275.52. ...

  4. Stress and Strain State Analysis of Defective Pipeline Portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Knaub, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents computer simulation results of the pipeline having defects in a welded joint. Autodesk Inventor software is used for simulation of the stress and strain state of the pipeline. Places of the possible failure and stress concentrators are predicted on the defective portion of the pipeline.

  5. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1988-01-01

    Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar-simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell. The measured threshold was 20,000 solar constants (2.7 kW/sq cm) for the dye volume of 2 x 5 x 40 cu mm and the optimum dye concentration of 0.001 M. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator.

  6. Updated LPI Thresholds for the Nike Laser*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Manka, C.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.

    2009-11-01

    Advanced implosion designs for direct drive inertial confinement fusion use high laser intensities (10^15-10^16 W/cm^2) to achieve gain (g>100) with a reduction in total laser energy (ENike laser at NRL are an attractive choice due to their combination of short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1-2 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence but the potential threat from laser-plasma instabilities (LPI) needs to be assessed. The 2008 LPI campaign at Nike yielded threshold intensities above 10^15 W/cm^2 for the two-plasmon instability, a value higher than reported for 351 nm glass lasers. The experiments used a planar geometry, solid polystyrene targets, and a subset of beams (E<200 J) with a reduced focal spot (d<125 μm). The 2009 campaign extended the shot parameters to higher laser energies (E<1 kJ) and larger spot sizes (d<300 μm). Spectrally-resolved and time-resolved measurements of x-rays and emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2φo harmonics of the laser wavelength show threshold intensities consistent with the 2008 results. *Work supported by DoE/NNSA

  7. Crossing the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John; Tambasco, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    First, we summarize the circumstances in which chaotic pilot-wave dynamics gives rise to quantum-like statistical behavior. For ``closed'' systems, in which the droplet is confined to a finite domain either by boundaries or applied forces, quantum-like features arise when the persistence time of the waves exceeds the time required for the droplet to cross its domain. Second, motivated by the similarities between this hydrodynamic system and stochastic electrodynamics, we examine the behavior of a bouncing droplet above the Faraday threshold, where a stochastic element is introduced into the drop dynamics by virtue of its interaction with a background Faraday wave field. With a view to extending the dynamical range of pilot-wave systems to capture more quantum-like features, we consider a generalized theoretical framework for stochastic pilot-wave dynamics in which the relative magnitudes of the drop-generated pilot-wave field and a stochastic background field may be varied continuously. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through their CMMI and DMS divisions.

  8. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  9. Investigation on the extractability of melanoidins in portioned espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, C.; Mesías, Marta; Morales, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Coffee melanoidins have attracted interest as a result of its potential health benefits. This investigation aims to elucidate the extraction behavior of melanoidins and their populations during the preparation of portioned espresso coffee and its relationship with the antioxidant activity of the coffee brew. Filter-paper pods, FAP capsule, and clone capsule containing light roasted coffee have been investigated. An accumulative fractionation approach has applied to model ...

  10. Cochlear neuropathy and the coding of supra-threshold sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Verhulst, Sarah; Shaheen, Luke; Liberman, M Charles; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses (SSSRs) in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs), paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation (FM), reveal individual differences that correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in SSSRs in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  11. Cochlear Neuropathy and the Coding of Supra-threshold Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds, behavioral ability in paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation, correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in subcortical steady-state responses in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  12. PortionControl@HOME: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effect of a Multi-Component Portion Size Intervention on Portion Control Behavior and Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; Vet, de E.; Velema, E.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food portion sizes influence energy intake. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine effectiveness of the “PortionControl@HOME” intervention on body mass index and portion control behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial among 278 overweight and obese participants was

  13. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  14. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of acetaldehyde and acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J.; Siggel-King, Michele R.F.; King, George C.; Malins, Andrew E.R.; Eypper, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acrolein. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acetaldehyde. •High-resolution total photoion yield spectrum of acrolein. •Determination of vertical ionization potentials in acetaldehyde and acrolein. -- Abstract: High-resolution (6 meV and 12 meV) threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectra of acetaldehyde and acrolein (2-propenal) have been recorded over the valence binding energy region 10–20 eV, employing synchrotron radiation and a penetrating-field electron spectrometer. These TPE spectra are presented here for the first time. All of the band structures observed in the TPE spectra replicate those found in their conventional HeI photoelectron (PE) spectra. However, the relative band intensities are found to be dramatically different in the two types of spectra that are attributed to the different dominant operative formation mechanisms. In addition, some band shapes and their vertical ionization potentials are found to differ in the two types of spectra that are associated with the autoionization of Rydberg states in the two molecules

  15. Salicylate-induced changes in auditory thresholds of adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, J F; Brown, C A; Jastreboff, P J

    1996-01-01

    Shifts in auditory intensity thresholds after salicylate administration were examined in postweanling and adult pigmented rats at frequencies ranging from 1 to 35 kHz. A total of 132 subjects from both age levels were tested under two-way active avoidance or one-way active avoidance paradigms. Estimated thresholds were inferred from behavioral responses to presentations of descending and ascending series of intensities for each test frequency value. Reliable threshold estimates were found under both avoidance conditioning methods, and compared to controls, subjects at both age levels showed threshold shifts at selective higher frequency values after salicylate injection, and the extent of shifts was related to salicylate dose level.

  16. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  17. Influence of nutrition labelling on food portion size consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mary T; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Rennie, Kirsten L; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Welch, Robert W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labelling is an important strategic approach for encouraging consumers to make healthier food choices. The availability of highly palatable foods labelled as 'low fat or reduced calorie' may encourage the over-consumption of these products. This study aimed to determine whether the manipulation of nutrition labelling information can influence food portion size consumption. Normal and overweight men (n=24) and women (n=23) were served an identical lunch meal on three separate days, but the information they received prior to consuming the lunch meal was manipulated as follows: "baseline", "high fat/energy" and "low fat/energy". Food and energy intake was significantly increased in the low fat/energy condition compared with both baseline and the high fat/energy condition. An additional 3% (162 kJ) energy was consumed by subjects under the low fat/energy condition compared to baseline. No differences were observed between the baseline and high fat/energy condition. Subjects who consumed most in the low fat/energy condition were found to be mostly men, to have a higher BMI and to be overweight. Low fat/energy information can positively influence food and energy intake, suggesting that foods labelled as 'low fat' or 'low calorie' may be one factor promoting the consumption of large food portions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain response to food cues varying in portion size is associated with individual differences in the portion size effect in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kathleen L.; English, Laural K.; Fearnbach, S.N.; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Anderson, Kaitlin; Bermudez, Maria; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Large portions promote intake of energy dense foods (i.e., the portion size effect–PSE), but the neurobiological drivers of this effect are not known. We tested the association between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) brain response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density

  19. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  20. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  1. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVersluis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63, we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group or of another university (out-group. In the main experiment (N = 321, we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot or approved only by a minority (main experiment. These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial

  2. MR signal of the solid portion of pilocytic astrocytoma on T2-weighted images: is it useful for differentiation from medulloblastoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kiyokazu; Yagi, Akiko; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Morita, Hideo; Koyama, Yoshinori; Endo, Keigo; Sato, Noriko; Aoki, Jun; Oba, Hiroshi; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Saito, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although imaging features of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma have been described in many texts, original comparisons of magnetic resonance intensity between these two tumours are limited. In the present study the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed, focusing especially on the signal intensity of the solid portion of these neoplasms. Methods: MR images of ten cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and ten medulloblastomas were reviewed. The signal intensities of the solid components were graded on a scale of 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating a signal intensity closer to that of water. The degree of enhancement, tumour cysts and peripheral oedema were evaluated on MR images. When the solid portion was heterogeneous (i.e. mixed signal intensity or degree of enhancement), the dominant area was selected for evaluation. On T2-weighted images, the signal intensity of the solid portion was equal to that of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 50% of pilocytic astrocytomas. No medulloblastomas showed such hyperintensity. Most medulloblastomas (80%) were isointense to grey matter. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity varied widely in pilocytic astrocytomas; however, all medulloblastomas were iso- or hypointense to grey matter. The MR enhancement pattern, cystic component and peripheral oedema all varied in both tumour types and no specific features were identified. A signal intensity of the solid portion isointense to CSF on T2-weighted images was characteristic of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas; this was not observed in medulloblastomas. Attention to T2-weighted imaging of the solid portions of a tumour is easy and helpful in differentiating between cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  3. Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poursoltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Clostridium perfringens are classified into five toxin types A to E, on the basis of production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. Some strains are able to produce enterotoxin, can cause food poisoning in human. The bacteria are able to produce NetB and TpeL toxins which are virulence factors in necrotic enteritis in poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin profile of C. perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions using Single and Multiplex PCR assays. Materials and Methods: In a crossectional study, 180 sample of chicken portions including wing (n=50, liver (n=50, neck (n=50 and gizzard (n=30 were collected randomly and examined for C. perfringens contamination. For this purpose all of samples were cultured on the 7% sheep defibrinated blood agar, TSN and TSC culture media. All of the isolates were investigated for the presence of alpha, beta, epsilon, iota toxin and virulence (tpeL and netB genes. Results: In the present study, 6 isolates out of 180 samples, were confirmed as C. perfringens by culture and molecular methods. All of the isolates (100% were confirmed as cpa and cpb positive strains and belong to type C of C. perfringens. The netB gene was detected in 5 isolates (83.33% and tpeL gene in three isolates (50%. Conclusions: Our findings show the majority of C. perfringens in broilers are belong to type C which produce necrotic enteritis in poultry and may be transmitted to human through poultry products.

  4. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  5. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  6. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Tina; Jemec Auflič, Mateja; Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Komac, Marko; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Both at the worldwide level and in Slovenia, precipitation and related phenomena represent one of the most important triggering factors for the occurrence of slope mass movements. In the past decade, extreme rainfall events with a very high amount of precipitation occurs in a relatively short rainfall period have become increasingly important and more frequent, that causing numerous undesirable consequences. Intense rainstorms cause flash floods and mostly trigger shallow landslides and soil slips. On the other hand, the damage of long lasting rainstorms depends on the region's adaptation and its capacity to store or infiltrate excessive water from the rain. The amount and, consequently, the intensity of daily precipitation that can cause floods in the eastern part of Slovenia is a rather common event for the north-western part of the country. Likewise, the effect of rainfall is very dependent on the prior soil moisture, periods of full soil saturation and the creation of drifts in groundwater levels due to the slow melting of snow, growing period, etc. Landslides could be identified and to some extent also prevent with better knowledge of the relation between landslides and rainfall. In this paper the definition of rainfall thresholds for rainfall-induced landslides in Slovenia is presented. The thresholds have been calculated by collecting approximately 900 landslide data and the relative rainfall amounts, which have been collected from 41 rain gauges all over the country. The thresholds have been defined by the (1) use of an existing procedure, characterized by a high degree of objectiveness and (2) software that was developed for a test site with very different geological and climatic characteristics (Tuscany, central Italy). Firstly, a single national threshold has been defined, later the country was divided into four zones, on the basis of major the river basins and a single threshold has been calculated for each of them. Validation of the calculated

  7. The effects of loading history on fatigue crack growth threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Tokaji, Keiro; Ochi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hideo.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of loading history on threshold stress intensity range (ΔK th ) were investigated in a low alloy steel SFVQ1A (A508 - 3) and a low carbon steel S10C. A single overload and multiple overloads were chosen as loading history. Crack growth and crack closure following the loading histories were measured at load ratios of 0.05 and 0.70. Threshold values were determined as a fatigue limit of preloaded specimens. The ΔK th values increased with increasing overload stress intensity factor (K h ). For a given K h value, multiple overloads produced much larger increase in ΔK th than a single overload and threshold values expressed by maximum stress intensity factor (K max,th ) were almost constant, independent of stress ratio. The results obtained were discussed in terms of crack closure behaviour, and a method was proposed to evaluate the threshold value based on plasticity-induced crack closure. (author)

  8. Doubler system quench detection threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Martin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental study leading to the determination of the sensitivity needed for protecting the Fermilab Doubler from damage during quenches is presented. The quench voltage thresholds involved were obtained from measurements made on Doubler cable of resistance x temperature and voltage x time during quenches under several currents and from data collected during operation of the Doubler Quench Protection System as implemented in the B-12 string of 20 magnets. At 4kA, a quench voltage threshold in excess of 5.OV will limit the peak Doubler cable temperature to 452K for quenches originating in the magnet coils whereas a threshold of 0.5V is required for quenches originating outside of coils

  9. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  10. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  11. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  12. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  13. Threshold values characterizing iodine-induced SCC of zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1984-01-01

    Threshold values of stress, stress intensity factor, strain, strain rate and iodine concentration for SCC of unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloys are reviewed. The ratio of σsub(th)/σsub(y) adequately represents the effects of cold work and irradiation damage on the SCC susceptibility, where threshold stress σsub(th) is defined as the minimum stress to cause SCC to failure after -6 and 10 -3 min -1 . A comparison of SCC data between constant strain rate and constant stress tests is presented in order to examine the validity of a cumulative-damage concept under SCC conditions. (author)

  14. A threshold for dissipative fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and γ-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T thresh to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E Bar (T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T thresh /E Bar (T) thresh /E Bar (T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems

  15. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  16. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs.

  17. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  18. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  19. Transient threshold shift after gunshot noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, B; Ghasemi, M; Motiee, M; Mojtahed, M; Safavi, A

    2013-01-01

    Many people, such as soldiers, are routinely exposed to gunshot noise during target practice. It is suspected that this high-intensity noise may affect audition through repeated Transient Threshold Shifts (TTS); it can also mechanically alter auditory components such as waves. This study investigates the scope of gunshot noise from the AK-47 rifle (Kalashnikov) and the impact on the shooters' audition. Forty soldiers (80 ears) were recruited in this study. They were all young and being exposed to gunshot noise for the first time. Gunshot characteristics were measured before exposure. The soldiers underwent auditory evaluation with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE) once before exposure and immediately (less than one hour) after exposure. The AK-47 gunshot noise pressure level varied between L(AIm) = 73.7 dBA to L(AIm) = 111.4 dBA. Fourteen participants had subclinical hearing impairment in their pre-exposure evaluation; this number increased to 16 after the exposure. Six months post-exposure and later, the number of cases with impairment had fallen to eight (improvement in 50%). Both pre- and post-exposure OAE results were within normal values, while PTA results indicated a significant threshold alteration only at 6 kHz. The results of this study confirm that exposure to gunshot noise with no ear protection can represent a significant hazard for auditory function, especially at higher frequencies.

  20. Effects of low strength pedaling exercise on stress sensitivity and pain threshold

    OpenAIRE

    坂野, 裕洋

    2017-01-01

     This study conducted a comparative assessment of the effects of low intensity lower limb pedaling exercise on the stress sensitivity and pain threshold in healthy subjects and those with chronic stiff neck or lower back pain. The results showed a reduction in pain threshold depending on the applied mechanical stress in both healthy and chronic pain groups. The individuals with chronic pain felt pain more intensely compared to the healthy individuals, and showed a significant reduction in pai...

  1. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides that frequently cause fatalities and large economic damage. Using a variety of information sources, we have compiled a catalogue listing 753 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides in Italy. For each event in the catalogue, the exact or approximate location of the landslide and the time or period of initiation of the slope failure is known, together with information on the rainfall duration D, and the rainfall mean intensity I, that have resulted in the slope failure. The catalogue represents the single largest collection of information on rainfall-induced landslides in Italy, and was exploited to determine the minimum rainfall conditions necessary for landslide occurrence in Italy, and in the Abruzzo Region, central Italy. For the purpose, new national rainfall thresholds for Italy and new regional rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo Region were established, using two independent statistical methods, including a Bayesian inference method and a new Frequentist approach. The two methods proved complementary, with the Bayesian method more suited to analyze small data sets, and the Frequentist method performing better when applied to large data sets. The new regional thresholds for the Abruzzo Region are lower than the new national thresholds for Italy, and lower than the regional thresholds proposed in the literature for the Piedmont and Lombardy Regions in northern Italy, and for the Campania Region in southern Italy. This is important, because it shows that landslides in Italy can be triggered by less severe rainfall conditions than previously recognized. The Frequentist method experimented in this work allows for the definition of multiple minimum rainfall thresholds, each based on a different exceedance probability level. This makes the thresholds suited for the design of probabilistic schemes for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. A scheme based on four

  2. Percolation Threshold Parameters of Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 041141-041147 ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : percolation threshold * universality * infinite cluster Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  3. Threshold analyses and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    In the context of threshold investigations of Lorentz violation, we discuss the fundamental principle of coordinate independence, the role of an effective dynamical framework, and the conditions of positivity and causality. Our analysis excludes a variety of previously considered Lorentz-breaking parameters and opens an avenue for viable dispersion-relation investigations of Lorentz violation

  4. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Bharucha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 12MA threshold and a small decay width, <1 MeV. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the A state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 12MA and ii a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  5. How much should I eat? A comparison of suggested portion sizes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-11-01

    To identify and compare suggested food portion sizes in UK schemes. The study collated and compared suggested portion sizes from selected UK schemes intended both for general advice and weight-loss advice. Portion size schemes were included if they were relevant to the UK, provided actual portion size information, were intended for adults and were obtainable from the public domain in November 2010. Included schemes were from the food industry, non-governmental organisations and health-care professionals. Suggested portion sizes of foods occurring in at least one scheme for general advice and at least one scheme for weight loss were included. Own brand on-pack portion size labelling from a large UK-wide supermarket was added to represent portion size advice from UK food retailers. Not applicable. The suggested portion sizes in the weight-loss advice schemes were often concordant, as were the general advice schemes, except one general advice scheme from a non-governmental organisation which was more closely aligned with the portion sizes for weight loss. Overall there were substantial discrepancies between suggested portion sizes for muesli and crunchy breakfast cereals, rice, pasta and potatoes, meat, fish and pulses, whereas portion sizes for cooked vegetables, dried fruit, some breakfast cereals and cheese were broadly consistent. There is a lack of consistency in the portion sizes communicated to the public. An independent and authoritative scheme of suggested portion sizes for all foods, with distinct recommendations for general advice and for weight-loss advice, could be of benefit.

  6. Portion Sizes from 24-Hour Dietary Recalls Differed by Sex among Those Who Selected the Same Portion Size Category on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Park, Song-Yi; Boushey, Carol J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N; Murphy, Suzanne P; Paik, Hee-Young

    2018-05-08

    Accounting for sex differences in food portions may improve dietary measurement; however, this factor has not been well examined. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in reported food portions from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) among those who selected the same portion size category on a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. Participants (n=319) were members of the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who completed three 24HDRs and a QFFQ in a calibration study conducted in 2010 and 2011. Portions of individual foods reported from 24HDRs served as the outcome measures. Mean food portions from 24HDRs were compared between men and women who reported the same portion size on the QFFQ, after adjustment for race/ethnicity using a linear regression model. Actual amount and the assigned amount of the selected portion size in the QFFQ were compared using one-sample t test for men and women separately. Of 163 food items with portion size options listed in the QFFQ, 32 were reported in 24HDRs by ≥20 men and ≥20 women who selected the same portion size in the QFFQ. Although they chose the same portion size on the QFFQ, mean intake amounts from 24HDRs were significantly higher for men than for women for "beef/lamb/veal," "white rice," "brown/wild rice," "lettuce/tossed salad," "eggs cooked/raw," "whole wheat/rye bread," "buns/rolls," and "mayonnaise in sandwiches." For men, mean portions of 14 items from the 24HDRs were significantly different from the assigned amounts for QFFQ items (seven higher and seven lower), whereas for women, mean portions of 14 items were significantly lower from the assigned amounts (with five significantly higher). These sex differences in reported 24HDR food portions-even among participants who selected the same portion size on the QFFQ-suggest that the use of methods that account for differences in the portions consumed by men and women when QFFQs are

  7. Does the incorporation of portion-control strategies in a behavioral program improve weight loss in a 1-year randomized controlled trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Roe, L S; James, B L; Sanchez, C E

    2017-03-01

    Controlling food portion sizes can help reduce energy intake, but the effect of different portion-control methods on weight management is not known. In a 1-year randomized trial, we tested whether the efficacy of a behavioral weight-loss program was improved by incorporating either of the two portion-control strategies instead of standard advice about eating less. The Portion-Control Strategies Trial included 186 women with obesity (81%) or overweight (19%). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three equally intensive behavioral programs, consisting of 19 individual sessions over 12 months. The Standard Advice Group was instructed to eat less food while making healthy choices, the Portion Selection Group was instructed to choose portions based on the energy density using tools such as food scales and the Pre-portioned Foods Group was instructed to structure meals around pre-portioned foods such as single-serving main dishes, for which some vouchers were provided. In an intention-to-treat analysis, a mixed-effects model compared weight loss trajectories across 23 measurements; at month 12, weight was measured for 151 participants (81%). The trajectories showed that the Pre-portioned Foods Group initially lost weight at a greater rate than the other two groups (P=0.021), but subsequently regained weight at a greater rate (P=0.0005). As a result, weight loss did not differ significantly across groups at month 6 (mean±s.e. 5.2±0.4 kg) or month 12 (4.5±0.5 kg). After 1 year, measured weight loss averaged 6% of baseline weight. The frequency of using portion-control strategies initially differed across groups, then declined over time and converged at months 6 and 12. Incorporating instruction on portion-control strategies within a 1-year behavioral program did not lead to a greater weight loss than standard advice. Using pre-portioned foods enhanced early weight loss, but this was not sustained over time. Long-term maintenance of behavioral strategies to

  8. How much should I eat? A comparison of suggested portion sizes in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and compare suggested food portion sizes in UK schemes. Design The study collated and compared suggested portion sizes from selected UK schemes intended both for general advice and weight-loss advice. Setting Portion size schemes were included if they were relevant to the UK, provided actual portion size information, were intended for adults and were obtainable from the public domain in November 2010. Included schemes were from the food industry, non-governmental organis...

  9. 21 CFR 14.27 - Determination to close portions of advisory committee meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the policy in this section. (2) A portion of a meeting may be closed only if the Commissioner... matters to be discussed in the closed portion. (c) Attendance at a closed portion of a meeting is governed... and unauthorized attendance does not enable other unauthorized persons to attend, nor does it, of...

  10. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  11. The pack size effect: Influence on consumer perceptions of portion sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, Sophie; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jola, Corinne; Wills, Josephine; Raats, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Larger portions as well as larger packs can lead to larger prospective consumption estimates, larger servings and increased consumption, described as 'portion-size effects' and 'pack size effects'. Although related, the effects of pack sizes on portion estimates have received less attention. While

  12. The issue of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.

    1994-01-01

    The states which have not joined the Non-proliferation Treaty nor have undertaken any other internationally binding commitment not to develop or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons are considered a threshold states. Their nuclear status is rendered opaque as a conscious policy. Nuclear threshold status remains a key disarmament issue. For those few states, as India, Pakistan, Israel, who have put themselves in this position, the security returns have been transitory and largely illusory. The cost to them, and to the international community committed to the norm of non-proliferation, has been huge. The decisions which could lead to recovery from the situation in which they find themselves are essentially at their own hands. Whatever assistance the rest of international community is able to extend, it will need to be accompanied by a vital political signal

  13. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  14. Realistic Realizations Of Threshold Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hassan M.

    1987-08-01

    Threshold logic, in which each input is weighted, has many theoretical advantages over the standard gate realization, such as reducing the number of gates, interconnections, and power dissipation. However, because of the difficult synthesis procedure and complicated circuit implementation, their use in the design of digital systems is almost nonexistant. In this study, three methods of NMOS realizations are discussed, and their advantages and shortcomings are explored. Also, the possibility of using the methods to realize multi-valued logic is examined.

  15. Root finding with threshold circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 462, Nov 30 (2012), s. 59-69 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : root finding * threshold circuit * power series Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512008006#

  16. Design proposal for door thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolka Radim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panels for openings in structures have always been an essential and integral part of buildings. Their importance in terms of a building´s functionality was not recognised. However, the general view on this issue has changed from focusing on big planar segments and critical details to sub-elements of these structures. This does not only focus on the forms of connecting joints but also on the supporting systems that keep the panels in the right position and ensure they function properly. One of the most strained segments is the threshold structure, especially the entrance door threshold structure. It is the part where substantial defects in construction occur in terms of waterproofing, as well as in the static, thermal and technical functions thereof. In conventional buildings, this problem is solved by pulling the floor structure under the entrance door structure and subsequently covering it with waterproofing material. This system cannot work effectively over the long term so local defects occur. A proposal is put forward to solve this problem by installing a sub-threshold door coupler made of composite materials. The coupler is designed so that its variability complies with the required parameters for most door structures on the European market.

  17. Adaptive local thresholding for robust nucleus segmentation utilizing shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Srinivas, Chukka

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a novel local thresholding method for foreground detection. First, a Canny edge detection method is used for initial edge detection. Then, tensor voting is applied on the initial edge pixels, using a nonsymmetric tensor field tailored to encode prior information about nucleus size, shape, and intensity spatial distribution. Tensor analysis is then performed to generate the saliency image and, based on that, the refined edge. Next, the image domain is divided into blocks. In each block, at least one foreground and one background pixel are sampled for each refined edge pixel. The saliency weighted foreground histogram and background histogram are then created. These two histograms are used to calculate a threshold by minimizing the background and foreground pixel classification error. The block-wise thresholds are then used to generate the threshold for each pixel via interpolation. Finally, the foreground is obtained by comparing the original image with the threshold image. The effective use of prior information, combined with robust techniques, results in far more reliable foreground detection, which leads to robust nucleus segmentation.

  18. An examination of neuromuscular and metabolic fatigue thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, Haley C; Housh, Terry J; Cochrane, Kristen C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Lewis, Robert W Jr; Traylor, Daniel A; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T; Zuniga, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWC FT ), the power outputs associated with the gas exchange threshold (PGET) and the respiratory compensation point (PRCP), and critical power (CP) to identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Ten participants (mean ± SD age: 20 ± 1 years) performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test to determine the PWC FT , PGET, and PRCP. CP was determined from the 3 min all-out test. The PWC FT (197 ± 55 W), PRCP (212 ± 50 W), and CP (208 ± 63 W) were significantly greater than the PGET (168 ± 40 W), but there were no significant differences among the PWC FT , PRCP, and CP. All thresholds were significantly inter-4 (r = 0.794–0.958). The 17% greater estimates for the PWC FT than PGET were likely related to differences in the physiological mechanisms that underlie these fatigue thresholds, while the non-significant difference and high correlation between the PWC FT and the PRCP suggested that hyperkalemia may underlie both thresholds. Furthermore, it is possible that the 5% lower estimate of the PWC FT than CP could more accurately reflect the demarcation of the heavy from severe exercise intensity domains. (paper)

  19. The effect of portion size on food intake is robust to brief education and mindfulness exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Karen; Vartanian, Lenny R; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether a brief education and a brief mindfulness exercise would reduce the effect of portion size on food intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three information conditions (education, mindfulness, or control) and then received a small or large portion of pasta for lunch. Neither education nor mindfulness was effective in reducing the effect of portion size: Overall, participants served a large portion consumed 34 percent more pasta than did those served a small portion. Participants in the mindfulness condition tended to eat less overall than participants did in the two other conditions, but this trend was not significant. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Bound-Electron Nonlinearity Beyond the Ionization Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S.; Bahl, A.; Kolesik, M.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, nitrogen, and oxygen up to ionization fractions of a few percent. These measurements enable determination of the strongly nonperturbative bound-electron nonlinear polarizability well beyond the ionization threshold, where it is found to remain approximately quadratic in the laser field, a result normally expected at much lower intensities where perturbation theory applies.

  1. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  2. Predicting dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifang; Collins, Leslie M

    2005-06-01

    This work investigates dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli that are modulated by noise using a stochastic auditory nerve model. Based on a hypothesized monotonic relationship between loudness and the number of spikes elicited by a stimulus, theoretical prediction of the uncomfortable level has previously been determined by comparing spike counts to a fixed threshold, Nucl. However, no specific rule for determining Nucl has been suggested. Our work determines the uncomfortable level based on the excitation pattern of the neural response in a normal ear. The number of fibers corresponding to the portion of the basilar membrane driven by a stimulus at an uncomfortable level in a normal ear is related to Nucl at an uncomfortable level of the electrical stimulus. Intensity discrimination limens are predicted using signal detection theory via the probability mass function of the neural response and via experimental simulations. The results show that the uncomfortable level for pulse-train stimuli increases slightly as noise level increases. Combining this with our previous threshold predictions, we hypothesize that the dynamic range for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli should increase with additive noise. However, since our predictions indicate that intensity discrimination under noise degrades, overall intensity coding performance may not improve significantly.

  3. Hydrodynamic modeling and simulations of shock ignition thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafon M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Shock Ignition (SI scheme [1] offers to reduce the laser requirements by relaxing the implosion phase to sub-ignition velocities and later adding an intense laser spike. Depending on laser energy, target characteristics and implosion velocity, high gains are expected [2,3]. Relevant intensities for scaled targets imploded in the velocity range from 150 to 400 km/s are defined at ignition thresholds. A range of moderate implosion velocities is specified to match safe implosions. These conditions for target design are then inferred for relevant NIF and LMJ shock-ignited targets.

  4. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  5. Bedding material affects mechanical thresholds, heat thresholds and texture preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Francie; O’Hara, Crystal L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the bedding type animals are housed on can affect breeding behavior and cage environment. Yet little is known about its effects on evoked behavior responses or non-reflexive behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were housed for two weeks on one of five bedding types: Aspen Sani Chips® (standard bedding for our institute), ALPHA-Dri®, Cellu-Dri™, Pure-o’Cel™ or TEK-Fresh. Mice housed on Aspen exhibited the lowest (most sensitive) mechanical thresholds while those on TEK-Fresh exhibited 3-fold higher thresholds. While bedding type had no effect on responses to punctate or dynamic light touch stimuli, TEK-Fresh housed animals exhibited greater responsiveness in a noxious needle assay, than those housed on the other bedding types. Heat sensitivity was also affected by bedding as animals housed on Aspen exhibited the shortest (most sensitive) latencies to withdrawal whereas those housed on TEK-Fresh had the longest (least sensitive) latencies to response. Slight differences between bedding types were also seen in a moderate cold temperature preference assay. A modified tactile conditioned place preference chamber assay revealed that animals preferred TEK-Fresh to Aspen bedding. Bedding type had no effect in a non-reflexive wheel running assay. In both acute (two day) and chronic (5 week) inflammation induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in the hindpaw, mechanical thresholds were reduced in all groups regardless of bedding type, but TEK-Fresh and Pure-o’Cel™ groups exhibited a greater dynamic range between controls and inflamed cohorts than Aspen housed mice. PMID:26456764

  6. Comparison of known food weights with image-based portion-size automated estimation and adolescents' self-reported portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina D; Chae, Junghoon; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Kerr, Deborah A; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-03-01

    Diet is a critical element of diabetes self-management. An emerging area of research is the use of images for dietary records using mobile telephones with embedded cameras. These tools are being designed to reduce user burden and to improve accuracy of portion-size estimation through automation. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the error of automatically determined portion weights compared to known portion weights of foods and (2) to compare the error between automation and human. Adolescents (n = 15) captured images of their eating occasions over a 24 h period. All foods and beverages served were weighed. Adolescents self-reported portion sizes for one meal. Image analysis was used to estimate portion weights. Data analysis compared known weights, automated weights, and self-reported portions. For the 19 foods, the mean ratio of automated weight estimate to known weight ranged from 0.89 to 4.61, and 9 foods were within 0.80 to 1.20. The largest error was for lettuce and the most accurate was strawberry jam. The children were fairly accurate with portion estimates for two foods (sausage links, toast) using one type of estimation aid and two foods (sausage links, scrambled eggs) using another aid. The automated method was fairly accurate for two foods (sausage links, jam); however, the 95% confidence intervals for the automated estimates were consistently narrower than human estimates. The ability of humans to estimate portion sizes of foods remains a problem and a perceived burden. Errors in automated portion-size estimation can be systematically addressed while minimizing the burden on people. Future applications that take over the burden of these processes may translate to better diabetes self-management. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Assessment of pressure-pain thresholds and central sensitization of pain in lateral epicondylalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Anders; Amris, Kirstine; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    pressure stimulation at intensity relative to the individual pain threshold, the pain intensity was continuously recorded using an electronic visual analogue scale (VAS), and from this the degree of temporal summation was estimated. For LE, a Doppler ultrasound examination of the elbow was made to identify...

  8. Optimizing Systems of Threshold Detection Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banschbach, David C

    2008-01-01

    .... Below the threshold all signals are ignored. We develop a mathematical model for setting individual sensor thresholds to obtain optimal probability of detecting a significant event, given a limit on the total number of false positives allowed...

  9. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit or debit card, including one made over the Internet, the candidate shall provide sufficient... section shall not count toward the threshold amount. (c) Threshold certification by Commission. (1) After...

  10. Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.

    2005-01-01

    From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems

  11. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  12. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates 'good' glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from 'bad' glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region

  13. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  14. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  15. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments.

  16. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-10

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  17. How food marketers can sell smaller portions: Consumer insights and product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J; Fisher, J O; Rowe, S

    2016-08-01

    Food portion size has been shown to be an important driver of energy intake. Despite the well acknowledged role of portion control in weight management, large portion sizes remain ubiquitous in the marketplace. Moving consumers towards consumption of smaller portion sizes will require changes in consumer behavior as well as changes in products available to consumers in a variety of settings. This special supplement presents cutting edge research aimed at understanding consumer behavior around portion size and innovations in product design that may promote the selection and consumption of smaller portion sizes. We identify further research that will be needed to translate basic behavioral findings into real world settings and to viable product development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Critical Power: An Important Fatigue Threshold in Exercise Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, David C; Burnley, Mark; Vanhatalo, Anni; Rossiter, Harry B; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-11-01

    : The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise, and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power [CP]) and the so-called W' (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles-respiratory, metabolic, and contractile-within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility. Rather than calibrating equivalent exercise intensities relative to metabolically distant parameters such as the lactate threshold or V˙O2max, setting the exercise intensity relative to CP unifies the profile of systemic and intramuscular responses and, if greater than CP, predicts the tolerable duration of exercise until W' is expended, V˙O2max is attained, and intolerance is manifested. CP may be regarded as a "fatigue threshold" in the sense that it separates exercise intensity domains within which the physiological responses to exercise can (CP) be stabilized. The CP concept therefore enables important insights into 1) the principal loci of fatigue development (central vs. peripheral) at different intensities of exercise and 2) mechanisms of cardiovascular and metabolic control and their modulation by factors such as O2 delivery. Practically, the CP concept has great potential application in optimizing athletic training programs and performance as well as improving the life quality for individuals enduring chronic disease.

  19. Food photography. I: The perception of food portion size from photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Atkinson, M; Darbyshire, S

    1994-11-01

    Fifty-one male and female volunteers aged 18-90 years from a wide variety of social and occupational backgrounds completed 7284 assessments of portion size in relation to food photographs. Subjects were shown six portion sizes (two small, two medium and two large) for each of six foods, and asked to compare the amount on the plate in front of them to (a) a series of eight photographs showing weights of portions from the 5th to the 95th centile of portion size (British Adult Dietary Survey), or (b) a single photograph of the average (median) portion size. Photographs were prepared either in colour or in black and white, and in two different sizes. The order of presentation of foods; use of black and white or colour; the size of photographs; and presentation of eight or average photographs were each randomized independently. On average, the mean differences between the portion size presented and the estimate of portion size using the photographs varied from -8 to +6 g (-4 to +5%) for the series of eight photographs, and from -34 to -1 g (-23 to +9%) for the single average photograph. Large portion sizes tended to be underestimated more than medium or small portion sizes, especially when using the average photograph (from -79 to -14 g, -37 to -13%). Being female, 65 years and over, or retired, or seeing photographs in colour, were all associated with small but statistically significant overestimations of portion size. Having a body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2 was associated with an 8% underestimate of portion size. We conclude that use of a series of eight photographs is associated with relatively small errors in portion size perception, whereas use of an average photograph is consistently associated with substantial underestimation across a variety of foods.

  20. Large Portions Encourage the Selection of Palatable Rather Than Filling Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Jarvstad, Andreas; Griggs, Rebecca L; Potter, Christina; Evans, Natalie R; Martin, Ashley A; Brooks, Jon Cw; Rogers, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Portion size is an important driver of larger meals. However, effects on food choice remain unclear. Our aim was to identify how portion size influences the effect of palatability and expected satiety on choice. In Study 1, adult participants (n = 24, 87.5% women) evaluated the palatability and expected satiety of 5 lunchtime meals and ranked them in order of preference. Separate ranks were elicited for equicaloric portions from 100 to 800 kcal (100-kcal steps). In Study 2, adult participants (n = 24, 75% women) evaluated 9 meals and ranked 100-600 kcal portions in 3 contexts (scenarios), believing that 1) the next meal would be at 1900, 2) they would receive only a bite of one food, and 3) a favorite dish would be offered immediately afterwards. Regression analysis was used to quantify predictors of choice. In Study 1, the extent to which expected satiety and palatability predicted choice was highly dependent on portion size (P palatability (100-kcal portions: expected satiety, β: 0.42; palatability, β: 0.46). With larger portions, palatability was a strong predictor (600-kcal portions: β: 0.53), and expected satiety was a poor or negative predictor (600-kcal portions: β: -0.42). In Study 2, this pattern was moderated by context (P = 0.024). Results from scenario 1 replicated Study 1. However, expected satiety was a poor predictor in both scenario 2 (expected satiety was irrelevant) and scenario 3 (satiety was guaranteed), and palatability was the primary driver of choice across all portions. In adults, expected satiety influences food choice, but only when small equicaloric portions are compared. Larger portions not only promote the consumption of larger meals, but they encourage the adoption of food choice strategies motivated solely by palatability. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kristina; Atkins, Louise; Brown, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion co...

  2. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  3. Precipitation thresholds for landslide occurrence near Seattle, Mukilteo, and Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheevel, Caroline R.; Baum, Rex L.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.

    2017-04-27

    Shallow landslides along coastal bluffs frequently occur in the railway corridor between Seattle and Everett, Washington. These slides disrupt passenger rail service, both because of required track maintenance and because the railroad owner, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, does not allow passenger travel for 48 hours after a disruptive landslide. Sound Transit, which operates commuter trains in the corridor, is interested in a decision-making tool to help preemptively cancel passenger railway service in dangerous conditions and reallocate resources to alternative transportation.Statistical analysis showed that a majority of landslides along the Seattle-Everett Corridor are strongly correlated with antecedent rainfall, but that 21-37 percent of recorded landslide dates experienced less than 1 inch of precipitation in the 3 days preceding the landslide and less than 4 inches of rain in the 15 days prior to the preceding 3 days. We developed two empirical thresholds to identify precipitation conditions correlated with landslide occurrence. The two thresholds are defined as P3 = 2.16-0.44P15 and P3 = 2.16-0.22P32, where P3 is the cumulative precipitation in the 3 days prior to the considered date and P15 or P32 is the cumulative precipitation in the 15 days or 32 days prior to P3 (all measurements given in inches). The two thresholds, when compared to a previously developed threshold, quantitatively improve the prediction rate.We also investigated rainfall intensity-duration (ID) thresholds to determine whether revision would improve identification of moderate-intensity, landslide-producing storms. New, optimized ID thresholds evaluate rainstorms lasting at least 12 hours and identify landslide-inducing storms that were typically missed by previously published ID thresholds. The main advantage of the ID thresholds appears when they are combined with recent-antecedent thresholds because rainfall conditions that exceed both threshold types are more likely to induce

  4. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Summary of Available Hydrogeologic Data for the Northeast Portion of the Alluvial Aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unthank, Michael D; Nelson, Jr., Hugh L

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the unconsolidated glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits that compose the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, indicate a prolific...

  6. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  7. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  8. A qualitative study of psychological, social and behavioral barriers to appropriate food portion size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michelle; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Hollywood, Lynsey E; Gibney, Eileen R; O'Brien, Sinéad A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Dean, Moira

    2013-08-01

    Given the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity, there is a clear need for meaningful practical healthy eating advice - not only in relation to food choice, but also on appropriate food portion sizes. As the majority of portion size research to date has been overwhelmingly quantitative in design, there is a clear need to qualitatively explore consumers' views in order to fully understand how food portion size decisions are made. Using qualitative methodology this present study aimed to explore consumers' views about factors influencing their portion size selection and consumption and to identify barriers to appropriate portion size control. Ten focus groups with four to nine participants in each were formed with a total of 66 persons (aged 19-64 years) living on the island of Ireland. The semi-structured discussions elicited participants' perceptions of suggested serving size guidance and explored the influence of personal, social and environmental factors on their food portion size consumption. Audiotapes of the discussions were professionally transcribed verbatim, loaded into NVivo 9, and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis procedure. The rich descriptive data derived from participants highlight that unhealthy portion size behaviors emanate from various psychological, social and behavioral factors. These bypass reflective and deliberative control, and converge to constitute significant barriers to healthy portion size control. Seven significant barriers to healthy portion size control were apparent: (1) lack of clarity and irrelevance of suggested serving size guidance; (2) guiltless eating; (3) lack of self-control over food cues; (4) distracted eating; (5) social pressures; (6) emotional eating rewards; and (7) quantification habits ingrained from childhood. Portion size control strategies should empower consumers to overcome these effects so that the consumption of appropriate food portion sizes becomes automatic and habitual.

  9. Portion control for the treatment of obesity in the primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Katherine I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity is a significant health threat and a major public health challenge. A critical need exists to develop and evaluate practical methods for the treatment of obesity in the clinical setting. One of the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic is food portion sizes. Limited data are available on the efficacy of visual or tactile devices designed to enhance patient understanding and control of portion sizes. A portion control plate is a commercially-available product that can provide visual cues of portion size and potentially contribute to weight loss by enhancing portion size control among obese patients. This tool holds promise as a useful adjunct to dietary counseling. Our objective was to evaluate a portion control intervention including dietary counseling and a portion control plate to facilitate weight loss among obese patients in a primary care practice. Findings We randomized 65 obese patients [body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and vs. -0.5% ± 2.2%; p = 0.041 and a non significant trend in weight change from baseline at 6 months (-2.1% ± 3.8% vs. -0.7% ± 3.7%; p = 0.232 compared with usual care. Nearly one-half of patients assigned to the portion control intervention who completed the study reported the overall intervention was helpful and the majority would recommend it to others. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a portion control intervention incorporating dietary counseling and a portion control plate may be effective for enhancing weight loss among obese subjects. A portion control intervention deserves further evaluation as a weight control strategy in the primary care setting. Trial registration Current controlled trials NCT01451554

  10. Hydrodynamic sensory threshold in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) for artificial flatfish breathing currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesterok, Benedikt; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2017-07-01

    Harbour seals have the ability to detect benthic fish such as flatfish using the water currents these fish emit through their gills (breathing currents). We investigated the sensory threshold in harbour seals for this specific hydrodynamic stimulus under conditions which are realistic for seals hunting in the wild. We used an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different nozzles. Two seals were trained to search for the active nozzle. Each experimental session consisted of eight test trials of a particular stimulus intensity and 16 supra-threshold trials of high stimulus intensity. Test trials were conducted with the animals blindfolded. To determine the threshold, a series of breathing currents differing in intensity was used. For each intensity, three sessions were run. The threshold in terms of maximum water velocity within the breathing current was 4.2 cm s -1 for one seal and 3.7 cm s -1 for the other. We measured background flow velocities from 1.8 to 3.4 cm s -1 Typical swimming speeds for both animals were around 0.5 m s -1 Swimming speed differed between successful and unsuccessful trials. It appears that swimming speed is restricted for the successful detection of a breathing current close to the threshold. Our study is the first to assess a sensory threshold of the vibrissal system for a moving harbour seal under near-natural conditions. Furthermore, this threshold was defined for a natural type of stimulus differing from classical dipole stimuli which have been widely used in threshold determination so far. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A New Wavelet Threshold Determination Method Considering Interscale Correlation in Signal Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to simple calculation and good denoising effect, wavelet threshold denoising method has been widely used in signal denoising. In this method, the threshold is an important parameter that affects the denoising effect. In order to improve the denoising effect of the existing methods, a new threshold considering interscale correlation is presented. Firstly, a new correlation index is proposed based on the propagation characteristics of the wavelet coefficients. Then, a threshold determination strategy is obtained using the new index. At the end of the paper, a simulation experiment is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the experiment, four benchmark signals are used as test signals. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve a good denoising effect under various signal types, noise intensities, and thresholding functions.

  12. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Huitink, Marlijn; Dijkstra, S.C.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Heijnen, Joris

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were

  13. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  14. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator. ...

  15. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  16. On the controlling parameters for fatigue-crack threshold at low homologous temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.; Gerberich, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation phenomena near the threshold stress intensity level ΔK /SUB TH/ , has been a vigorously studied topic in recent years. Near threshold the crack propagates rather slowly, thus giving enough time for various physical and chemical reactions to take place. Room air, which is the most commonly encountered environment, can still supply various ingredients such as oxygen, water vapor (and thus hydrogen) to support these reactions. Much effort had been directed toward the environmental aspects of near threshold fatigue crack growth. By conducting tests under vacuum, Suresh and coworkers found that the crack propagation rate in a 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo steel was higher in vacuum than in air. An oxide induced closure, which served to reduce the effective stress intensity at the crack tip, seems to furnish a good explanation. Neumann and coworkers proposed that during the fatigue process, extrusion-intrusion pairs can develop as a consequence of reversed slip around the crack tip when the crack was propagated near threshold stress intensity. Beevers demonstrated that fatigue fracture surfaces contact each other during unloading even under tension-tension cycling. Kanninen and Atkinson also reached the conclusion that the compressive stress acting at the crack tip due to residual plasticity can induce closure. Microstructural effects have also been cited as important factors in near threshold crack growth. It is generally accepted that coarser grains have a beneficial effect on the resistance to the near threshold crack propagation

  17. Threshold Dynamics of a Stochastic Chemostat Model with Two Nutrients and One Microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stochastic chemostat model with two substitutable nutrients and one microorganism is proposed and investigated. Firstly, for the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold for extinction and permanence of the microorganism is obtained by analyzing the stability of the equilibria. Then, for the stochastic model, the threshold of the stochastic chemostat for extinction and permanence of the microorganism is explored. Difference of the threshold of the deterministic model and the stochastic model shows that a large stochastic disturbance can affect the persistence of the microorganism and is harmful to the cultivation of the microorganism. To illustrate this phenomenon, we give some computer simulations with different intensity of stochastic noise disturbance.

  18. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  19. Threshold behavior in electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghpour, H.R.; Greene, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Ever since the classic work of Wannier in 1953, the process of treating two threshold electrons in the continuum of a positively charged ion has been an active field of study. The authors have developed a treatment motivated by the physics below the double ionization threshold. By modeling the double ionization as a series of Landau-Zener transitions, they obtain an analytical formulation of the absolute threshold probability which has a leading power law behavior, akin to Wannier's law. Some of the noteworthy aspects of this derivation are that the derivation can be conveniently continued below threshold giving rise to a open-quotes cuspclose quotes at threshold, and that on both sides of the threshold, absolute values of the cross sections are obtained

  20. A numerical study of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.S.; Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Hategan, C.

    1979-01-01

    There are some experimental evidences of charged particle threshold states. On the statistical background of levels, some simple structures were observed in excitation spectrum. They occur near the coulombian threshold and have a large reduced width for the decay in the threshold channel. These states were identified as charged cluster threshold states. Such threshold states were observed in sup(15,16,17,18)O, sup(18,19)F, sup(19,20)Ne, sup(24)Mg, sup(32)S. The types of clusters involved were d, t, 3 He, α and even 12 C. They were observed in heavy-ions transfer reactions in the residual nucleus as strong excited levels. The charged particle threshold states occur as simple structures at high excitation energy. They could be interesting both from nuclear structure as well as nuclear reaction mechanism point of view. They could be excited as simple structures both in compound and residual nucleus. (author)

  1. Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

    1994-03-01

    One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 10 10 protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20π mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations

  2. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  3. Iran: the next nuclear threshold state?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A nuclear threshold state is one that could quickly operationalize its peaceful nuclear program into one capable of producing a nuclear weapon. This thesis compares two known threshold states, Japan and Brazil, with Iran to determine if the Islamic Republic could also be labeled a threshold state. Furthermore, it highlights the implications such a status could have on U.S. nonproliferation policy. Although Iran's nuclear program is mir...

  4. Derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for landslide in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Domenico; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the primary trigger of shallow landslides that can cause fatalities, damage to properties and economic losses in many areas of the world. For this reason, determining the rainfall amount/intensity responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to mitigate the related risk and save lives. Efforts have been made in different countries to investigate triggering conditions in order to define landslide-triggering rainfall thresholds. The rainfall thresholds are generally described by a functional relationship of power in terms of cumulated or intensity event rainfall-duration, whose parameters are estimated empirically from the analysis of historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. The aim of this paper is the derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Sicily, southern Italy, by focusing particularly on the role of the antecedent wet conditions. The creation of the appropriate landslide-rainfall database likely represents one of main efforts in this type of analysis. For this work, historical landslide events occurred in Sicily from 1919 to 2001 were selected from the archive of the Sistema Informativo sulle Catastrofi Idrogeologiche, developed under the project Aree Vulnerabili Italiane. The corresponding triggering precipitations were screened from the raingauges network in Sicily, maintained by the Osservatorio delle Acque - Agenzia Regionale per i Rifiuti e le Acque. In particular, a detailed analysis was carried out to identify and reconstruct the hourly rainfall events that caused the selected landslides. A bootstrapping statistical technique has been used to determine the uncertainties associated with the threshold parameters. The rainfall thresholds at different exceedance probability levels, from 1% to 10%, were defined in terms of cumulated event rainfall, E, and rainfall duration, D. The role of rainfall prior to the damaging events was taken into account by including in the analysis

  5. How much should I eat? Estimation of meal portions in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Gabriella; Kuenzli, Cornelia; Soelch, Chantal Martin; Schumacher, Sonja; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Pathological concern regarding one's weight and weight gain is a crucial feature of anorexia nervosa. Consequently, anorexia nervosa patients often claim that they are uncertain regarding the amount of food they should eat. The present study investigated whether individuals with anorexia nervosa show an altered estimation of meal portion sizes and whether this estimation is modulated by an intent-to-eat instruction (where patients are asked to imagine having to eat the presented meal), meal type and meal portion size. Twenty-four women with anorexia nervosa and 27 healthy women estimated, using a visual analogue scale, the size of six different portions of three different meals, with and without intent-to-eat instructions. Subjects with anorexia nervosa estimated the size of small and medium meal portions (but not large meal servings) as being significantly larger, compared to estimates of healthy controls. The overestimation of small meal portions by anorexia nervosa subjects was significantly greater in the intent-to-eat, compared to general, condition. These findings suggest that disturbed perceptions associated with anorexia nervosa not only include interoceptive awareness (i.e., body weight and shape), but also extend to external disorder-related objects such as meal portion size. Specific therapeutic interventions, such as training regarding meal portion evaluation, could address these difficulties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the environmental impact of portion bag for food packaging: a case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangrit, Chaniporn; Usapein, Parnuwat; Limphitakphong, Nantamol; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2017-05-01

    This study applied life cycle assessment methodology in evaluating environmental impact of portion bag. The objective of this study was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact through life cycle of portion bag. The options were proposed for improving environmental performance of the product. The system boundary was defined as cradle-to-grave which included the ethylene production, LDPE and LLDPE resins production, portion bag production, disposal, and transportation. All materials and emissions were calculated based on 1 piece of portion bag which weighed 2.49 g. IMPACT 2002+ was used for assessing environmental impact on SimaPro V8.2 software. The result found that the most of environmental impact was generated from LDPE and LLDPE resins which was used as raw material for producing portion bag. After normalization, non-renewable energy showed the highest potential to concern. This impact related directly to the natural gas drilling, ethane production, ethylene production, resin productions, and energy in all process. In conclusion, it should be suggested that the selection of bio-material for producing portion bag can play an important role to reduce the environmental impact. The research demonstrates the possible way and benefits in improving cleaner raw material and suitable way of product's end-of-life for producing green portion bag in the future.

  7. Rainfall-threshold conditions for landslides in a humid-tropical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Simon, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Landslides are triggered by factors such as heavy rainfall, seismic activity, and construction on hillslopes. The leading cause of landslides in Puerto Rico is intense and/or prolonged rainfall. A rainfall threshold for rainfall-triggered landsliding is delimited by 256 storms that occurred between 1959 and 1991 in the central mountains of Puerto Rico, where mean annual rainfall is close to or in excess of 2,000 mm. Forty one of the 256 storms produced intense and/or prolonged rainfall that resulted in tens to hundreds of landslides. A threshold fitted to the lower boundary of the field defined by landslide-triggering storms is expressed as

  8. Fatigue crack growth behavior of RAFM steel in Paris and threshold regimes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, M. Nani; Sasikala, G., E-mail: gsasi@igcar.gov.in; Dutt, B. Shashank; Venugopal, S.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-04-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a reduced activation ferritic martensitic (indigenous RAFM) steel has been evaluated at 300, 653 and 823 K in Paris and threshold regimes. The effect of temperature on threshold stress intensity factor range and associated crack closure mechanisms is highlighted. The FCG results were compared with those for EUROFER 97. Further, crack tip effective stress intensity factor ranges (ΔK{sub tip,eff}) have been evaluated by taking crack tip shielding into account in order to examine the effect of temperature on true intrinsic FCG behavior.

  9. The influence of front-of-pack nutrition information on consumers' portion size perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah May; de Vlieger, Nienke; Collins, Clare; Bucher, Tamara

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Portion size guidance strategies have been suggested as an important component of weight management; therefore, the Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labels could influence consumers' portion-size decisions. However, this has not been investigated to date. This study aims to evaluate whether presenting energy content information and HSRs influences portion size self-selection of specific foods and meals. Methods Adults were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups in this randomised controlled experiment. Each participant was given either a kJ/100g food label or a HSR label, or was given no information on nutrient composition. They were then asked to serve themselves an adequate portion of breakfast cereal (Kellogg's Nutri-Grain), fruit salad and chocolate, plus a three-component meal (chicken, fries and mixed vegetables). Portion serves and meal weights were compared between each experimental group using ANOVA and the discretionary foods were also compared with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). Results Neither the kilojoule nor HSR information influenced the self-served portion size of foods or meal components. Mean self-served portion size of the discretionary foods were significantly greater than the standard serving sizes as specified in the AGHE. Conclusion Although food labels have the potential to assist consumers in making product choices, this study indicates that presenting nutrition information does not affect portion size decisions in young adults. So what? Strategies that assist consumers to choose appropriate portion sizes should be developed as a weight management tool.

  10. How big is a food portion? A pilot study in Australian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clare E; Bucher, Tamara; Taylor, Aimee; Pezdirc, Kristine; Lucas, Hannah; Watson, Jane; Rollo, Megan; Duncanson, Kerith; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Burrows, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    It is not known whether individuals can accurately estimate the portion size of foods usually consumed relative to standard serving sizes in national food selection guides. The aim of the present cross-sectional pilot study was to quantify what adults and children deem a typical portion for a variety of foods and compare these with the serving sizes specified in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). Adults and children were independently asked to serve out their typical portion of 10 common foods (rice, pasta, breakfast cereal, chocolate, confectionary, ice cream, meat, vegetables, soft drink and milk). They were also asked to serve what they perceived a small, medium and large portion of each food to be. Each portion was weighed and recorded by an assessor and compared with the standard AGHE serving sizes. Twenty-one individuals (nine mothers, one father, 11 children) participated in the study. There was a large degree of variability in portion sizes measured out by both parents and children, with means exceeding the standard AGHE serving size for all items, except for soft drink and milk, where mean portion sizes were less than the AGHE serving size. The greatest mean overestimations were for pasta (155%; mean 116 g; range 94-139 g) and chocolate (151%; mean 38 g; range 25-50 g), each of which represented approximately 1.5 standard AGHE servings. The findings of the present study indicate that there is variability between parents' and children's estimation of typical portion sizes compared with national recommendations. SO WHAT? Dietary interventions to improve individuals' dietary patterns should target education regarding portion size.

  11. Association between excess weight and beverage portion size consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Nogueira Bezerra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the beverage portion size consumed and to evaluate their association with excess weight in Brazil. METHODS We used data from the National Dietary Survey, which included individuals with two days of food record aged over 20 years (n = 24,527 individuals. The beverages were categorized into six groups: soft drink, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, alcoholic beverage, milk, and coffee or tea. We estimated the average portion consumed for each group and we evaluated, using linear regression, the association between portion size per group and the variables of age, sex, income, and nutritional status. We tested the association between portion size and excess weight using Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, income, and total energy intake. RESULTS The most frequently consumed beverages in Brazil were coffee and tea, followed by 100% fruit juices, soft drinks, and milk. Alcoholic beverages presented the highest average in the portion size consumed, followed by soft drinks, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, and milk. Portion size showed positive association with excess weight only in the soft drink (PR = 1.19, 95%CI 1.10–1.27 and alcoholic beverage groups (PR = 1.20, 95%CI, 1.11–1.29, regardless of age, sex, income, and total energy intake. CONCLUSIONS Alcoholic beverages and soft drinks presented the highest averages in portion size and positive association with excess weight. Public health interventions should address the issue of portion sizes offered to consumers by discouraging the consumption of large portions, especially sweetened and low nutritional beverages.

  12. Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Ross D; Woledge, Roger C; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

    2012-02-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested to elicit reflex muscle contractions but this has never been verified. We recorded from 32 single motor units (MU) in the vastus lateralis of 7 healthy subjects (34 ± 15.4 yr) during five 1-min bouts of WBV (30 Hz, 3 mm peak to peak), and the vibration waveform was also recorded. Recruitment thresholds were recorded from 38 MUs before and after WBV. The phase angle distribution of all MUs during WBV was nonuniform (P recruitment threshold after WBV and average recruitment threshold; the lowest threshold MUs increased recruitment threshold (P = 0.008) while reductions were observed in the higher threshold units (P = 0.031). We investigated one possible cause of changed thresholds. Presynaptic inhibition in the soleus was measured in 8 healthy subjects (29 ± 4.6 yr). A total of 30 H-reflexes (stimulation intensity 30% Mmax) were recorded before and after WBV: 15 conditioned by prior stimulation (60 ms) of the antagonist and 15 unconditioned. There were no significant changes in the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned responses. The consistent phase angle at which each MU fired during WBV indicates the presence of reflex muscle activity similar to the tonic vibration reflex. The varying response in high- and low-threshold MUs may be due to the different contributions of the mono- and polysynaptic pathways but not presynaptic inhibition.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  14. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  15. Time-efficient multidimensional threshold tracking method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Kowalewski, Borys; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, adaptive methods have been used to reduce the time it takes to estimate psychoacoustic thresholds. However, even with adaptive methods, there are many cases where the testing time is too long to be clinically feasible, particularly when estimating thresholds as a function of anothe...

  16. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  17. An investigation of the effect of load ratio on near-threshold fatigue crack propagation in a Ni-Base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schooling, J.M.; Reed, P.A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior of Waspaloy has been investigated to elucidate important parameters relevant to the development of a modelling program for fatigue behavior in Ni-base superalloys. At low values of load-ratio, R, threshold stress intensity values are found to be highly sensitive to R. This behavior is rationalized in terms of roughness induced crack closure. At high load ratios there is less sensitivity to R, and stage II behavior appears to persist to threshold. The threshold stress intensity at high R-ratios is lower than that for closure corrected Stage I (low load ratio) threshold behavior, indicating the existence of two intrinsic threshold values. This difference appears to be due not only to crack branching and deflection in Stage I, but also to be intrinsic difference in resistance to threshold behavior in the two growth modes. (author)

  18. Summary of DOE threshold limits efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste in DOE sanitary landfills. Waste above a threshold level could be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. After extensive review of a draft threshold guidance document in 1985, a second draft threshold background document was produced in March 1986. The second draft included a preliminary cost-benefit analysis and quality assurance considerations. The review of the second draft has been completed. Final changes to be incorporated include an in-depth cost-benefit analysis of two example sites and recommendations of how to further pursue (i.e. employ) the concept of threshold quantities within the DOE. 3 references

  19. Validation of a food quantification picture book and portion sizes estimation applying perception and memory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenczi-Cseh, J; Horváth, Zs; Ambrus, Á

    2017-12-01

    We tested the applicability of EPIC-SOFT food picture series used in the context of a Hungarian food consumption survey gathering data for exposure assessment, and investigated errors in food portion estimation resulted from the visual perception and conceptualisation-memory. Sixty-two participants in three age groups (10 to foods. The results were considered acceptable if the relative difference between average estimated and actual weight obtained through the perception method was ≤25%, and the relative standard deviation of the individual weight estimates was food items were rated acceptable. Small portion sizes were tended to be overestimated, large ones were tended to be underestimated. Portions of boiled potato and creamed spinach were all over- and underestimated, respectively. Recalling the portion sizes resulted in overestimation with larger differences (up to 60.7%).

  20. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R

    1999-01-01

    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  1. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's 'thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in 'tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering 'right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted.

  2. Process for forming a chromium diffusion portion and articles made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, David Andrew; Cavanaugh, Dennis William; Feng, Ganjiang; Bucci, David Vincent

    2012-09-11

    In one embodiment, a method for forming an article with a diffusion portion comprises: forming a slurry comprising chromium and silicon, applying the slurry to the article, and heating the article to a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient period of time to diffuse chromium and silicon into the article and form a diffusion portion comprising silicon and a microstructure comprising .alpha.-chromium. In one embodiment, a gas turbine component comprises: a superalloy and a diffusion portion having a depth of less than or equal to 60 .mu.m measured from the superalloy surface into the gas turbine component. The diffusion portion has a diffusion surface having a microstructure comprising greater than or equal to 40% by volume .alpha.-chromium.

  3. 2009 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Portions of Orange and Seminole Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area covers 318 square miles in the eastern half of Seminole County plus portions of north central and northeast Orange County in the state of Florida....

  4. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's ‘thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in ‘tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering ‘right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  5. Digital data for the Hazens Notch and a portion of the Lowell quadrangles, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG03-3B Digital data for the Hazens Notch and a portion of the Lowell quadrangles, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report VG03-3B, The...

  6. The role of perceived stress and gender on portion selection patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E X; Sim, A Y; Forde, C G; Cheon, B K

    2018-06-01

    Stress is linked to increased preferences and consumption of palatable energy dense foods, particularly among females. Despite the role of stress on potentially obesogenic eating habits, its effect on pre-meal planning, such as the selection of portion sizes, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between perceived stress, gender, and intended portion sizes for diverse foods. Across two studies, increased perceived stress predicted larger (higher energy) intended portion sizes across a variety of food items among females, but not males. Additionally, for females, increased perceived stress was associated with lowered expectations of the satiety of foods presented, suggesting a potential mechanism by which stress may influence decisions about portion size. These findings reveal that the potentially obesogenic effects of stress on food judgments and behaviours (particularly among females) are not only expressed within meals, but also during more deliberate stages of planning that precedes meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  8. Observation of LPI Thresholds for the Nike Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Charbonneau-Lefort, M.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.

    2008-11-01

    The Nike laser is being used to study thresholds for laser plasma instabilities (LPI) at intensities (10^15-10^16 W/cm^2) relevant to advanced implosion designs for direct drive inertial confinement fusion. The combination of short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1-2 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence available with this krypton-fluoride laser make these experiments unique among current facilities. This talk will present an overview of results with an emphasis on the two-plasmon decay instability (2φp). Measurements of x-rays and emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2 φo harmonics of the laser wavelength have been collected over a wide range of intensities for both solid and foam targets. Data indicate collective multiple-angle driven excitation compatible with previous observations using solid planar targets.

  9. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo - Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Pereira

    Full Text Available Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight.The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048, red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043, rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001, salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022, and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007.Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations.

  10. Radar rainfall estimation for the identification of debris-flow precipitation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Identification of rainfall thresholds for the prediction of debris-flow occurrence is a common approach for warning procedures. Traditionally the debris-flow triggering rainfall is derived from the closest available raingauge. However, the spatial and temporal variability of intense rainfall on mountainous areas, where debris flows take place, may lead to large uncertainty in point-based estimates. Nikolopoulos et al. (2014) have shown that this uncertainty translates into a systematic underestimation of the rainfall thresholds, leading to a step degradation of the performances of the rainfall threshold for identification of debris flows occurrence under operational conditions. A potential solution to this limitation lies on use of rainfall estimates from weather radar. Thanks to their high spatial and temporal resolutions, these estimates offer the advantage of providing rainfall information over the actual debris flow location. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of radar precipitation estimations for the identification of debris flow precipitation thresholds. Seven rainfall events that triggered debris flows in the Adige river basin (Eastern Italian Alps) are analyzed using data from a dense raingauge network and a C-Band weather radar. Radar data are elaborated by using a set of correction algorithms specifically developed for weather radar rainfall application in mountainous areas. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of debris flows are identified in the form of average intensity-duration power law curves using a frequentist approach by using both radar rainfall estimates and raingauge data. Sampling uncertainty associated to the derivation of the thresholds is assessed by using a bootstrap technique (Peruccacci et al. 2012). Results show that radar-based rainfall thresholds are largely exceeding those obtained by using raingauge data. Moreover, the differences between the two thresholds may be related to the spatial characteristics (i.e., spatial

  11. Effects of cooling portions of the head on human thermoregulatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuura, T; Tomioka, K; Harada, H; Iwanaga, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-03-01

    Seven healthy young male students participated in this study. Each subject sat on a chair in an anteroom at 25 degrees C for 30 min and then entered a climatic chamber, controlled at 40 degrees C and R.H. 50%, and sat on a chair for 90 min. Cooling of frontal portion including the region around the eyes (FC), occipital portion (OC), and temporal portion (TC) began after 50 min of entering. An experiment without head cooling (NC) was also made for the control measurement. Thermal comfort and thermal sensation were improved by head cooling, but response was the same regardless of portion cooled. Although rectal temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate showed no significant effect due to head cooling, forearm skin blood flow (FBF), sweat rate (SR), and body weight loss (delta Wt) had a tendency to be depressed. FBF in FC and TC decreased during head cooling, but that in OC and NC did not change significantly, while SR in FC was depressed. delta Wt showed total sweating to decrease by FC and TC, and FC to have greater inhibitory effect on sweating than OC. Thermal strain was evaluated by the modified Craig Index (I(s)). I(s) in FC decreased significantly more than in NC. Cooling of other portions of the head had no significant effect on I(s). Cooling of the frontal portion of the head may thus be concluded to have the most effect on thermoregulatory response in a hot environment.

  12. Formative evaluation of a mobile liquid portion size estimation interface for people with varying literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Beenish Moalla; Connelly, Kay; Siek, Katie A; Welch, Janet L

    2013-12-01

    Chronically ill people, especially those with low literacy skills, often have difficulty estimating portion sizes of liquids to help them stay within their recommended fluid limits. There is a plethora of mobile applications that can help people monitor their nutritional intake but unfortunately these applications require the user to have high literacy and numeracy skills for portion size recording. In this paper, we present two studies in which the low- and the high-fidelity versions of a portion size estimation interface, designed using the cognitive strategies adults employ for portion size estimation during diet recall studies, was evaluated by a chronically ill population with varying literacy skills. The low fidelity interface was evaluated by ten patients who were all able to accurately estimate portion sizes of various liquids with the interface. Eighteen participants did an in situ evaluation of the high-fidelity version incorporated in a diet and fluid monitoring mobile application for 6 weeks. Although the accuracy of the estimation cannot be confirmed in the second study but the participants who actively interacted with the interface showed better health outcomes by the end of the study. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for designing the next iteration of an accurate and low literacy-accessible liquid portion size estimation mobile interface.

  13. Improving accuracy of portion-size estimations through a stimulus equivalence paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Nicole L; Borrero, John C; Fisher, Alyssa; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States (Gordon-Larsen, The, & Adair, 2010). Obesity can be attributed, in part, to overconsumption of energy-dense foods. Given that overeating plays a role in the development of obesity, interventions that teach individuals to identify and consume appropriate portion sizes are warranted. Specifically, interventions that teach individuals to estimate portion sizes correctly without the use of aids may be critical to the success of nutrition education programs. The current study evaluated the use of a stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach 9 undergraduate students to estimate portion size accurately. Results suggested that the stimulus equivalence paradigm was effective in teaching participants to make accurate portion size estimations without aids, and improved accuracy was observed in maintenance sessions that were conducted 1 week after training. Furthermore, 5 of 7 participants estimated the target portion size of novel foods during extension sessions. These data extend existing research on teaching accurate portion-size estimations and may be applicable to populations who seek treatment (e.g., overweight or obese children and adults) to teach healthier eating habits. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Model-based measurement of food portion size for image-based dietary assessment using 3D/2D registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Yue, Yaofeng; Sun, Mingui; Jia, Wenyan; Li, Zhaoxin; Sun, Yung-Nien; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-01-01

    Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from a single photographic image of food contained on a typical dining plate. First, we calculate the food location with respect to a 3D camera coordinate system using the plate as a scale reference. Then, the food is segmented automatically from the background in the image. Adaptive thresholding and snake modeling are implemented based on several image features, such as color contrast, regional color homogeneity and curve bending degree. Next, a 3D model representing the general shape of the food (e.g., a cylinder, a sphere, etc) is selected from a pre-constructed shape model library. The position, orientation and scale of the selected shape model are determined by registering the projected 3D model and the food contour in the image, where the properties of the reference are used as constraints. Experimental results using various realistically shaped foods with known volumes demonstrated satisfactory performance of our image-based food volume measurement method even if the 3D geometric surface of the food is not completely represented in the input image. (paper)

  15. Presence of a Temperature Gradient Among Genital Tract Portions and the Thermal Changes Within These Portions Over the Estrous Cycle in Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    EL-SHEIKH ALI, Hossam; KITAHARA, Go; TAMURA, Youji; KOBAYASHI, Ikuo; HEMMI, Koichiro; TORISU, Shidow; SAMESHIMA, Hiroshi; HORII, Yoichiro; ZAABEL, Samy; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (V...

  16. Fabrication of Pt nanowires with a diffraction-unlimited feature size by high-threshold lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Ziang; Yu, Miao; Song, Zhengxun; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Dapeng; Zhao, Le; Peng, Kuiqing

    2015-01-01

    Although the nanoscale world can already be observed at a diffraction-unlimited resolution using far-field optical microscopy, to make the step from microscopy to lithography still requires a suitable photoresist material system. In this letter, we consider the threshold to be a region with a width characterized by the extreme feature size obtained using a Gaussian beam spot. By narrowing such a region through improvement of the threshold sensitization to intensity in a high-threshold material system, the minimal feature size becomes smaller. By using platinum as the negative photoresist, we demonstrate that high-threshold lithography can be used to fabricate nanowire arrays with a scalable resolution along the axial direction of the linewidth from the micro- to the nanoscale using a nanosecond-pulsed laser source with a wavelength λ 0  = 1064 nm. The minimal feature size is only several nanometers (sub λ 0 /100). Compared with conventional polymer resist lithography, the advantages of high-threshold lithography are sharper pinpoints of laser intensity triggering the threshold response and also higher robustness allowing for large area exposure by a less-expensive nanosecond-pulsed laser

  17. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  18. The Caenorhabditis elegans interneuron ALA is (also) a high-threshold mechanosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jarred; Nagy, Stanislav; Fetterman, Graham; Wright, Charles; Treinin, Millet; Biron, David

    2013-01-01

    Background To survive dynamic environments, it is essential for all animals to appropriately modulate their behavior in response to various stimulus intensities. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suppresses the rate of egg-laying in response to intense mechanical stimuli, in a manner dependent on the mechanosensory neurons FLP and PVD. We have found that the unilaterally placed single interneuron ALA acted as a high-threshold mechanosensor, and that it was required for this pr...

  19. Thresholds and noise limitations of colour vision in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter

    2017-04-05

    Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  1. Reaction thresholds in doubly special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, Daniel; Major, Seth; Hinteleitner, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Two theories of special relativity with an additional invariant scale, 'doubly special relativity', are tested with calculations of particle process kinematics. Using the Judes-Visser modified conservation laws, thresholds are studied in both theories. In contrast with some linear approximations, which allow for particle processes forbidden in special relativity, both the Amelino-Camelia and Magueijo-Smolin frameworks allow no additional processes. To first order, the Amelino-Camelia framework thresholds are lowered and the Magueijo-Smolin framework thresholds may be raised or lowered

  2. Removal of portions of tubes from steam generator of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, R.L.; Williams, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    After the tube portion to be removed is severed from the remainder of the U-tube and its weld to the header is machined off, the internal surface of the portion is engaged internally by an ID gripper and pulled out of the header. Then the external surface is engaged by an OD gripper and pulled further out of the header. The first tube length is pulled out as far as the space under the header permits and is then cut off. Successive lengths are likewise pulled out and cut off. The apparatus for accomplishing this object includes a base secured to the header by expanded mandrel mechanisms. A carriage is suspended from the base on screws which are driven by a motor to move the carriage away from and towards the base. An OD gripper assembly is suspended from the carriage and is movable by fluoroactuated piston rods away from and towards the carriage. An ID gripper assembly extends through the OD gripper assembly. The gripper of the ID assembly is actuable to engage the internal surface of the tube portion. With its gripper so engaged the ID assembly is engaged by the gripper of the OD assembly and the engaged tube portion is pulled out of the header by the OD assembly. The ID gripper is then disengaged and the OD gripper is engaged with the tube portion in the same way that it engages the ID assembly and the tube portion is pulled out further. The apparatus also includes a tube cutter having an abrasive wheel. The wheel cuts the lengths of the tube portion at an angle so that for examination and testing the tube lengths can be matched and the orientation of any defect with respect to the plate in the steam generator which separates the inlet and outlet ends of the tubes and the U-tube supports can be identified

  3. Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) hearing threshold for brief broadband signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Whitlow W L; Lemonds, David W; Vlachos, Stephanie; Nachtigall, Paul E; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2002-06-01

    The hearing sensitivity of an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to both pure tones and broadband signals simulating echoes from a 7.62-cm water-filled sphere was measured. Pure tones with frequencies between 40 and 140 kHz in increments of 20 kHz were measured along with broadband thresholds using a stimulus with a center frequency of 97.3 kHz and 88.2 kHz. The pure-tone thresholds were compared with the broadband thresholds by converting the pure-tone threshold intensity to energy flux density. The results indicated that dolphins can detect broadband signals slightly better than a pure-tone signal. The broadband results suggest that an echolocating bottlenose dolphin should be able to detect a 7.62-cm diameter water-filled sphere out to a range of 178 m in a quiet environment.

  4. The effect of age and gender on pressure pain thresholds and suprathreshold stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrini, Laura; Tomczak Matthiesen, Susan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the impact of age and gender on (1) experimental pressure pain detection thresholds (PPDT) and pressure pain tolerance thresholds (PPTolT) and (2) participants’self-reports of pain intensity and unpleasantness at suprathreshold and subthreshold levels. Methods: twenty young...... (20–34, mean age = 24.6 ± 3.5 years, ten female) and twenty elderly (65–88, mean age = 73.7 ± 6.6 years, ten female) healthy volunteers were compared. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 28–30) assessed intact cognitive functioning. Pain thresholds were assessed together with the sensory intensity...... ratings to 1.3 × PPDT (pain) and 0.2 × PPDT (no pain). Results: PPDT and PPTolT significantly decreased with age and were lower in young females as compared with young males. No gender differences were observed in the elderly group. PPDT decreased significantly with age in males but not in females...

  5. Critical Power: An Important Fatigue Threshold in Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, David C.; Burnley, Mark; Vanhatalo, Anni; Rossiter, Harry B.; Jones, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power, CP) and the so-called W′ (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles - respiratory, metabolic and contractile - within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility. Rather than calibrating equivalent exercise intensities relative to metabolically distant parameters such as the lactate threshold or V̇O2 max, setting the exercise intensity relative to CP unifies the profile of systemic and intramuscular responses and, if greater than CP, predicts the tolerable duration of exercise until W′ is expended, V̇O2 max is attained, and intolerance is manifested. CP may be regarded as a ‘fatigue threshold’ in the sense that it separates exercise intensity domains within which the physiological responses to exercise can (CP) be stabilized. The CP concept therefore enables important insights into 1) the principal loci of fatigue development (central vs. peripheral) at different intensities of exercise, and 2) mechanisms of cardiovascular and metabolic control and their modulation by factors such as O2 delivery. Practically, the CP concept has great potential application in optimizing athletic training programs and performance as well as improving the life quality for individuals enduring chronic disease. PMID:27031742

  6. Influência dos exercícios físicos de baixa e alta intensidade sobre o limiar de hipernocicepção e outros parâmetros em ratos Influencia de los ejercicios físicos de baja y alta intensidad sobre el límite de hipernocicepción y otros parámetros en ratones Influence of low and high intensity physical exercise on hypernociception threshold and other parameters of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir da Costa Lana

    2006-10-01

    their euthanasia, to collect and weigh the adrenal glands, heart, spleen and kidneys, and to subsequent histopathological study of those tissues. The statistical analysis of the results showed a significant increase (P < 0.05 of the hypernoniception threshold in H2, H3, H4 and H6 moments in animals trained at high intensity. There was also a significant reduction (P < 0.05 in body mass besides hypertrophy of the adrenal glands and heart and an increase in the kidneys relative weight of the rats trained at high intensity, in addition to adrenal hypertrophy of the animals trained at low intensity. There were no statistically significant changes in the other parameters evaluated in this study. We concluded that physical exercises on a treadmill were capable of changing the nociception, body mass and the relative weight of some organs, but in a way that was dependent on the exercises protocol applied to the animals.

  7. Threshold selection for classification of MR brain images by clustering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovanu, Simona [Faculty of Sciences and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, Dunărea de Jos University of Galaţi, 47 Domnească St., 800008, Romania, Phone: +40 236 460 780 (Romania); Dumitru Moţoc High School, 15 Milcov St., 800509, Galaţi (Romania); Obreja, Cristian; Moraru, Luminita, E-mail: luminita.moraru@ugal.ro [Faculty of Sciences and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, Dunărea de Jos University of Galaţi, 47 Domnească St., 800008, Romania, Phone: +40 236 460 780 (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    Given a grey-intensity image, our method detects the optimal threshold for a suitable binarization of MR brain images. In MR brain image processing, the grey levels of pixels belonging to the object are not substantially different from the grey levels belonging to the background. Threshold optimization is an effective tool to separate objects from the background and further, in classification applications. This paper gives a detailed investigation on the selection of thresholds. Our method does not use the well-known method for binarization. Instead, we perform a simple threshold optimization which, in turn, will allow the best classification of the analyzed images into healthy and multiple sclerosis disease. The dissimilarity (or the distance between classes) has been established using the clustering method based on dendrograms. We tested our method using two classes of images: the first consists of 20 T2-weighted and 20 proton density PD-weighted scans from two healthy subjects and from two patients with multiple sclerosis. For each image and for each threshold, the number of the white pixels (or the area of white objects in binary image) has been determined. These pixel numbers represent the objects in clustering operation. The following optimum threshold values are obtained, T = 80 for PD images and T = 30 for T2w images. Each mentioned threshold separate clearly the clusters that belonging of the studied groups, healthy patient and multiple sclerosis disease.

  8. Hillslope threshold response to rainfall: (1) a field based forensic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. Graham; Ross A. Woods; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2010-01-01

    Hillslope threshold response to storm rainfall is poorly understood. Basic questions regarding the type, location, and flow dynamics of lateral, subsurface flow remain unanswered, even at our most intensively studied field sites. Here we apply a forensic approach where we combined irrigation and excavation experiments at the well studied Maimai hillslope to determine...

  9. Approach to DOE threshold guidance limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.D.; Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for less restrictive criteria governing disposal of extremely low-level radioactive waste has long been recognized. The Low-Level Waste Management Program has been directed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to aid in the development of a threshold guidance limit for DOE low-level waste facilities. Project objectives are concernd with the definition of a threshold limit dose and pathway analysis of radionuclide transport within selected exposure scenarios at DOE sites. Results of the pathway analysis will be used to determine waste radionuclide concentration guidelines that meet the defined threshold limit dose. Methods of measurement and verification of concentration limits round out the project's goals. Work on defining a threshold limit dose is nearing completion. Pathway analysis of sanitary landfill operations at the Savannah River Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is in progress using the DOSTOMAN computer code. Concentration limit calculations and determination of implementation procedures shall follow completion of the pathways work. 4 references

  10. Pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, I.T.; Jeong, M.T.

    1989-08-01

    Electric dipole amplitudes of pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold have been calculated in the framework of the chiral bag model. Our results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data

  11. Effect of dissipation on dynamical fusion thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierk, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of dynamical thresholds to fusion in heavy nuclei (A greater than or equal to 200) due to the nature of the potential-energy surface is shown. These thresholds exist even in the absence of dissipative forces, due to the coupling between the various collective deformation degrees of freedom. Using a macroscopic model of nuclear shape dynamics, It is shown how three different suggested dissipation mechanisms increase by varying amounts the excitation energy over the one-dimensional barrier required to cause compound-nucleus formation. The recently introduced surface-plus-window dissipation may give a reasonable representation of experimental data on fusion thresholds, in addition to properly describing fission-fragment kinetic energies and isoscalar giant multipole widths. Scaling of threshold results to asymmetric systems is discussed. 48 refs., 10 figs

  12. 40 CFR 98.411 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.411 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of industrial greenhouse gases who meets the requirements of § 98.2(a)(4) must report GHG...

  13. Melanin microcavitation threshold in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Wharmby, Andrew W.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2014-02-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of isolated bovine and porcine melanosomes were determined using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the NIR (1000 - 1319 nm) wavelength regime. Average fluence thresholds for microcavitation increased non-linearly with increasing wavelength. Average fluence thresholds were also measured for 10-ns pulses at 532 nm, and found to be comparable to visible ns pulse values published in previous reports. Fluence thresholds were used to calculate melanosome absorption coefficients, which decreased with increasing wavelength. This trend was found to be comparable to the decrease in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer absorption coefficients reported over the same wavelength region. Estimated corneal total intraocular energy (TIE) values were determined and compared to the current and proposed maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe exposure levels. Results from this study support the proposed changes to the MPE levels.

  14. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  15. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  16. Recent progress in understanding climate thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Good, Peter; Bamber, Jonathan; Halladay, Kate; Harper, Anna B.; Jackson, Laura C.; Kay, Gillian; Kruijt, Bart; Lowe, Jason A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Ridley, Jeff; Srokosz, Meric; Turley, Carol; Williamson, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the

  17. Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Threshold Sharing Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Theodore M; Wang, Chenxi; Wing, Jeannette M

    2002-01-01

    .... Our protocol guards against dynamic adversaries. We observe that existing protocols either cannot be readily extended to allow redistribution between different threshold schemes, or have vulnerabilities that allow faulty old shareholders...

  18. Rainfall thresholds and susceptibility mapping for shallow landslides and debris flows in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Shallow translational slides and debris flows (hereafter 'landslides') pose a significant threat to life and cause significant annual economic impacts (e.g. by damage and disruption of infrastructure). The focus of this research is on the definition of objective rainfall thresholds using a weather radar system and landslide susceptibility mapping. In the study area Scotland, an inventory of 75 known landslides was used for the period 2003 to 2016. First, the effect of using different rain records (i.e. time series length) on two threshold selection techniques in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was evaluated. The results show that thresholds selected by 'Threat Score' (minimising false alarms) are sensitive to rain record length and which is not routinely considered, whereas thresholds selected using 'Optimal Point' (minimising failed alarms) are not; therefore these may be suited to establishing lower limit thresholds and be of interest to those developing early warning systems. Robust thresholds are found for combinations of normalised rain duration and accumulation at 1 and 12 day's antecedence respectively; these are normalised using the rainy-day normal and an equivalent measure for rain intensity. This research indicates that, in Scotland, rain accumulation provides a better indicator than rain intensity and that landslides may be generated by threshold conditions lower than previously thought. Second, a landslide susceptibility map is constructed using a cross-validated logistic regression model. A novel element of the approach is that landslide susceptibility is calculated for individual hillslope sections. The developed thresholds and susceptibility map are combined to assess potential hazards and impacts posed to the national highway network in Scotland.

  19. From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2009-04-01

    Food portion-sizes might be a promising starting point for interventions targeting obesity. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess how representatives of point-of-purchase settings perceived the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 representatives of various point-of-purchase settings. Constructs derived from the diffusion of innovations theory were incorporated into the interview guide. Each interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analysed with Atlas.ti 5.2 using the framework approach. According to the participants, offering a larger variety of portion-sizes had the most relative advantages, and reducing portions was the most disadvantageous. The participants also considered portion-size reduction and linear pricing of portion-sizes to be risky. Lastly, a larger variety of portion-sizes, pricing strategies and portion-size labelling were seen as the most complex interventions. In general, participants considered offering a larger variety of portion-sizes, portion-size labelling and, to a lesser extent, pricing strategies with respect to portion-sizes as most feasible to implement. Interventions aimed at portion-size were seen as innovative by most participants. Developing adequate communication strategies about portion-size interventions with both decision-makers in point-of-purchase settings and the general public is crucial for successful implementation.

  20. Repairing method and apparatus for weld portion of reactor core shroud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yasukata; Kurosawa, Koichi (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Toyota, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Toshikazu.

    1993-12-07

    A method of repairing a weld portion in a cylindrical reactor core shroud comprises a first step of inspecting a weld portion by an ultrasonic flow testing device from the surface of the reactor core shroud, a second step of applying repairing fabrication for cracked portion if it is discovered by the test and a third step of applying a surface modification to the fabricated portion after the repairing fabrication. As a result, repairing fabrication for the crack caused by stress corrosion crack or the like is enabled and reoccurrence of the stress corrosion crack in the repair fabrication portion can be prevented. Operator's exposure dose is minimized by shielding with reactor water or shielding plate. In a case of using the shielding plate, welding and surface improvement can be practiced in atmospheric air instead of water-submerged welding. Water does not intrude from the outside of the shroud and occurrence of penetration crack can be coped with. Further, it is possible to reduce cost and save labors for parts exchange by using the parts in common, to improve the operation efficiency. (N.H.).

  1. Repairing method and apparatus for weld portion of reactor core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yasukata; Kurosawa, Koichi; Toyota, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Toshikazu.

    1993-01-01

    A method of repairing a weld portion in a cylindrical reactor core shroud comprises a first step of inspecting a weld portion by an ultrasonic flow testing device from the surface of the reactor core shroud, a second step of applying repairing fabrication for cracked portion if it is discovered by the test and a third step of applying a surface modification to the fabricated portion after the repairing fabrication. As a result, repairing fabrication for the crack caused by stress corrosion crack or the like is enabled and reoccurrence of the stress corrosion crack in the repair fabrication portion can be prevented. Operator's exposure dose is minimized by shielding with reactor water or shielding plate. In a case of using the shielding plate, welding and surface improvement can be practiced in atmospheric air instead of water-submerged welding. Water does not intrude from the outside of the shroud and occurrence of penetration crack can be coped with. Further, it is possible to reduce cost and save labors for parts exchange by using the parts in common, to improve the operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  2. Thresholding projection estimators in functional linear models

    OpenAIRE

    Cardot, Hervé; Johannes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the regression function in functional linear regression models by proposing a new type of projection estimators which combine dimension reduction and thresholding. The introduction of a threshold rule allows to get consistency under broad assumptions as well as minimax rates of convergence under additional regularity hypotheses. We also consider the particular case of Sobolev spaces generated by the trigonometric basis which permits to get easily mean squ...

  3. Noise thresholds for optical quantum computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Christopher M; Haselgrove, Henry L; Nielsen, Michael A

    2006-01-20

    In this Letter we numerically investigate the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computing. We allow both photon loss noise and depolarizing noise (as a general proxy for all local noise), and obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible for photon loss probabilities <3 x 10(-3), and for depolarization probabilities <10(-4).

  4. Design of Threshold Controller Based Chaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, I. Raja; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    We propose a very simple implementation of a second-order nonautonomous chaotic oscillator, using a threshold controller as the only source of nonlinearity. We demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of our design through numerical and experimental results. Further, we show that this approach...... of using a threshold controller as a nonlinear element, can be extended to obtain autonomous and multiscroll chaotic attractor circuits as well....

  5. A New Wavelet Threshold Function and Denoising Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jing-yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effects of denoising, this paper introduces the basic principles of wavelet threshold denoising and traditional structures threshold functions. Meanwhile, it proposes wavelet threshold function and fixed threshold formula which are both improved here. First, this paper studies the problems existing in the traditional wavelet threshold functions and introduces the adjustment factors to construct the new threshold function basis on soft threshold function. Then, it studies the fixed threshold and introduces the logarithmic function of layer number of wavelet decomposition to design the new fixed threshold formula. Finally, this paper uses hard threshold, soft threshold, Garrote threshold, and improved threshold function to denoise different signals. And the paper also calculates signal-to-noise (SNR and mean square errors (MSE of the hard threshold functions, soft thresholding functions, Garrote threshold functions, and the improved threshold function after denoising. Theoretical analysis and experimental results showed that the proposed approach could improve soft threshold functions with constant deviation and hard threshold with discontinuous function problems. The proposed approach could improve the different decomposition scales that adopt the same threshold value to deal with the noise problems, also effectively filter the noise in the signals, and improve the SNR and reduce the MSE of output signals.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  7. Is the BLM system ready to go to higher intensities?

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Guerrero, A; Grishin, S; Holzer, E; Jackson, S; Kurfuerst, C; Lechner, A; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The higher beam intensities will enhance the effects of the beam losses observed during 2010 run. In particular beam losses due to so called UFO events are discussed, but also other beam loss phenomena like luminosity losses, injection losses and the leakage from the collimation system are considered. The current understanding of the quench limits reflected in the BLM thresholds on the cold magnets is presented. The thresholds for possible increased beam energy are reviewed.

  8. 77 FR 6138 - Draft Policy on Interpretation of the Phrase “Significant Portion of Its Range” in the Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Portion of Its Range'' in the Endangered Species Act's Definitions of ``Endangered Species'' and... interpreting the phrase ``significant portion of its range'' in the Endangered Species Act's (Act's...'' in the Act's definitions of ``endangered species'' and ``threatened species'' will consider...

  9. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  10. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  11. The Influence of Portion Size and Timing of Meals on Weight Balance and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Forslund, Heléne Bertéus

    2015-03-01

    This review focuses on the influence of portion size and temporal distribution of food intake on weight balance and obesity in adults. The inconsistency of definitions in the area of meal patterns is also discussed. The conclusion is that regular eating habits might facilitate weight balance, while unplanned snacking as well as consuming the major part of the energy intake at the end of the day seem to be unfavourable. Altogether, the research suggests that large portions promote over-consumption and, therefore, limiting portion size of energy dense foods and drinks with added sugar could be recommended. Even if more research is needed, these factors should be taken into consideration in recommendations for obesity prevention.

  12. 2014 Update of the Pacific Northwest portion of the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Chen, Rui; Petersen, Mark; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Sherrod, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the earthquake characterization were changed for the Pacific Northwest portion of the 2014 update of the national seismic hazard maps, reflecting recent scientific findings. New logic trees were developed for the recurrence parameters of M8-9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and for the eastern edge of their rupture zones. These logic trees reflect recent findings of additional M8 CSZ earthquakes using offshore deposits of turbidity flows and onshore tsunami deposits and subsidence. These M8 earthquakes each rupture a portion of the CSZ and occur in the time periods between M9 earthquakes that have an average recurrence interval of about 500 years. The maximum magnitude was increased for deep intraslab earthquakes. An areal source zone to account for the possibility of deep earthquakes under western Oregon was expanded. The western portion of the Tacoma fault was added to the hazard maps.

  13. The international food unit: a new measurement aid that can improve portion size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; Weltert, M; Rollo, M E; Smith, S P; Jia, W; Collins, C E; Sun, M

    2017-09-12

    Portion size education tools, aids and interventions can be effective in helping prevent weight gain. However consumers have difficulties in estimating food portion sizes and are confused by inconsistencies in measurement units and terminologies currently used. Visual cues are an important mediator of portion size estimation, but standardized measurement units are required. In the current study, we present a new food volume estimation tool and test the ability of young adults to accurately quantify food volumes. The International Food Unit™ (IFU™) is a 4x4x4 cm cube (64cm 3 ), subdivided into eight 2 cm sub-cubes for estimating smaller food volumes. Compared with currently used measures such as cups and spoons, the IFU™ standardizes estimation of food volumes with metric measures. The IFU™ design is based on binary dimensional increments and the cubic shape facilitates portion size education and training, memory and recall, and computer processing which is binary in nature. The performance of the IFU™ was tested in a randomized between-subject experiment (n = 128 adults, 66 men) that estimated volumes of 17 foods using four methods; the IFU™ cube, a deformable modelling clay cube, a household measuring cup or no aid (weight estimation). Estimation errors were compared between groups using Kruskall-Wallis tests and post-hoc comparisons. Estimation errors differed significantly between groups (H(3) = 28.48, p studies should investigate whether the IFU™ can facilitate portion size training and whether portion size education using the IFU™ is effective and sustainable without the aid. A 3-dimensional IFU™ could serve as a reference object for estimating food volume.

  14. Descriptive sensory analysis of marinated and non-marinated wooden breast fillet portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, A D; Bowker, B C; Zhuang, H; Chatterjee, D; Adhikari, K

    2018-05-14

    The wooden breast (WB) myopathy influences muscle composition and texture characteristics in broiler breast meat. It is unknown if marination reduces the negative influence of WB on meat sensory quality or if WB effects are uniform throughout the Pectoralis major. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of marination on the sensory attributes and instrumental shear force measurements of the ventral (skin-side) and dorsal (bone-side) portions of normal and severe WB meat. Sixty butterfly fillets (30 normal and 30 severe WB) were selected from the deboning line of a commercial processing plant. Individual fillets were portioned into ventral and dorsal halves. Portions from one side of each butterfly were used as non-marinated controls, and portions from the other side were vacuum-tumble marinated (16 rpm, -0.6 atm, 4°C, 20 min) with 20% (wt/wt) marinade to meat ratio. Marinade was formulated to target a concentration of 0.75% (w/v) salt and 0.45% (w/v) sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. Descriptive sensory analysis (9 trained panelists) was conducted to evaluate visual, texture, and flavor attributes (0-15 point scale) of breast portions along with Warner-Bratzler shear force. Significant interaction effects between WB and marination were not observed for the sensory attributes. Greater springiness, cohesiveness, hardness, fibrousness, and chewiness scores were observed in WB samples (P sensory texture attributes were more apparent in the ventral portions of the breast fillets. Flavor attributes (salty and brothy) increased (P sensory quality is not uniform throughout the Pectoralis major and that WB-related differences in cooked meat sensory texture attributes are lessened but not eliminated by vacuum-tumbling marination.

  15. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  16. Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; van den Bos, W; Matheson, D; Desai, M; McClure, S M; Robinson, T N

    2014-05-01

    The Delboeuf Illusion affects perceptions of the relative sizes of concentric shapes. This study was designed to extend research on the application of the Delboeuf illusion to food on a plate by testing whether a plate's rim width and coloring influence perceptual bias to affect perceived food portion size. Within-subjects experimental design. Experiment 1 tested the effect of rim width on perceived food portion size. Experiment 2 tested the effect of rim coloring on perceived food portion size. In both experiments, participants observed a series of photographic images of paired, side-by-side plates varying in designs and amounts of food. From each pair, participants were asked to select the plate that contained more food. Multilevel logistic regression examined the effects of rim width and coloring on perceived food portion size. Experiment 1: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 5% and the visual area of food portions by 10% on plates with wider rims compared with plates with very thin rims (Pfood portion sizes. Experiment 2: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 1.5% and the visual area of food portions by 3% on plates with rim coloring compared with plates with no coloring (P=0.01). The effect of rim coloring was greater with smaller food portion sizes. The Delboeuf illusion applies to food on a plate. Participants overestimated food portion size on plates with wider and colored rims. These findings may help design plates to influence perceptions of food portion sizes.

  17. Distribution of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in two portions of placenta of teenager and adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Milena Lima; de Faria Barbosa, Renata; Santo, Raquel Espírito; da Silva Santos, Flávia; de Almeida, Lívia Belcastro; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fátima Lucia; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares

    2011-12-01

    The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Forty samples from the fetal portion of teenagers and adults and 40 samples from the maternal portion of teenagers and adults were analyzed. There were significant differences in the Ca and Cu concentrations of the placenta's maternal portion when compared to the fetal portion, for both teenagers and adults. There were differences in Fe and Zn concentrations only when comparing the maternal portion of placenta with the fetal portion of the adults. These results suggest important differences in mineral content based on the placental portion. No significant difference was observed between the minerals studied of the maternal portion of teenagers and adults; however, in the fetal portion, mineral concentrations were greater in adults than in teenagers. Therefore, the mineral concentration of the fetal portion of the placenta is influenced by the mother's age. If there is mineral's competition between the mother and fetus during pregnancy in adolescence due to the importance of these minerals in growth and development, then the mechanism and reason for it should be elucidated in future research. In addition, we believe that further research should be carried out on transporters of these minerals in the same portions of the placentas analyzed by our group, in teenagers and adults.

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy's contractors are identified as ''co-operators'' and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ''operator'' elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors' designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors' contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  19. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-08-21

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy`s contractors are identified as ``co-operators`` and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ``operator`` elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors` designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors` contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  20. Modeling the residual effects and threshold saturation of training: a case study of Olympic swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Millet, Gregoire; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frederic; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to model the residual effects of training on the swimming performance and to compare a model that includes threshold saturation (MM) with the Banister model (BM). Seven Olympic swimmers were studied over a period of 4 +/- 2 years. For 3 training loads (low-intensity w(LIT), high-intensity w(HIT), and strength training w(ST)), 3 residual training effects were determined: short-term (STE) during the taper phase (i.e., 3 weeks before the performance [weeks 0, 1, and 2]), intermediate-term (ITE) during the intensity phase (weeks 3, 4, and 5), and long-term (LTE) during the volume phase (weeks 6, 7, and 8). ITE and LTE were positive for w(HIT) and w(LIT), respectively (p measures indicated that MM compares favorably with BM. Identifying individual training thresholds may help individualize the distribution of training loads.

  1. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Townsend

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fifty potential threshold concepts, finally settling on six information literacy threshold concepts.

  2. QRS Detection Based on Improved Adaptive Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanyu Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death around the world. In accomplishing quick and accurate diagnosis, automatic electrocardiogram (ECG analysis algorithm plays an important role, whose first step is QRS detection. The threshold algorithm of QRS complex detection is known for its high-speed computation and minimized memory storage. In this mobile era, threshold algorithm can be easily transported into portable, wearable, and wireless ECG systems. However, the detection rate of the threshold algorithm still calls for improvement. An improved adaptive threshold algorithm for QRS detection is reported in this paper. The main steps of this algorithm are preprocessing, peak finding, and adaptive threshold QRS detecting. The detection rate is 99.41%, the sensitivity (Se is 99.72%, and the specificity (Sp is 99.69% on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made with two other algorithms, to prove our superiority. The suspicious abnormal area is shown at the end of the algorithm and RR-Lorenz plot drawn for doctors and cardiologists to use as aid for diagnosis.

  3. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  4. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  5. Threshold concepts in finance: student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-10-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by finance academics. In addition, we investigate the potential of a framework of different types of knowledge to differentiate the delivery of the finance curriculum and the role of modelling in finance. Our purpose is to identify ways to improve curriculum design and delivery, leading to better student outcomes. Whilst we find that there is significant overlap between what students identify as important in finance and the threshold concepts identified by academics, much of this overlap is expressed by indirect reference to the concepts. Further, whilst different types of knowledge are apparent in the student data, there is evidence that students do not necessarily distinguish conceptual from other types of knowledge. As well as investigating the finance curriculum, the research demonstrates the use of threshold concepts to compare and contrast student and academic perceptions of a discipline and, as such, is of interest to researchers in education and other disciplines.

  6. Evaluation of treatment thresholds for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants: effects on serum bilirubin and on hearing loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian V Hulzebos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause deafness. In the Netherlands, 25% lower total serum bilirubin (TSB treatment thresholds were recently implemented for preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of hearing loss in jaundiced preterms treated at high or at low TSB thresholds. DESIGN/METHODS: In this retrospective study conducted at two neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands, we included preterms (gestational age 35 dB. RESULTS: There were 479 patients in the high and 144 in the low threshold group. Both groups had similar gestational ages (29.5 weeks and birth weights (1300 g. Mean and mean peak TSB levels were significantly lower after the implementation of the novel thresholds: 152 ± 43 µmol/L and 212 ± 52 µmol/L versus 131 ± 37 µmol/L and 188 ± 46 µmol/L for the high versus low thresholds, respectively (P<0.001. The incidence of hearing loss was 2.7% (13/479 in the high and 0.7% (1/144 in the low TSB threshold group (NNT = 50, 95% CI, 25-3302. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of lower treatment thresholds resulted in reduced mean and peak TSB levels. The incidence of hearing impairment in preterms with a gestational age <32 weeks treated at low TSB thresholds was substantially lower compared to preterms treated at high TSB thresholds. Further research with larger sample sizes and power is needed to determine if this effect is statistically significant.

  7. 14 CFR 1206.202 - Deletion of segregable portions of a record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deletion of segregable portions of a record... AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.202 Deletion of segregable... that indication would harm an interest protected by the exemption in Subpart 3 under which the deletion...

  8. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion sizes served to children at Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Start caregivers are responsible for educating and feeding preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program. Amongst pre-school aged children, portion size served is positively associated with intake of those foods. Researchers conducted eight focus groups with Hispanic and African American Head...

  9. 26 CFR 49.4264(f)-1 - Transportation outside the northern portion of the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation from New York to Southampton, England. The vessel on which A sails makes an intermediate stop... outside the northern portion of the Western Hemisphere, by water on a vessel which makes one or more... Tokyo, Japan. The vessel on which B travels makes a stop at Honolulu, Hawaii, to discharge passengers...

  10. The labyrinthine portion of the facial canal in patients with Bell's palsy investigated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadin, K.; Thomander, L.; Wilbrand, H.

    1987-01-01

    The reproducibility of the labyrinthine portion of the facial canal by computed tomography was investigated in 22 patients with Bell's palsy. The CT images were compared with those obtained in 18 temporal bone specimens. Measurements of the diameters of different parts of the facial canal were made of these images and also microscopically in plastic casts of the temporal bone specimens. No marked difference was found between the dimensions of the labyrinthine portion of the facial canal of the involved and healthy temporal bone in the patient, nor did these differ from the dimensions in the specimens. CT of the slender, curved labyrinthine portion was found to be of doubtful value for metric estimation of small differences in width. The anatomic variations of the canal rendered the evaluation more difficult. CT with a slice thickness of 2 mm was of no value for assessment of this part of the canal. Measurement of the diameters of the labyrinthine portion on CT images is an inappropriate and unreliable method for clinical purposes. (orig.)

  11. Improving Accuracy of Portion-Size Estimations through a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Nicole L.; Borrero, John C.; Fisher, Alyssa; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States (Gordon-Larsen, The, & Adair, 2010). Obesity can be attributed, in part, to overconsumption of energy-dense foods. Given that overeating plays a role in the development of obesity, interventions that teach individuals to identify and consume appropriate portion sizes are…

  12. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (pchoice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. 110 undergraduate participants (MAge=20.9±2.3; MBMI=22.3±2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body scan). Current level of hunger was assessed unobtrusively on a visual analog scale before the eating situation. Calorie intake from chocolate chip cookies. When presented with a large compared to a small portion, participants consumed more cookies (+83kcal). This was not affected by the mindfulness intervention or by hunger. However, while control participants ate more unhealthy food when hungry than when not hungry (+67kcal), participants in the mindfulness condition did not (+1kcal). Findings confirm the prevalence and robustness of the portion size effect and suggest that it may be independent from awareness of internal cues. Prevention strategies may benefit more from targeting awareness of the external environment. However, mindfulness-based interventions may be effective to reduce effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate

  15. Unit bias. A new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Andrew B; Rozin, Paul; Doros, Gheorghe

    2006-06-01

    People seem to think that a unit of some entity (with certain constraints) is the appropriate and optimal amount. We refer to this heuristic as unit bias. We illustrate unit bias by demonstrating large effects of unit segmentation, a form of portion control, on food intake. Thus, people choose, and presumably eat, much greater weights of Tootsie Rolls and pretzels when offered a large as opposed to a small unit size (and given the option of taking as many units as they choose at no monetary cost). Additionally, they consume substantially more M&M's when the candies are offered with a large as opposed to a small spoon (again with no limits as to the number of spoonfuls to be taken). We propose that unit bias explains why small portion sizes are effective in controlling consumption; in some cases, people served small portions would simply eat additional portions if it were not for unit bias. We argue that unit bias is a general feature in human choice and discuss possible origins of this bias, including consumption norms.

  16. Encouraging vegetable intake as a snack among children: the influence of portion and unit size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Bruggers, I.; Vet, de E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: People eat more unhealthy foods when served more (portion size effect) and when the food is served in larger units (unit size effect). The present study aimed to examine whether these effects can be used for the good: to increase vegetable consumption among children. DESIGN: A 2×2

  17. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Leeuwis, F.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake.Objective:To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal.Design:Longitudinal randomized

  18. Substitution of Earthworm Meal with a Portion of Fishmeal in the Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of mean weight 2.15±0.01g were fed on earthworm meal as a substitute for a portion of fishmeal for 10 weeks to determine the effect on growth and nutrient utilization. The fish were fed isonitrogenous Diets (40% crude protein) containing 10%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 40%, and 0% ...

  19. Encouraging vegetable intake as a snack among children: the influence of portion and unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Bruggers, Ilse; de Vet, Emely

    2015-10-01

    People eat more unhealthy foods when served more (portion size effect) and when the food is served in larger units (unit size effect). The present study aimed to examine whether these effects can be used for the good: to increase vegetable consumption among children. A 2×2 between-subjects experiment was conducted at two schools. Pupils were presented in class with cucumber that varied both in unit size (one piece v. pre-sliced) and portion size (one-third v. two-thirds of a cucumber). Children ate ad libitum during the morning break and filled in a survey. Primary schools in the centre of the Netherlands. Primary-school pupils (n 255) aged 8-13 years. Children ate 54 % more cucumber when served a large compared with a smaller portion (difference of 49 g; P<0·001). Large units did not impact consumption (P=0·58), but were considered as less convenient to eat than small units (P=0·001). Findings suggest that children's vegetable intake can be improved by serving larger portions in smaller-sized pieces.

  20. 9 CFR 205.105 - Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format. 205.105 Section 205.105 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... means recording on paper by any technology in a form that can be read by humans without special...

  1. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or...

  2. 77 FR 62200 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0019(b); FRL-9741-1] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, North Carolina-South Carolina 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area; Reasonable Further Progress Plan AGENCY...

  3. Lead, cadmium and chromium in raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Tarasco, Renata; Amorena, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Lead, cadmium and chromium levels were determined in different raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster caught in the central Adriatic Sea (Italy). In raw specimens, the lowest concentrations were always detected in the white meat. Lead and cadmium content in the edible portion never exceeded the maximum levels set by European legislation. The highest cadmium and chromium values (0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) were detected in the brown meat, while the highest lead concentrations were found in the exoskeleton (0.21 ± 0.01 mg/kg wet weight). Also, the boiled samples showed the lowest metal levels in the white meat, even if a significant increase (p < 0.01) was found for lead and cadmium compared to the corresponding raw portions. Among metals, chromium showed the highest concentrations in both raw and boiled portions, but up to now, the European legislation did not envisage any limits in seafood.

  4. Reliability and validity of food portion size estimation from images using manual flexible digital virtual meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eButton takes frontal images at 4 second intervals throughout the day. A three-dimensional (3D) manually administered wire mesh procedure has been developed to quantify portion sizes from the two-dimensional (2D) images. This paper reports a test of the interrater reliability and validity of use...

  5. Trigeminal Schwannoma with intra- and extracranial portions - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Setubal, Roger; Florencio, Filipe Toledo; Gomes, Marcio Rogerio Alcala; Mayo, Suzete Varela; Leiro, Luis Carlos Filgueira; Soares, Aldemir Humberto

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 40-year-old male patient presenting a mandibular branch Schwannoma of the trigeminal nerve with intra-and extracranial portions. The radiologic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed and a review of the literature is presented. (author)

  6. Pain and sensory detection threshold response to acupuncture is modulated by coping strategy and acupuncture sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeungchan; Napadow, Vitaly; Park, Kyungmo

    2014-09-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to reduce pain, and acupuncture-induced sensation may be important for this analgesia. In addition, cognitive coping strategies can influence sensory perception. However, the role of coping strategy on acupuncture modulation of pain and sensory thresholds, and the association between acupuncture sensation and these modulatory effects, is currently unknown. Electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at acupoints ST36 and GB39 of 61 healthy adults. Different coping conditions were experimentally designed to form an active coping strategy group (AC group), who thought they could control EA stimulation intensity, and a passive coping strategy group (PC group), who did not think they had such control. Importantly, neither group was actually able to control EA stimulus intensity. Quantitative sensory testing was performed before and after EA, and consisted of vibration (VDT), mechanical (MDT), warm (WDT), and cold (CDT) detection thresholds, and pressure (PPT), mechanical (MPT), heat (HPT) and cold (CPT) pain thresholds. Autonomic measures (e.g. skin conductance response, SCR) were also acquired to quantify physiological response to EA under different coping conditions. Subjects also reported the intensity of any acupuncture-induced sensations. Coping strategy was induced with successful blinding in 58% of AC subjects. Compared to PC, AC showed greater SCR to EA. Under AC, EA reduced PPT and CPT. In the AC group, improved pain and sensory thresholds were correlated with acupuncture sensation (VDTchange vs. MI: r=0.58, CDTchange vs. tingling: r=0.53, CPTchange vs. tingling; r=0.55, CPTchange vs. dull; r=0.55). However, in the PC group, improved sensory thresholds were negatively correlated with acupuncture sensation (CDTchange vs. intensity sensitization: r=-0.52, WDTchange vs. fullness: r=-0.57). Our novel approach was able to successfully induce AC and PC strategies to EA stimulation. The interaction between psychological coping strategy and

  7. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Intraarticular Injection via the Middle Portion of the Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2017-09-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection is necessary to confirm sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain and is usually performed via the caudal one-third portion of the joint. However, this is occasionally impossible for anatomical reasons, and the success rate is low in clinical settings. We describe a technique via the middle portion of the joint. Observational study. Enrolled were 69 consecutive patients (27 men and 42 women, with an average age of 53 years) in whom the middle portion of 100 joints was targeted. With the patient lying prone-oblique with the painful side down, a spinal needle was inserted into the middle portion of the joint. Subsequently, the fluoroscopy tube was angled at a caudal tilt of 25-30° to clearly detect the recess between the ilium and sacrum and the needle depth and direction. When the needle reached the posterior joint line, 2% lidocaine was injected after the contrast medium outlined the joint. The success rate of the injection method was 80% (80/100). Among 80 successful cases, four were previously unsuccessful when the conventional method was used. Intraarticular injection using the new technique was unsuccessful in 20 joints; in three of these cases, the conventional method proved successful, and no techniques were successful in the other 17 cases. The injection technique via the middle portion of the joint can overcome some of the difficulties of the conventional injection method and can improve the chances of successful intraarticular injection. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Developing an interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS) for use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Hawkins, A; Simpson, E; Adamson, A J

    2014-01-01

    Novel methods of assessing dietary intake are required to reduce the participant burden in dietary surveys, improve participation rates and thereby improve the representativeness of the sample and minimise the impact of measuring dietary intake on a subject's food intake during the recording period. One method of reducing the burden placed on participants in recording dietary intake is to replace weighing of foods with estimation of portion size using tools such as food photographs. The interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS) is an interactive portion size assessment system for use in assessing portion sizes of foods consumed by children aged 18 months to 16 years. The system is computer-based and is designed to be administered during an interview for a food diary or 24-h recall. The portion sizes depicted are age-specific and based on the weights of foods served to children during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys. The system displays digital images of food used to estimate the amount of each food served to the child and the amount of any food left over. Foods are categorised within the system using a three-tier structure. Twenty-seven food group icons are used with two further drop-down menus to select first the food group, then the food category and, finally, the actual food product. Each food is linked to UK food composition codes and all photographs are linked to the weight of the food depicted. Nutritional output is via a companion database. The present study describes the development of the IPSAS and the structure of the system. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; Pportion sizes of a limited number of high-energy-dense foods (high-fibre breakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes.

  10. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  11. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  12. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Hedegaard Rasmussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative...... potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no correlation. Support for the threshold theory of creativity was found, in that the correlation between IQ and innovativeness was positive and significant below a cutoff point of IQ 120. Above the cutoff, no significant relation was identified, and the two...... correlations differed significantly. The finding was stable across distinct parts of the sample, providing support for the theory, although the correlations in all subsamples were small. The findings lend support to the existence of threshold effects using perceptual measures of behavior in real...

  13. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saritas, Emine U., E-mail: saritas@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Goodwill, Patrick W. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Conolly, Steven M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of EECS, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  14. Thresholds of ion turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Mourgues, F.; Roubin, J.P.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.L.

    1991-01-01

    The linear thresholds of ionic turbulence are numerically calculated for the Tokamaks JET and TORE SUPRA. It is proved that the stability domain at η i >0 is determined by trapped ion modes and is characterized by η i ≥1 and a threshold L Ti /R of order (0.2/0.3)/(1+T i /T e ). The latter value is significantly smaller than what has been previously predicted. Experimental temperature profiles in heated discharges are usually marginal with respect to this criterium. It is also shown that the eigenmodes are low frequency, low wavenumber ballooned modes, which may produce a very large transport once the threshold ion temperature gradient is reached

  15. THRESHOLD PARAMETER OF THE EXPECTED LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Arnerić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of extreme value analysis is to quantify the probabilistic behavior of unusually large losses using only extreme values above some high threshold rather than using all of the data which gives better fit to tail distribution in comparison to traditional methods with assumption of normality. In our case we estimate market risk using daily returns of the CROBEX index at the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Therefore, it’s necessary to define the excess distribution above some threshold, i.e. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD is used as much more reliable than the normal distribution due to the fact that gives the accent on the extreme values. Parameters of GPD distribution will be estimated using maximum likelihood method (MLE. The contribution of this paper is to specify threshold which is large enough so that GPD approximation valid but low enough so that a sufficient number of observations are available for a precise fit.

  16. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  17. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus...... on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  18. Air and Bone Conduction Thresholds of Deaf and Normal Hearing Subjects before and during the Elimination of Cutaneous-Tactile Interference with Anesthesia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nober, E. Harris

    The study investigated whether low frequency air and bone thresholds elicited at high intensity levels from deaf children with a sensory-neural diagnosis reflect valid auditory sensitivity or are mediated through cutaneous-tactile receptors. Subjects were five totally deaf (mean age 17.0) yielding vibrotactile thresholds but with no air and bone…

  19. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  20. Evaluation of Treatment Thresholds for Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia in Preterm Infants: Effects on Serum Bilirubin and on Hearing Loss?

    OpenAIRE

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Dommelen, Paula; Verkerk, Paul H.; Dijk, Peter H.; Van Straaten, Henrica L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause deafness. In the Netherlands, 25% lower total serum bilirubin (TSB) treatment thresholds were recently implemented for preterm infants.Objective:To determine the rate of hearing loss in jaundiced preterms treated at high or at low TSB thresholds.Design/Methods:In this retrospective study conducted at two neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands, we included preterms (gestational age 35 dB).Results:There were 479 patients in t...

  1. Near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior of AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The near-threshold fatigue behavior of an AISI 316 alloy was characterized using a newly developed, fully automatic fatigue test apparatus. Significant differences in the near-threshold behavior at temperatures of 295 and 4 K are observed. At 295 K, where the operationally defined threshold at 10 -10 m/cycle is insensitive contains stress ratio and strongly affected by crack closure, the effective threshold stress intensity factor (ΔK/sub Th/)/sub eff/) is about 4.65 MPa m/sub 1/2/ at R = 0.3. At 4 K, the threshold is higher, crack closure is less pronounced, and there is a stress ratio dependency: (ΔK/sub Th/)/sub eff/ is 5.1 MPa m/sup 1/2/ at R = 0.3 and 6.1 MPa m/sup 1/2/ at R - 0.1. There is also a significant difference in the form of the da/dN-versus-ΔK curves on log-log coordinates: at 4 K the curve has the expected sigmoidal shape, but at 295 K the trend is linear over the region of da/dN from 10 -7 to 10 -10 m/cycle. Other results suggest that the near-threshold measurements of a 6.4-mm-thick specimen of this alloy are insensitive to cyclic test frequency below 40 Hz

  2. Shifts in the relationship between motor unit recruitment thresholds versus derecruitment thresholds during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A

    2017-12-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with diminished twitch force amplitude. We examined changes in the motor unit recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship during fatigue. Nine men (mean age = 26 years) performed repeated isometric contractions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extensor force until exhaustion. Surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, and were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains. Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates at recruitment and derecruitment were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the protocol. On average, 15 motor units were studied per contraction. For the initial contraction, three subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for all motor units. Five subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for only low-threshold motor units at the beginning, with a mean cross-over of 31.6% MVC. As the muscle fatigued, many motor units were derecruited at progressively higher forces. In turn, decreased slopes and increased y-intercepts were observed. These shifts were complemented by increased firing rates at derecruitment relative to recruitment. As the vastus lateralis fatigued, the central nervous system's compensatory adjustments resulted in a shift of the regression line of the recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a photographic food atlas as a tool for quantifying food portion size in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platat, Carine; El Mesmoudi, Najoua; El Sadig, Mohamed; Tewfik, Ihab

    2018-01-01

    Although, United Arab Emirates (UAE) has one of the highest prevalence of overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes in the world, however, validated dietary assessment aids to estimate food intake of individuals and populations in the UAE are currently lacking. We conducted two observational studies to evaluate the accuracy of a photographic food atlas which was developed as a tool for food portion size estimation in the UAE. The UAE Food Atlas presents eight portion sizes for each food. Study 1 involved portion size estimations of 13 food items consumed during the previous day. Study 2 involved portion size estimations of nine food items immediately after consumption. Differences between the food portion sizes estimated from the photographs and the weighed food portions (estimation error), as well as the percentage differences relative to the weighed food portion for each tested food item were calculated. Four of the evaluated food items were underestimated (by -8.9% to -18.4%), while nine were overestimated (by 9.5% to 90.9%) in Study 1. Moreover, there were significant differences between estimated and eaten food portions for eight food items (Pfood item was underestimated (-8.1%) while eight were overestimated (range 2.52% to 82.1%). Furthermore, there were significant differences between estimated and eaten food portions (Pfood items. The limits of agreement between the estimated and consumed food portion size were wide indicating a large variability in food portion estimation errors. These reported findings highlight the need for further developments of the UAE Food Atlas to improve the accuracy of food portion size intake estimations in dietary assessments. Additionally, recalling food portions from the previous day did not seem to increase food portion estimation errors in this study. PMID:29698434

  4. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, H; Dawber, G; Gulley, N; King, G C; Bowring, N; Ward, R

    2013-01-01

    The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury has been recorded over the energy range (10–40 eV) which covers the region from the lowest state of the singly charged ion, 5d 10 6s( 2 S 1/2 ), to the double charged ionic state, 5d 9 ( 2 D 3/2 )6s( 1 D 2 ). Synchrotron radiation has been used in conjunction with the penetrating-field threshold-electron technique to obtain the spectrum with high resolution. The spectrum shows many more features than observed in previous photoemission measurements with many of these assigned to satellite states converging to the double ionization limit. (paper)

  5. Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    2005-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles

  6. Thresholds in Xeric Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.; Simpson, S. C.; Soto, C. D.; Yuan, F.; Turner, D.; Richter, H.

    2011-12-01

    Due to water limitation, thresholds in hydrologic and biogeochemical processes are common in arid and semi-arid systems. Some of these thresholds such as those focused on rainfall runoff relationships have been well studied. However to gain a full picture of the role that thresholds play in driving the hydrology and biogeochemistry of xeric systems a full view of the entire array of processes at work is needed. Here a walk through the landscape of xeric systems will be conducted illustrating the powerful role of hydrologic thresholds on xeric system biogeochemistry. To understand xeric hydro-biogeochemistry two key ideas need to be focused on. First, it is important to start from a framework of reaction and transport. Second an understanding of the temporal and spatial components of thresholds that have a large impact on hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes needs to be offered. In the uplands themselves episodic rewetting and drying of soils permits accelerated biogeochemical processing but also more gradual drainage of water through the subsurface than expected in simple conceptions of biogeochemical processes. Hydrologic thresholds (water content above hygroscopic) results in a stop start nutrient spiral of material across the landscape since runoff connecting uplands to xeric perennial riparian is episodic and often only transports materials a short distance (100's of m). This episodic movement results in important and counter-intuitive nutrient inputs to riparian zones but also significant processing and uptake of nutrients. The floods that transport these biogeochemicals also result in significant input to riparian groundwater and may be key to sustaining these critical ecosystems. Importantly the flood driven recharge process itself is a threshold process dependent on flood characteristics (floods greater than 100 cubic meters per second) and antecedent conditions (losing to near neutral gradients). Floods also appear to influence where arid and semi

  7. Double photoionization of helium near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Armen, G.B.; Sellin, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    There has been substantial recent experimental interest in the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of He near threshold following several theoretical observations that earlier measurements appear to overestimate the ratio, perhaps by as much as 25%, in the first several hundred eV above threshold. The authors recent measurements are 10%-15% below these earlier results and more recent results of Doerner et al. and Samson et al. are yet another 10% lower. The authors will compare these measurement with new data, not yet analyzed, and available theory

  8. Color image Segmentation using automatic thresholding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.

  9. Threshold values characterizing iodine-induced SCC of zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, threshold values of stress, stress intensity factor, strain, strain rate and iodine concentration for SCC of unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloys are reviewed. The ratio of σ sub(th)/σ sub(y) adequately represents the effects of cold-work and irradiation on the SCC susceptibility, where threshold stress σ sub(th) is defined as the minimum stress to cause SCC to failure after 10-20 hours and σ sub(y), the yield stress obtained in an inert atmosphere. The ratio becomes gradually smaller with larger σ sub(y) and is less than 1 for materials with yield strengths above about 350MPa. Plastic strain appears to be necessary for SCC; plastic strains to failure range from 0.1 to 1% for high strength materials, even when data for irradiated materials are included. Strain rate significantly affects the susceptibility. A comparison of SCC data between constant strain rate and constant stress tests is presented. (author)

  10. Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

  11. Experimental determination of alpha particle threshold detection in cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    LR 115, type II, Kodak-Pathe cellulose nitrate pellicles were irradiated perpendicularly with monoenergetic alpha bemas in the energy range 2,5-5,5 Mev. The alpha particle beams were produced by an intense Am 241 source using Argon as energy attenuating. After irradiations, samples were etched with NaOH solutions without agitation at 60 0 C, by different time periods varying from 15 minutes to 3,5 hours. Measurements of density and track diameter were done using optical microscopy. The sample compositions were done by CHN method of combustion gas analysis showing good agreement with the composition of cellulose trinitrate. From detection threshold and from obtained results, the development of latent tracks only occur for alpha particles with stopping power superior to 0,87 +- 0,06 MeV.cm -2 .mg -1 , was verified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Modeling strong-field above-threshold ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, B.; Armstrong, L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) by intense, short-pulse lasers is studied numerically, using the stretched hydrogen atom Hamiltonian. Within our model system, we isolate several mechanisms that contribute to the ATI process. These mechanisms, which involve both excited bound states and continuum states, all invoke intermediate, off-energy shell transitions. In particular, the importance of excited bound states and off-energy shell bound-free processes to the ionization mechanism are shown to relate to a simple physical criterion. These processes point to importance differences in the interpretation of ionization characteristics for short pulses from that for longer pulses. Our analysis concludes that although components of ATI admit of simple, few-state modeling, the ultimate synthesis points to a highly complex mechanism

  13. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Maney, R.T.; Montesanti, R.C.; Sheehan, L.M.; Barker, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed NIF laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of our previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, we discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet

  14. Ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics from stretched molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiyan; Dong, Fulong; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-11-30

    We study the ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics (NTH) from aligned molecules with large internuclear distances numerically and analytically. The calculated harmonic spectra show a broad plateau for NTH which is several orders of magnitude higher than that for high-order harmonics. In particular, the NTH plateau shows high ellipticity at small and intermediate orientation angles. Our analyses reveal that the main contributions to the NTH plateau come from the transition of the electron from continuum states to these two lowest bound states of the system, which are strongly coupled together by the laser field. Besides continuum states, higher excited states also play a role in the NTH plateau, resulting in a large phase difference between parallel and perpendicular harmonics and accordingly high ellipticity of the NTH plateau. The NTH plateau with high intensity and large ellipticity provides a promising manner for generating strong elliptically-polarized extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses.

  15. Effects of tubing length and coupling method on hearing threshold and real-ear to coupler difference measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Samantha; Pittman, Andrea; Fanning, Robert

    2013-06-01

    This tutorial demonstrates the effects of tubing length and coupling type (i.e., foam tip or personal earmold) on hearing threshold and real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) measures. Hearing thresholds from 0.25 kHz through 8 kHz are reported at various tubing lengths for 28 normal-hearing adults between the ages of 22 and 31 years. RECD values are reported for 14 of the adults. All measures were made with an insert earphone coupled to a standard foam tip and with an insert earphone coupled to each participant's personal earmold. Threshold and RECD measures obtained with a personal earmold were significantly different from those obtained with a foam tip on repeated measures analyses of variance. One-sample t tests showed these differences to vary systematically with increasing tubing length, with the largest average differences (7-8 dB) occurring at 4 kHz. This systematic examination demonstrates the equal and opposite effects of tubing length on threshold and acoustic measures. Specifically, as tubing length increased, sound pressure level in the ear canal decreased, affecting both hearing thresholds and the real-ear portion of the RECDs. This demonstration shows that when the same coupling method is used to obtain the hearing thresholds and RECD, equal and accurate estimates of real-ear sound pressure level are obtained.

  16. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of ..... pressure for longevity include low heritabilities, the increased generation interval necessary to obtain survival information, and automatic selection because long-lived cows contribute more offspring to subsequent ...

  17. Regression Discontinuity Designs Based on Population Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Andrew C.; Freier, Ronny; Grembi, Veronica

    In many countries, important features of municipal government (such as the electoral system, mayors' salaries, and the number of councillors) depend on whether the municipality is above or below arbitrary population thresholds. Several papers have used a regression discontinuity design (RDD...

  18. Thresholding methods for PET imaging: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Betrouni, N.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; El Abiad, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with positron emission tomography segmentation methods for tumor volume determination. We propose a state of art techniques based on fixed or adaptive threshold. Methods found in literature are analysed with an objective point of view on their methodology, advantages and limitations. Finally, a comparative study is presented. (authors)

  19. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for…

  20. The Resting Motor Threshold - Restless or Resting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Raffin, Estelle Emeline; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2015-01-01

    , the RMT of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle was repeatedly determined using a threshold-hunting procedure while participants performed motor imagery and visual attention tasks with the right or left hand. Data were analyzed using repeated-measure ANOVA. Results RMT differed depending on which...

  1. The gradual nature of threshold switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, M; Salinga, M

    2014-01-01

    The recent commercialization of electronic memories based on phase change materials proved the usability of this peculiar family of materials for application purposes. More advanced data storage and computing concepts, however, demand a deeper understanding especially of the electrical properties of the amorphous phase and the switching behaviour. In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of the current through the amorphous state of the prototypical phase change material, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , under constant voltage. A custom-made electrical tester allows the measurement of delay times over five orders of magnitude, as well as the transient states of electrical excitation prior to the actual threshold switching. We recognize a continuous current increase over time prior to the actual threshold-switching event to be a good measure for the electrical excitation. A clear correlation between a significant rise in pre-switching-current and the later occurrence of threshold switching can be observed. This way, we found experimental evidence for the existence of an absolute minimum for the threshold voltage (or electric field respectively) holding also for time scales far beyond the measurement range. (paper)

  2. Multiparty Computation from Threshold Homomorphic Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to multiparty computation (MPC) basing it on homomorphic threshold crypto-systems. We show that given keys for any sufficiently efficient system of this type, general MPC protocols for n parties can be devised which are secure against an active adversary that corrupts...

  3. Classification error of the thresholded independence rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Britta Anker; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    We consider classification in the situation of two groups with normally distributed data in the ‘large p small n’ framework. To counterbalance the high number of variables we consider the thresholded independence rule. An upper bound on the classification error is established which is taylored...

  4. Intraoperative transfusion threshold and tissue oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Dahl, B; Johansson, P I

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) may be needed to maintain oxygen delivery during major surgery, but the appropriate haemoglobin (Hb) concentration threshold has not been well established. We hypothesised that a higher level of Hb would be associated with improved subcutaneous...... oxygen tension during major spinal surgery....

  5. Handwriting Automaticity: The Search for Performance Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that handwriting has an important role in written composition. In particular, handwriting automaticity appears to relate to success in composition. This relationship has been little explored in British contexts and we currently have little idea of what threshold performance levels might be. In this paper, we report on two…

  6. Grid - a fast threshold tracking procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    A new procedure, called “grid”, is evaluated that allows rapid acquisition of threshold curves for psychophysics and, in particular, psychoacoustic, experiments. In this method, the parameterresponse space is sampled in two dimensions within a single run. This allows the procedure to focus more e...

  7. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed $30 million); (4) Project financing shall be repayable, in whole or in part, from tolls, user fees... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS... project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  8. Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Schleede, Simone; Hauser, Mario

    2010-01-01

    element simulations confirm that lasing occurs in whispering gallery modes which corresponds well to the measured multimode laser-emission. The effect of dye concentration on lasing threshold and lasing wavelength is investigated and can be explained using a standard dye laser model....

  9. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  10. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  11. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound has been described as a bimodal autosomal trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. This study is based on the ability of a person to taste PTC. The present study reports the threshold distribution of PTC taste sensitivity among some Muslim ...

  12. The acoustic reflex threshold in aging ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, C A; Silman, S; Miller, M H

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the controversy regarding the influence of age on the acoustic reflex threshold for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators between Jerger et al. [Mono. Contemp. Audiol. 1 (1978)] and Jerger [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] on the one hand and Silman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] and others on the other. The acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators were evaluated under two measurement conditions. Seventy-two normal-hearing ears were drawn from 72 subjects ranging in age from 20-69 years. The results revealed that age was correlated with the acoustic reflex threshold for BBN activator but not for any of the tonal activators; the correlation was stronger under the 1-dB than under the 5-dB measurement condition. Also, the mean acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise activator were essentially similar to those reported by Jerger et al. (1978) but differed from those obtained in this study under the 1-dB measurement condition.

  13. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from c...

  14. Properties petrophysics of formation Jandaira: portion west of Potiguar Basin; Propriedades petrofisicas da formacao Jandaira: porcao oeste da Bacia Potiguar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Isabelle T.; Vieira, Marcela M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The focus of this study are the carbonate rocks of Jandaira Formation (Cenomanian-Campanian), located in the northeastern Brazil, enclosing, almost in its totality, the Rio Grande do Norte State and a small portion of the Ceara State. The research consisted of field work, petrographic description and petrophysical analysis of samples from surface and subsurface. The objective was to characterize and quantify the porosity and the permeability of this formation. In the qualitative analysis, the types of pores were classified; in the quantitative one, the porosity values were obtained through petrophysical essays and point counting in thin-sections. The samples from subsurface present porosity values less than 10% and permeability values between 0.01 and 0,47 mD. The samples from outcrops present minimum porosity of 0,6%, arriving up to 19.2%, and permeability between 0.0 and 1370,11 mD. In subsurface, the porosity values are higher in comparison with the permeability ones, inferring that, although there is good percentage of pores, they are isolated. In surface, the pores are normally interconnected, resulting in higher values of permeability. This is due to the more intense dissolution processes that rocks under these condition suffer; this fact is observed not only in the field, but in thin-sections, as well. (author)

  15. The effects of three days of sub-maximal-intensity mountain biking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pro- posed that each individual has a threshold of duration and intensity of exercise. Once this threshold is exceeded, sleep is negatively af- fected by the exercise. Possibly the most physically taxing exercise events are multi- day stage races of either cross-country skiing, running, road cycling, mountain biking or adventure ...

  16. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  17. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  18. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  19. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  20. Identifying thresholds for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameal F Samhouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the greatest obstacles to moving ecosystem-based management (EBM from concept to practice is the lack of a systematic approach to defining ecosystem-level decision criteria, or reference points that trigger management action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assist resource managers and policymakers in developing EBM decision criteria, we introduce a quantitative, transferable method for identifying utility thresholds. A utility threshold is the level of human-induced pressure (e.g., pollution at which small changes produce substantial improvements toward the EBM goal of protecting an ecosystem's structural (e.g., diversity and functional (e.g., resilience attributes. The analytical approach is based on the detection of nonlinearities in relationships between ecosystem attributes and pressures. We illustrate the method with a hypothetical case study of (1 fishing and (2 nearshore habitat pressure using an empirically-validated marine ecosystem model for British Columbia, Canada, and derive numerical threshold values in terms of the density of two empirically-tractable indicator groups, sablefish and jellyfish. We also describe how to incorporate uncertainty into the estimation of utility thresholds and highlight their value in the context of understanding EBM trade-offs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For any policy scenario, an understanding of utility thresholds provides insight into the amount and type of management intervention required to make significant progress toward improved ecosystem structure and function. The approach outlined in this paper can be applied in the context of single or multiple human-induced pressures, to any marine, freshwater, or terrestrial ecosystem, and should facilitate more effective management.

  1. Do multiple body modifications alter pain threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotová, A; Hrabák, P; Hříbek, P; Rokyta, R

    2017-12-30

    In recent years, epidemiological data has shown an increasing number of young people who deliberately self-injure. There have also been parallel increases in the number of people with tattoos and those who voluntarily undergo painful procedures associated with piercing, scarification, and tattooing. People with self-injury behaviors often say that they do not feel the pain. However, there is no information regarding pain perception in those that visit tattoo parlors and piercing studios compared to those who don't. The aim of this study was to compare nociceptive sensitivity in four groups of subjects (n=105, mean age 26 years, 48 women and 57 men) with different motivations to experience pain (i.e., with and without multiple body modifications) in two different situations; (1) in controlled, emotionally neutral conditions, and (2) at a "Hell Party" (HP), an event organized by a piercing and tattoo parlor, with a main event featuring a public demonstration of painful techniques (burn scars, hanging on hooks, etc.). Pain thresholds of the fingers of the hand were measured using a thermal stimulator and mechanical algometer. In HP participants, information about alcohol intake, self-harming behavior, and psychiatric history were used in the analysis as intervening variables. Individuals with body modifications as well as without body modifications had higher thermal pain thresholds at Hell Party, compared to thresholds measured at control neutral conditions. No such differences were found relative to mechanical pain thresholds. Increased pain threshold in all HP participants, irrespectively of body modification, cannot be simply explained by a decrease in the sensory component of pain; instead, we found that the environment significantly influenced the cognitive and affective component of pain.

  2. Acceptability and potential effectiveness of commercial portion control tools amongst people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron-Roig, Eva; Domínguez, Angélica; Vaughan, David; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Jebb, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to large portion sizes is a risk factor for obesity. Specifically designed tableware may modulate how much is eaten and help with portion control. We examined the experience of using a guided crockery set (CS) and a calibrated serving spoon set (SS) by individuals trying to manage their weight. Twenty-nine obese adults who had completed 7-12 weeks of a community weight-loss programme were invited to use both tools for 2 weeks each, in a crossover design, with minimal health professional contact. A paper-based questionnaire was used to collect data on acceptance, perceived changes in portion size, frequency, and type of meal when the tool was used. Scores describing acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were derived from five-point Likert scales from which binary indicators (high/low) were analysed using logistic regression. Mean acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were moderate to high (3·7-4·4 points). Tool type did not have an impact on indicators of acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness (P>0·32 for all comparisons); 55 % of participants used the CS on most days v. 21 % for the SS. The CS was used for all meals, whereas the SS was mostly used for evening meals. Self-selected portion sizes increased for vegetables and decreased for chips and potatoes with both tools. Participants rated both tools as equally acceptable, easy to use and with similar perceived effectiveness. Formal trials to evaluate the impact of such tools on weight control are warranted.

  3. Obese and overweight individuals are less sensitive to information about meal times in portion size judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A R; Mason, A; Rogers, P J; Brunstrom, J M

    2017-11-16

    Obesity is related to a tendency to discount the future. Information regarding inter-meal interval (IMI) allows meal planning. We sought to assess how obese, overweight, and lean people select portion sizes based on the length of an IMI. We hypothesised that individuals with a high BMI would discount information about the IMI. In addition, we investigated how reduced sensitivity to IMIs relates to monetary temporal discounting. Participants (lean, n=35; overweight, n=31; obese, n=22), selected lunchtime portion sizes in response to information about the timings of their next meal. In seven trials, the time of the IMI was systematically manipulated, ranging from 'right now' to '8 h'. Participants then completed a monetary temporal discounting task. BMI was included as a continuous measure. For each participant, we conducted a linear regression of portion size on IMI to yield a gradient that reflected reduced sensitivity to future meal timings. As expected, participants selected larger portion sizes in response to a long IMI. Consistent with our hypothesis, individuals with a high BMI discounted information about the IMI (β=-3.49, P=0.015; confidence interval (CI) 6.29 to -0.70). Monetary discounting also negatively predicted BMI (β=-8.1, P=0.003; CI=-13.43 to -2.77), but did not correlate with IMI sensitivity (P>0.05). These results are the first to demonstrate that temporal discounting operates in planning from one meal to the next, and is more prevalent in obese and overweight, relative to lean individuals. Participants with a high BMI discounted concerns about potential future fullness and hunger in the IMI. Our observations might begin to explain associations between obesity and irregular meal timings or help to form the basis for a targeted intervention that promotes future thinking in meal planning.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.275.

  4. Neutron activation analysis studies of selected portions of the Mahoning River system using 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, E.; Cordon, P.J.; Hazari, A.S.G.; Kline, R.; Mahadeviah, I.; Mooney, E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis study was conducted on portions of the Mahoning River located in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. This river occurs in a highly populated area and is used extensively by numerous industries, including four steel mills, located in the area. Detailed analysis of water and sediment samples indicates the presence of ten different elements. These are sodium, chlorine, bromine, copper, manganese, magnesium, calcium, vanadium, potassium and aluminum. (U.S.)

  5. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change. Methods Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4, four with parents of overweight children (n = 14 and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8. A thematic analysis was performed across the dataset where the TDF/COM-B were used as coding frameworks. Results To achieve the target behaviour, the behavioural analysis revealed the need for eliciting change in all three COM-B domains and nine associated TDF domains. Findings suggest parents’ internal processes such as their emotional responses, habits and beliefs, along with social influences from partners and grandparents, and environmental influences relating to items such as household objects, interact to influence portion size behaviours within the home environment. Conclusion This is the first study underpinned by COM-B/TDF frameworks applied to childhood weight management and provides new targets for intervention development and the opportunity for future research to explore the mediating and moderating effects of these variables on one another.

  6. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: the effects of portion size & energy density

    OpenAIRE

    Cornier Marc A; Burger Kyle S; Ingebrigtsen Jan; Johnson Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. Methods We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n = 129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as...

  7. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: The effects of portion size & energy density

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. Methods: We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n=129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as by parti...

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Portions of Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    and the surrounding portions of central Indiana consists of level plains or gently rolling hills, with streams and small closed depressions ...in enclosed areas, such as basements. The cancer risk caused by exposure, through the inhalation of radon, is currently a topic of concern. 3-70...enter quality should he Implemented. Additional mitigative eggecimnetely 20 Fredetral endeavored, thraetened and candidate mamas should alao he

  9. Energy content estimation by collegians for portion standardized foods frequently consumed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sun Ha; Yun, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate Korean collegians' knowledge of energy content in the standard portion size of foods frequently consumed in Korea and to investigate the differences in knowledge between gender groups. A total of 600 collegians participated in this study. Participants' knowledge was assessed based on their estimation on the energy content of 30 selected food items with their actual-size photo images. Standard portion size of food was based on 2010 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, and the percentage of participants who accurately estimated (that is, within 20% of the true value) the energy content of the standard portion size was calculated for each food item. The food for which the most participants provided the accurate estimation was ramyun (instant noodles) (67.7%), followed by cooked rice (57.8%). The proportion of students who overestimated the energy content was highest for vegetables (68.8%) and beverages (68.1%). The proportion of students who underestimated the energy content was highest for grains and starches (42.0%) and fruits (37.1%). Female students were more likely to check energy content of foods that they consumed than male students. From these results, it was concluded that the knowledge on food energy content was poor among collegians, with some gender difference. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to improving knowledge on calorie content and to helping them apply this knowledge in order to develop effective dietary plans.

  10. Roentgenological findings in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Yukihisa

    1987-10-01

    Roentgenological findings of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were studied in 61 patients with early gastric cancer by double contrast examination. Incidence of the various types of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were as follows;verrucae 4 %, granularity 34 %, fine granularity 58 %, islet 24 %, network 17 % and irregular network 16 %, respectively. Fine granularity and network were observed in 61 % and 46 % of the cases with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and irregular network were observed in 30 %, 55 % and 40 % of the cases with signet-ring cell carcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and islet were observed in 41 %, 59 % and 30 % of the cases with tubular adenocarcinoma, respectively. These results suggest that fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer showed both findings those found in atrophic gastritis (verrucae, granularity, fine granularity and network) and those in gastric cancer (granularity, fine granularity, islet and irregular network).

  11. Traumatic hematomas in deep middle portion of the cerebrum case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Tetsuya; Nishikawa, Michio; Kim, Suho; Shibata, Taichiro; Iwama, Mitsuru

    1981-01-01

    Recently we have encountered three cases of small traumatic hematoma in deep middle portion of the cerebrum. Patient 1: A 55-year-old male was admitted to our hospital 2-days after the traffic accident. CTscan showed small hematoma around septum pellucidi and fornix and in the posterior horn of left lateral ventricle. Patient 2: A 54-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CTscan showed hematoma in the supraventral portion of the third ventricle. Patient 3: A 27-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CTscan showed hematoma around quadrigeminal cistern and midbrain. Three cases reported here are traumatic hematomas without mass effect, which were pointed out only by autopsy. On traumatic hematoma in the deep middle portion of the brain we have only a few reports. On the mechanism of this bleeding Lindenberg and Kohno reported that the bleeding is caused by outward bending of the skull in injury. Lindenberg et al insisted that when traumatic force goes through corpus callosum over stretching of corpus callosum caused bleeding and that shearing force can damage septum pellucidi and fornix. Although these small hematomas are absorbed gradually functional prognosis is poor. Especially Korsakov syndrome and left hemiparesis in patient 1 shows no sign of recovery. In patient 2 and patient 3 decreased mental activity and hemiparesis have continued. Treatment of these cases cannot be surgical, as far as severe brain edema does not appeared. (author)

  12. Roentgenological findings in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Yukihisa

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenological findings of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were studied in 61 patients with early gastric cancer by double contrast examination. Incidence of the various types of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were as follows ; verrucae 4 %, granularity 34 %, fine granularity 58 %, islet 24 %, network 17 % and irregular network 16 %, respectively. Fine granularity and network were observed in 61 % and 46 % of the cases with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and irregular network were observed in 30 %, 55 % and 40 % of the cases with signet-ring cell carcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and islet were observed in 41 %, 59 % and 30 % of the cases with tubular adenocarcinoma, respectively. These results suggest that fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer showed both findings those found in atrophic gastritis (verrucae, granularity, fine granularity and network) and those in gastric cancer (granularity, fine granularity, islet and irregular network). (author)

  13. Factors Influencing Consumption Speed of Forages Given in Two Portions in Primiparous Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 6 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim was to assess the consumption speed (g/min, as well as the required time for consumption of 1 kg of raw forage for  alfalfa-hay, herbs silage, beet and concentrates, administered in two  portions (P1, P2, per day, in 2 equal feedings (F1, F2 per portion. The administration order of forages (fibrous-succulents and succulents-fibrous, the number of feedings and the average consumption speed among the two portions were the experimental variants. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. The average consumption speed determined was 198.5 g/min for concentrates, 48.28 g/min for alfalfa hay, 203.19 g/min for silage and 235.32 g/min for beets. The required time for 1 kg of raw forage consumption (minutes and seconds was 5.02 for concentrates, 20.43 for alfalfa hay, 4.35 for herbs silage and 4.15 for beets.

  14. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: the effects of portion size & energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Cornier, Marc A; Ingebrigtsen, Jan; Johnson, Susan L

    2011-09-25

    Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n=129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as by participant characteristics. Food appeal ratings were significantly higher than those for desire to eat (57.9±11.6 v. 44.7±18.0; pappeal. Food category analyses revealed that fruit was the highest rated food category for both appeal and desire, followed by discretionary foods. Additionally, overweight individuals reported higher ratings of desire to eat large portions of food compared to smaller portions (pappeal and desire (r's=-0.27; p'sappeal and desire to eat foods when assessing these ratings using the same type of metric. Additionally, relations among food appeal and desire to eat ratings and body mass show overweight individuals could be more responsive to visual foods cues in a manner that contributes to obesity.

  15. Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Lappas, Georgios; Wolk, Alicja; Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the association between meal pattern and obesity. The study is based on data from the INTERGENE research programme, and the study population consists of randomly selected women and men, aged 25-74, living in the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden. A total of 3610 were examined. Participants with measured BMI> or =30 were compared with others (BMIportions. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for age, sex, smoking and physical activity in logistic regression models. Being obese was significantly associated with omitting breakfast, OR 1.41 (1.05-1.90), omitting lunch OR 1.31 (1.04-1.66) and eating at night OR 1.62 (1.10-2.39). Obesity was also related to significantly larger self-reported portion sizes of main meals. No statistically significant relationship with intake of total energy was revealed. Thus, the results indicate that examination of meal patterns and portion sizes might tell us more about obesogenic food patterns than traditional nutrient analyses of food frequencies. Being obese was associated with a meal pattern shifted to later in the day and significantly larger self-reported portions of main meals.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  20. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  1. Development of a landlside EWS based on rainfall thresholds for Tuscany Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Battistini, Alessandro; Rossi, Guglielmo; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    We present the set-up of a landslide EWS based on rainfall thresholds for the Tuscany region (central Italy), that shows a heterogeneous distribution of reliefs and precipitation. The work started with the definition of a single set of thresholds for the whole region, but it resulted unsuitable for EWS purposes, because of the heterogeneity of the Tuscan territory and non-repeatability of the analyses, that were affected by a high degree of subjectivity. To overcome this problem, the work started from the implementation of a software capable of objectively defining the rainfall thresholds, since some of the main issues of these thresholds are the subjectivity of the analysis and therefore their non-repeatability. This software, named MaCumBA, is largely automated and can analyze, in a short time, a high number of rainfall events to define several parameters of the threshold, such as the intensity (I) and the duration (D) of the rainfall event, the no-rain time gap (NRG: how many hours without rain are needed to consider two events as separated) and the equation describing the threshold. The possibility of quickly perform several analyses lead to the decision to divide the territory in 25 homogeneous areas (named alert zones, AZ), so as a single threshold for each AZ could be defined. For the definition of the thresholds two independent datasets (of joint rainfall-landslide occurrences) have been used: a calibration dataset (data from 2000 to 2007) and a validation dataset (2008-2009). Once the thresholds were defined, a WebGIS-based EWS has been implemented. In this system it is possible to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h; forecasting data are collected from LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts. The EWS works on the basis of the threshold parameters defined by MaCumBA (I, D, NRG). An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the Web

  2. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  3. Food photography II: use of food photographs for estimating portion size and the nutrient content of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Atkinson, M; Darbyshire, S

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the errors in the conceptualization of portion size using photographs. Male and female volunteers aged 18-90 years (n 136) from a wide variety of social and occupational backgrounds completed 602 assessments of portion size in relation to food photographs. Subjects served themselves between four and six foods at one meal (breakfast, lunch or dinner). Portion sizes were weighed by the investigators at the time of serving, and any waste was weighed at the end of the meal. Within 5 min of the end of the meal, subjects were shown photographs depicting each of the foods just consumed. For each food there were eight photographs showing portion sizes in equal increments from the 5th to the 95th centile of the distribution of portion weights observed in The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults (Gregory et al. 1990). Subjects were asked to indicate on a visual analogue scale the size of the portion consumed in relation to the eight photographs. The nutrient contents of meals were estimated from food composition tables. There were large variations in the estimation of portion sizes from photographs. Butter and margarine portion sizes tended to be substantially overestimated. In general, small portion sizes tended to be overestimated, and large portion sizes underestimated. Older subjects overestimated portion size more often than younger subjects. Excluding butter and margarine, the nutrient content of meals based on estimated portion sizes was on average within +/- 7% of the nutrient content based on the amounts consumed, except for vitamin C (21% overestimate), and for subjects over 65 years (15-20% overestimate for energy and fat). In subjects whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m2, the energy and fat contents of meals calculated from food composition tables and based on estimated portion size (excluding butter and margarine) were 5-10% greater than the nutrient content calculated using actual portion size, but for those

  4. Reliability and Validity of Digital Imagery Methodology for Measuring Starting Portions and Plate Waste from School Salad Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Raynor, Hollie A; Thornton, Laura M; Sova, Alexandra; Dunne Stewart, Mary; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2018-04-12

    Scientifically sound methods for investigating dietary consumption patterns from self-serve salad bars are needed to inform school policies and programs. To examine the reliability and validity of digital imagery for determining starting portions and plate waste of self-serve salad bar vegetables (which have variable starting portions) compared with manual weights. In a laboratory setting, 30 mock salads with 73 vegetables were made, and consumption was simulated. Each component (initial and removed portion) was weighed; photographs of weighed reference portions and pre- and post-consumption mock salads were taken. Seven trained independent raters visually assessed images to estimate starting portions to the nearest ¼ cup and percentage consumed in 20% increments. These values were converted to grams for comparison with weighed values. Intraclass correlations between weighed and digital imagery-assessed portions and plate waste were used to assess interrater reliability and validity. Pearson's correlations between weights and digital imagery assessments were also examined. Paired samples t tests were used to evaluate mean differences (in grams) between digital imagery-assessed portions and measured weights. Interrater reliabilities were excellent for starting portions and plate waste with digital imagery. For accuracy, intraclass correlations were moderate, with lower accuracy for determining starting portions of leafy greens compared with other vegetables. However, accuracy of digital imagery-assessed plate waste was excellent. Digital imagery assessments were not significantly different from measured weights for estimating overall vegetable starting portions or waste; however, digital imagery assessments slightly underestimated starting portions (by 3.5 g) and waste (by 2.1 g) of leafy greens. This investigation provides preliminary support for use of digital imagery in estimating starting portions and plate waste from school salad bars. Results might inform

  5. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Kate; Watson, Jane F; Collins, Clare E

    2014-01-01

    Background Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Methods Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data ...

  6. Presence of a temperature gradient among genital tract portions and the thermal changes within these portions over the estrous cycle in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh Ali, Hossam; Kitahara, Go; Tamura, Youji; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Hemmi, Koichiro; Torisu, Shidow; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Horii, Yoichiro; Zaabel, Samy; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (VT), cervix (CT), uterine body (UBT) and uterine horns (UHT). Blood samples were collected immediately before temperature recording to assay peripheral levels of progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17β (E(2)). Moreover, transrectal ultrasonography was carried out after temperature recording to monitor the ovulatory follicle and track ovulation. During the experiment, the ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for further calculation of the temperature humidity index (THI). The temperature within the genital tracts in these cows progressively increased towards the uterine horns from the vagina. The VT, CT, UBT and UHTs were significantly higher in association with peripheral P(4) concentrations greater than 4 ng/ml (mid-luteal phase) when compared with lower peripheral P(4) concentrations. The VT was more significantly (Pfemale genital tract in bovine.

  7. ESPI correlogram analysis by two stage application of wavelet transform with use of intensity thresholding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanke, L.; Šmíd, Petr; Horváth, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 126, 7-8 (2015), s. 865-870 ISSN 0030-4026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR GA13-12301S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase retrieval * wavelets * speckle interferometry * speckle imaging * metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2015

  8. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  9. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Meertens, Beth; Wu, Jason H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011–2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years) from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion) of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011–2012 (p ≤ 0.001). kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011–2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995). In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10–40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products. PMID:28587276

  10. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaobing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011–2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011–2012 (p ≤ 0.001. kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011–2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995. In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10–40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products.

  11. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  12. CHANGES IN THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN AN ANNUAL CYCLE OF SPORT TRAINING OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Śliwowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l-1 on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s-1 for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s-1 for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players’ aerobic endurance.

  13. The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina S V Roth

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

  14. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence......In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the proposed...... for a joint latent factor and show that its inclusion allows for an improved and more parsimonious specification of the multivariate intensity process...

  15. Spiral intensity patterns in the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Bache, Morten; Saffman, Mark

    2001-01-01

    We describe a nonlinear optical system that supports spiral pattern solutions in the field intensity. This new spatial structure is found to bifurcate above a secondary instability in the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator. The analytical predictions of threshold and spatial scale...

  16. Laser-induced nonsequential double ionization at and above the recollision-excitation-tunneling threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaran, T.; Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.; Nygren, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a rigorous, semianalytic study of the recollision excitation with subsequent tunneling ionization (RESI) mechanism in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization (NSDI), based on the strong-field approximation. We show that the shapes of the electron momentum distributions carry information about the bound state with which the first electron collides, the bound state to which the second electron is excited, and the type of electron-electron interaction. Furthermore, one may define a driving-field intensity threshold for the RESI physical mechanism. At the threshold, the kinetic energy of the first electron, upon return, is just sufficient to excite the second electron. We compute the distributions for helium and argon in the threshold and above-threshold intensity regimes. In the latter case, we relate our findings to existing experiments. The electron momentum distributions encountered are symmetric with respect to all quadrants of the plane spanned by the momentum components parallel to the laser-field polarization, instead of concentrating on only the second and fourth quadrants. The above-mentioned momentum constraints, together with the strong dependence of the distributions on the bound states involved, may be important for singling out the RESI mechanism in actual physical situations and using NSDI in ultrafast imaging.

  17. Differential equation models for sharp threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harrison C; Dimitrov, Nedialko B

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension to differential equation models of dynamical systems to allow us to analyze probabilistic threshold dynamics that fundamentally and globally change system behavior. We apply our novel modeling approach to two cases of interest: a model of infectious disease modified for malware where a detection event drastically changes dynamics by introducing a new class in competition with the original infection; and the Lanchester model of armed conflict, where the loss of a key capability drastically changes the effectiveness of one of the sides. We derive and demonstrate a step-by-step, repeatable method for applying our novel modeling approach to an arbitrary system, and we compare the resulting differential equations to simulations of the system's random progression. Our work leads to a simple and easily implemented method for analyzing probabilistic threshold dynamics using differential equations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  19. Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt

  20. Edith Wharton's threshold phobia and two worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    The American novelist Edith Wharton suffered an unusual childhood neurotic symptom, a fear of crossing thresholds, a condition that might be called a "threshold phobia." This symptom is identified and examined in autobiographical material, letters, diaries, and selected literary fiction and nonfiction left by Wharton to arrive at a formulation not previously drawn together. A fascinating theme-living or being trapped between "two worlds"-runs through much of the writer's life and work. The phobia is related to this theme, and both can be linked more broadly to certain sexual conflicts in women. This understanding of Wharton's phobia, it is argued, throws new light on the developmental issues and conflicts related to the female "oedipal" or triadic phase, characterized by the need to negotiate the two worlds of mother and of father. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  1. Ultracompact low-threshold organic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotare, Parag B; Mahony, Thomas S; Bulović, Vladimir

    2014-11-25

    We report an ultracompact low-threshold laser with an Alq3:DCM host:guest molecular organic thin film gain layer. The device uses a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity which provides a high quality factor to mode volume (Q/V) ratio and increased spontaneous emission factor along with a small footprint. Lasing is observed with a threshold of 4.2 μJ/cm(2) when pumped by femtosecond pulses of λ = 400 nm wavelength light. We also model the dynamics of the laser and show good agreement with the experimental data. The inherent waveguide geometry of the structure enables easy on-chip integration with potential applications in biochemical sensing, inertial sensors, and data communication.

  2. Predicting visual acuity from detection thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newacheck, J S; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G; Adams, A J

    1990-03-01

    Visual performance based exclusively on high luminance and high contrast letter acuity measures often fails to predict individual performance at low contrast and low luminance. Here we measured visual acuity over a wide range of contrasts and luminances (low mesopic to photopic) for 17 young normal observers. Acuity vs. contrast functions appear to fit a single template which can be displaced laterally along the log contrast axis. The magnitude of this lateral displacement for different luminances was well predicted by the contrast threshold difference for a 4 min arc spot. The acuity vs. contrast template, taken from the mean of all 17 subjects, was used in conjunction with individual spot contrast threshold measures to predict an individual's visual acuity over a wide range of luminance and contrast levels. The accuracy of the visual acuity predictions from this simple procedure closely approximates test-retest accuracy for both positive (projected Landolt rings) and negative contrast (Bailey-Lovie charts).

  3. Measurement of ablation threshold of oxide-film-coated aluminium nanoparticles irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefonov, O V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Il'ina, I V; Agranat, M B

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of experiments on estimation of femtosecond laser threshold intensity at which nanoparticles are removed from the substrate surface. The studies are performed with nanoparticles obtained by femtosecond laser ablation of pure aluminium in distilled water. The attenuation (or extinction, i.e. absorption and scattering) spectra of nanoparticles are measured at room temperature in the UV and optical wavelength ranges. The size of nanoparticles is determined using atomic force microscopy. A new method of scanning photoluminescence is proposed to evaluate the threshold of nanoparticle removal from the surface of a glass substrate exposed to IR femtosecond laser pulses with intensities 10 11 – 10 13 W cm -2 . (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  4. The monolithic double-threshold discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    A double-threshold discriminator capable of processing input signals of different duration is described. Simplicity of the discriminator circuitry makes it possible to embody the discriminator in multichannel ICs using microwave bipolar-JFET technology. Time walk is calculated to be less than 0.35 ns for the input ramp signals with rise times 25-100 ns and amplitudes 50 mV-1 V

  5. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  6. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Changes in ventilatory threshold with exercise training in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, S E; Walker, A J; Serfass, R A; Bouchard, C; Gagnon, J; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Leon, A S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training intensity relative to the ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in work (watts) and VO2 at the ventilatory threshold and at maximal exercise in previously sedentary participants in the HERITAGE Family Study. We hypothesized that those who exercised below their VT would improve less in VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (VO2vt) and VO2max than those who trained at an intensity greater than their VT. Supervised cycle ergometer training was performed at the 4 participating clinical centers, 3 times a week for 20 weeks. Exercise training progressed from the HR corresponding to 55% VO2max for 30 minutes to the HR associated with 75% VO2max for 50 minutes for the final 6 weeks. VT was determined at baseline and after exercise training using standardized methods. 432 sedentary white and black men (n = 224) and women (n = 208), aged 17 to 65 years, were retrospectively divided into groups based on whether exercise training was initiated below, at, or above VT. 1) Training intensity (relative to VT) accounting for about 26% of the improvement in VO2vt (R2 = 0.26, p accounted for approximately 56% of the training effect at VT (R2 = 0.56, p 0.70). 3) Training intensity (relative to VT) had no effect on DeltaVO2max. These data clearly show that as a result of aerobic training both the VO2 and W associated with VT respond and become similar to the absolute intensity of sustained (3 x /week for 50 min) aerobic exercise training. Higher intensities of exercise, relative to VT, result in larger gains in VO2vt but not in VO2max.

  8. Threshold Learning Dynamics in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Marsili, Matteo; Vega-Redondo, Fernado; San Miguel, Maxi

    2011-01-01

    Social learning is defined as the ability of a population to aggregate information, a process which must crucially depend on the mechanisms of social interaction. Consumers choosing which product to buy, or voters deciding which option to take with respect to an important issue, typically confront external signals to the information gathered from their contacts. Economic models typically predict that correct social learning occurs in large populations unless some individuals display unbounded influence. We challenge this conclusion by showing that an intuitive threshold process of individual adjustment does not always lead to such social learning. We find, specifically, that three generic regimes exist separated by sharp discontinuous transitions. And only in one of them, where the threshold is within a suitable intermediate range, the population learns the correct information. In the other two, where the threshold is either too high or too low, the system either freezes or enters into persistent flux, respectively. These regimes are generally observed in different social networks (both complex or regular), but limited interaction is found to promote correct learning by enlarging the parameter region where it occurs. PMID:21637714

  9. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  10. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  11. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  12. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ''false negative or false positive'' indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments

  13. Perspective: Uses and misuses of thresholds in diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Najarian, Robert M; Tierney, Lawrence M

    2010-03-01

    The concept of thresholds plays a vital role in decisions involving the initiation, continuation, and completion of diagnostic testing. Much research has focused on the development of explicit thresholds, in the form of practice guidelines and decision analyses. However, these tools are used infrequently; most medical decisions are made at the bedside, using implicit thresholds. Study of these thresholds can lead to a deeper understanding of clinical decision making. The authors examine some factors constituting individual clinicians' implicit thresholds. They propose a model for static thresholds using the concept of situational gravity to explain why some thresholds are high, and some low. Next, they consider the hypothetical effects of incorrect placement of thresholds (miscalibration) and changes to thresholds during diagnosis (manipulation). They demonstrate these concepts using common clinical scenarios. Through analysis of miscalibration of thresholds, the authors demonstrate some common maladaptive clinical behaviors, which are nevertheless internally consistent. They then explain how manipulation of thresholds gives rise to common cognitive heuristics including premature closure and anchoring. They also discuss the case where no threshold has been exceeded despite exhaustive collection of data, which commonly leads to application of the availability or representativeness heuristics. Awareness of implicit thresholds allows for a more effective understanding of the processes of medical decision making and, possibly, to the avoidance of detrimental heuristics and their associated medical errors. Research toward accurately defining these thresholds for individual physicians and toward determining their dynamic properties during the diagnostic process may yield valuable insights.

  14. Minimum area thresholds for rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meik, Jesse M; Makowsky, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We expand a framework for estimating minimum area thresholds to elaborate biogeographic patterns between two groups of snakes (rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes) on islands in the western Gulf of California, Mexico. The minimum area thresholds for supporting single species versus coexistence of two or more species relate to hypotheses of the relative importance of energetic efficiency and competitive interactions within groups, respectively. We used ordinal logistic regression probability functions to estimate minimum area thresholds after evaluating the influence of island area, isolation, and age on rattlesnake and colubrid occupancy patterns across 83 islands. Minimum area thresholds for islands supporting one species were nearly identical for rattlesnakes and colubrids (~1.7 km 2 ), suggesting that selective tradeoffs for distinctive life history traits between rattlesnakes and colubrids did not result in any clear advantage of one life history strategy over the other on islands. However, the minimum area threshold for supporting two or more species of rattlesnakes (37.1 km 2 ) was over five times greater than it was for supporting two or more species of colubrids (6.7 km 2 ). The great differences between rattlesnakes and colubrids in minimum area required to support more than one species imply that for islands in the Gulf of California relative extinction risks are higher for coexistence of multiple species of rattlesnakes and that competition within and between species of rattlesnakes is likely much more intense than it is within and between species of colubrids.

  15. Threshold response using modulated continuous wave illumination for multilayer 3D optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, A.; Christenson, C. W.; Khattab, T. A.; Wang, R.; Twieg, R. J.; Singer, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a high capacity 3D optical data storage medium, a nonlinear or threshold writing process is necessary to localize data in the axial dimension. To this end, commercial multilayer discs use thermal ablation of metal films or phase change materials to realize such a threshold process. This paper addresses a threshold writing mechanism relevant to recently reported fluorescence-based data storage in dye-doped co-extruded multilayer films. To gain understanding of the essential physics, single layer spun coat films were used so that the data is easily accessible by analytical techniques. Data were written by attenuating the fluorescence using nanosecond-range exposure times from a 488 nm continuous wave laser overlapping with the single photon absorption spectrum. The threshold writing process was studied over a range of exposure times and intensities, and with different fluorescent dyes. It was found that all of the dyes have a common temperature threshold where fluorescence begins to attenuate, and the physical nature of the thermal process was investigated.

  16. Social Thresholds and their Translation into Social-ecological Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Christensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a preliminary discussion of how to improve our conceptualization of social thresholds using (1 a more sociological analysis of social resilience, and (2 results from research carried out in collaboration with the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations of the Yukon Territory, Canada. Our sociological analysis of the concept of resilience begins with a review of the literature followed by placement of the concept in the domain of sociological theory to gain insight into its strengths and limitations. A new notion of social thresholds is proposed and case study research discussed to support the proposition. Our findings suggest that rather than view social thresholds as breakpoints between two regimes, as thresholds are typically conceived in the resilience literature, that they be viewed in terms of collectively recognized points that signify new experiences. Some examples of thresholds identified in our case study include power in decision making, level of healing from historical events, and a preference for small-scale development over large capital intensive projects.

  17. Effects of alcohol and noise on temporary threshold shift in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tien-Chen; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Hwang, Juen-Haur; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Shyang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of concomitant exposure to noise and alcohol on the auditory thresholds. Twenty-four guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: the acute intoxication group, the chronic intoxication group and the control group. Animals in the acute group received single intraperitoneal injections of ethanol (2 g/kg). In the chronic group, alcohol was administered via drinking water (10%, v/v) over a 60-day period. All animals were exposed to a white noise at the intensity of 105 dB A for 30 min. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels were measured before, immediately after noise exposure and also 1, 2, and 7 days following exposure. The results showed: first, acute alcohol injection caused a significant, temporary elevation of ABR threshold (4.8 dB in average), while chronic alcohol treatment did not change auditory threshold significantly. Second, noise exposure induced a mean threshold shift of 15.4- 19.7 dB. ABR threshold returned to normal 2 days after exposure. Both acute and chronic alcohol treatment did not alter the magnitude and time course of recovery of the temporary threshold shift (TTS). Third, the mean DPOAE amplitudes decreased at most frequencies following acute injection of alcohol. However, the differences did not reach statistical significance. Fourth, the mean DPOAE levels dropped 3.4-9.6 dB in all groups after noise exposure and returned to normal 1 day to 2 days after noise. There were no significant differences in the amount of DPOAE suppression after noise between the three groups. In summary, we have found that acute and chronic treatment of alcohol in combination with noise did not significantly exacerbate TTS or decrease DPOAE amplitudes relative to noise exposure alone. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Some fundamental considerations on the dynamics of class B laser threshold crossing

    OpenAIRE

    Puccioni, G. P.; Wang, T.; Lippi, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    With the help of a simple rate equation model, we analyze the intrinsic dynamics of threshold crossing for Class B lasers. A thorough discussion of the characteristics and the limitations of this very commonly employed model, which provides excellent qualitative predictions on the laser behaviour, is offered. Approximate solutions for the population inversion and for the field intensity, up to the point where the latter reaches macroscopic levels, are found and discussed, together with the as...

  19. CLEAR: Prospects for a low threshold neutrino experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A low-threshold neutrino scattering experiment at a high intensity stopped-pion neutrino source has the potential to measure coherent neutral current neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering. A promising prospect for the measurement of this process is a proposed noble-liquid-based experiment, dubbed CLEAR (Coherent Low Energy A (Nuclear) Recoils), at the Spallation Neutron Source. This poster will describe the CLEAR proposal and its physics reach.

  20. An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectives on their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Gemma P; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Spence, Michelle; Dean, Moira; O'Brien, Sinead; Gibney, Eileen R; Wallace, Julie M W; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Kerr, Maeve A

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA. Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach. The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. General population, males (n = 17) and females (n = 15) aged 18-64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups. The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup (household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for "visual" PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than 'quantities and measures' such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a "one size fits all" approach. This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of "visual" PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconnection of the islanded portion of the CIGRE low voltage distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, G.M.; Bak, Claus Leth; Somro, Duur M.

    2016-01-01

    Islanding is phenomena in which a part of the distribution grid is electrically disconnected from the main transmission system. Islanded operation is encouraged in order to operate the electrical power networks in reliable manners. However, the reliability of the small networks operating is island...... is less as compared to that of the grid connected system. The islanded portion of the distribution network can be reconnected to the transmission grid if the voltage magnitudes, voltage phase angles and the frequencies of the two systems are synchronized. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate...

  3. Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, we are continuing to map seven MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas: a 4-quadrangle area (-20002, -20007, -25002, -25007) and an L-shaped area (-15017, -20017, -20022) within the region [1-5]. This abstract focuses on the geologic units and history from mapping in the 4-quadrangle area, but includes a brief update on the L-shaped map area.

  4. LDA measurement of droplet behavior across tie plate during dispersed flow portion of loca reflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.L.; Srinivasan, J.; Cho, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The flow of an air-water droplet dispersion in a simulated 3-D test section in the reflood portion of LOCA was studied. For this purpose, a new scheme of Laser-Doppler Anemometry for the simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of large-size [0.5 mm-6 mm] droplets was developed and utilized. It was observed that the size distribution of the reentrained droplets depends mainly on the flow regimes and is essentially independent of that of the incoming dispersion below the tie plate. 8 refs

  5. Retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.T.; Yarbrough, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract of foals was developed and then performed in 25 foals (1 to 30 days old) with colic. Retrograde contrast radiography was shown to be sensitive (100%) and specific (100%) for evaluating obstruction of the small colon or transverse colon. It was slightly less sensitive (86%) and specific (83%) for evaluation of the entire large colon, particularly in older foals. Retrograde contrast radiography provided increased diagnostic capability, compared with that for noncontrast radiography. Retrograde contrast radiography can provide valuable information when evaluating foals with colic and should be part of the diagnostic evaluation

  6. Definition and means of maintaining the criticality detectors and alarms portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Criticality Alarm System (CAS) provides continuous detection for high radiation (criticality) events and automatically initiates an evacuation signal to affected personnel. The Safety Envelope (SE) for PFP includes the necessary equipment and the required procedures to ensure the CAS is capable of performing its intended function. This document provides the definition and means of maintaining the SE for PFP related to the CAS. This document also identifies and provides a justification for those portions of the CAS excluded from the PFP Safety Envelope

  7. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  8. Facial feature tracking: a psychophysiological measure to assess exercise intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kathleen H; Clark, Bradley; Périard, Julien D; Goecke, Roland; Thompson, Kevin G

    2018-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether facial feature tracking reliably measures changes in facial movement across varying exercise intensities. Fifteen cyclists completed three, incremental intensity, cycling trials to exhaustion while their faces were recorded with video cameras. Facial feature tracking was found to be a moderately reliable measure of facial movement during incremental intensity cycling (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.65-0.68). Facial movement (whole face (WF), upper face (UF), lower face (LF) and head movement (HM)) increased with exercise intensity, from lactate threshold one (LT1) until attainment of maximal aerobic power (MAP) (WF 3464 ± 3364mm, P exercise intensities (UF minus LF at: LT1, 1048 ± 383mm; LT2, 1208 ± 611mm; MAP, 1401 ± 712mm; P exercise intensity.

  9. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE OLIVEIRA NETTO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw, moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  10. A Robust Threshold for Iterative Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalaycioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel threshold computation method for pilot symbol assisted iterative channel estimation in OFDM systems is considered. As the bits are transmitted in packets, the proposed technique is based on calculating a particular threshold for each data packet in order to select the reliable decoder output symbols to improve the channel estimation performance. Iteratively, additional pilot symbols are established according to the threshold and the channel is re-estimated with the new pilots inserted to the known channel estimation pilot set. The proposed threshold calculation method for selecting additional pilots performs better than non-iterative channel estimation, no threshold and fixed threshold techniques in poor HF channel simulations.

  11. Automated segmentation of tumors on bone scans using anatomy-specific thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Gjertson, David; Poon, Cheryce; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Matthew S.

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of overall tumor area on bone scans may be a potential biomarker for treatment response assessment and has, to date, not been investigated. Segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans is a fundamental step for this response marker. In this paper, we propose a fully automated computerized method for the segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans, taking into account characteristics of different anatomic regions. A scan is first segmented into anatomic regions via an atlas-based segmentation procedure, which involves non-rigidly registering a labeled atlas scan to the patient scan. Next, an intensity normalization method is applied to account for varying levels of radiotracer dosing levels and scan timing. Lastly, lesions are segmented via anatomic regionspecific intensity thresholding. Thresholds are chosen by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis against manual contouring by board certified nuclear medicine physicians. A leave-one-out cross validation of our method on a set of 39 bone scans with metastases marked by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians yielded a median sensitivity of 95.5%, and specificity of 93.9%. Our method was compared with a global intensity thresholding method. The results show a comparable sensitivity and significantly improved overall specificity, with a p-value of 0.0069.

  12. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Huitink, M.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Maaskant, A.J.; Heijnen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were

  13. Value for money or making the healthy choice: the impact of proportional pricing on consumers' portion size choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Alting, E.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Large food portion sizes are determinants of a high caloric intake, especially if they have been made attractive through value size pricing (i.e. lower unit prices for large than for small portion sizes). The purpose of the two questionnaire studies that are reported in this article was

  14. From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Food portion-sizes might be a promising starting point for interventions targeting obesity. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess how representatives of point-of-purchase settings perceived the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Methods: Semi-structured

  15. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  16. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... index zone pricing. We approved the Ute Indian Tribe's request; therefore, you must value production... due date for industry to pay additional royalties based on the major portion prices. This notice... additional royalties based on the major portion prices is May 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John...

  17. 26 CFR 1.168A-6 - Depreciation of portion of emergency facility not subject to amortization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation of portion of emergency facility... for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-6 Depreciation of portion of emergency facility not subject... in lieu of any deduction for depreciation which would otherwise be allowable under section 167 is...

  18. 77 FR 10430 - Revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State Implementation Plan, South... South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California SIP. This SIP revision... Coast Air Quality Management District New Source Review by Gerardo C. Rios, October 24, 1996 (TSD). \\2...

  19. 77 FR 27079 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Portion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-480 and 731-TA-1188 (Final)] High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Portion of the Hearing... Commission Rule 201.39 (19 CFR 201.39) that, in his opinion, a portion of the Commission's hearing in High...

  20. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kate; Watson, Jane F; Collins, Clare E

    2014-05-28

    Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data was from children aged 2-16 years who participated in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 2198) and 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 4799). Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories. Of the 61 foods items evaluated across the whole population sample, portion size increased in 18 items, decreased in 22, with no change in 20, although the magnitude of change varied by age and sex. Decreases in portion size were detected for most dairy products, breakfast cereal, some packaged snack foods and vegetables, p portion sizes were detected over 12 years in Australian children and adolescents with the degree of change varying by sex, age and food group. Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents.

  1. Auditory-nerve single-neuron thresholds to electrical stimulation from scala tympani electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, C W; Colombo, J

    1987-12-31

    Single auditory-nerve neuron thresholds were studied in sensory-deafened squirrel monkeys to determine the effects of electrical stimulus shape and frequency on single-neuron thresholds. Frequency was separated into its components, pulse width and pulse rate, which were analyzed separately. Square and sinusoidal pulse shapes were compared. There were no or questionably significant threshold differences in charge per phase between sinusoidal and square pulses of the same pulse width. There was a small (less than 0.5 dB) but significant threshold advantage for 200 microseconds/phase pulses delivered at low pulse rates (156 pps) compared to higher pulse rates (625 pps and 2500 pps). Pulse width was demonstrated to be the prime determinant of single-neuron threshold, resulting in strength-duration curves similar to other mammalian myelinated neurons, but with longer chronaxies. The most efficient electrical stimulus pulse width to use for cochlear implant stimulation was determined to be 100 microseconds/phase. This pulse width delivers the lowest charge/phase at threshold. The single-neuron strength-duration curves were compared to strength-duration curves of a computer model based on the specific anatomy of auditory-nerve neurons. The membrane capacitance and resulting chronaxie of the model can be varied by altering the length of the unmyelinated termination of the neuron, representing the unmyelinated portion of the neuron between the habenula perforata and the hair cell. This unmyelinated segment of the auditory-nerve neuron may be subject to aminoglycoside damage. Simulating a 10 micron unmyelinated termination for this model neuron produces a strength-duration curve that closely fits the single-neuron data obtained from aminoglycoside deafened animals. Both the model and the single-neuron strength-duration curves differ significantly from behavioral threshold data obtained from monkeys and humans with cochlear implants. This discrepancy can best be explained by

  2. Evaluating teaching methods: validation of an evaluation tool for hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald J; McCannel, Colin A; Gordon, Lynn K; Hollander, David A; Giaconi, JoAnn A; Stelzner, Sadiqa K; Devgan, Uday; Bartlett, John; Mondino, Bartly J

    2014-09-01

    To develop and assess the validity of an evaluation tool to assess quantitatively the hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery performed by residents. Case series. Jules Stein Eye Institute, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA. The UCLA ophthalmology faculty members were surveyed and the literature was reviewed to develop a grading tool consisting of 15 questions to evaluate surgical technique, including questions from the Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery and from the International Council of Ophthalmology's Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric. Video clips of the hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery performed by 1 postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) resident, 1 PGY3 resident, 2 PGY4 residents, and an advanced surgeon were independently graded in a masked fashion by an 8-member faculty panel. Eleven of the 15 questions had a significant association with surgical experience level (Pinstrument handling, flow of operation, and nucleus rotation. Nucleus cracking also had low variability. Less directly visible tasks, especially 3-dimensional tasks, had wider interobserver variability. Surgical performance can be validly measured using an evaluation tool. Improved videography and studies to identify the best questions for evaluating each step of cataract surgery may help ophthalmic educators more precisely measure training outcomes for improving teaching interventions. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a man with CREST syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragulidis Georgios

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CREST (Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly and Telangiectasias syndrome has been rarely associated with other malignancies (lung, esophagus.This is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. Case presentation A 54-year-old male patient with CREST syndrome presented with colicky postprandial pain of the upper abdomen, diminished food uptake and a 6-Kg-body weight loss during the previous 2 months. An ulcerative lesion in the third portion of the duodenum was revealed during duodenoscopy, with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on biopsy specimen histology. The patient underwent a partial pancreatoduodenectomy. No adjuvant therapy was instituted and follow-up is negative for local recurrence or metastases 21 months postoperatively. Conclusion CREST syndrome has been associated with colon cancer, gastric polyps, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP syndrome and Crohn's disease; however, this is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. However, any etiologic relationship remains to be further investigated.

  4. Leak preventing method and device for penetration portion in reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mitsuyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    A pressurized air is sent to a leak path caused in an electric wire penetration portion on the side of a reactor container to keep the pressure thereof higher than that at the inside of the reactor container, or aerosol is injected to close the leak path. Alternatively, a cooling tube is disposed for cooling a sleeve, or a resin charging device is disposed for injecting a thermosetting resin to close the leak path, and an external power operated compressor is disposed for sending a pressurized air to the resin charging device. Then, pressure is applied in the opposite direction from a pressurizing port so as to provide a higher pressure than the inside of the reactor container by the compressor upon occurrence of an accident. In addition, the sleeve is cooled so as to suppress the less leak path in the wire penetration portion. Further, the leak path is closed by the aerosol or the thermosetting resin, which is quite effective also in view of improvement of the reliability of the reactor container. (N.H.)

  5. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adductor magnus: An EMG investigation into proximal and distal portions and direction specific action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Matthew L; Pizzari, Tania; Rath, Leanne; Tucker, Kylie; Semciw, Adam I

    2018-05-01

    Cadaveric studies indicate that adductor magnus is structurally partitioned into at least two regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the direction-specific actions of proximal and distal portions of adductor magnus, and in doing so determine if these segments have distinct functional roles. Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into two portions of adductor magnus of 12 healthy young adults. Muscle activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) across eight tests (hip flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction, and adduction at 0°, 45°, and 90° hip flexion). Median activity within each action (normalized to peak) was compared between segments using repeated measures nonparametric tests (α = 0.05). An effect size (ES = z-score/√sample size) was calculated to determine the magnitude of difference between muscle segments. The relative contribution of each muscle segment differed significantly during internal rotation (P magnus has at least two functionally unique regions. Differences were most evident during rotation. The different direction-specific actions may imply that each segment performs separate roles in hip stability and movement. These findings may have implications on injury prevention and rehabilitation for adductor-related groin injuries, hamstring strain injury, and hip pathology. Clin. Anat. 31:535-543, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. News Media Framing of New York City's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Portion-Size Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Joanna E; Truant, Patricia L; Rutkow, Lainie; Kanarek, Norma F; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-11-01

    We assessed news media framing of New York City's proposed regulation to prohibit the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages greater than 16 ounces. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of print and television news from within and outside New York City media markets. We examined support for and opposition to the portion-size cap in the news coverage from its May 31, 2012, proposal through the appellate court ruling on July 31, 2013. News coverage corresponded to key events in the policy's evolution. Although most stories mentioned obesity as a problem, a larger proportion used opposing frames (84%) than pro-policy frames (36%). Mention of pro-policy frames shifted toward the policy's effect on special populations. The debate's most prominent frame was the opposing frame that the policy was beyond the government's role (69%). News coverage within and outside the New York City media market was more likely to mention arguments in opposition to than in support of the portion-size cap. Understanding how the news media framed this issue provides important insights for advocates interested in advancing similar measures in other jurisdictions.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  9. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  10. Global Sourcing, Technology, and Factor Intensity: Firm-level Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    TOMIURA Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines how technology and capital intensity are related with the firm's global sourcing decision. Firm-level data are derived from a survey covering all manufacturing industries in Japan without any firm-size threshold. Firms are disaggregated by their make-or-buy decision (in-house or outsourcing) and by their choice of sourcing location (offshore or domestic). Capital-intensive or R&D-intensive firms tend to source in-house from their FDI affiliates rather than outs...

  11. Influence of BMI and dietary restraint on self-selected portions of prepared meals in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, David; Rytz, Andréas; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Forde, Ciarán G; Martin, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking. A representative sample of female consumers (N = 300, range 18-55 years) evaluated 15 frozen savoury prepared meals. For each meal, participants rated their expected satiation and expected liking, and selected their ideal portion using a previously validated computer-based task. Dietary restraint was quantified using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-R). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed on self-selected portions with age, hunger level, and meal familiarity entered as control variables in the first step of the model, expected satiation and expected liking as predictor variables in the second step, and DEBQ-R and BMI as exploratory predictor variables in the third step. The second and third steps significantly explained variance in portion size selection (18% and 4%, respectively). Larger portion selections were significantly associated with lower dietary restraint and with lower expected satiation. There was a positive relationship between BMI and portion size selection (p = 0.06) and between expected liking and portion size selection (p = 0.06). Our discussion considers future research directions, the limited variance explained by our model, and the potential for portion size underreporting by overweight participants. Copyright © 2016 Nestec S.A. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  12. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  13. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding

  14. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling systems with per-user threshold

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-05-01

    A multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme with per-user feedback threshold is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The conventional multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme uses a single feedback threshold for every user, where the threshold is a function of the average signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the users as well as the number of users involved in the scheduling process. The proposed scheme, however, constructs a sequence of feedback thresholds instead of a single feedback threshold such that each user compares its channel quality with the corresponding feedback threshold in the sequence. Numerical and simulation results show that thanks to the flexibility of threshold selection, where a potentially different threshold can be used for each user, the proposed scheme provides a higher system capacity than that for the conventional scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  15. Superstring threshold corrections to Yukawa couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    A general method of computing string corrections to the Kaehler metric and Yukawa couplings is developed at the one-loop level for a general compactification of the heterotic superstring theory. It also provides a direct determination of the so-called Green-Schwarz term. The matter metric has an infrared divergent part which reproduces the field-theoretical anomalous dimensions, and a moduli-dependent part which gives rise to threshold corrections in the physical Yukawa couplings. Explicit expressions are derived for symmetric orbifold compactifications. (author). 20 refs

  16. Double threshold discriminator for timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.R.; Oslopova, T.V.; Pestov, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    The new type of a discriminator is based on the idea of simultaneous time measurements at two different thresholds for each pulse. Instead of using two independent electronic TDC channels this discriminator produces an output pulse with the timing taking into account the information from two time measurements ''on-line''. The operation principle, analytical calculations and experimental results are presented. The time walk of the discriminator at the level of 10 ps in the range of the input pulse height of 0.2-1.5 V has been obtained. ((orig.))

  17. Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)

  18. Computational analysis of thresholds for magnetophosphenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    In international guidelines, basic restriction limits on the exposure of humans to low-frequency magnetic and electric fields are set with the objective of preventing the generation of phosphenes, visual sensations of flashing light not caused by light. Measured data on magnetophosphenes, i.e. phosphenes caused by a magnetically induced electric field on the retina, are available from volunteer studies. However, there is no simple way for determining the retinal threshold electric field or current density from the measured threshold magnetic flux density. In this study, the experimental field configuration of a previous study, in which phosphenes were generated in volunteers by exposing their heads to a magnetic field between the poles of an electromagnet, is computationally reproduced. The finite-element method is used for determining the induced electric field and current in five different MRI-based anatomical models of the head. The direction of the induced current density on the retina is dominantly radial to the eyeball, and the maximum induced current density is observed at the superior and inferior sides of the retina, which agrees with literature data on the location of magnetophosphenes at the periphery of the visual field. On the basis of computed data, the macroscopic retinal threshold current density for phosphenes at 20 Hz can be estimated as 10 mA m −2 (−20% to  + 30%, depending on the anatomical model); this current density corresponds to an induced eddy current of 14 μA (−20% to  + 10%), and about 20% of this eddy current flows through each eye. The ICNIRP basic restriction limit for the induced electric field in the case of occupational exposure is not exceeded until the magnetic flux density is about two to three times the measured threshold for magnetophosphenes, so the basic restriction limit does not seem to be conservative. However, the reasons for the non-conservativeness are purely technical: removal of the highest 1% of

  19. Threshold quantum cryptograph based on Grover's algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jianzhong; Qin Sujuan; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a threshold quantum protocol based on Grover's operator and permutation operator on one two-qubit signal. The protocol is secure because the dishonest parties can only extract 2 bits from 3 bits information of operation on one two-qubit signal while they have to introduce error probability 3/8. The protocol includes a detection scheme to resist Trojan horse attack. With probability 1/2, the detection scheme can detect a multi-qubit signal that is used to replace a single-qubit signal, while it makes every legitimate qubit invariant

  20. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...