WorldWideScience

Sample records for portion signal output

  1. Inverter communications using output signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  2. Distortions in the output signals of conventional spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the output signals of conventional spectrum analysers contain distortions which basically originate from the signal processing performed inside the analysers' frequency convertors. Total elimination of these distortions through normal filtering techniques is difficult owing to the closeness of some of their frequencies to the corresponding frequencies of the required signals. Simple design adjustments that can minimize these distortions are suggested. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  3. Hall Sensor Output Signal Fault-Detection & Safety Implementation Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SangHun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. In most brushless direct current (BLDC motor drives, there are three hall sensors as a position reference. Low resolution hall effect sensor is popularly used to estimate the rotor position because of its good comprehensive performance such as low cost, high reliability and sufficient precision. Various possible faults may happen in a hall effect sensor. This paper presents a fault-tolerant operation method that allows the control of a BLDC motor with one faulty hall sensor and presents the hall sensor output fault-tolerant control strategy. The situations considered are when the output from a hall sensor stays continuously at low or high levels, or a short-time pulse appears on a hall sensor signal. For fault detection, identification of a faulty signal and generating a substitute signal, this method only needs the information from the hall sensors. There are a few research work on hall effect sensor failure of BLDC motor. The conventional fault diagnosis methods are signal analysis, model based analysis and knowledge based analysis. The proposed method is signal based analysis using a compensation signal for reconfiguration and therefore fault diagnosis can be fast. The proposed method is validated to execute the simulation using PSIM.

  4. Interaction Dynamics Determine Signaling and Output Pathway Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Stojanovski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of interaction dynamics in signaling pathways can shed light on pathway architecture and provide insights into targets for intervention. Here, we explored the relevance of kinetic rate constants of a key upstream osmosensor in the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol-mitogen-activated protein kinase (HOG-MAPK pathway to signaling output responses. We created mutant pairs of the Sln1-Ypd1 complex interface that caused major compensating changes in the association (kon and dissociation (koff rate constants (kinetic perturbations but only moderate changes in the overall complex affinity (Kd. Yeast cells carrying a Sln1-Ypd1 mutant pair with moderate increases in kon and koff displayed a lower threshold of HOG pathway activation than wild-type cells. Mutants with higher kon and koff rates gave rise to higher basal signaling and gene expression but impaired osmoadaptation. Thus, the kon and koff rates of the components in the Sln1 osmosensor determine proper signaling dynamics and osmoadaptation.

  5. RNA signal amplifier circuit with integrated fluorescence output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Farhima; Yokobayashi, Yohei

    2015-05-15

    We designed an in vitro signal amplification circuit that takes a short RNA input that catalytically activates the Spinach RNA aptamer to produce a fluorescent output. The circuit consists of three RNA strands: an internally blocked Spinach aptamer, a fuel strand, and an input strand (catalyst), as well as the Spinach aptamer ligand 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxylbenzylidene imidazolinone (DFHBI). The input strand initially displaces the internal inhibitory strand to activate the fluorescent aptamer while exposing a toehold to which the fuel strand can bind to further displace and recycle the input strand. Under a favorable condition, one input strand was able to activate up to five molecules of the internally blocked Spinach aptamer in 185 min at 30 °C. The simple RNA circuit reported here serves as a model for catalytic activation of arbitrary RNA effectors by chemical triggers.

  6. Consciousness can reduce the voltage of the output signal of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2010-10-01

    When the sun's light radiate on the solar cell, the solar cell can produce the output signal as the photocurrent. We use the Data Acquisition Modules to record the voltage of the output signals. The v1 is voltage of the output signal of solar cell1; The v2 is the one of solar cell2. And these two solar cells stay side by side. When we record the voltage of the output signal from the morning to the noon, the voltage of the output signals will go up, and the v1 is bigger than the v2 during this time. But when the experimenter use consciousness to reduce the voltage of the output signals. That is to say: not only natural light ratiade on two solar cells, but also consciousness act on two solar cells. Not only I can use consciousness to reduce the growth voltage of the output signals, but also can change the v1 to be littler than the v2. The experiment was conducted on Sep. 2010. There is the physical system of the mass, energy, space and time-MEST; There is the spirited system of the mind, consciousness, emotion and desire-MECD; the information system is the code system. We can use them to develop photoelectric principle, life technology and Nanotech of semiconductor for consciousness effect.

  7. Filtration of the FMICW radar output signals by the advanced windows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filtration of the FMICW radar output signals by the advanced windows. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper deals with the special types of windows application on the two dimensional spectrum obtained using the ...

  8. Insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans regulates both endocrine-like and cell-autonomous outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wendy B; Gami, Minaxi S; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2007-03-15

    In C. elegans, insulin signaling affects development, lifespan and stress resistance. Several studies have shown that insulin signaling affects lifespan in an endocrine-like manner from different cells, while the major downstream target of insulin, the FOXO transcription factor encoded by daf-16, may act preferentially in intestinal cells to prolong lifespan. This discrepancy raised the possibility that insulin may have both endocrine and cell-intrinsic outputs. Here, we further investigated the types of cells capable of producing endocrine outputs of insulin and also identified a new cell-intrinsic insulin output. We found that insulin signaling within groups of neurons promoted wildtype lifespan, showing that the endocrine outputs of insulin were not restricted to specific cells. In contrast, DAF-16 appeared to have a greater effect on lifespan when expressed in a combination of tissues. These results suggest that insulin signaling may regulate DAF-16 through cell-intrinsic and endocrine pathways. We also found that an insulin-dependent response to fasting in intestinal cells was preferentially regulated by intestinal insulin signaling and was less responsive to insulin signaling from non-intestinal cells. Together, these results show that C. elegans insulin signaling has endocrine as well as tissue-specific outputs which could influence lifespan in a combinatorial fashion.

  9. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xu; Liu Congzhan; Zhao Jianling

    2014-01-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically. (authors)

  10. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  11. Push-Pull and Feedback Mechanisms Can Align Signaling System Outputs with Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Steven S; Peria, William J; Yu, Richard C; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Brent, Roger

    2016-11-23

    Many cell signaling systems, including the yeast pheromone response system, exhibit "dose-response alignment" (DoRA), in which output of one or more downstream steps closely matches the fraction of occupied receptors. DoRA can improve the fidelity of transmitted dose information. Here, we searched systematically for biochemical network topologies that produced DoRA. Most networks, including many containing feedback and feedforward loops, could not produce DoRA. However, networks including "push-pull" mechanisms, in which the active form of a signaling species stimulates downstream activity and the nominally inactive form reduces downstream activity, enabled perfect DoRA. Networks containing feedbacks enabled DoRA, but only if they also compared feedback to input and adjusted output to match. Our results establish push-pull as a non-feedback mechanism to align output with variable input and maximize information transfer in signaling systems. They also suggest genetic approaches to determine whether particular signaling systems use feedback or push-pull control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Research on output signal of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Seiji, E-mail: takechi@elec.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miura, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki [Famscience Co., Ltd., Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki 300-2435 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-21

    The response of a radiation detector fabricated from piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was studied. The response signal due to a single 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) ion was assumed to have a simple form that was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. These variables were estimated by comparing two output waveforms obtained from a computer simulation and an experiment on Xe beam irradiation. Their values appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity. - Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the formation process of the output. • The response signal due to a single Xe ion was assumed to have a simple form. • The form was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. • These variables appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environmental impact report: an outline of the input--output model and the impact projections methodology. Technical document, socioeconomic portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    A static model in the form of a regional input-output model was constructed for Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico. Besides the WIPP project, the model was also used for several other projects to determine the economic impact of proposed new facilities and developments. Both private and public sectors are covered. Sub-sectors for WIPP below-ground construction, above-ground construction, and operation and transport are included

  14. MR signal of the solid portion of pilocytic astrocytoma on T2-weighted images: is it useful for differentiation from medulloblastoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kiyokazu; Yagi, Akiko; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Morita, Hideo; Koyama, Yoshinori; Endo, Keigo; Sato, Noriko; Aoki, Jun; Oba, Hiroshi; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Saito, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although imaging features of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma have been described in many texts, original comparisons of magnetic resonance intensity between these two tumours are limited. In the present study the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed, focusing especially on the signal intensity of the solid portion of these neoplasms. Methods: MR images of ten cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and ten medulloblastomas were reviewed. The signal intensities of the solid components were graded on a scale of 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating a signal intensity closer to that of water. The degree of enhancement, tumour cysts and peripheral oedema were evaluated on MR images. When the solid portion was heterogeneous (i.e. mixed signal intensity or degree of enhancement), the dominant area was selected for evaluation. On T2-weighted images, the signal intensity of the solid portion was equal to that of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 50% of pilocytic astrocytomas. No medulloblastomas showed such hyperintensity. Most medulloblastomas (80%) were isointense to grey matter. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity varied widely in pilocytic astrocytomas; however, all medulloblastomas were iso- or hypointense to grey matter. The MR enhancement pattern, cystic component and peripheral oedema all varied in both tumour types and no specific features were identified. A signal intensity of the solid portion isointense to CSF on T2-weighted images was characteristic of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas; this was not observed in medulloblastomas. Attention to T2-weighted imaging of the solid portions of a tumour is easy and helpful in differentiating between cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environmental impact report: socioeconomic portion. An outline of the input-output model and the impact projections methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    A static model in the form of a regional input-output model was constructed for Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico. This modeling process has been used to assess the economic impacts of the following activities and for the following agencies: San Juan Generating Units Nos. 1, 3, and 4 for Public Service Company of New Mexico, and general economic impacts (an ongoing process) for the Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University of New Mexico. The regional modeling process adjusts a national model by means of location quotients and aggregating techniques. The national model, or base model, used in this process contains 407 economic categories or subsectors of the economy, 389 of which represent the private economy, and 18 of which represent activities mostly dealing with the public sector. The 389 identified sub-sectors were used in the modeling process; the government impact was computed after the private sector analysis

  16. Consciousness can reduce the voltage of the output signal of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2011-03-01

    When the sun's light radiate on the solar cell, it can produce the output signal as the pho- tocurrent. We use the Data Acquisition Modules to record the voltage of the output signals. The v1 is voltage of the photocurrent of solar cell1; The v2 is the one of solar cell2. And these two solar cells stay side by side. When we record the voltages from the morning to the noon, the voltages will go up, and the v1 is bigger than the v2 during this time. But in other experi- menter, not only sun's light ratiade on two solar cells, but also consciousness act on two solar cells. Not only I can use consciousness to reduce the growth voltage of the output signals, but also can change the v1 to be littler than the v2. The experiment was conducted on Sep. 2010. When light of lamp radiate on two solar cells, I can reduce v1, at the same time, can augment v2. These experiments had been finished in Los Angeles, Oct. 26th. And the experiment show that the consciousness active function differ from the passive function of conditioned reflex (of Pavlov). There is the physical system of the mass, energy, space and time-MEST; There is the spirited system of the mind, consciousness, emotion and desire-MECD; the information system is the code system. We can use the consciousness change the electron-structure of solar cell by the interaction of the information.

  17. Enzyme-Based Logic Gates and Networks with Output Signals Analyzed by Various Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Evgeny

    2017-07-05

    The paper overviews various methods that are used for the analysis of output signals generated by enzyme-based logic systems. The considered methods include optical techniques (optical absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance), electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, potentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, conductivity measurements, use of field effect transistor devices, pH measurements), and various mechanoelectronic methods (using atomic force microscope, quartz crystal microbalance). Although each of the methods is well known for various bioanalytical applications, their use in combination with the biomolecular logic systems is rather new and sometimes not trivial. Many of the discussed methods have been combined with the use of signal-responsive materials to transduce and amplify biomolecular signals generated by the logic operations. Interfacing of biocomputing logic systems with electronics and "smart" signal-responsive materials allows logic operations be extended to actuation functions; for example, stimulating molecular release and switchable features of bioelectronic devices, such as biofuel cells. The purpose of this review article is to emphasize the broad variability of the bioanalytical systems applied for signal transduction in biocomputing processes. All bioanalytical systems discussed in the article are exemplified with specific logic gates and multi-gate networks realized with enzyme-based biocatalytic cascades. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analysis of network motifs in cellular regulation: Structural similarities, input-output relations and signal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    Much of the complexity of regulatory networks derives from the necessity to integrate multiple signals and to avoid malfunction due to cross-talk or harmful perturbations. Hence, one may expect that the input-output behavior of larger networks is not necessarily more complex than that of smaller network motifs which suggests that both can, under certain conditions, be described by similar equations. In this review, we illustrate this approach by discussing the similarities that exist in the steady state descriptions of a simple bimolecular reaction, covalent modification cycles and bacterial two-component systems. Interestingly, in all three systems fundamental input-output characteristics such as thresholds, ultrasensitivity or concentration robustness are described by structurally similar equations. Depending on the system the meaning of the parameters can differ ranging from protein concentrations and affinity constants to complex parameter combinations which allows for a quantitative understanding of signal integration in these systems. We argue that this approach may also be extended to larger regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonnegative Tensor Factorization Approach Applied to Fission Chamber’s Output Signals Blind Source Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laassiri, M.; Hamzaoui, E.-M.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.

    2018-02-01

    Inside nuclear reactors, gamma-rays emitted from nuclei together with the neutrons introduce unwanted backgrounds in neutron spectra. For this reason, powerful extraction methods are needed to extract useful neutron signal from recorded mixture and thus to obtain clearer neutron flux spectrum. Actually, several techniques have been developed to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field. Most of these techniques, tackle using analogue discrimination methods. Others propose to use some organic scintillators to achieve the discrimination task. Recently, systems based on digital signal processors are commercially available to replace the analog systems. As alternative to these systems, we aim in this work to verify the feasibility of using a Nonnegative Tensor Factorization (NTF) to blind extract neutron component from mixture signals recorded at the output of fission chamber (WL-7657). This last have been simulated through the Geant4 linked to Garfield++ using a 252Cf neutron source. To achieve our objective of obtaining the best possible neutron-gamma discrimination, we have applied the two different NTF algorithms, which have been found to be the best methods that allow us to analyse this kind of nuclear data.

  20. Activated AKT/PKB signaling in C. elegans uncouples temporally distinct outputs of DAF-2/insulin-like signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanselman Keaton B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway controls larval development, stress resistance and adult lifespan. AGE-1, a homolog of the p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K comprises the major known effector pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Phospholipid products of AGE-1/PI3K activate AKT/PKB kinase signaling via PDK-1. AKT/PKB signaling antagonizes nuclear translocation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduced AGE-1/PI3K signaling permits DAF-16 to direct dauer larval arrest and promote long lifespan in adult animals. In order to study the downstream effectors of AGE-1/PI3K signaling in C. elegans, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations that suppress the constitutive dauer arrest phenotype of age-1(mg109 animals. Results This report describes mutations recovered in a screen for suppressors of the constitutive dauer arrest (daf-C phenotype of age-1(mg109. Two mutations corresponded to alleles of daf-16. Two mutations were gain-of-function alleles in the genes, akt-1 and pdk-1, encoding phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinases. A fifth mutation, mg227, located on chromosome X, did not correspond to any known dauer genes, suggesting that mg227 may represent a new component of the insulin pathway. Genetic epistasis analysis by RNAi showed that reproductive development in age-1(mg109;akt-1(mg247 animals was dependent on the presence of pdk-1. Similarly, reproductive development in age-1(mg109;pdk-1(mg261 animals was dependent on akt-1. However, reproductive development in age-1(mg109; mg227 animals required only akt-1, and pdk-1 activity was dispensable in this background. Interestingly, while mg227 suppressed dauer arrest in age-1(mg109 animals, it enhanced the long lifespan phenotype. In contrast, akt-1(mg247 and pdk-1(mg261 did not affect lifespan or stress resistance, while both daf-16 alleles fully suppressed these

  1. Activated AKT/PKB signaling in C. elegans uncouples temporally distinct outputs of DAF-2/insulin-like signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2006-10-04

    In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway controls larval development, stress resistance and adult lifespan. AGE-1, a homolog of the p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) comprises the major known effector pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Phospholipid products of AGE-1/PI3K activate AKT/PKB kinase signaling via PDK-1. AKT/PKB signaling antagonizes nuclear translocation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduced AGE-1/PI3K signaling permits DAF-16 to direct dauer larval arrest and promote long lifespan in adult animals. In order to study the downstream effectors of AGE-1/PI3K signaling in C. elegans, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations that suppress the constitutive dauer arrest phenotype of age-1(mg109) animals. This report describes mutations recovered in a screen for suppressors of the constitutive dauer arrest (daf-C) phenotype of age-1(mg109). Two mutations corresponded to alleles of daf-16. Two mutations were gain-of-function alleles in the genes, akt-1 and pdk-1, encoding phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinases. A fifth mutation, mg227, located on chromosome X, did not correspond to any known dauer genes, suggesting that mg227 may represent a new component of the insulin pathway. Genetic epistasis analysis by RNAi showed that reproductive development in age-1(mg109);akt-1(mg247) animals was dependent on the presence of pdk-1. Similarly, reproductive development in age-1(mg109);pdk-1(mg261) animals was dependent on akt-1. However, reproductive development in age-1(mg109); mg227 animals required only akt-1, and pdk-1 activity was dispensable in this background. Interestingly, while mg227 suppressed dauer arrest in age-1(mg109) animals, it enhanced the long lifespan phenotype. In contrast, akt-1(mg247) and pdk-1(mg261) did not affect lifespan or stress resistance, while both daf-16 alleles fully suppressed these phenotypes. A screen for suppressors of PI3K

  2. Enhancement of blurred image portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for image enhancement, comprising a first step ( 41 ) of distinguishing blurred and non-blurred image portions of an input image, and a second step ( 42 ) of enhancing at least one of said blurred image portions of said input image to produce an output image. Said

  3. Design, parametrization, and pole placement of stabilizing output feedback compensators via injective cogenerator quotient signal modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Ingrid; Oberst, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Control design belongs to the most important and difficult tasks of control engineering and has therefore been treated by many prominent researchers and in many textbooks, the systems being generally described by their transfer matrices or by Rosenbrock equations and more recently also as behaviors. Our approach to controller design uses, in addition to the ideas of our predecessors on coprime factorizations of transfer matrices and on the parametrization of stabilizing compensators, a new mathematical technique which enables simpler design and also new theorems in spite of the many outstanding results of the literature: (1) We use an injective cogenerator signal module ℱ over the polynomial algebra [Formula: see text] (F an infinite field), a saturated multiplicatively closed set T of stable polynomials and its quotient ring [Formula: see text] of stable rational functions. This enables the simultaneous treatment of continuous and discrete systems and of all notions of stability, called T-stability. We investigate stabilizing control design by output feedback of input/output (IO) behaviors and study the full feedback IO behavior, especially its autonomous part and not only its transfer matrix. (2) The new technique is characterized by the permanent application of the injective cogenerator quotient signal module [Formula: see text] and of quotient behaviors [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]-behaviors B. (3) For the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection, model matching, and decoupling and not necessarily proper plants we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of proper stabilizing compensators with proper and stable closed loop behaviors, parametrize all such compensators as IO behaviors and not only their transfer matrices and give new algorithms for their construction. Moreover we solve the problem of pole placement or spectral assignability for the complete feedback behavior. The properness of the full feedback behavior

  4. Assigning Quantitative Function to Post-Translational Modifications Reveals Multiple Sites of Phosphorylation That Tune Yeast Pheromone Signaling Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincus, David; Ryan, Christopher J.; Smith, Richard D.; Brent, Roger; Resnekov, Orna; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali

    2013-03-12

    Cell signaling systems transmit information by post-­translationally modifying signaling proteins, often via phosphorylation. While thousands of sites of phosphorylation have been identified in proteomic studies, the vast majority of sites have no known function. Assigning functional roles to the catalog of uncharacterized phosphorylation sites is a key research challenge. Here we present a general approach to address this challenge and apply it to a prototypical signaling pathway, the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pheromone pathway includes a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activated by a G-­protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify sites whose phosphorylation changed when the system was active, and evolutionary conservation to assign priority to a list of candidate MAPK regulatory sites. We made targeted alterations in those sites, and measured the effects of the mutations on pheromone pathway output in single cells. Our work identified six new sites that quantitatively tuned system output. We developed simple computational models to find system architectures that recapitulated the quantitative phenotypes of the mutants. Our results identify a number of regulated phosphorylation events that contribute to adjust the input-­output relationship of this model eukaryotic signaling system. We believe this combined approach constitutes a general means not only to reveal modification sites required to turn a pathway on and off, but also those required for more subtle quantitative effects that tune pathway output. Our results further suggest that relatively small quantitative influences from individual regulatory phosphorylation events endow signaling systems with plasticity that evolution may exploit to quantitatively tailor signaling outcomes.

  5. The effect of signal variability on the histograms of anthropomorphic channel outputs: factors resulting in non-normally distributed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahaby, Fatma E. A.; Ghaly, Michael; Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Model Observers are widely used in medical imaging for the optimization and evaluation of instrumentation, acquisition parameters and image reconstruction and processing methods. The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) is a commonly used model observer in nuclear medicine and has seen increasing use in other modalities. An anthropmorphic CHO consists of a set of channels that model some aspects of the human visual system and the Hotelling Observer, which is the optimal linear discriminant. The optimality of the CHO is based on the assumption that the channel outputs for data with and without the signal present have a multivariate normal distribution with equal class covariance matrices. The channel outputs result from the dot product of channel templates with input images and are thus the sum of a large number of random variables. The central limit theorem is thus often used to justify the assumption that the channel outputs are normally distributed. In this work, we aim to examine this assumption for realistically simulated nuclear medicine images when various types of signal variability are present.

  6. Determination of noise sources and space-dependent reactor transfer functions from measured output signals only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; van Dam, H.; Kleiss, E.B.J.; van Uitert, G.C.; Veldhuis, D.

    1982-01-01

    The measured cross power spectral densities of the signals from three neutron detectors and the displacement of the control rod of the 2 MW research reactor HOR at Delft have been used to determine the space-dependent reactor transfer function, the transfer function of the automatic reactor control system and the noise sources influencing the measured signals. From a block diagram of the reactor with control system and noise sources expressions were derived for the measured cross power spectral densities, which were adjusted to satisfy the requirements following from the adopted model. Then for each frequency point the required transfer functions and noise sources could be derived. The results are in agreement with those of autoregressive modelling of the reactor control feed-back loop. A method has been developed to determine the non-linear characteristics of the automatic reactor control system by analysing the non-gaussian probability density function of the power fluctuations.

  7. Determination of noise sources and space-dependent reactor transfer functions from measured output signals only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The measured cross power spectral densities of the signals from three neutron detectors and the displacement of the control rod of the 2 MW research reactor HOR at Delft have been used to determine the space-dependent reactor transfer function, the transfer function of the automatic reactor control system and the noise sources influencing the measured signals. From a block diagram of the reactor with control system and noise sources expressions were derived for the measured cross power spectral densities, which were adjusted to satisfy the requirements following from the adopted model. Then for each frequency point the required transfer functions and noise sources could be derived. The results are in agreement with those of autoregressive modelling of the reactor control feed-back loop. A method has been developed to determine the non-linear characteristics of the automatic reactor control system by analysing the non-gaussian probability density function of the power fluctuations. (author)

  8. Amplitude and Phase Characteristics of Signals at the Output of Spatially Separated Antennas for Paths with Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Conditional statistical characteristics of the phase difference are considered depending on the ratio of instantaneous output signal amplitudes of spatially separated weakly directional antennas for the normal field model for paths with radio-wave scattering. The dependences obtained are related to the physical processes on the radio-wave propagation path. The normal model parameters are established at which the statistical characteristics of the phase difference depend on the ratio of the instantaneous amplitudes and hence can be used to measure the phase difference. Using Shannon's formula, the amount of information on the phase difference of signals contained in the ratio of their amplitudes is calculated depending on the parameters of the normal field model. Approaches are suggested to reduce the shift of phase difference measured for paths with radio-wave scattering. A comparison with results of computer simulation by the Monte Carlo method is performed.

  9. Neural network for recognizing signal-shape of nuclear detector output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardiyanto M Panitra

    2006-01-01

    The use of artificial intelligent technique in the engineering field has been familiar especially in the field of pattern recognition. By using this technique, either simple routine works or complicated routine works can be done by the help of a digital camera and a personal computer. One of the complicated works that can not be solved easily is how to separate two kinds of nuclear radiation types which are mixed in the same field. The separation of the two kinds of radiation become is very important for the radiation dosimetry purposes. For doing this we have carried out a preliminary research in applying a neural network technique for recognizing C and T letters with right, left, up, and down positions. We arranged a three-layer neural network i.e. input layer (9 neurons with/without bias neuron), hidden layer (11 neurons), and output layer (1 neuron). From this preliminary study the use of a bias neuron gave faster learning process compared with the one without the bias neuron. The neural network could work successfully in determining the letter S and T without any mistake. (author)

  10. Efficient continuous-wave eye-safe region signal output from intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Ding Xin; Sheng Quan; Yin Su-Jia; Shi Chun-Peng; Li Xue; Wen Wu-Qi; Yao Jian-Quan; Yu Xuan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401–1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Instrumentation and signal processing for the detection of heavy water using off axis-integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Singh, P. J.; Gaikwad, D. Y.; Udupa, D. V.; Topkar, A.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental setup is developed for the trace level detection of heavy water (HDO) using the off axis-integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique. The absorption spectrum of water samples is recorded in the spectral range of 7190.7 cm-1-7191.5 cm-1 with the diode laser as the light source. From the recorded water vapor absorption spectrum, the heavy water concentration is determined from the HDO and water line. The effect of cavity gain nonlinearity with per pass absorption is studied. The signal processing and data fitting procedure is devised to obtain linear calibration curves by including nonlinear cavity gain effects into the calculation. Initial calibration of mirror reflectivity is performed by measurements on the natural water sample. The signal processing and data fitting method has been validated by the measurement of the HDO concentration in water samples over a wide range from 20 ppm to 2280 ppm showing a linear calibration curve. The average measurement time is about 30 s. The experimental technique presented in this paper could be applied for the development of a portable instrument for the fast measurement of water isotopic composition in heavy water plants and for the detection of heavy water leak in pressurized heavy water reactors.

  12. Phosphatidic acid regulates signal output by G protein coupled receptors through direct interaction with phospholipase C-beta(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litosch, Irene; Pujari, Rajeshree; Lee, Shawn J

    2009-09-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA), generated downstream of monomeric Rho GTPases via phospholipase D (PLD) and additionally by diacylglycerol kinases (DGK), both stimulates phospholipase C-beta(1) (PLC-beta(1)) and potentiates stimulation of PLC-beta(1) activity by Galpha(q) in vitro. PA is a potential candidate for integrating signaling by monomeric and heterotrimeric G proteins to regulate signal output by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR), and we have sought to understand the mechanisms involved. We previously identified the region spanning residues 944-957, lying within the PLC-beta(1) C-terminus alphaA helix and flexible loop of the Galpha(q) binding domain, as required for stimulation of lipase activity by PA in vitro. Regulation by PA does not require residues essential for stimulation by Galpha(q) or GTPase activating activity. The present studies evaluated shorter alanine/glycine replacement mutants and finally point mutations to identify Tyr(952) and Ile(955) as key determinants for regulation by PA, assessed by both in vitro enzymatic and cell-based co-transfection assays. Replacement of Tyr(952) and Ile(955), PLC-beta(1) (Y952G/I955G), results in an 85% loss in stimulation by PA relative to WT-PLC-beta(1) in vitro. COS 7 cells co-transfected with PLC-beta(1) (Y952G/I955G) demonstrate a 10-fold increase in the EC(50) for stimulation and a 60% decrease in maximum stimulation by carbachol via Galpha(q) linked m1 muscarinic receptors, relative to cells co-transfected with WT-PLC-beta(1) but otherwise similar conditions. Residues required for regulation by PA are not essential for stimulation by G protein subunits. WT-PLC-beta(1) and PLC-beta(1) (Y952G/I955G) activity is increased comparably by co-transfection with Galpha(q) and neither is markedly affected by co-transfection with Gbeta(1)gamma(2). Inhibiting PLD-generated PA production by 1-butanol has little effect on maximum stimulation, but shifts the EC(50) for agonist stimulation of WT-PLC-beta(1) by 10-fold

  13. Task completion report for investigating why output signal-variable values differ from their output component-parameter values in test problem MST2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Signal-variable values and their component-parameter values differ in an end-of-timestep edit to the TRCOUT and TRCGRF files because signal variables have beginning-of-timestep values, and component parameters have end-of-timestep values. Oscillatory divergence in the MST2 standard test problem after 9000 s occurs because of TRAC-P's numerical evaluation at a 1000 material Courant number. The magnitude of that divergence has diminished by a factor of 3.5 from Version 5.3.01 to 5.4.15 and by a factor of 25 from Version 5.4.15 to 5.4.28. That divergence can be eliminated by evaluating MST2 with a maximum material Courant number of 500

  14. Application of Nonnegative Tensor Factorization for neutron-gamma discrimination of Monte Carlo simulated fission chamber’s output signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Laassiri

    Full Text Available For efficient exploitation of research reactors, it is important to discern neutron flux distribution inside the reactor with the best possible precision. For this reason, fission and ionization chambers are used to measure the neutron field. In these arrays, the sequences of the neutron interaction points in the fission chamber can correctly be identified in order to obtain true neutron energies emitted by nuclei of interest. However, together with the neutrons, gamma-rays are also emitted from nuclei and thereby affect neutron spectra. The originality of this study consists in the application of tensor based blind source separation methods to extract independent components from signals recorded at the fission chamber preamplifier’s output. The objective is to achieve software neutron-gamma discrimination using Nonnegative Tensor Factorization tools. For reasons of nuclear safety, we first simulate the neutron flux inside the TRIGA Mark II Reactor using Monte Carlo methods under Geant4 platform linked to Garfield++. Geant4 simulations allow the fission chamber construction whereas linking the model to Garfield++ permits to simulate drift parameters from the ionization of the filling gas, which is not possible otherwise. Keywords: Fission chamber (FC, Geant4, Garfield++, Neutron-gamma discrimination, Nonnegative Tensor Factorization (NTF

  15. Carving up Word Meaning: Portioning and Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, S.; Frazier, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments investigated the processing of mass nouns used as count nouns and count nouns used as mass nouns. Following Copestake and Briscoe (1995), the basic or underived sense of a word was treated as the input to a derivational rule (''grinding'' or ''portioning'') which produced the derived sense as output. It was…

  16. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  17. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  18. A mixed signal multi-chip module with high speed serial output links for the ATLAS Level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, U

    2000-01-01

    We have built and tested a mixed signal multi-chip module (MCM) to be used in the Level-1 Pre-Processor system for the Calorimeter Trigger of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The MCM performs high speed digital signal processing on four analogue input signals. Results are transmitted serially at a serial data rate of 800 MBd. Nine chips of different technologies are mounted on a four layer Cu substrate. ADC converters and serialiser chips are the major consumers of electrical power on the MCM, which amounts to 9 W for all dies. Special cut-out areas are used to dissipate heat directly to the copper substrate. In this paper we report on design criteria, chosen MCM technology for substrate and die mounting, experiences with the MCM operation and measurement results. (4 refs).

  19. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  20. Optimizing signal output: effects of viscoelasticity and difference frequency on vibroacoustic radiation of tissue-mimicking phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiri, Nikan K.; Maccabi, Ashkan; Bajwa, Neha; Badran, Karam W.; Taylor, Zachary D.; St. John, Maie A.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Saddik, George N.

    2018-02-01

    Vibroacoustography (VA) is an imaging technology that utilizes the acoustic response of tissues to a localized, low frequency radiation force to generate a spatially resolved, high contrast image. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of VA for tissue identification and margin delineation in cancer tissues. However, the relationship between specimen viscoelasticity and vibroacoustic emission remains to be fully quantified. This work utilizes the effects of variable acoustic wave profiles on unique tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) to maximize VA signal power according to tissue mechanical properties, particularly elasticity. A micro-indentation method was utilized to provide measurements of the elastic modulus for each biological replica. An inverse relationship was found between elastic modulus (E) and VA signal amplitude among homogeneous TMPs. Additionally, the difference frequency (Δf ) required to reach maximum VA signal correlated with specimen elastic modulus. Peak signal diminished with increasing Δf among the polyvinyl alcohol specimen, suggesting an inefficient vibroacoustic response by the specimen beyond a threshold of resonant Δf. Comparison of these measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as insights into the unique tissue composition of tumors in head and neck cancer patients.

  1. Building biomarker libraries with novel chemical sensors: correlating differential mobility spectrometer signal outputs with mass spectrometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Aksenov, Alexander A; Bardaweel, Hamzeh; Zhao Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a widely used analytic tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. However, GC/MS use is limited by its large size, lack of portability, high cost and inherent complexity. Smaller instruments capable of high-throughput analysis of volatile compounds have the potential of combining MS-like sensitivity with portability. The micromachined differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is a miniature sensor capable of registering volatile compounds in sub-parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations. It is small, portable, and can be coupled with multiple other compound separation methods. Here we describe paired volatile sample analyses using both GC/MS and GC/DMS which show that the DMS is capable of registering known compounds as verified by MS. Furthermore, we show that MS can be used to help build a library for our unique DMS sensor outputs and detect compounds in chemically complex backgrounds.

  2. Building biomarker libraries with novel chemical sensors: correlating differential mobility spectrometer signal outputs with mass spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Aksenov, Alexander A; Bardaweel, Hamzeh; Zhao Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E, E-mail: cedavis@ucdavis.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-10-29

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a widely used analytic tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. However, GC/MS use is limited by its large size, lack of portability, high cost and inherent complexity. Smaller instruments capable of high-throughput analysis of volatile compounds have the potential of combining MS-like sensitivity with portability. The micromachined differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is a miniature sensor capable of registering volatile compounds in sub-parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations. It is small, portable, and can be coupled with multiple other compound separation methods. Here we describe paired volatile sample analyses using both GC/MS and GC/DMS which show that the DMS is capable of registering known compounds as verified by MS. Furthermore, we show that MS can be used to help build a library for our unique DMS sensor outputs and detect compounds in chemically complex backgrounds.

  3. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  4. Error signals as powerful stimuli for the operant conditioning-like process of the fictive respiratory output in a brainstem-spinal cord preparation from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Alessandro; Zocchi, Luciano

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory neuromuscular activity needs to adapt to physiologic and pathologic conditions. We studied the conditioning effects of sensory fiber (putative Ia and II type from neuromuscular spindles) stimulation on the fictive respiratory output to the diaphragm, recorded from C4 phrenic ventral root, of in-vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations from rats. The respiratory burst frequency in these preparations decreased gradually (from 0.26±0.02 to 0.09±0.003 bursts(-1)±SEM) as the age of the donor rats increased from zero to 4 days. The frequency greatly increased when the pH of the bath was lowered, and was significantly reduced by amiloride. C4 low threshold, sensory fiber stimulation, mimicking a stretched muscle, induced a short-term facilitation of the phrenic output increasing burst amplitude and frequency. When the same stimulus was applied contingently on the motor bursts, in an operant conditioning paradigm (a 500ms pulse train with a delay of 700ms from the beginning of the burst) a strong and persistent (>1h) increase in burst frequency was observed (from 0.10±0.007 to 0.20±0.018 bursts(-1)). Conversely, with random stimulation burst frequency increased only slightly and declined again within minutes to control levels after stopping stimulation. A forward model is assumed to interpret the data, and the notion of error signal, i.e. the sensory fiber activation indicating an unexpected stretched muscle, is re-considered in terms of the reward/punishment value. The signal, gaining hedonic value, is reviewed as a powerful unconditioned stimulus suitable in establishing a long-term operant conditioning-like process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Missing portion sizes in FFQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Halldorson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    -nearest neighbours (KNN) were compared with a reference based on self-reported portion sizes (quantified by a photographic food atlas embedded in the FFQ). Setting: The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007–2008. Subjects: The study included 3728 adults with complete portion size data. Results: Compared...

  6. Quantifying consumer portion control practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spence, M.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Stancu, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest...... predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion......, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution...

  7. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  8. Keeping Portions Under Control (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it possible to bring portion sizes back to earth? Yes. But first we have to understand how ... recommend for a portion of pasta, rice, cereal, vegetables, and fruit. A meat portion should be about ...

  9. A study on magnetic relaxation times of various organs and body fluids using superconducting magnetic resonance imaging system part I: measurement of relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in various portions of brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Chang; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertake to determine if routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging sequences using only two different repetition times (TRs) and with only two sequential echo times (TEs) can be used to measure reproducible relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time for normal brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid using a 2.0T superconducting system. In 47 patients 6 different anatomic sites were measured. For each anatomic location, the mean and standard deviation of these values were determined. On T1-weighted (SE 500msec/30msec) images, in globus pallidus and thalamus, of the CSF, cortical gray matter and retrobulbar fat tissue varied more, with a standard deviation of 11-14% on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted (SE 3000msec/30msec and 3000msec/80msec) images, the relative signal intensity of all anatomic regions varied more than on T1-weighted images. The standard deviation of T2 relaxation times also varied from 10% (fat tissue) to 18% (CSF). These variations might be due to partial volume averaging, signal alteration of CSF secondary to CSF pulsatile motion, etc. Knowing that relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation times calculated from routine imaging sequences are reproducible in only limited area, these normal ranges can be used to investigate changes occurring in disease states of the limited regions.

  10. Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Marge; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-08-01

    The objectives were to determine who establishes restaurant portion sizes and factors that influence these decisions, and to examine chefs' opinions regarding portion size, nutrition information, and weight management. A survey was distributed to chefs to obtain information about who is responsible for determining restaurant portion sizes, factors influencing restaurant portion sizes, what food portion sizes are being served in restaurants, and chefs' opinions regarding nutrition information, health, and body weight. The final sample consisted of 300 chefs attending various culinary meetings. Executive chefs were identified as being primarily responsible for establishing portion sizes served in restaurants. Factors reported to have a strong influence on restaurant portion sizes included presentation of foods, food cost, and customer expectations. While 76% of chefs thought that they served "regular" portions, the actual portions of steak and pasta they reported serving were 2 to 4 times larger than serving sizes recommended by the U.S government. Chefs indicated that they believe that the amount of food served influences how much patrons consume and that large portions are a problem for weight control, but their opinions were mixed regarding whether it is the customer's responsibility to eat an appropriate amount when served a large portion of food. Portion size is a key determinant of energy intake, and the results from this study suggest that cultural norms and economic value strongly influence the determination of restaurant portion sizes. Strategies are needed to encourage chefs to provide and promote portions that are appropriate for customers' energy requirements.

  11. Output signal analysis for a variation of the R-C passive elements in a 4-2 mA R-L-C equivalent circuit modeling under a high temperature accident condition in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil-Mo, Koo; Sang-Baik, Kim; Hee-Dong, Kim; Gyu-Tae, Kim

    2007-01-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4-20 mA in most industrial process controls. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTI-SIM code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (Abnormal Signal Simulation Analyzer) module. The output signal can be analyzed by a comparative analysis of each PSpice and Multi-SIM code for a 4-20 mA circuit modeling which is by a composition of an R-L-C passive circuit as an alternating range of the elements for the temperature accident condition. In this simulation, a new simulator through an analysis of the important equivalent circuits modeling has been designed, the designed simulator is composed of the LabVIEW code as a main tool and the out-put file of each PSpice code and a Multi-SIM engine code as an engine tool is exported to the in-put file of the LabVIEW code. There are 3 main function units of the ASSA module, the first one is individual PSpice and Multi-SIM engine code units to comprise an equivalent circuit element, the second one is the

  12. Space-division-multiplexed transmission of 3x3 multiple-input multiple-output wireless signals over conventional graded-index multimode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yi; Li, Jianqiang; Fan, Yuting; Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission of IEEE 802.11ac-compliant 3-spatial-stream WLAN signals over 3 spatial modes of conventional 50um graded-index (GI) multimode fiber (MMF) employing non-mode-selective 3D-waveguide photonic lantern. Two kinds

  13. Diverse in- and output polarities and high complexity of local synaptic and nonsynaptic signalling within a chemically defined class of peptidergic Drosophila neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptidergic neurons are not easily integrated into current connectomics concepts, since their peptide messages can be distributed via non-synaptic paracrine signaling or even via volume transmission. Moreover, and especially in insects, the polarity of peptidergic interneurons in terms of in- and o...

  14. Prevention of the Portion Size Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAn increase in the portion size leads to an increase in energy intake, a phenomenon which is also referred to as the portion size effect. The increase in portion sizes in recent years is regarded as an important contributor to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Hence, the aim

  15. 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions. So, choosing smaller portions to begin with is important for maintaining your overall health and well-being.

  16. Space-division-multiplexed transmission of 3x3 multiple-input multiple-output wireless signals over conventional graded-index multimode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yi; Li, Jianqiang; Fan, Yuting; Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun

    2016-12-12

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission of IEEE 802.11ac-compliant 3-spatial-stream WLAN signals over 3 spatial modes of conventional 50um graded-index (GI) multimode fiber (MMF) employing non-mode-selective 3D-waveguide photonic lantern. Two kinds of scenarios, including fiber-only transmission and fiber-wireless hybrid transmission, were investigated by measuring error vector magnitude (EVM) performance for each stream and condition number (CN) of the channel matrix. The experimental results show that, SDM-based MMF link could offer a CNwireless MIMO signals over existing in-building commercially-available MMFs with enormous cost-saving.

  17. Modulating wind power plant output using different frequency modulation components for damping grid oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method, controller, wind power plant, and computer program product are disclosed for operating a wind power plant comprising a plurality of wind turbines, the wind power plant producing a plant power output. The method comprises receiving a modulation request signal indicating a requested...... modulation of the plant power output, the requested modulation specifying a modulation frequency. The method further comprises generating a respective power reference signal for each of at least two wind turbines of the plurality of wind turbines selected to fulfill the requested modulation, Each generated...... power reference signal includes a respective modulation component corresponding to a portion of the requested modulation and having a frequency different than the modulation frequency....

  18. Effects of Measurement Error on the Output Gap in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Kamada; Kazuto Masuda

    2000-01-01

    Potential output is the largest amount of products that can be produced by fully utilizing available labor and capital stock; the output gap is defined as the discrepancy between actual and potential output. If data on production factors contain measurement errors, total factor productivity (TFP) cannot be estimated accurately from the Solow residual(i.e., the portion of output that is not attributable to labor and capital inputs). This may give rise to distortions in the estimation of potent...

  19. Scintillation camera with improved output means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Wiesen, E.J.; Woronowicz, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    In a scintillation camera system, the output pulse signals from an array of photomultiplier tubes are coupled to the inputs of individual preamplifiers. The preamplifier output signals are coupled to circuitry for computing the x and y coordinates of the scintillations. A cathode ray oscilloscope is used to form an image corresponding with the pattern in which radiation is emitted by a body. Means for improving the uniformity and resolution of the scintillations are provided. The means comprise biasing means coupled to the outputs of selected preamplifiers so that output signals below a predetermined amplitude are not suppressed and signals falling within increasing ranges of amplitudes are increasingly suppressed. In effect, the biasing means make the preamplifiers non-linear for selected signal levels

  20. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  1. Amplifying Riboswitch Signal Output using Cellular Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the...release. 88ABW-2016-3094, 23 June 2016 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Dr. Christopher Voigt (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) for his generous gift of...plasmids, and Dr. Dimitri Deheyn (U.C. San Diego) for his generous gift of GFPa1, and Dr. Jason Micklefield (University of Manchester, UK) for

  2. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  3. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  4. On output regulation for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    For both continuous- and discrete-time systems, we revisit the output regulation problem for linear systems. We generalize the problem formulation in order • to expand the class of reference or disturbance signals, • to utilize the derivative or feedforward information of reference signals whenever

  5. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  7. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  8. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  9. Pulse shape discrimination based on fast signals from silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhao; Wei, Zhiyong; Fang, Meihua; Zhang, Zixia; Cheng, Can; Wang, Yi; Su, Huiwen; Ran, Youquan; Zhu, Qingwei; Zhang, He; Duan, Kai; Chen, Ming; Liu, Meng

    2018-06-01

    Recent developments in organic plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) enable a breakthrough in discrimination between neutrons and gammas. Plastic scintillator detectors coupled with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer many advantages, such as lower power consumption, smaller volume, and especially insensitivity to magnetic fields, compared with conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A SensL SiPM has two outputs: a standard output and a fast output. It is known that the charge injected into the fast output electrode is typically approximately 2% of the total charge generated during the avalanche, whereas the charge injected into the standard output electrode is nearly 98% of the total. Fast signals from SiPMs exhibit better performance in terms of timing and time-correlated measurements compared with standard signals. The pulse duration of a standard signal is on the order of hundreds of nanoseconds, whereas the pulse duration of the main monopole waveform of a fast signal is a few tens of nanoseconds. Fast signals are traditionally thought to be suitable for photon counting at very high speeds but unsuitable for PSD due to the partial charge collection. Meanwhile, the standard outputs of SiPMs coupled with discriminating scintillators have yielded nice PSD performances, but there have been no reports on PSD using fast signals. Our analysis shows that fast signals can also provide discrimination if the rate of charge injection into the fast output electrode is fixed for each event, even though only a portion of the charge is collected. In this work, we achieved successful PSD using fast signals; meanwhile, using a coincidence timing window of less 3 nanoseconds between the readouts from both ends of the detector reduced the influence of the high SiPM dark current. We experimentally achieved good timing performance and PSD capability simultaneously.

  10. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  11. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  12. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  13. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  14. Leakage detection device for weld portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkawa, Toshio; Setokuchi, Sadayuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns leakage detection device for weld portions, for example, in a nuclear reactor cavity, which can rapidly detect by remote control. That is, a detection device capable of self running and stopping on a guide rail along a weld line is disposed. The detection device comprises a coating mechanism for automatically coating soap water to the weld portion, a vacuum box capable of evacuating the coated surface and a camera for detecting the presence or absence of the soap bubbles generated under the evacuation. Such a device can conduct, by remote control, self running/stopping along with the weld line, coating of the soap water, settling of the vacuum box and confirmation and recording of foaming by using a television monitor. Accordingly, leakage in the weld portion in the reactor cavity or the like can be inspected. As a result, it greatly contributes to improvement of danger upon worker's operation at high place, detection accuracy and reliability of detection and shortening of operation period. (I.S.)

  15. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  16. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  17. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study ...

  18. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  20. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  1. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  2. Relationships among peak power output, peak bar velocity, and mechanomyographic amplitude during the free-weight bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude, power output, and bar velocity during the free-weight bench press exercise. Twenty-one resistance-trained men [one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press = 125.4+18.4 kg] performed bench press muscle actions as explosively as possible from 10% to 90% of the 1-RM while peak power output and peak bar velocity were assessed with a TENDO Weightlifting Analyzer. During each muscle action, surface MMG signals were detected from the right and left pectoralis major and triceps brachii, and the concentric portion of the range of motion was selected for analysis. Results indicated that power output increased from 10% to 50% 1-RM, followed by decreases from 50% to 90% 1-RM, but MMG amplitude for each of the muscles increased from 10 to 80% 1-RM. The results of this study indicate that during the free-weight bench press exercise, MMG amplitude was not related to power output, but was inversely related to bar velocity and directly related to the external load being lifted. In future research, coaches and sport scientists may be able to estimate force/torque production from individual muscles during multi-joint, dynamic constant external resistance muscle actions.

  3. Portion size: a qualitative study of consumers' attitudes toward point-of-purchase interventions aimed at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-02-01

    This qualitative study assessed consumers' opinions of food portion sizes and their attitudes toward portion-size interventions located in various point-of-purchase settings targeting overweight and obese people. Eight semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 49 participants. Constructs from the diffusion of innovations theory were included in the interview guide. Each focus group was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analyzed with Atlas.ti 5.2 using the framework approach. Results showed that many participants thought that portion sizes of various products have increased during the past decades and are larger than acceptable. The majority also indicated that value for money is important when purchasing and that large portion sizes offer more value for money than small portion sizes. Furthermore, many experienced difficulties with self-regulating the consumption of large portion sizes. Among the portion-size interventions that were discussed, participants had most positive attitudes toward a larger availability of portion sizes and pricing strategies, followed by serving-size labeling. In general, reducing package serving sizes as an intervention strategy to control food intake met resistance. The study concludes that consumers consider interventions consisting of a larger variety of available portion sizes, pricing strategies and serving-size labeling as most acceptable to implement.

  4. Proportional chamber with data analog output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.E.; Prokof'ev, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A proportional multiwier chamber is described. The chamber makes it possible to determine angles at wich a pion strikes a polarized target. A delay line, made of 60-core flat cable is used for removing signals from the chamber. From the delay line, signals are amplified and successively injected into shapers and a time-to-amplitude converter. An amplitude of the time-to amplitude converter output signal unambiguously determines the coordinate of a point at which a particle strikes the chamber plane. There are also given circuits of amplifiers, which consist of a preamplifier with gain 30 and a main amplifier with adjustable gain. Data on testing the chamber with the 450 MeV pion beam is demonstrated. The chamber features an efficiency of about 98 per cent under load of 2x10 5 s -1

  5. Portion and Serving Sizes of Commonly Consumed Foods, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portion sizes were determined from weight equivalents of each food type consumed, average portion sizes for each food type were determined using the statistical ... Serving sizes determined: a serving of the various foods as expressed in household measures include; 1.3 slices of bread, 13.5 tablespoons of Ewedu soup, ...

  6. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to ‘eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight. PMID:25033958

  8. Developing an interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS) for use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Hawkins, A; Simpson, E; Adamson, A J

    2014-01-01

    Novel methods of assessing dietary intake are required to reduce the participant burden in dietary surveys, improve participation rates and thereby improve the representativeness of the sample and minimise the impact of measuring dietary intake on a subject's food intake during the recording period. One method of reducing the burden placed on participants in recording dietary intake is to replace weighing of foods with estimation of portion size using tools such as food photographs. The interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS) is an interactive portion size assessment system for use in assessing portion sizes of foods consumed by children aged 18 months to 16 years. The system is computer-based and is designed to be administered during an interview for a food diary or 24-h recall. The portion sizes depicted are age-specific and based on the weights of foods served to children during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys. The system displays digital images of food used to estimate the amount of each food served to the child and the amount of any food left over. Foods are categorised within the system using a three-tier structure. Twenty-seven food group icons are used with two further drop-down menus to select first the food group, then the food category and, finally, the actual food product. Each food is linked to UK food composition codes and all photographs are linked to the weight of the food depicted. Nutritional output is via a companion database. The present study describes the development of the IPSAS and the structure of the system. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Mutanen, Marja

    2013-09-01

    To assess the validity of food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent girls in Mozambique. The study was carried out in preparation for the larger ZANE study, which used the 24 h dietary recall method. Life-sized photographs of three portion sizes of two staple foods and three sauces were produced. Participants ate weighed portions of one staple food and one sauce. After the meal, they were asked to estimate the amount of food with the aid of the food photographs. Zambezia Province, Mozambique. Ninety-nine girls aged 13–18 years. The mean differences between estimated and actual portion sizes relative to the actual portion size ranged from 219% to 8% for different foods. The respective mean difference for all foods combined was 25% (95% CI 212, 2 %). Especially larger portions of the staple foods were often underestimated. For the staple foods, between 62% and 64% of the participants were classified into the same thirds of the distribution of estimated and actual food consumption and for sauces, the percentages ranged from 38% to 63%. Bland–Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement. Using life-sized food photographs among adolescent Mozambican girls resulted in a rather large variation in the accuracy of individuals’ estimates. The ability to rank individuals according to their consumption was, however, satisfactory for most foods. There seems to be a need to further develop and test food photographs used in different populations in Sub-Saharan Africa to improve the accuracy of portion size estimates.

  10. GDP Growth, Potential Output, and Output Gaps in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrima A Faal

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of Mexico's economic growth since the 1960s and compares various decompositions of historical growth into its trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflationary process is then assessed. Looking ahead, the paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative assumptions for productivity growth rates. The results indicate that the most important factor underlying the slowdown in output growth was a decline in trend to...

  11. MRI enhancement of the facial nerve with Gd-DTPA, 2; Investigation of enhanced nerve portions in patients with facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    We performed enhanced MRI using Gd-DTPA in 84 patients with facial palsy. After assessing enhancement of the normal facial nerve, we examined enhancement in patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In 95% of patients with Bell's palsy, enhancement was obtained in the distal IAC and labyrinthine portions. In 72%, enhancement was significant from the distal IAC portion through the vertical portion. In some of the patients who underwent enhanced MRI twice, increased signal intensity was observed in distal portions such as the vertical portion. In many cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, enhancement was seen extensively in the IAC portion through the vertical portion. In the subjects with internal auditory symptoms such as vertigo and tinnitus, enhancement of the IAC portion was seen not only in the facial nerve but also in the vestibular and the cochlear nerves. These results suggest that the vascular permeability of lesions in Bell's palsy may be increased from the distal IAC portion to the vertical portion. Judging from the present findings with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, symptoms related to the enhanced portions suggest that accompanying internal auditory symptoms occur due to inflammation of the IAC portions of cochlear and vestibular nerves. (author).

  12. MRI enhancement of the facial nerve with Gd-DTPA, 2; Investigation of enhanced nerve portions in patients with facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro [Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    We performed enhanced MRI using Gd-DTPA in 84 patients with facial palsy. After assessing enhancement of the normal facial nerve, we examined enhancement in patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In 95% of patients with Bell's palsy, enhancement was obtained in the distal IAC and labyrinthine portions. In 72%, enhancement was significant from the distal IAC portion through the vertical portion. In some of the patients who underwent enhanced MRI twice, increased signal intensity was observed in distal portions such as the vertical portion. In many cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, enhancement was seen extensively in the IAC portion through the vertical portion. In the subjects with internal auditory symptoms such as vertigo and tinnitus, enhancement of the IAC portion was seen not only in the facial nerve but also in the vestibular and the cochlear nerves. These results suggest that the vascular permeability of lesions in Bell's palsy may be increased from the distal IAC portion to the vertical portion. Judging from the present findings with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, symptoms related to the enhanced portions suggest that accompanying internal auditory symptoms occur due to inflammation of the IAC portions of cochlear and vestibular nerves. (author).

  13. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report)

  15. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Popkin, Barry M

    While general consensus holds that food portion sizes are increasing, no empirical data have documented actual increases. To determine trends in food portion sizes consumed in the United States, by eating location and food source. Nationally representative data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1977-1978) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1998). The sample consists of 63 380 individuals aged 2 years and older. For each survey year, average portion size consumed from specific food items (salty snacks, desserts, soft drinks, fruit drinks, french fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, pizza, and Mexican food) by eating location (home, restaurant, or fast food). Portion sizes vary by food source, with the largest portions consumed at fast food establishments and the smallest at other restaurants. Between 1977 and 1996, food portion sizes increased both inside and outside the home for all categories except pizza. The energy intake and portion size of salty snacks increased by 93 kcal (from 1.0 to 1.6 oz [28.4 to 45.4 g]), soft drinks by 49 kcal (13.1 to 19.9 fl oz [387.4 to 588.4 mL]), hamburgers by 97 kcal (5.7 to 7.0 oz [161.6 to 198.4 g]), french fries by 68 kcal (3.1 to 3.6 oz [87.9 to 102.1 g]), and Mexican food by 133 kcal (6.3 to 8.0 oz [178.6 to 226.8 g]). Portion sizes and energy intake for specific food types have increased markedly with greatest increases for food consumed at fast food establishments and in the home.

  16. Estimation of portion size in children's dietary assessment: lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Adamson, A J; Anderson, A S; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L

    2009-02-01

    Assessing the dietary intake of young children is challenging. In any 1 day, children may have several carers responsible for providing them with their dietary requirements, and once children reach school age, traditional methods such as weighing all items consumed become impractical. As an alternative to weighed records, food portion size assessment tools are available to assist subjects in estimating the amounts of foods consumed. Existing food photographs designed for use with adults and based on adult portion sizes have been found to be inappropriate for use with children. This article presents a review and summary of a body of work carried out to improve the estimation of portion sizes consumed by children. Feasibility work was undertaken to determine the accuracy and precision of three portion size assessment tools; food photographs, food models and a computer-based Interactive Portion Size Assessment System (IPSAS). These tools were based on portion sizes served to children during the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. As children often do not consume all of the food served to them, smaller portions were included in each tool for estimation of leftovers. The tools covered 22 foods, which children commonly consume. Children were served known amounts of each food and leftovers were recorded. They were then asked to estimate both the amount of food that they were served and the amount of any food leftover. Children were found to estimate food portion size with an accuracy approaching that of adults using both the food photographs and IPSAS. Further development is underway to increase the number of food photographs and to develop IPSAS to cover a much wider range of foods and to validate the use of these tools in a 'real life' setting.

  17. Floating Gate CMOS Dosimeter With Frequency Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, E.; Isern, E.; Roca, M.; Picos, R.; Font, J.; Cesari, J.; Pineda, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a gamma radiation dosimeter based on a floating gate sensor. The sensor is coupled with a signal processing circuitry, which furnishes a square wave output signal, the frequency of which depends on the total dose. Like any other floating gate dosimeter, it exhibits zero bias operation and reprogramming capabilities. The dosimeter has been designed in a standard 0.6 m CMOS technology. The whole dosimeter occupies a silicon area of 450 m250 m. The initial sensitivity to a radiation dose is Hz/rad, and to temperature and supply voltage is kHz/°C and 0.067 kHz/mV, respectively. The lowest detectable dose is less than 1 rad.

  18. Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området.......Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området....

  19. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  20. Measurand transient signal suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transient signal suppressor for use in a controls system which is adapted to respond to a change in a physical parameter whenever it crosses a predetermined threshold value in a selected direction of increasing or decreasing values with respect to the threshold value and is sustained for a selected discrete time interval is presented. The suppressor includes a sensor transducer for sensing the physical parameter and generating an electrical input signal whenever the sensed physical parameter crosses the threshold level in the selected direction. A manually operated switch is provided for adapting the suppressor to produce an output drive signal whenever the physical parameter crosses the threshold value in the selected direction of increasing or decreasing values. A time delay circuit is selectively adjustable for suppressing the transducer input signal for a preselected one of a plurality of available discrete suppression time and producing an output signal only if the input signal is sustained for a time greater than the selected suppression time. An electronic gate is coupled to receive the transducer input signal and the timer output signal and produce an output drive signal for energizing a control relay whenever the transducer input is a non-transient signal which is sustained beyond the selected time interval.

  1. Creating a measure of portion control self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Lindsey C; Harman, Jennifer J; Maertens, Julie A; Burnette, Jeni L; Dreith, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, food portion sizes have steadily increased by as much as 700% (Young & Nestle, 2002). Food portions are often much larger than dietary guidelines recommend, leaving individuals to manage their food consumption on their own and making it necessary to understand individual factors impacting food consumption. In the current paper, we focus on self-efficacy for portion control. Specifically, across three studies, we developed and validated a new measure of portion control self-efficacy (PCSE). The PCSE measure yielded good fit statistics and had acceptable test-retest reliability using two cross-sectional surveys (Studies 1(a) and 1(b)). Results from Study 2 demonstrated construct and predictive validity of the PCSE using the Food Amount Rating Scale (FARS; Dohm, & Striegel-Moore, 2002). Study 3 offered additional support for reliability and validity with a sample of overweight and obese adults currently trying to lose weight. Overall, findings indicate that the new PCSE measure is reliable and valid. Individuals often make inaccurate food portion estimates (Slawson & Eck, 1997; Yuhas, Bolland, & Bolland, 1989) which can lead to overeating and weight-gain. Thus, the discussion centers on the need to incorporate PCSE in future research and intervention work targeting weight loss, health, and food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa R; Nestle, Marion

    2007-07-01

    Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading chains and comparing them to sizes observed in 1998 and 2002. Although McDonald's recently phased out its largest offerings, current items are similar to 1998 sizes and greatly exceed those offered when the company opened in 1955. Burger King and Wendy's have increased portion sizes, even while health authorities are calling for portion size reductions. Fast-food portions in the United States are larger than in Europe. These observations suggest that voluntary efforts by fast-food companies to reduce portion sizes are unlikely to be effective, and that policy approaches are needed to reduce energy intake from fast food.

  3. Obstructing Gangliocytic Paraganglioma in the Third Portion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Nuño-Guzmán

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gangliocytic paragangliomas are infrequent tumors almost exclusively found in the second portion of the duodenum. An unusual case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma in the third portion of the duodenum with obstructive symptoms is herein reported. A 16-year-old male patient presented with epigastric pain, postprandial plenitude and reflux. A barium swallow failed to demonstrate abnormalities. Endoscopy showed a pedunculated submucosal tumor, originating at the third duodenal portion and causing partial obstruction. Biopsy was not performed due to the risk of bleeding. CT scan demonstrated a polypoid lesion. Through a transmesocolic approach and an anterior duodenotomy, resection of the tumor was performed. No lymph node or other organ affection was found. Histologic examination revealed a gangliocytic paraganglioma. Immunohistochemical examination was performed. Gangliocytic paragangliomas originating in the third or fourth portion of the duodenum, as in the present case, are extremely rare. Characteristic histologic features including epithelioid cells, spindle-shaped cells and ganglion-like cells were met. The majority of cases manifest with a similar benign behavior. Local resection of the tumor is recommended for these cases. An infrequent case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a less common clinical presentation, is herein reported.

  4. Energy intake and obesity: ingestive frequency outweighs portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35 years indicates that there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides and energy intake, there has been an emphasis on the contribution of portion size to positive energy balance. However, this orientation may not appropriately weight the contribution of ingestive frequency. Gut peptides are not purely satiation factors and metabolic and environmental cues may more strongly guide the onset and number of ingestive events. Evidence is presented that while both portion size and ingestive frequency have increased in the population, the latter may be more problematic for weight gain. The magnitude and time course of increments in ingestive frequency map better onto energy intake and BMI trends than changes of portion size. This may occur, in part, because dietary compensation and thermogenic effects are weaker for increases in ingestive frequency than portion size. Though not to the exclusion of consideration of portion size effects, improved weight management may be achieved with greater attention to the drivers of eating and drinking frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Redesign lifts prep output 288%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamric, J

    1987-02-01

    This paper outlines the application of engineering creativity and how it brought output at an Ohio coal preparation plant up from 12,500 tpd to nearly four times that figure, 48,610 tpd. By streamlining the conveyor systems, removing surplus belt length and repositioning subplants the whole operation was able to run far more efficiently with a greater output. Various other alterations including the raw material supply and management and operating practices were also undertaken to provide a test for the achievements possible with such reorganization. The new developments have been in the following fields: fine coal cleaning, heavy media cyclones, feeders, bins, filter presses, dewatering equipment and settling tanks. Output is now limited only by the reduced demand by the Gavin power station nearby.

  6. Children's estimates of food portion size: the development and evaluation of three portion size assessment tools for use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Matthews, J N S; Lloyd, J; Marshall, L; Mathers, J C; Nelson, M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Cornelissen, P; Harris, J; Adamson, A J

    2008-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to assist subjects in providing an estimate of portion size but their application in improving portion size estimation by children has not been investigated systematically. The aim was to develop portion size assessment tools for use with children and to assess the accuracy of children's estimates of portion size using the tools. The tools were food photographs, food models and an interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS). Children (n 201), aged 4-16 years, were supplied with known quantities of food to eat, in school. Food leftovers were weighed. Children estimated the amount of each food using each tool, 24 h after consuming the food. The age-specific portion sizes represented were based on portion sizes consumed by children in a national survey. Significant differences were found between the accuracy of estimates using the three tools. Children of all ages performed well using the IPSAS and food photographs. The accuracy and precision of estimates made using the food models were poor. For all tools, estimates of the amount of food served were more accurate than estimates of the amount consumed. Issues relating to reporting of foods left over which impact on estimates of the amounts of foods actually consumed require further study. The IPSAS has shown potential for assessment of dietary intake with children. Before practical application in assessment of dietary intake of children the tool would need to be expanded to cover a wider range of foods and to be validated in a 'real-life' situation.

  7. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage BiCMOS process. Over-current sensing protects the output from short circuits.

  8. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentel Paul R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study experimentally examined the effects of repeated exposure to different meal portion sizes on energy intake. Methods Nineteen employees of a county medical center were given free box lunches for two months, one month each of 1528 and 767 average kcal. Foods were identical in the two conditions, but differed in portion size. Meals averaged 44% calories from fat. Participants self-reported how much of each lunch was eaten. Unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls were also conducted by phone twice per week during each exposure period. Results Mean energy intake at the lunch meal was 332 kcal/day higher in large lunch than in small lunch periods (p Conclusion This study suggests that chronic exposure to large portion size meals can result in sustained increases in energy intake and may contribute to body weight increases over time.

  9. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  10. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  11. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  12. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  13. Evaluation of the potential to upgrade the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 to higher output energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, M.E.; Palmer, R.E.

    1977-05-01

    The predicted output energy of the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 is given for various numbers of preamplifier stages and for various small signal gains in each stage. Additional possibilities for further increasing the output energy are given

  14. 36 CFR 1275.58 - Deletion of restricted portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of restricted... HISTORICAL MATERIALS OF THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Access by the Public § 1275.58 Deletion of restricted... materials after the deletion of the portions which are restricted under this § 1275.50 or § 1275.52. ...

  15. Stress and Strain State Analysis of Defective Pipeline Portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Knaub, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents computer simulation results of the pipeline having defects in a welded joint. Autodesk Inventor software is used for simulation of the stress and strain state of the pipeline. Places of the possible failure and stress concentrators are predicted on the defective portion of the pipeline.

  16. Definition and means of maintaining the criticality detectors and alarms portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Criticality Alarm System (CAS) provides continuous detection for high radiation (criticality) events and automatically initiates an evacuation signal to affected personnel. The Safety Envelope (SE) for PFP includes the necessary equipment and the required procedures to ensure the CAS is capable of performing its intended function. This document provides the definition and means of maintaining the SE for PFP related to the CAS. This document also identifies and provides a justification for those portions of the CAS excluded from the PFP Safety Envelope

  17. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  18. Aggregate Supply and Potential Output

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    The New-Keynesian aggregate supply derives from micro-foundations an inflation-dynamics model very much like the tradition in the monetary literature. Inflation is primarily affected by: (i) economic slack; (ii) expectations; (iii) supply shocks; and (iv) inflation persistence. This paper extends the New Keynesian aggregate supply relationship to include also fluctuations in potential output, as an additional determinant of the relationship. Implications for monetary rules and to the estimati...

  19. Investigation on the extractability of melanoidins in portioned espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, C.; Mesías, Marta; Morales, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Coffee melanoidins have attracted interest as a result of its potential health benefits. This investigation aims to elucidate the extraction behavior of melanoidins and their populations during the preparation of portioned espresso coffee and its relationship with the antioxidant activity of the coffee brew. Filter-paper pods, FAP capsule, and clone capsule containing light roasted coffee have been investigated. An accumulative fractionation approach has applied to model ...

  20. Strategies for shortening the output pulse of silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Antoranz Canales, Pedro; Miranda Pantoja, José Miguel; Yebras Rivera, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three strategies for shortening the output pulse of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) are reported. The first strategy is passive filtering, where band-pass filtering removes the lowest frequency components in the signal, getting a noticeable reduction in pulse width (a compression ratio of 10: 1 was obtained). In the second place, a reflectometric scheme is proposed where the amplified signal coming from the SiPM is injected into a signal splitter with one of its stubs connected...

  1. Characteristics of output voltage and current of integrated nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Rusen

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the anisotropic property and small output signals of the piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) and the influence of the measurement system and environment, identification of the true signal generated by the NG is critical. We have developed three criteria: Schottky behavior test, switching-polarity tests, and linear superposition of current and voltage tests. The 11 tests can effectively rule out the system artifacts, whose sign does not change with the switching measurement polarity, and random signals, which might change signs but cannot consistently add up or cancel out under designed connection configurations. This study establishes the standards for designing and scale up of integrated nanogenerators. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  3. PortionControl@HOME: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effect of a Multi-Component Portion Size Intervention on Portion Control Behavior and Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; Vet, de E.; Velema, E.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food portion sizes influence energy intake. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine effectiveness of the “PortionControl@HOME” intervention on body mass index and portion control behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial among 278 overweight and obese participants was

  4. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  5. Influence of nutrition labelling on food portion size consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mary T; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Rennie, Kirsten L; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Welch, Robert W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labelling is an important strategic approach for encouraging consumers to make healthier food choices. The availability of highly palatable foods labelled as 'low fat or reduced calorie' may encourage the over-consumption of these products. This study aimed to determine whether the manipulation of nutrition labelling information can influence food portion size consumption. Normal and overweight men (n=24) and women (n=23) were served an identical lunch meal on three separate days, but the information they received prior to consuming the lunch meal was manipulated as follows: "baseline", "high fat/energy" and "low fat/energy". Food and energy intake was significantly increased in the low fat/energy condition compared with both baseline and the high fat/energy condition. An additional 3% (162 kJ) energy was consumed by subjects under the low fat/energy condition compared to baseline. No differences were observed between the baseline and high fat/energy condition. Subjects who consumed most in the low fat/energy condition were found to be mostly men, to have a higher BMI and to be overweight. Low fat/energy information can positively influence food and energy intake, suggesting that foods labelled as 'low fat' or 'low calorie' may be one factor promoting the consumption of large food portions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain response to food cues varying in portion size is associated with individual differences in the portion size effect in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kathleen L.; English, Laural K.; Fearnbach, S.N.; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Anderson, Kaitlin; Bermudez, Maria; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Large portions promote intake of energy dense foods (i.e., the portion size effect–PSE), but the neurobiological drivers of this effect are not known. We tested the association between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) brain response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density

  7. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage Bi...

  8. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  9. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVersluis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63, we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group or of another university (out-group. In the main experiment (N = 321, we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot or approved only by a minority (main experiment. These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial

  10. Optimal time-domain combination of the two calibrated output quadratures of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitson, M; Grote, H; Hild, S; Lueck, H; Ajith, P; Smith, J R; Strain, K A; Willke, B; Woan, G

    2005-01-01

    GEO 600 is an interferometric gravitational wave detector with a 600 m arm-length and which uses a dual-recycled optical configuration to give enhanced sensitivity over certain frequencies in the detection band. Due to the dual-recycling, GEO 600 has two main output signals, both of which potentially contain gravitational wave signals. These two outputs are calibrated to strain using a time-domain method. In order to simplify the analysis of the GEO 600 data set, it is desirable to combine these two calibrated outputs to form a single strain signal that has optimal signal-to-noise ratio across the detection band. This paper describes a time-domain method for doing this combination. The method presented is similar to one developed for optimally combining the outputs of two colocated gravitational wave detectors. In the scheme presented in this paper, some simplifications are made to allow its implementation using time-domain methods

  11. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability...

  12. Basal Ganglia Outputs Map Instantaneous Position Coordinates during Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W.; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A.; Bartholomew, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  13. Regulation of the output power at the resonant converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanov, Goce G.; Sarac, Vasilija J. [University Goce Delecev-Stip, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Radovis (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Karadzinov, Ljupco V., E-mail: goce.stefanov@ugd.edu.mk [University Kiril and Methodyus-Skopje, FEIT Skopje(Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a method for regulating an alternating current voltage source with pair of IGBT transistor’s modules, in a full bridge configuration with series resonant converter is given. With the developed method a solution is obtained which can regulate the phase difference between output voltage and current through the inductor, in order to maintain maximum output power. Control electronic via feedback signals regulates the energy transfer to the tank by changing the pulse width of signals which are used as inputs to the gates of the IGBTs. By increasing or decreasing the pulse width transmitted to the various gates of the IGBT the energy transfer to the tank is increased or decreased . PowerSim simulations program is used for development of controlling methodology. Developed method is practically implemented in a prototype of the device for phase control of resonant converter with variable the resonant load. Key words: pulse width method, phase regulation , power converter.

  14. Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poursoltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Clostridium perfringens are classified into five toxin types A to E, on the basis of production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. Some strains are able to produce enterotoxin, can cause food poisoning in human. The bacteria are able to produce NetB and TpeL toxins which are virulence factors in necrotic enteritis in poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin profile of C. perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions using Single and Multiplex PCR assays. Materials and Methods: In a crossectional study, 180 sample of chicken portions including wing (n=50, liver (n=50, neck (n=50 and gizzard (n=30 were collected randomly and examined for C. perfringens contamination. For this purpose all of samples were cultured on the 7% sheep defibrinated blood agar, TSN and TSC culture media. All of the isolates were investigated for the presence of alpha, beta, epsilon, iota toxin and virulence (tpeL and netB genes. Results: In the present study, 6 isolates out of 180 samples, were confirmed as C. perfringens by culture and molecular methods. All of the isolates (100% were confirmed as cpa and cpb positive strains and belong to type C of C. perfringens. The netB gene was detected in 5 isolates (83.33% and tpeL gene in three isolates (50%. Conclusions: Our findings show the majority of C. perfringens in broilers are belong to type C which produce necrotic enteritis in poultry and may be transmitted to human through poultry products.

  15. Radiation signal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Knoll, G.; Strange, D.

    1980-01-01

    An improved signal processing system for radiation imaging apparatus comprises: a radiation transducer producing transducer signals proportional to apparent spatial coordinates of detected radiation events; means for storing true spatial coordinates corresponding to a plurality of predetermined apparent spatial coordinates relative to selected detected radiation events said means for storing responsive to said transducer signal and producing an output signal representative of said true spatial coordinates; and means for interpolating the true spatial coordinates of the detected radiation events located intermediate the stored true spatial coordinates, said means for interpolating communicating with said means for storing

  16. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  17. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  18. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  19. ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE EFFECT ON THE FIBER OPTIC GYROSCOPE OUTPUT SYGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Sharkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research results of the atmospheric pressure effect on the output signal of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG. In the course of experiments, FOG was placed into a hermetic chamber. The atmosphere pressure was varying in the range from 0.8 to 1.5 atm. All the data, including the FOG output signal, temperature, and data from the pressure sensor installed inside the FOG, were synchronously registered with the computer software. The separation of scale factor change from zero offset in the experiment was carried out by setting the sensitive FOG axis at 0°, 90° and 270° relative to the East (the FOG was set perpendicular to the horizon. After the data processing it was concluded that the FOG signal error associated with the pressure affects mainly on the additive component. The pressure effect on the multiplicative component appeared to be negligible at rotational velocities used in the experiment (0 - 130 /h. At the same time, the FOG signal has a high linear correlation coefficient with the derivative of pressure over time (in some cases, more than 0.9. The experiment was repeated several times and the high degree of the drift repeatability was shown. That makes it possible to implement the compensation algorithm. Application of the simplest algorithmic compensation based on the polynomial of the first degree (ax + b enabled to reduce the root-mean-square (RMS and drift of the signal by 2-9 times.

  20. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  1. The 'icon' of output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bligh, L.N.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Output efficiency (OE) is a well-validated parameter used in the assessment of hydronephrosis. Current analysis on Microdelta appears to produce few low OE values and occasional inability to produce a result. We sought an OE program which gave a reliable response over the full range of values. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether OE results are comparable between two computer systems; (2) a normal range for OE on an ICON; (3) inter-observer reproducibility; and (4) the correlation between the two programs and the residual cortical activity ratio (RCA), an index which assesses tracer washout from the 20 min cortical activity/peak cortical activity. Accordingly, two blinded medical radiation scientists reviewed 41 kidneys (26 native, 15 transplant) and calculated OE for each kidney on the ICON and Microdelta computers The OE on the Microdelta and the ICON had good correspondence (r = 0.6%, SEE = 6.2). The extrapolated normal range for ICON OE was 69-92% (mean 80.9%). The inter-observer reproducibility on the ICON was excellent with a CV of 8.7%. ICON OE and RCA had a strong correlation (r = - 0.77, SEE = 0.09), compared with a weaker correlation for the Microdelta (r = 0.47, SEE = 0.13). Processing on the ICON was almost half that of the Microdelta at 4 min compared with 7 min. We conclude that OE generated by these computer programs has good correlation, an established normal range, excellent interobserver reproducibility, but differing correlation with RCA. The response of the ICON program to low ranges of OE is being investigated further

  2. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji, E-mail: carlos.shimokawa@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Turbino, Míriam Lacalle, E-mail: miturbin@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Harlow, Jessie Eudora, E-mail: jessie.harlow@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Hannah Louise, E-mail: hannlprice@gmail.com [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Richard Bengt, E-mail: richard.price@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, School of Biomedical Engineering and Faculty of Dentistry, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  3. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  4. Energy and output dynamics in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Biru Paksha; Uddin, Gazi Salah

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between energy consumption and output is still ambiguous in the existing literature. The economy of Bangladesh, having spectacular output growth and rising energy demand as well as energy efficiency in recent decades, can be an ideal case for examining energy-output dynamics. We find that while fluctuations in energy consumption do not affect output fluctuations, movements in output inversely affect movements in energy use. The results of Granger causality tests in this respect are consistent with those of innovative accounting that includes variance decompositions and impulse responses. Autoregressive distributed lag models also suggest a role of output in Bangladesh's energy use. Hence, the findings of this study have policy implications for other developing nations where measures for energy conservation and efficiency can be relevant in policymaking.

  5. Means and method for controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A specification is given for an energizing and regulating circuit for a gas filled neutron generator tube consisting of a target, an ion source and a replenisher, the circuit consisting of a power supply to provide a negative high voltage to the target and a target current corresponding to the neutron output of the tube, a constant current source, and control means connected to the power supply and to the constant current source, the control means being responsive to the target current to provide a portion of the constant current to the replenisher substantially to regulate the neutron output of the tube. (author)

  6. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  7. How much should I eat? A comparison of suggested portion sizes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-11-01

    To identify and compare suggested food portion sizes in UK schemes. The study collated and compared suggested portion sizes from selected UK schemes intended both for general advice and weight-loss advice. Portion size schemes were included if they were relevant to the UK, provided actual portion size information, were intended for adults and were obtainable from the public domain in November 2010. Included schemes were from the food industry, non-governmental organisations and health-care professionals. Suggested portion sizes of foods occurring in at least one scheme for general advice and at least one scheme for weight loss were included. Own brand on-pack portion size labelling from a large UK-wide supermarket was added to represent portion size advice from UK food retailers. Not applicable. The suggested portion sizes in the weight-loss advice schemes were often concordant, as were the general advice schemes, except one general advice scheme from a non-governmental organisation which was more closely aligned with the portion sizes for weight loss. Overall there were substantial discrepancies between suggested portion sizes for muesli and crunchy breakfast cereals, rice, pasta and potatoes, meat, fish and pulses, whereas portion sizes for cooked vegetables, dried fruit, some breakfast cereals and cheese were broadly consistent. There is a lack of consistency in the portion sizes communicated to the public. An independent and authoritative scheme of suggested portion sizes for all foods, with distinct recommendations for general advice and for weight-loss advice, could be of benefit.

  8. Portion Sizes from 24-Hour Dietary Recalls Differed by Sex among Those Who Selected the Same Portion Size Category on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Park, Song-Yi; Boushey, Carol J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N; Murphy, Suzanne P; Paik, Hee-Young

    2018-05-08

    Accounting for sex differences in food portions may improve dietary measurement; however, this factor has not been well examined. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in reported food portions from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) among those who selected the same portion size category on a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. Participants (n=319) were members of the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who completed three 24HDRs and a QFFQ in a calibration study conducted in 2010 and 2011. Portions of individual foods reported from 24HDRs served as the outcome measures. Mean food portions from 24HDRs were compared between men and women who reported the same portion size on the QFFQ, after adjustment for race/ethnicity using a linear regression model. Actual amount and the assigned amount of the selected portion size in the QFFQ were compared using one-sample t test for men and women separately. Of 163 food items with portion size options listed in the QFFQ, 32 were reported in 24HDRs by ≥20 men and ≥20 women who selected the same portion size in the QFFQ. Although they chose the same portion size on the QFFQ, mean intake amounts from 24HDRs were significantly higher for men than for women for "beef/lamb/veal," "white rice," "brown/wild rice," "lettuce/tossed salad," "eggs cooked/raw," "whole wheat/rye bread," "buns/rolls," and "mayonnaise in sandwiches." For men, mean portions of 14 items from the 24HDRs were significantly different from the assigned amounts for QFFQ items (seven higher and seven lower), whereas for women, mean portions of 14 items were significantly lower from the assigned amounts (with five significantly higher). These sex differences in reported 24HDR food portions-even among participants who selected the same portion size on the QFFQ-suggest that the use of methods that account for differences in the portions consumed by men and women when QFFQs are

  9. Programmable pulse sequence generator with multiple output lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabczyk, Hubert

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a novel concept of pulse sequence generator and its prototype as an electronic circuit testing laboratory tool. The generator has multiple output lines and is capable of using control data defining different pulse sequences to be given to the outputs. It is also possible to use different voltage levels in output signal and switch output lines for reading data from driven system. The pulse sequence generator can be used for runtime environment simulation, as hardware tester or auxiliary tool in new designs. Important design factors were to keep cost of the tool low and allow integration with other projects by using flexible architecture. The prototype was based on universal programmer with adjustable power supply, '51 microcontroller and Altera Cyclone chip. The generator communicates witch PC computer via RS232 port. Dedicated software was developed in the course of this project, to control the tool and data transmission. The prototype confirmed the possibility to create an inexpensive multipurpose laboratory tool for programming, testing and simulation of digital devices.

  10. ROBUST CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR MULTIVARIABLE PLANTS WITH QUANTIZED OUTPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Margun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with robust output control algorithm for multivariable plants under disturbances. A plant is described by the system of linear differential equations with known relative degrees. Plant parameters are unknown but belong to the known closed bounded set. Plant state vector is unmeasured. Plant output is measured only via static quantizer. Control system algorithm is based on the high gain feedback method. Developed controller provides exponential convergence of tracking error to the bounded area. The area bounds depend on quantizer parameters and the value of external disturbances. Experimental approbation of the proposed control algorithm is performed with the use of Twin Rotor MIMO System laboratory bench. This bench is a helicopter like model with two degrees of freedom (pitch and yaw. DC motors are used as actuators. The output signals are measured via optical encoders. Mathematical model of laboratory bench is obtained. Proposed algorithm was compared with proportional - integral – differential controller in conditions of output quantization. Obtained results have confirmed the efficiency of proposed controller.

  11. MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-12-01

    MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii

  12. How much should I eat? A comparison of suggested portion sizes in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and compare suggested food portion sizes in UK schemes. Design The study collated and compared suggested portion sizes from selected UK schemes intended both for general advice and weight-loss advice. Setting Portion size schemes were included if they were relevant to the UK, provided actual portion size information, were intended for adults and were obtainable from the public domain in November 2010. Included schemes were from the food industry, non-governmental organis...

  13. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  14. Fast multi-output relevance vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V

  15. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  16. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  17. 21 CFR 14.27 - Determination to close portions of advisory committee meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the policy in this section. (2) A portion of a meeting may be closed only if the Commissioner... matters to be discussed in the closed portion. (c) Attendance at a closed portion of a meeting is governed... and unauthorized attendance does not enable other unauthorized persons to attend, nor does it, of...

  18. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  19. The pack size effect: Influence on consumer perceptions of portion sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, Sophie; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jola, Corinne; Wills, Josephine; Raats, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Larger portions as well as larger packs can lead to larger prospective consumption estimates, larger servings and increased consumption, described as 'portion-size effects' and 'pack size effects'. Although related, the effects of pack sizes on portion estimates have received less attention. While

  20. The effect of portion size on food intake is robust to brief education and mindfulness exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Karen; Vartanian, Lenny R; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether a brief education and a brief mindfulness exercise would reduce the effect of portion size on food intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three information conditions (education, mindfulness, or control) and then received a small or large portion of pasta for lunch. Neither education nor mindfulness was effective in reducing the effect of portion size: Overall, participants served a large portion consumed 34 percent more pasta than did those served a small portion. Participants in the mindfulness condition tended to eat less overall than participants did in the two other conditions, but this trend was not significant. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Immature spinal locomotor output in children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Cappellini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed descriptions of gait impairments have been reported in cerebral palsy (CP, but it is still unclear how maturation of the spinal motoneuron output is affected. Spatiotemporal alpha-motoneuron activation during walking can be assessed by mapping the electromyographic activity profiles from several, simultaneously recorded muscles onto the anatomical rostrocaudal location of the motoneuron pools in the spinal cord, and by means of factor analysis of the muscle activity profiles. Here, we analysed gait kinematics and EMG activity of 11 pairs of bilateral muscles with lumbosacral innervation in 35 children with CP (19 diplegic, 16 hemiplegic, 2-12 years and 33 typically developing (TD children (1-12 years. TD children showed a progressive reduction of EMG burst durations and a gradual reorganization of the spatiotemporal motoneuron output with increasing age. By contrast, children with CP showed very limited age-related changes of EMG durations and motoneuron output, as well as of limb intersegmental coordination and foot trajectory control (on both sides for diplegic children and the affected side for hemiplegic children. Factorization of the EMG signals revealed a comparable structure of the motor output in children with CP and TD children, but significantly wider temporal activation patterns in children with CP, resembling the patterns of much younger TD infants. A similar picture emerged when considering the spatiotemporal maps of alpha-motoneuron activation. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain substantially affect the maturation of the spinal locomotor output and consequently the future locomotor behaviour.

  2. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  3. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA·cm−2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW·cm−2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  4. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  5. High Artic Glaciers and Ice Caps Ice Mass Change from GRACE, Regional Climate Model Output and Altimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraci, E.; Velicogna, I.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic hosts more than the 75% of the ice covered regions outside from Greenland and Antarctica. Available observations show that increased atmospheric temperatures during the last century have contributed to a substantial glaciers retreat in all these regions. We use satellite gravimetry by the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and apply a least square fit mascon approach to calculate time series of ice mass change for the period 2002-2016. Our estimates show that arctic glaciers have constantly contributed to the sea level rise during the entire observation period with a mass change of -170+/-20 Gt/yr equivalent to the 80% of the total ice mass change from the world Glacier and Ice Caps (GIC) excluding the Ice sheet peripheral GIC, which we calculated to be -215+/-32 GT/yr, with an acceleration of 9+/-4 Gt/yr2. The Canadian Archipelago is the main contributor to the total mass depletion with an ice mass trend of -73+/-9 Gt/yr and a significant acceleration of -7+/-3 Gt/yr2. The increasing mass loss is mainly determined by melting glaciers located in the northern part of the archipelago.In order to investigate the physical processes driving the observed ice mass loss we employ satellite altimetry and surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from Regional climate model outputs available for the same time period covered by the gravimetry data. We use elevation data from the NASA ICESat (2003-2009) and ESA CryoSat-2 (2010-2016) missions to estimate ice elevation changes. We compare GRACE ice mass estimates with time series of surface mass balance from the Regional Climate Model (RACMO-2) and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) and determine the portion of the total mass change explained by the SMB signal. We find that in Iceland and in the and the Canadian Archipelago the SMB signal explains most of the observed mass changes, suggesting that ice discharge may play a secondary role here. In other region, e.g. in Svalbar, the SMB signal

  6. Comparison of known food weights with image-based portion-size automated estimation and adolescents' self-reported portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina D; Chae, Junghoon; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Kerr, Deborah A; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-03-01

    Diet is a critical element of diabetes self-management. An emerging area of research is the use of images for dietary records using mobile telephones with embedded cameras. These tools are being designed to reduce user burden and to improve accuracy of portion-size estimation through automation. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the error of automatically determined portion weights compared to known portion weights of foods and (2) to compare the error between automation and human. Adolescents (n = 15) captured images of their eating occasions over a 24 h period. All foods and beverages served were weighed. Adolescents self-reported portion sizes for one meal. Image analysis was used to estimate portion weights. Data analysis compared known weights, automated weights, and self-reported portions. For the 19 foods, the mean ratio of automated weight estimate to known weight ranged from 0.89 to 4.61, and 9 foods were within 0.80 to 1.20. The largest error was for lettuce and the most accurate was strawberry jam. The children were fairly accurate with portion estimates for two foods (sausage links, toast) using one type of estimation aid and two foods (sausage links, scrambled eggs) using another aid. The automated method was fairly accurate for two foods (sausage links, jam); however, the 95% confidence intervals for the automated estimates were consistently narrower than human estimates. The ability of humans to estimate portion sizes of foods remains a problem and a perceived burden. Errors in automated portion-size estimation can be systematically addressed while minimizing the burden on people. Future applications that take over the burden of these processes may translate to better diabetes self-management. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Cosmic Shear With ACS Pure Parallels. Targeted Portion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason

    2002-07-01

    Small distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass provide a powerful method of directly measuring the amount and distribution of dark matter. Several groups have recently detected this weak lensing by large-scale structure, also called cosmic shear. The high resolution and sensitivity of HST/ACS provide a unique opportunity to measure cosmic shear accurately on small scales. Using 260 parallel orbits in Sloan i {F775W} we will measure for the first time: the cosmic shear variance on scales Omega_m^0.5, with signal-to-noise {s/n} 20, and the mass density Omega_m with s/n=4. They will be done at small angular scales where non-linear effects dominate the power spectrum, providing a test of the gravitational instability paradigm for structure formation. Measurements on these scales are not possible from the ground, because of the systematic effects induced by PSF smearing from seeing. Having many independent lines of sight reduces the uncertainty due to cosmic variance, making parallel observations ideal.

  8. Efficient performance simulation of class D amplifier output stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Straightforward simulation of amplifier distortion involves transient simulation of operation on a sine wave input signal, and a subsequent FFT of the output voltage. This approach is very slow on class D amplifiers, since the switching behavior forces simulation time steps that are many orders...... of magnitude smaller than the duration of one period of an audio sine wave. This work presents a method of simulating the amplifier transfer characteristic using a minimum amount of simulation time, and then deriving THD from the results....

  9. Syndecans, signaling, and cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    1996-01-01

    structures within the heparan sulfate chains, leaving the roles of chondroitin sulfate chains and extracellular portion of the core proteins to be elucidated. Evidence that syndecans are a class of receptor involved in cell adhesion is mounting, and their small cytoplasmic domains may link...... transmembrane signaling from matrix to cytoskeleton, as proposed for other classes of adhesion receptors....

  10. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. አኀፅሮተ- ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of ..... the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, July.

  11. Endogenous Money, Output and Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.

  12. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  13. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  14. Training spiking neural networks to associate spatio-temporal input-output spike patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mohemmed, A; Schliebs, S; Matsuda, S; Kasabov, N

    2013-01-01

    In a previous work (Mohemmed et al., Method for training a spiking neuron to associate input–output spike trains) [1] we have proposed a supervised learning algorithm based on temporal coding to train a spiking neuron to associate input spatiotemporal spike patterns to desired output spike patterns. The algorithm is based on the conversion of spike trains into analogue signals and the application of the Widrow–Hoff learning rule. In this paper we present a mathematical formulation of the prop...

  15. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  16. Multistrip western blotting to increase quantitative data output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip western blotting increases the data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold, allows concurrent monitoring of up to nine different proteins from the same loading of the sample, and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data, and therefore is beneficial to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  17. Output Pressure and Pulse-Echo Characteristics of CMUTs as Function of Plate Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Hansen, Jesper Mark Fly; Engholm, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the acoustic performance of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) as function of plate dimensions. The objective is to increase the output pressure without decreasingthe pulse-echo signal. The CMUTs are fabricated with a LOCOS process......-to-peak output pressure and pulse-echo signal is obtained for the 9.3μm plate, which still has a moderate pulseecho bandwidth of 60%. The 9.3μm plate results in a 1.9 times higher peak-to-peak output pressure and a 3.6 times higherpulse-echo signal compared to the 2μm plate. By adjusting the plate dimensions...

  18. Quaternion-based adaptive output feedback attitude control of spacecraft using Chebyshev neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An-Min; Dev Kumar, Krishna; Hou, Zeng-Guang

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the problem of output feedback attitude control of an uncertain spacecraft. Two robust adaptive output feedback controllers based on Chebyshev neural networks (CNN) termed adaptive neural networks (NN) controller-I and adaptive NN controller-II are proposed for the attitude tracking control of spacecraft. The four-parameter representations (quaternion) are employed to describe the spacecraft attitude for global representation without singularities. The nonlinear reduced-order observer is used to estimate the derivative of the spacecraft output, and the CNN is introduced to further improve the control performance through approximating the spacecraft attitude motion. The implementation of the basis functions of the CNN used in the proposed controllers depends only on the desired signals, and the smooth robust compensator using the hyperbolic tangent function is employed to counteract the CNN approximation errors and external disturbances. The adaptive NN controller-II can efficiently avoid the over-estimation problem (i.e., the bound of the CNNs output is much larger than that of the approximated unknown function, and hence, the control input may be very large) existing in the adaptive NN controller-I. Both adaptive output feedback controllers using CNN can guarantee that all signals in the resulting closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. For performance comparisons, the standard adaptive controller using the linear parameterization of spacecraft attitude motion is also developed. Simulation studies are presented to show the advantages of the proposed CNN-based output feedback approach over the standard adaptive output feedback approach.

  19. How food marketers can sell smaller portions: Consumer insights and product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J; Fisher, J O; Rowe, S

    2016-08-01

    Food portion size has been shown to be an important driver of energy intake. Despite the well acknowledged role of portion control in weight management, large portion sizes remain ubiquitous in the marketplace. Moving consumers towards consumption of smaller portion sizes will require changes in consumer behavior as well as changes in products available to consumers in a variety of settings. This special supplement presents cutting edge research aimed at understanding consumer behavior around portion size and innovations in product design that may promote the selection and consumption of smaller portion sizes. We identify further research that will be needed to translate basic behavioral findings into real world settings and to viable product development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  1. Food photography. I: The perception of food portion size from photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Atkinson, M; Darbyshire, S

    1994-11-01

    Fifty-one male and female volunteers aged 18-90 years from a wide variety of social and occupational backgrounds completed 7284 assessments of portion size in relation to food photographs. Subjects were shown six portion sizes (two small, two medium and two large) for each of six foods, and asked to compare the amount on the plate in front of them to (a) a series of eight photographs showing weights of portions from the 5th to the 95th centile of portion size (British Adult Dietary Survey), or (b) a single photograph of the average (median) portion size. Photographs were prepared either in colour or in black and white, and in two different sizes. The order of presentation of foods; use of black and white or colour; the size of photographs; and presentation of eight or average photographs were each randomized independently. On average, the mean differences between the portion size presented and the estimate of portion size using the photographs varied from -8 to +6 g (-4 to +5%) for the series of eight photographs, and from -34 to -1 g (-23 to +9%) for the single average photograph. Large portion sizes tended to be underestimated more than medium or small portion sizes, especially when using the average photograph (from -79 to -14 g, -37 to -13%). Being female, 65 years and over, or retired, or seeing photographs in colour, were all associated with small but statistically significant overestimations of portion size. Having a body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2 was associated with an 8% underestimate of portion size. We conclude that use of a series of eight photographs is associated with relatively small errors in portion size perception, whereas use of an average photograph is consistently associated with substantial underestimation across a variety of foods.

  2. Large Portions Encourage the Selection of Palatable Rather Than Filling Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Jarvstad, Andreas; Griggs, Rebecca L; Potter, Christina; Evans, Natalie R; Martin, Ashley A; Brooks, Jon Cw; Rogers, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Portion size is an important driver of larger meals. However, effects on food choice remain unclear. Our aim was to identify how portion size influences the effect of palatability and expected satiety on choice. In Study 1, adult participants (n = 24, 87.5% women) evaluated the palatability and expected satiety of 5 lunchtime meals and ranked them in order of preference. Separate ranks were elicited for equicaloric portions from 100 to 800 kcal (100-kcal steps). In Study 2, adult participants (n = 24, 75% women) evaluated 9 meals and ranked 100-600 kcal portions in 3 contexts (scenarios), believing that 1) the next meal would be at 1900, 2) they would receive only a bite of one food, and 3) a favorite dish would be offered immediately afterwards. Regression analysis was used to quantify predictors of choice. In Study 1, the extent to which expected satiety and palatability predicted choice was highly dependent on portion size (P palatability (100-kcal portions: expected satiety, β: 0.42; palatability, β: 0.46). With larger portions, palatability was a strong predictor (600-kcal portions: β: 0.53), and expected satiety was a poor or negative predictor (600-kcal portions: β: -0.42). In Study 2, this pattern was moderated by context (P = 0.024). Results from scenario 1 replicated Study 1. However, expected satiety was a poor predictor in both scenario 2 (expected satiety was irrelevant) and scenario 3 (satiety was guaranteed), and palatability was the primary driver of choice across all portions. In adults, expected satiety influences food choice, but only when small equicaloric portions are compared. Larger portions not only promote the consumption of larger meals, but they encourage the adoption of food choice strategies motivated solely by palatability. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kristina; Atkins, Louise; Brown, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion co...

  4. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  5. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Summary of Available Hydrogeologic Data for the Northeast Portion of the Alluvial Aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unthank, Michael D; Nelson, Jr., Hugh L

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the unconsolidated glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits that compose the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, indicate a prolific...

  8. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  9. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE

  10. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  11. Estimation of international output-energy relation. Effects of alternative output measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the output-energy relationship with alternative measures of output and energy. Our analysis rejects the hypothesis of non-diminishing returns to energy consumption when GDP at purchasing power parities is used as the output measure unlike the case with GNP at market exchange rates. This finding also holds when energy input includes the usage of both commercial and traditional fuels. 13 refs

  12. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  13. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  14. A qualitative study of psychological, social and behavioral barriers to appropriate food portion size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michelle; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Hollywood, Lynsey E; Gibney, Eileen R; O'Brien, Sinéad A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Dean, Moira

    2013-08-01

    Given the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity, there is a clear need for meaningful practical healthy eating advice - not only in relation to food choice, but also on appropriate food portion sizes. As the majority of portion size research to date has been overwhelmingly quantitative in design, there is a clear need to qualitatively explore consumers' views in order to fully understand how food portion size decisions are made. Using qualitative methodology this present study aimed to explore consumers' views about factors influencing their portion size selection and consumption and to identify barriers to appropriate portion size control. Ten focus groups with four to nine participants in each were formed with a total of 66 persons (aged 19-64 years) living on the island of Ireland. The semi-structured discussions elicited participants' perceptions of suggested serving size guidance and explored the influence of personal, social and environmental factors on their food portion size consumption. Audiotapes of the discussions were professionally transcribed verbatim, loaded into NVivo 9, and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis procedure. The rich descriptive data derived from participants highlight that unhealthy portion size behaviors emanate from various psychological, social and behavioral factors. These bypass reflective and deliberative control, and converge to constitute significant barriers to healthy portion size control. Seven significant barriers to healthy portion size control were apparent: (1) lack of clarity and irrelevance of suggested serving size guidance; (2) guiltless eating; (3) lack of self-control over food cues; (4) distracted eating; (5) social pressures; (6) emotional eating rewards; and (7) quantification habits ingrained from childhood. Portion size control strategies should empower consumers to overcome these effects so that the consumption of appropriate food portion sizes becomes automatic and habitual.

  15. Portion control for the treatment of obesity in the primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Katherine I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity is a significant health threat and a major public health challenge. A critical need exists to develop and evaluate practical methods for the treatment of obesity in the clinical setting. One of the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic is food portion sizes. Limited data are available on the efficacy of visual or tactile devices designed to enhance patient understanding and control of portion sizes. A portion control plate is a commercially-available product that can provide visual cues of portion size and potentially contribute to weight loss by enhancing portion size control among obese patients. This tool holds promise as a useful adjunct to dietary counseling. Our objective was to evaluate a portion control intervention including dietary counseling and a portion control plate to facilitate weight loss among obese patients in a primary care practice. Findings We randomized 65 obese patients [body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and vs. -0.5% ± 2.2%; p = 0.041 and a non significant trend in weight change from baseline at 6 months (-2.1% ± 3.8% vs. -0.7% ± 3.7%; p = 0.232 compared with usual care. Nearly one-half of patients assigned to the portion control intervention who completed the study reported the overall intervention was helpful and the majority would recommend it to others. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a portion control intervention incorporating dietary counseling and a portion control plate may be effective for enhancing weight loss among obese subjects. A portion control intervention deserves further evaluation as a weight control strategy in the primary care setting. Trial registration Current controlled trials NCT01451554

  16. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  17. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong......This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... positive effects....

  18. The light output of BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhufang; Ma Wengan; Lin Zhirong; Wang Zhaomin; Xu Zhizong; Fan Yangmei

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of light output on the surface treatment of BGO crystals has been tested. The results of experiments and Monte Carlo calculation indicate that for a tapered BGO crystal the best way to improve the uniformity and the energy resolution and to obtain higher light output is roughing the surface coupled to photomultiplier tube. The authors also observed that different wrapping method can effect its uniformity and resolutoin. Monte Carlo calculation indicates that the higher one of the 'double peaks' is the photoelectron peak of γ rays

  19. Signal Analysis for Radiation Event Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Wallace

    2004-12-30

    The method of digitizing the scintillation output signals from a lithiated sol-gel based glass is described. The design considerations for using the lithiated scintillator for the detection of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is presented.

  20. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Huitink, Marlijn; Dijkstra, S.C.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Heijnen, Joris

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were

  1. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  2. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator. ...

  3. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  4. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  5. Output formatting in Apple-Soft Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Personal computers are being used extensively in various fields. BASIC is a very popular and widely used language in personal computers. Apple computer is one of the popular machines used for scientific and engineering applications. Presenting output from computers in a neat and easy to read form is very important. Languages like FORTRAN have utility command 'FORMAT' which takes care of the formatting of the output in user-defined form. In some versions of BASIC a PRINT USING facility is available but it is not as powerful as the FORTRAN statement 'FORMAT'. Applesoft basic does not have even this PRINT USING command. Programmers have to write their own program segments to handle output formatting in Applesoft BASIC. Generally, such user written programs are of limited use as they cannot be used easily with other programs. A general purpose and easily transportable subroutine in Applesoft BASIC is presented here for handling output formatting in user-defined structure. The subroutine is nearly as powerful as the FORMAT statement in FORTRAN. It can also be used in other versions of BASIC with very little modifications. 3 tables, 4 refs. (author)

  6. Fast Output-sensitive Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  7. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  8. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...

  9. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  10. Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exercise...

  11. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  12. Development of a uniform eddy current multi-probe for flaw inspection on a curved surface shape portion and estimation of crack shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Katsuhiro; Hashimoto, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of non-destructive inspection technology for plant structures is necessary, since the occurrence of cracks has been reported in some nuclear power plants. In this research, a uniform eddy current multi-probe to inspect cracks on a curved structure was developed. We designed exciting coils of this probe, considering the shape of the curved structure, so that the eddy current flows uniformly. Pick-up coils were arranged on a flexible printed circuit board to fit on the curved surface shape portion. The detection characteristics for EDM (electrical discharge machining) slits provided on the curved surface shape portion of the specimen were evaluated. The clear signals for the EDM slits provided on the curved surface which had a curvature radius of 25 mm were obtained by this probe. We confirmed that the crack shape could be estimated by detecting the signals from the developed probe. (author)

  13. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  14. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, F; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  15. Output Feedback Distributed Containment Control for High-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafeng; Hua, Changchun; Wu, Shuangshuang; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we study the problem of output feedback distributed containment control for a class of high-order nonlinear multiagent systems under a fixed undirected graph and a fixed directed graph, respectively. Only the output signals of the systems can be measured. The novel reduced order dynamic gain observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasured state variables of the system with the less conservative condition on nonlinear terms than traditional Lipschitz one. Via the backstepping method, output feedback distributed nonlinear controllers for the followers are designed. By means of the novel first virtual controllers, we separate the estimated state variables of different agents from each other. Consequently, the designed controllers show independence on the estimated state variables of neighbors except outputs information, and the dynamics of each agent can be greatly different, which make the design method have a wider class of applications. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. The Suprachiasmatic nucleus balances sympathetic and parasympathetic output to peripheral organs through separate preautonomic neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ruud M.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Wortel, Joke; van Heyningen, Caroline; Zuiddam, Laura; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Nagai, Katsuya; Niijima, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Opposing parasympathetic and sympathetic signals determine the autonomic output of the brain to the body and the change in balance over the sleep-wake cycle. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) organizes the activity/inactivity cycle and the behaviors that go along with it, but it is unclear how the

  17. How much should I eat? Estimation of meal portions in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Gabriella; Kuenzli, Cornelia; Soelch, Chantal Martin; Schumacher, Sonja; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Pathological concern regarding one's weight and weight gain is a crucial feature of anorexia nervosa. Consequently, anorexia nervosa patients often claim that they are uncertain regarding the amount of food they should eat. The present study investigated whether individuals with anorexia nervosa show an altered estimation of meal portion sizes and whether this estimation is modulated by an intent-to-eat instruction (where patients are asked to imagine having to eat the presented meal), meal type and meal portion size. Twenty-four women with anorexia nervosa and 27 healthy women estimated, using a visual analogue scale, the size of six different portions of three different meals, with and without intent-to-eat instructions. Subjects with anorexia nervosa estimated the size of small and medium meal portions (but not large meal servings) as being significantly larger, compared to estimates of healthy controls. The overestimation of small meal portions by anorexia nervosa subjects was significantly greater in the intent-to-eat, compared to general, condition. These findings suggest that disturbed perceptions associated with anorexia nervosa not only include interoceptive awareness (i.e., body weight and shape), but also extend to external disorder-related objects such as meal portion size. Specific therapeutic interventions, such as training regarding meal portion evaluation, could address these difficulties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the environmental impact of portion bag for food packaging: a case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangrit, Chaniporn; Usapein, Parnuwat; Limphitakphong, Nantamol; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2017-05-01

    This study applied life cycle assessment methodology in evaluating environmental impact of portion bag. The objective of this study was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact through life cycle of portion bag. The options were proposed for improving environmental performance of the product. The system boundary was defined as cradle-to-grave which included the ethylene production, LDPE and LLDPE resins production, portion bag production, disposal, and transportation. All materials and emissions were calculated based on 1 piece of portion bag which weighed 2.49 g. IMPACT 2002+ was used for assessing environmental impact on SimaPro V8.2 software. The result found that the most of environmental impact was generated from LDPE and LLDPE resins which was used as raw material for producing portion bag. After normalization, non-renewable energy showed the highest potential to concern. This impact related directly to the natural gas drilling, ethane production, ethylene production, resin productions, and energy in all process. In conclusion, it should be suggested that the selection of bio-material for producing portion bag can play an important role to reduce the environmental impact. The research demonstrates the possible way and benefits in improving cleaner raw material and suitable way of product's end-of-life for producing green portion bag in the future.

  19. Quantum signaling game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantum approach to a signaling game; a special kind of extensive game of incomplete information. Our model is based on quantum schemes for games in strategic form where players perform unitary operators on their own qubits of some fixed initial state and the payoff function is given by a measurement on the resulting final state. We show that the quantum game induced by our scheme coincides with a signaling game as a special case and outputs nonclassical results in general. As an example, we consider a quantum extension of the signaling game in which the chance move is a three-parameter unitary operator whereas the players' actions are equivalent to classical ones. In this case, we study the game in terms of Nash equilibria and refine the pure Nash equilibria adapting to the quantum game the notion of a weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium. (paper)

  20. The influence of front-of-pack nutrition information on consumers' portion size perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah May; de Vlieger, Nienke; Collins, Clare; Bucher, Tamara

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Portion size guidance strategies have been suggested as an important component of weight management; therefore, the Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labels could influence consumers' portion-size decisions. However, this has not been investigated to date. This study aims to evaluate whether presenting energy content information and HSRs influences portion size self-selection of specific foods and meals. Methods Adults were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups in this randomised controlled experiment. Each participant was given either a kJ/100g food label or a HSR label, or was given no information on nutrient composition. They were then asked to serve themselves an adequate portion of breakfast cereal (Kellogg's Nutri-Grain), fruit salad and chocolate, plus a three-component meal (chicken, fries and mixed vegetables). Portion serves and meal weights were compared between each experimental group using ANOVA and the discretionary foods were also compared with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). Results Neither the kilojoule nor HSR information influenced the self-served portion size of foods or meal components. Mean self-served portion size of the discretionary foods were significantly greater than the standard serving sizes as specified in the AGHE. Conclusion Although food labels have the potential to assist consumers in making product choices, this study indicates that presenting nutrition information does not affect portion size decisions in young adults. So what? Strategies that assist consumers to choose appropriate portion sizes should be developed as a weight management tool.

  1. How big is a food portion? A pilot study in Australian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clare E; Bucher, Tamara; Taylor, Aimee; Pezdirc, Kristine; Lucas, Hannah; Watson, Jane; Rollo, Megan; Duncanson, Kerith; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Burrows, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    It is not known whether individuals can accurately estimate the portion size of foods usually consumed relative to standard serving sizes in national food selection guides. The aim of the present cross-sectional pilot study was to quantify what adults and children deem a typical portion for a variety of foods and compare these with the serving sizes specified in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). Adults and children were independently asked to serve out their typical portion of 10 common foods (rice, pasta, breakfast cereal, chocolate, confectionary, ice cream, meat, vegetables, soft drink and milk). They were also asked to serve what they perceived a small, medium and large portion of each food to be. Each portion was weighed and recorded by an assessor and compared with the standard AGHE serving sizes. Twenty-one individuals (nine mothers, one father, 11 children) participated in the study. There was a large degree of variability in portion sizes measured out by both parents and children, with means exceeding the standard AGHE serving size for all items, except for soft drink and milk, where mean portion sizes were less than the AGHE serving size. The greatest mean overestimations were for pasta (155%; mean 116 g; range 94-139 g) and chocolate (151%; mean 38 g; range 25-50 g), each of which represented approximately 1.5 standard AGHE servings. The findings of the present study indicate that there is variability between parents' and children's estimation of typical portion sizes compared with national recommendations. SO WHAT? Dietary interventions to improve individuals' dietary patterns should target education regarding portion size.

  2. Association between excess weight and beverage portion size consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Nogueira Bezerra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the beverage portion size consumed and to evaluate their association with excess weight in Brazil. METHODS We used data from the National Dietary Survey, which included individuals with two days of food record aged over 20 years (n = 24,527 individuals. The beverages were categorized into six groups: soft drink, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, alcoholic beverage, milk, and coffee or tea. We estimated the average portion consumed for each group and we evaluated, using linear regression, the association between portion size per group and the variables of age, sex, income, and nutritional status. We tested the association between portion size and excess weight using Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, income, and total energy intake. RESULTS The most frequently consumed beverages in Brazil were coffee and tea, followed by 100% fruit juices, soft drinks, and milk. Alcoholic beverages presented the highest average in the portion size consumed, followed by soft drinks, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, and milk. Portion size showed positive association with excess weight only in the soft drink (PR = 1.19, 95%CI 1.10–1.27 and alcoholic beverage groups (PR = 1.20, 95%CI, 1.11–1.29, regardless of age, sex, income, and total energy intake. CONCLUSIONS Alcoholic beverages and soft drinks presented the highest averages in portion size and positive association with excess weight. Public health interventions should address the issue of portion sizes offered to consumers by discouraging the consumption of large portions, especially sweetened and low nutritional beverages.

  3. Magnetic Field and Torque Output of Packaged Hydraulic Torque Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic torque motors are one key component in electro-hydraulic servo valves that convert the electrical signal into mechanical motions. The systematic characteristics analysis of the hydraulic torque motor has not been found in the previous research, including the distribution of the electromagnetic field and torque output, and particularly the relationship between them. In addition, conventional studies of hydraulic torque motors generally assume an evenly distributed magnetic flux field and ignore the influence of special mechanical geometry in the air gaps, which may compromise the accuracy of analyzing the result and the high-precision motion control performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the distribution of the magnetic field and torque output; the influence of limiting holes in the air gaps is considered to improve the accuracy of both numerical computation and analytical modeling. The structure and working principle of the torque motor are presented first. The magnetic field distribution in the air gaps and the magnetic saturation in the iron blocks are analyzed by using a numerical approach. Subsequently, the torque generation with respect to the current input and assembly errors is analyzed in detail. This shows that the influence of limiting holes on the magnetic field is consistent with that on torque generation. Following this, a novel modified equivalent magnetic circuit is proposed to formulate the torque output of the hydraulic torque motor analytically. The comparison among the modified equivalent magnetic circuit, the conventional modeling approach and the numerical computation is conducted, and it is found that the proposed method helps to improve the modeling accuracy by taking into account the effect of special geometry inside the air gaps.

  4. Cardiac output measurement instruments controlled by microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, M.; Barritault, L.; Boeri, C.; Fauchet, M.; Gambini, D.; Vernejoul, P. de

    The nuclear medicine and biophysics laboratory of the Necker-Enfants malades University Hospital Centre has built a microprocessor controlled Cardiac flowmetre. The principle of the cardiac output measurement from a radiocardiogram is well established. After injection of a radioactive indicator upstream from the heart cavities the dilution curve is obtained by the use of a gamma-ray precordial detector. This curve normally displays two peaks due to passage of the indicator into the right and left sides of the heart respectively. The output is then obtained from the stewart Hamilton principle once recirculation is eliminated. The graphic method used for the calculation however is long and tedious. The decreasing fraction of the dilution curve is projected in logarithmic space in order to eliminate recirculation by determining the mean straight line from which the decreasing exponential is obtained. The principle of the use of microprocessors is explained (electronics, logics) [fr

  5. Unregulated heat output of a storage heater

    OpenAIRE

    Lysak, Oleg Віталійович

    2017-01-01

    In the article the factors determining the heat transfer between the outer surfaces of a storage heater and the ambient air. This heat exchange is unregulated, and its definition is a precondition for assessing heat output range of this type of units. It was made the analysis of the literature on choosing insulating materials for each of the external surfaces of storage heaters: in foreign literature, there are recommendations on the use of various types of insulation depending on the type of...

  6. Computing multiple-output regression quantile regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2012), s. 840-853 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : halfspace depth * multiple-output regression * parametric linear programming * quantile regression Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.304, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/siman-0376413.pdf

  7. Galois connection for multiple-output operations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 79 (2018), č. článku 17. ISSN 0002-5240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : clones and coclones * Galois connection * multiple-output operations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/ article /10.1007%2Fs00012-018-0499-7

  8. Carnot efficiency at divergent power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-05-01

    The widely debated feasibility of thermodynamic machines achieving Carnot efficiency at finite power has been convincingly dismissed. Yet, the common wisdom that efficiency can only be optimal in the limit of infinitely slow processes overlooks the dual scenario of infinitely fast processes. We corroborate that efficient engines at divergent power output are not theoretically impossible, framing our claims within the theory of Stochastic Thermodynamics. We inspect the case of an electronic quantum dot coupled to three particle reservoirs to illustrate the physical rationale.

  9. Galois connection for multiple-output operations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 17. ISSN 0002-5240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : clones and coclones * Galois connection * multiple-output operations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00012-018-0499-7

  10. Means and method for controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, O.M.; Peelman, H.E.

    1980-01-01

    A gas filled neutron tube in a nuclear well logging tool has a target an ion source voltage and a replenisher connected to ground. A negative high voltage is applied to the target by a power supply also providing a target current corresponding to the neutron output of the neutron generator tube. A constant current source provides a constant current. A network receiving the target current and the constant current provides a portion of the constant current as a replenisher current which is applied to the replenisher in a neutron generating tube. The network controls the magnitude of the replenisher current in accordance with the target current so as to control the neutron output of the neutron generating tube. (auth)

  11. Burst firing enhances neural output correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ka eChan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurons communicate and transmit information predominantly through spikes. Given that experimentally observed neural spike trains in a variety of brain areas can be highly correlated, it is important to investigate how neurons process correlated inputs. Most previous work in this area studied the problem of correlation transfer analytically by making significant simplifications on neural dynamics. Temporal correlation between inputs that arises from synaptic filtering, for instance, is often ignored when assuming that an input spike can at most generate one output spike. Through numerical simulations of a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons receiving correlated inputs, we demonstrate that neurons in the presence of synaptic filtering by slow synapses exhibit strong output correlations. We then show that burst firing plays a central role in enhancing output correlations, which can explain the above-mentioned observation because synaptic filtering induces bursting. The observed changes of correlations are mostly on a long time scale. Our results suggest that other features affecting the prevalence of neural burst firing in biological neurons, e.g., adaptive spiking mechanisms, may play an important role in modulating the overall level of correlations in neural networks.

  12. Multi-model MPC with output feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new formulation is presented for the model predictive control (MPC of a process system that is represented by a finite set of models, each one corresponding to a different operating point. The general case is considered of systems with stable and integrating outputs in closed-loop with output feedback. For this purpose, the controller is based on a non-minimal order model where the state is built with the measured outputs and the manipulated inputs of the control system. Therefore, the state can be considered as perfectly known and, consequently, there is no need to include a state observer in the control loop. This property of the proposed modeling approach is convenient to extend previous stability results of the closed loop system with robust MPC controllers based on state feedback. The controller proposed here is based on the solution of two optimization problems that are solved sequentially at the same time step. The method is illustrated with a simulated example of the process industry. The rigorous simulation of the control of an adiabatic flash of a multi-component hydrocarbon mixture illustrates the application of the robust controller. The dynamic simulation of this process is performed using EMSO - Environment Model Simulation and Optimization. Finally, a comparison with a linear MPC using a single model is presented.

  13. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  14. On the generalization of linear least mean squares estimation to quantum systems with non-commutative outputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Nina H. [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States); CNRS, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S) CentraleSupelec, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miao, Zibo; Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R. [Australian National University, ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mabuchi, Hideo [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of generalizing the Belavkin-Kalman filter to the case where the classical measurement signal is replaced by a fully quantum non-commutative output signal. We formulate a least mean squares estimation problem that involves a non-commutative system as the filter processing the non-commutative output signal. We solve this estimation problem within the framework of non-commutative probability. Also, we find the necessary and sufficient conditions which make these non-commutative estimators physically realizable. These conditions are restrictive in practice. (orig.)

  15. Validation of a food quantification picture book and portion sizes estimation applying perception and memory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenczi-Cseh, J; Horváth, Zs; Ambrus, Á

    2017-12-01

    We tested the applicability of EPIC-SOFT food picture series used in the context of a Hungarian food consumption survey gathering data for exposure assessment, and investigated errors in food portion estimation resulted from the visual perception and conceptualisation-memory. Sixty-two participants in three age groups (10 to foods. The results were considered acceptable if the relative difference between average estimated and actual weight obtained through the perception method was ≤25%, and the relative standard deviation of the individual weight estimates was food items were rated acceptable. Small portion sizes were tended to be overestimated, large ones were tended to be underestimated. Portions of boiled potato and creamed spinach were all over- and underestimated, respectively. Recalling the portion sizes resulted in overestimation with larger differences (up to 60.7%).

  16. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R

    1999-01-01

    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  17. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's 'thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in 'tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering 'right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted.

  18. Process for forming a chromium diffusion portion and articles made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, David Andrew; Cavanaugh, Dennis William; Feng, Ganjiang; Bucci, David Vincent

    2012-09-11

    In one embodiment, a method for forming an article with a diffusion portion comprises: forming a slurry comprising chromium and silicon, applying the slurry to the article, and heating the article to a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient period of time to diffuse chromium and silicon into the article and form a diffusion portion comprising silicon and a microstructure comprising .alpha.-chromium. In one embodiment, a gas turbine component comprises: a superalloy and a diffusion portion having a depth of less than or equal to 60 .mu.m measured from the superalloy surface into the gas turbine component. The diffusion portion has a diffusion surface having a microstructure comprising greater than or equal to 40% by volume .alpha.-chromium.

  19. 2009 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Portions of Orange and Seminole Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area covers 318 square miles in the eastern half of Seminole County plus portions of north central and northeast Orange County in the state of Florida....

  20. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's ‘thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in ‘tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering ‘right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  1. Digital data for the Hazens Notch and a portion of the Lowell quadrangles, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG03-3B Digital data for the Hazens Notch and a portion of the Lowell quadrangles, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report VG03-3B, The...

  2. The role of perceived stress and gender on portion selection patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E X; Sim, A Y; Forde, C G; Cheon, B K

    2018-06-01

    Stress is linked to increased preferences and consumption of palatable energy dense foods, particularly among females. Despite the role of stress on potentially obesogenic eating habits, its effect on pre-meal planning, such as the selection of portion sizes, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between perceived stress, gender, and intended portion sizes for diverse foods. Across two studies, increased perceived stress predicted larger (higher energy) intended portion sizes across a variety of food items among females, but not males. Additionally, for females, increased perceived stress was associated with lowered expectations of the satiety of foods presented, suggesting a potential mechanism by which stress may influence decisions about portion size. These findings reveal that the potentially obesogenic effects of stress on food judgments and behaviours (particularly among females) are not only expressed within meals, but also during more deliberate stages of planning that precedes meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo - Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Pereira

    Full Text Available Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight.The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048, red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043, rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001, salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022, and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007.Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations.

  4. The novel application of Benford's second order analysis for monitoring radiation output in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Sheehy, N; Cooke, J

    2014-06-01

    Benford's law is an empirical observation which predicts the expected frequency of digits in naturally occurring datasets spanning multiple orders of magnitude, with the law having been most successfully applied as an audit tool in accountancy. This study investigated the sensitivity of the technique in identifying system output changes using simulated changes in interventional radiology Dose-Area-Product (DAP) data, with any deviations from Benford's distribution identified using z-statistics. The radiation output for interventional radiology X-ray equipment is monitored annually during quality control testing; however, for a considerable portion of the year an increased output of the system, potentially caused by engineering adjustments or spontaneous system faults may go unnoticed, leading to a potential increase in the radiation dose to patients. In normal operation recorded examination radiation outputs vary over multiple orders of magnitude rendering the application of normal statistics ineffective for detecting systematic changes in the output. In this work, the annual DAP datasets complied with Benford's first order law for first, second and combinations of the first and second digits. Further, a continuous 'rolling' second order technique was devised for trending simulated changes over shorter timescales. This distribution analysis, the first employment of the method for radiation output trending, detected significant changes simulated on the original data, proving the technique useful in this case. The potential is demonstrated for implementation of this novel analysis for monitoring and identifying change in suitable datasets for the purpose of system process control. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of cooling portions of the head on human thermoregulatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuura, T; Tomioka, K; Harada, H; Iwanaga, K; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-03-01

    Seven healthy young male students participated in this study. Each subject sat on a chair in an anteroom at 25 degrees C for 30 min and then entered a climatic chamber, controlled at 40 degrees C and R.H. 50%, and sat on a chair for 90 min. Cooling of frontal portion including the region around the eyes (FC), occipital portion (OC), and temporal portion (TC) began after 50 min of entering. An experiment without head cooling (NC) was also made for the control measurement. Thermal comfort and thermal sensation were improved by head cooling, but response was the same regardless of portion cooled. Although rectal temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate showed no significant effect due to head cooling, forearm skin blood flow (FBF), sweat rate (SR), and body weight loss (delta Wt) had a tendency to be depressed. FBF in FC and TC decreased during head cooling, but that in OC and NC did not change significantly, while SR in FC was depressed. delta Wt showed total sweating to decrease by FC and TC, and FC to have greater inhibitory effect on sweating than OC. Thermal strain was evaluated by the modified Craig Index (I(s)). I(s) in FC decreased significantly more than in NC. Cooling of other portions of the head had no significant effect on I(s). Cooling of the frontal portion of the head may thus be concluded to have the most effect on thermoregulatory response in a hot environment.

  6. Formative evaluation of a mobile liquid portion size estimation interface for people with varying literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Beenish Moalla; Connelly, Kay; Siek, Katie A; Welch, Janet L

    2013-12-01

    Chronically ill people, especially those with low literacy skills, often have difficulty estimating portion sizes of liquids to help them stay within their recommended fluid limits. There is a plethora of mobile applications that can help people monitor their nutritional intake but unfortunately these applications require the user to have high literacy and numeracy skills for portion size recording. In this paper, we present two studies in which the low- and the high-fidelity versions of a portion size estimation interface, designed using the cognitive strategies adults employ for portion size estimation during diet recall studies, was evaluated by a chronically ill population with varying literacy skills. The low fidelity interface was evaluated by ten patients who were all able to accurately estimate portion sizes of various liquids with the interface. Eighteen participants did an in situ evaluation of the high-fidelity version incorporated in a diet and fluid monitoring mobile application for 6 weeks. Although the accuracy of the estimation cannot be confirmed in the second study but the participants who actively interacted with the interface showed better health outcomes by the end of the study. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for designing the next iteration of an accurate and low literacy-accessible liquid portion size estimation mobile interface.

  7. Improving accuracy of portion-size estimations through a stimulus equivalence paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Nicole L; Borrero, John C; Fisher, Alyssa; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States (Gordon-Larsen, The, & Adair, 2010). Obesity can be attributed, in part, to overconsumption of energy-dense foods. Given that overeating plays a role in the development of obesity, interventions that teach individuals to identify and consume appropriate portion sizes are warranted. Specifically, interventions that teach individuals to estimate portion sizes correctly without the use of aids may be critical to the success of nutrition education programs. The current study evaluated the use of a stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach 9 undergraduate students to estimate portion size accurately. Results suggested that the stimulus equivalence paradigm was effective in teaching participants to make accurate portion size estimations without aids, and improved accuracy was observed in maintenance sessions that were conducted 1 week after training. Furthermore, 5 of 7 participants estimated the target portion size of novel foods during extension sessions. These data extend existing research on teaching accurate portion-size estimations and may be applicable to populations who seek treatment (e.g., overweight or obese children and adults) to teach healthier eating habits. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Presence of a Temperature Gradient Among Genital Tract Portions and the Thermal Changes Within These Portions Over the Estrous Cycle in Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    EL-SHEIKH ALI, Hossam; KITAHARA, Go; TAMURA, Youji; KOBAYASHI, Ikuo; HEMMI, Koichiro; TORISU, Shidow; SAMESHIMA, Hiroshi; HORII, Yoichiro; ZAABEL, Samy; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (V...

  9. Low Power Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma ADC with Current Output DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a continuous-time (CT) DeltaSigma (∆Σ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using a current output digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for the feedback. From circuit analysis it is shown that using a current output DAC makes it possible to relax the noise requirements of the 1st...... integrator of the loopfilter, and thereby reduce the current consumption. Furthermore, the noise of the current output DAC being dependent on the ADC input signal level, enabling a dynamic range that is larger than the peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The current output DAC is used in a 3rd order multibit...... CT ∆Σ ADC for audio applications, designed in a 0.18 µm CMOS process, with active-RC integrators, a 7-level Flash ADC quantizer and current output DAC for the feedback. From simulations the ADC achieves a dynamic range of 95.0 dB in the audio band, with a current consumption of 284 µA for a 1.7 V...

  10. The interdependence of Ca2+ activation, sarcomere length, and power output in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kerry S

    2011-07-01

    Myocardium generates power to perform external work on the circulation; yet, many questions regarding intermolecular mechanisms regulating power output remain unresolved. Power output equals force × shortening velocity, and some interesting new observations regarding control of these two factors have arisen. While it is well established that sarcomere length tightly controls myocyte force, sarcomere length-tension relationships also appear to be markedly modulated by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins. Concerning loaded shortening, historical models predict independent cross-bridge mechanics; however, it seems that the mechanical state of one population of cross-bridges affects the activity of other cross-bridges by, for example, recruitment of cross-bridges from the non-cycling pool to the cycling force-generating pool during submaximal Ca(2+) activation. This is supported by the findings that Ca(2+) activation levels, myofilament phosphorylation, and sarcomere length are all modulators of loaded shortening and power output independent of their effects on force. This fine tuning of power output probably helps optimize myocardial energetics and to match ventricular supply with peripheral demand; yet, the discernment of the chemo-mechanical signals that modulate loaded shortening needs further clarification since power output may be a key convergent point and feedback regulator of cytoskeleton and cellular signals that control myocyte growth and survival.

  11. Regulation of the Output Voltage of an Inverter in Case of Load Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouri, Omar; Errahimi, Fatima; Es-Sbai, Najia

    2018-05-01

    In a DC/AC photovoltaic application, the stability of the output voltage of the inverter plays a very important role in the electrical systems. Such a photovoltaic system is constituted by an inverter, which makes it possible to convert the continuous energy to the alternative energy used in systems which operate under a voltage of 230V. The output of this inverter can be connected to a single load or more, at which time a second load is added in parallel with the first load. In this case, it proves a voltage drop at the output of the inverter. This problem influences the proper functioning of the electrical loads. Therefore, our contribution is to give a solution to this by compensating this voltage drop using a boost converter at the input of the inverter. This boost converter will play the role of the compensator that will provide the necessary voltage to the inverter in order to increase the voltage across the loads. But the use of this boost without controlling it is not enough because it generates a voltage that depends on the duty cycle of the control signal. To stabilize the output voltage of the inverter, we used a Proportional, Integral, and Derivative control (PID), which makes it possible to generate the necessary control signal for the voltage boost in order to have a good regulation of the output voltage of the inverter. Finally, we have solved the problem of the voltage drop even though there is loads variation.

  12. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  13. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  14. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  15. On directional multiple-output quantile regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2011), s. 193-212 ISSN 0047-259X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Grant - others:Commision EC(BE) Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multivariate quantile * quantile regression * multiple-output regression * halfspace depth * portfolio optimization * value-at risk Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/siman-0364128.pdf

  16. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  17. Output-Sensitive Pattern Extraction in Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Menconi, Giulia; Pisanti, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Genomic Analysis, Plagiarism Detection, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection, Spam Fighting and Time Series Analysis are just some examples of applications where extraction of recurring patterns in sequences of objects is one of the main computational challenges. Several notions of patterns exist...... or extend them causes a loss of significant information (where the number of occurrences changes). Output-sensitive algorithms have been proposed to enumerate and list these patterns, taking polynomial time O(nc) per pattern for constant c > 1, which is impractical for massive sequences of very large length...

  18. Utilization of INIS output in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanik, Z.; Blazek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Information on INIS output materials - INIS magnetic tape, INIS Atomindex, full texts of non-conventional literature on microfiches. Complex is provided of INIS-SDI service by the Nuclear Information Centre for CSSR. The Unified Software System (USS) of the UVTEI-UTZ (the Central Technical Base of the Central Office for Scientific, Technical and Economic Information) is used for the automated processing of INIS magnetic tapes. A survey of INIS-SDI services in the years 1974 to 1978 is given. The further development of the system consists in the use of the terminal network, with direct access to the IAEA computer in Vienna. (author)

  19. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  20. Measurement and Analysis of Multiple Output Transient Propagation in BJT Analog Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas J.-H.; Khachatrian, A.; Warner, J. H.; Buchner, S. P.; McMorrow, D.; Clymer, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The propagation of Analog Single Event Transients (ASETs) to multiple outputs of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJTs) Integrated Circuits (ICs) is reported for the first time. The results demonstrate that ASETs can appear at several outputs of a BJT amplifier or comparator as a result of a single ion or single laser pulse strike at a single physical location on the chip of a large-scale integrated BJT analog circuit. This is independent of interconnect cross-talk or charge-sharing effects. Laser experiments, together with SPICE simulations and analysis of the ASET's propagation in the s-domain are used to explain how multiple-output transients (MOTs) are generated and propagate in the device. This study demonstrates that both the charge collection associated with an ASET and the ASET's shape, commonly used to characterize the propagation of SETs in devices and systems, are unable to explain quantitatively how MOTs propagate through an integrated analog circuit. The analysis methodology adopted here involves combining the Fourier transform of the propagating signal and the current-source transfer function in the s-domain. This approach reveals the mechanisms involved in the transient signal propagation from its point of generation to one or more outputs without the signal following a continuous interconnect path.

  1. Removal of portions of tubes from steam generator of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, R.L.; Williams, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    After the tube portion to be removed is severed from the remainder of the U-tube and its weld to the header is machined off, the internal surface of the portion is engaged internally by an ID gripper and pulled out of the header. Then the external surface is engaged by an OD gripper and pulled further out of the header. The first tube length is pulled out as far as the space under the header permits and is then cut off. Successive lengths are likewise pulled out and cut off. The apparatus for accomplishing this object includes a base secured to the header by expanded mandrel mechanisms. A carriage is suspended from the base on screws which are driven by a motor to move the carriage away from and towards the base. An OD gripper assembly is suspended from the carriage and is movable by fluoroactuated piston rods away from and towards the carriage. An ID gripper assembly extends through the OD gripper assembly. The gripper of the ID assembly is actuable to engage the internal surface of the tube portion. With its gripper so engaged the ID assembly is engaged by the gripper of the OD assembly and the engaged tube portion is pulled out of the header by the OD assembly. The ID gripper is then disengaged and the OD gripper is engaged with the tube portion in the same way that it engages the ID assembly and the tube portion is pulled out further. The apparatus also includes a tube cutter having an abrasive wheel. The wheel cuts the lengths of the tube portion at an angle so that for examination and testing the tube lengths can be matched and the orientation of any defect with respect to the plate in the steam generator which separates the inlet and outlet ends of the tubes and the U-tube supports can be identified

  2. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  3. A novel chaotic block cryptosystem based on iterating map with output-feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Degang; Liao Xiaofeng; Wang Yong; Yang Huaqian; Wei Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for encryption based on iterating map with output-feedback is presented in this paper. The output-feedback, instead of simply mixing the chaotic signal of the proposed chaotic cryptosystem with the cipher-text, is relating to previous cipher-text that is obtained through the plaintext and key. Some simulated experiments are performed to substantiate that our method can make cipher-text more confusion and diffusion and that the proposed method is practical whenever efficiency, cipher-text length or security is concerned.

  4. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990

  5. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R.; Li, Y.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Shlyaptsev, N.

    2000-01-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 (micro)J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p transition at 147 (angstrom) with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output

  6. Guaranteeing high output of a mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetser, M G

    1983-05-01

    Operation of the Im. Kalinina coal mine in the Central Donbass is evluated. Seventeen coal seams, on the average 0.87 m thick, are prone to methane and coal dust explosions and to rock bursts. Some of the seams are also prone to spontaneous combustion. Rock layers in the roofs are prone to rock falls. Mining depth ranges from 740 to 850 m. Another working level is being constructed at a depth of 960 m. The steep coal seams are mined by means of the ANShch shield systems and the KGU system (with the 'Poisk' cutter loader). Strata control methods used in the mine are evaluated. Design of timber cribbings used for strata control in inclined workings is shown in a scheme. Construction of coal chutes and strata control in coal chutes are also described. Operation of KGU-1 powered supports which have been used in the mine for 10 years is evaluated. Improved strata control permitted daily coal output from a working face to be increased from 135 t in 1979 to 169 t in 1982. Yearly coal output increased from 605,000 t to 760,000 t. Labor productivity increased from 21.1 t/month to 25.9 t/month per miner. (In Russian)

  7. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  8. Modulation of rod photoreceptor output by HCN1 channels is essential for regular mesopic cone vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Mathias W; Brombas, Arne; Weiler, Reto; Humphries, Peter; Knop, Gabriel; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Müller, Frank

    2011-11-08

    Retinal photoreceptors permit visual perception over a wide range of lighting conditions. Rods work best in dim, and cones in bright environments, with considerable functional overlap at intermediate (mesopic) light levels. At many sites in the outer and inner retina where rod and cone signals interact, gap junctions, particularly those containing Connexin36, have been identified. However, little is known about the dynamic processes associated with the convergence of rod and cone system signals into ON- and OFF-pathways. Here we show that proper cone vision under mesopic conditions requires rapid adaptational feedback modulation of rod output via hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels 1. When these channels are absent, sustained rod responses following bright light exposure saturate the retinal network, resulting in a loss of downstream cone signalling. By specific genetic and pharmacological ablation of key signal processing components, regular cone signalling can be restored, thereby identifying the sites involved in functional rod-cone interactions.

  9. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected output quantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochastic ray production frontier (SR) which transforms the output quantities into their Euclidean distance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates......In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  10. From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2009-04-01

    Food portion-sizes might be a promising starting point for interventions targeting obesity. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess how representatives of point-of-purchase settings perceived the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 representatives of various point-of-purchase settings. Constructs derived from the diffusion of innovations theory were incorporated into the interview guide. Each interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analysed with Atlas.ti 5.2 using the framework approach. According to the participants, offering a larger variety of portion-sizes had the most relative advantages, and reducing portions was the most disadvantageous. The participants also considered portion-size reduction and linear pricing of portion-sizes to be risky. Lastly, a larger variety of portion-sizes, pricing strategies and portion-size labelling were seen as the most complex interventions. In general, participants considered offering a larger variety of portion-sizes, portion-size labelling and, to a lesser extent, pricing strategies with respect to portion-sizes as most feasible to implement. Interventions aimed at portion-size were seen as innovative by most participants. Developing adequate communication strategies about portion-size interventions with both decision-makers in point-of-purchase settings and the general public is crucial for successful implementation.

  11. Repairing method and apparatus for weld portion of reactor core shroud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yasukata; Kurosawa, Koichi (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Toyota, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Toshikazu.

    1993-12-07

    A method of repairing a weld portion in a cylindrical reactor core shroud comprises a first step of inspecting a weld portion by an ultrasonic flow testing device from the surface of the reactor core shroud, a second step of applying repairing fabrication for cracked portion if it is discovered by the test and a third step of applying a surface modification to the fabricated portion after the repairing fabrication. As a result, repairing fabrication for the crack caused by stress corrosion crack or the like is enabled and reoccurrence of the stress corrosion crack in the repair fabrication portion can be prevented. Operator's exposure dose is minimized by shielding with reactor water or shielding plate. In a case of using the shielding plate, welding and surface improvement can be practiced in atmospheric air instead of water-submerged welding. Water does not intrude from the outside of the shroud and occurrence of penetration crack can be coped with. Further, it is possible to reduce cost and save labors for parts exchange by using the parts in common, to improve the operation efficiency. (N.H.).

  12. Repairing method and apparatus for weld portion of reactor core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yasukata; Kurosawa, Koichi; Toyota, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Toshikazu.

    1993-01-01

    A method of repairing a weld portion in a cylindrical reactor core shroud comprises a first step of inspecting a weld portion by an ultrasonic flow testing device from the surface of the reactor core shroud, a second step of applying repairing fabrication for cracked portion if it is discovered by the test and a third step of applying a surface modification to the fabricated portion after the repairing fabrication. As a result, repairing fabrication for the crack caused by stress corrosion crack or the like is enabled and reoccurrence of the stress corrosion crack in the repair fabrication portion can be prevented. Operator's exposure dose is minimized by shielding with reactor water or shielding plate. In a case of using the shielding plate, welding and surface improvement can be practiced in atmospheric air instead of water-submerged welding. Water does not intrude from the outside of the shroud and occurrence of penetration crack can be coped with. Further, it is possible to reduce cost and save labors for parts exchange by using the parts in common, to improve the operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  13. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  14. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  15. Active pixel sensor pixel having a photodetector whose output is coupled to an output transistor gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nakamura, Junichi (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. A Simple Floating Gate (SFG) pixel structure could also be employed in the imager to provide a non-destructive readout and smaller pixel sizes.

  16. 77 FR 6138 - Draft Policy on Interpretation of the Phrase “Significant Portion of Its Range” in the Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Portion of Its Range'' in the Endangered Species Act's Definitions of ``Endangered Species'' and... interpreting the phrase ``significant portion of its range'' in the Endangered Species Act's (Act's...'' in the Act's definitions of ``endangered species'' and ``threatened species'' will consider...

  17. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  18. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  19. The Influence of Portion Size and Timing of Meals on Weight Balance and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Forslund, Heléne Bertéus

    2015-03-01

    This review focuses on the influence of portion size and temporal distribution of food intake on weight balance and obesity in adults. The inconsistency of definitions in the area of meal patterns is also discussed. The conclusion is that regular eating habits might facilitate weight balance, while unplanned snacking as well as consuming the major part of the energy intake at the end of the day seem to be unfavourable. Altogether, the research suggests that large portions promote over-consumption and, therefore, limiting portion size of energy dense foods and drinks with added sugar could be recommended. Even if more research is needed, these factors should be taken into consideration in recommendations for obesity prevention.

  20. 2014 Update of the Pacific Northwest portion of the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Chen, Rui; Petersen, Mark; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Sherrod, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the earthquake characterization were changed for the Pacific Northwest portion of the 2014 update of the national seismic hazard maps, reflecting recent scientific findings. New logic trees were developed for the recurrence parameters of M8-9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and for the eastern edge of their rupture zones. These logic trees reflect recent findings of additional M8 CSZ earthquakes using offshore deposits of turbidity flows and onshore tsunami deposits and subsidence. These M8 earthquakes each rupture a portion of the CSZ and occur in the time periods between M9 earthquakes that have an average recurrence interval of about 500 years. The maximum magnitude was increased for deep intraslab earthquakes. An areal source zone to account for the possibility of deep earthquakes under western Oregon was expanded. The western portion of the Tacoma fault was added to the hazard maps.

  1. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  2. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  3. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  4. Improvement of Output Power of ECF Micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichi; Kawamura, Kiyomi; Takemura, Kenjiro; Edamura, Kazuya

    Electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) is a kind of dielectric fluids, which produces jet-flow (ECF jet) when subjected to a high DC voltage. By using the ECF jet, a new type of micromotor with simple structure and lightweight can be realized. Up to now, we developed a disk-plate type ECF micromotor with inner diameter of 9 mm. In this study, we develope novel ECF micromotors with inner diameter of 5 mm in order to improve the output power density. First, we designed and produced the ECF micromotors with 4-layered and 8-layered disk plate rotors. Then, the performances of the motors are measured. The experimental results confirm the motor developed has a higher performance than the previous ones.

  5. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  6. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  7. The international food unit: a new measurement aid that can improve portion size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; Weltert, M; Rollo, M E; Smith, S P; Jia, W; Collins, C E; Sun, M

    2017-09-12

    Portion size education tools, aids and interventions can be effective in helping prevent weight gain. However consumers have difficulties in estimating food portion sizes and are confused by inconsistencies in measurement units and terminologies currently used. Visual cues are an important mediator of portion size estimation, but standardized measurement units are required. In the current study, we present a new food volume estimation tool and test the ability of young adults to accurately quantify food volumes. The International Food Unit™ (IFU™) is a 4x4x4 cm cube (64cm 3 ), subdivided into eight 2 cm sub-cubes for estimating smaller food volumes. Compared with currently used measures such as cups and spoons, the IFU™ standardizes estimation of food volumes with metric measures. The IFU™ design is based on binary dimensional increments and the cubic shape facilitates portion size education and training, memory and recall, and computer processing which is binary in nature. The performance of the IFU™ was tested in a randomized between-subject experiment (n = 128 adults, 66 men) that estimated volumes of 17 foods using four methods; the IFU™ cube, a deformable modelling clay cube, a household measuring cup or no aid (weight estimation). Estimation errors were compared between groups using Kruskall-Wallis tests and post-hoc comparisons. Estimation errors differed significantly between groups (H(3) = 28.48, p studies should investigate whether the IFU™ can facilitate portion size training and whether portion size education using the IFU™ is effective and sustainable without the aid. A 3-dimensional IFU™ could serve as a reference object for estimating food volume.

  8. Descriptive sensory analysis of marinated and non-marinated wooden breast fillet portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, A D; Bowker, B C; Zhuang, H; Chatterjee, D; Adhikari, K

    2018-05-14

    The wooden breast (WB) myopathy influences muscle composition and texture characteristics in broiler breast meat. It is unknown if marination reduces the negative influence of WB on meat sensory quality or if WB effects are uniform throughout the Pectoralis major. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of marination on the sensory attributes and instrumental shear force measurements of the ventral (skin-side) and dorsal (bone-side) portions of normal and severe WB meat. Sixty butterfly fillets (30 normal and 30 severe WB) were selected from the deboning line of a commercial processing plant. Individual fillets were portioned into ventral and dorsal halves. Portions from one side of each butterfly were used as non-marinated controls, and portions from the other side were vacuum-tumble marinated (16 rpm, -0.6 atm, 4°C, 20 min) with 20% (wt/wt) marinade to meat ratio. Marinade was formulated to target a concentration of 0.75% (w/v) salt and 0.45% (w/v) sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. Descriptive sensory analysis (9 trained panelists) was conducted to evaluate visual, texture, and flavor attributes (0-15 point scale) of breast portions along with Warner-Bratzler shear force. Significant interaction effects between WB and marination were not observed for the sensory attributes. Greater springiness, cohesiveness, hardness, fibrousness, and chewiness scores were observed in WB samples (P sensory texture attributes were more apparent in the ventral portions of the breast fillets. Flavor attributes (salty and brothy) increased (P sensory quality is not uniform throughout the Pectoralis major and that WB-related differences in cooked meat sensory texture attributes are lessened but not eliminated by vacuum-tumbling marination.

  9. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  10. Prescribed Performance Fuzzy Adaptive Output-Feedback Control for Nonlinear Stochastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A prescribed performance fuzzy adaptive output-feedback control approach is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output nonlinear stochastic systems with unmeasured states. Fuzzy logic systems are used to identify the unknown nonlinear system, and a fuzzy state observer is designed for estimating the unmeasured states. Based on the backstepping recursive design technique and the predefined performance technique, a new fuzzy adaptive output-feedback control method is developed. It is shown that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are bounded in probability and the tracking error remains an adjustable neighborhood of the origin with the prescribed performance bounds. A simulation example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Analytical approach for modeling and performance analysis of microring resonators as optical filters with multiple output bus waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Suchita; Mandal, Sanjoy

    2017-06-01

    A quadruple micro-optical ring resonator (QMORR) with multiple output bus waveguides is mathematically modeled and analyzed by making use of the delay-line signal processing approach in Z-domain and Mason's gain formula. The performances of QMORR with two output bus waveguides with vertical coupling are analyzed. This proposed structure is capable of providing wider free spectral response from both the output buses with appreciable cross talk. Thus, this configuration could provide increased capacity to insert a large number of communication channels. The simulated frequency response characteristic and its dispersion and group delay characteristics are graphically presented using the MATLAB environment.

  12. Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; van den Bos, W; Matheson, D; Desai, M; McClure, S M; Robinson, T N

    2014-05-01

    The Delboeuf Illusion affects perceptions of the relative sizes of concentric shapes. This study was designed to extend research on the application of the Delboeuf illusion to food on a plate by testing whether a plate's rim width and coloring influence perceptual bias to affect perceived food portion size. Within-subjects experimental design. Experiment 1 tested the effect of rim width on perceived food portion size. Experiment 2 tested the effect of rim coloring on perceived food portion size. In both experiments, participants observed a series of photographic images of paired, side-by-side plates varying in designs and amounts of food. From each pair, participants were asked to select the plate that contained more food. Multilevel logistic regression examined the effects of rim width and coloring on perceived food portion size. Experiment 1: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 5% and the visual area of food portions by 10% on plates with wider rims compared with plates with very thin rims (Pfood portion sizes. Experiment 2: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 1.5% and the visual area of food portions by 3% on plates with rim coloring compared with plates with no coloring (P=0.01). The effect of rim coloring was greater with smaller food portion sizes. The Delboeuf illusion applies to food on a plate. Participants overestimated food portion size on plates with wider and colored rims. These findings may help design plates to influence perceptions of food portion sizes.

  13. Distribution of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in two portions of placenta of teenager and adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Milena Lima; de Faria Barbosa, Renata; Santo, Raquel Espírito; da Silva Santos, Flávia; de Almeida, Lívia Belcastro; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fátima Lucia; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares

    2011-12-01

    The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Forty samples from the fetal portion of teenagers and adults and 40 samples from the maternal portion of teenagers and adults were analyzed. There were significant differences in the Ca and Cu concentrations of the placenta's maternal portion when compared to the fetal portion, for both teenagers and adults. There were differences in Fe and Zn concentrations only when comparing the maternal portion of placenta with the fetal portion of the adults. These results suggest important differences in mineral content based on the placental portion. No significant difference was observed between the minerals studied of the maternal portion of teenagers and adults; however, in the fetal portion, mineral concentrations were greater in adults than in teenagers. Therefore, the mineral concentration of the fetal portion of the placenta is influenced by the mother's age. If there is mineral's competition between the mother and fetus during pregnancy in adolescence due to the importance of these minerals in growth and development, then the mechanism and reason for it should be elucidated in future research. In addition, we believe that further research should be carried out on transporters of these minerals in the same portions of the placentas analyzed by our group, in teenagers and adults.

  14. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lixon, Benoit; Thomassin, Paul J.; Hamaide, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  15. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy's contractors are identified as ''co-operators'' and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ''operator'' elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors' designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors' contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-08-21

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy`s contractors are identified as ``co-operators`` and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ``operator`` elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors` designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors` contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  18. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Jangabylova, Aliya; Kusmanov, Adil

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step

  19. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-03-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance.

  20. Generator of combined logical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviron, Andre; Berard, Claude.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a generator of combined logical signals to form combinations of two outputs at logical level 1 and N-2 outputs at logical level 0, among N generator outputs. This generator is characterized in that it includes a set of N means for storing combinations. Means enable the N storage means to be loaded with the logical levels corresponding to a pre-set starting combination, to control the operations for shifting the contents of the storage means and to control, by transfer facilities, the transfers of contents between these storage means. Controls enable the storage means to be actuated in order to obtain combinations of logical levels 1 and 0. The generation of combinations can be stopped after another pre-set combination. Application is for testing of safety circuits for nuclear power stations [fr

  1. Defining the Benefits, Outputs, and Knowledge Elements of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Rochelle; Perrin, Burt; McGuire, Martha; Long, Bud; Lee, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Evaluation Society explored the benefits that can be attributed to program evaluation, the outputs necessary to achieve those benefits, and the knowledge and skills needed to produce outputs. Findings, which articulate benefits, outputs, and skills, can be used by evaluation organizations to support advocacy and professional…

  2. A multi-centre analysis of radiotherapy beam output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Bolt

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Machine beam output measurements were largely within ±2% of 1.00 cGy/MU. Clear trends in measured output over time were seen, with some machines having large drifts which would result in additional burden to maintain within acceptable tolerances. This work may act as a baseline for future comparison of beam output measurements.

  3. A molecular low power CO/sub 2/ laser with a stabilized output frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plinski, E.F.; Abramski, K.M.; Nowicki, R.; Pienkowski, J.; Rzepka, J.

    1983-01-01

    This laser has a resonator consisting of a spherical mirror with a slope radius of 10 meters and a reflecting diffraction grating (120 lines per millimeter). The use of this grating makes it possible to isolate one of the lines in the 10.4 or 9.4 micrometer bands. A mirror with a central hole 2.5 millimeters in diameter is mounted on a piezoceramic holder designed for tuning the resonator. Frequency stabilization is based on synchronous detection. An auxillary modulating signal injected to a specific section of the piezoceramic holder modulates the level of the laser. The change in the output power may be detected using an uncooled detector (Cd, Hg) Te. The error signal, injected to the holder, tunes the resonator so that it operates in the center of the output power curve.

  4. 14 CFR 1206.202 - Deletion of segregable portions of a record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deletion of segregable portions of a record... AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.202 Deletion of segregable... that indication would harm an interest protected by the exemption in Subpart 3 under which the deletion...

  5. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion sizes served to children at Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Start caregivers are responsible for educating and feeding preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program. Amongst pre-school aged children, portion size served is positively associated with intake of those foods. Researchers conducted eight focus groups with Hispanic and African American Head...

  6. 26 CFR 49.4264(f)-1 - Transportation outside the northern portion of the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation from New York to Southampton, England. The vessel on which A sails makes an intermediate stop... outside the northern portion of the Western Hemisphere, by water on a vessel which makes one or more... Tokyo, Japan. The vessel on which B travels makes a stop at Honolulu, Hawaii, to discharge passengers...

  7. The labyrinthine portion of the facial canal in patients with Bell's palsy investigated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadin, K.; Thomander, L.; Wilbrand, H.

    1987-01-01

    The reproducibility of the labyrinthine portion of the facial canal by computed tomography was investigated in 22 patients with Bell's palsy. The CT images were compared with those obtained in 18 temporal bone specimens. Measurements of the diameters of different parts of the facial canal were made of these images and also microscopically in plastic casts of the temporal bone specimens. No marked difference was found between the dimensions of the labyrinthine portion of the facial canal of the involved and healthy temporal bone in the patient, nor did these differ from the dimensions in the specimens. CT of the slender, curved labyrinthine portion was found to be of doubtful value for metric estimation of small differences in width. The anatomic variations of the canal rendered the evaluation more difficult. CT with a slice thickness of 2 mm was of no value for assessment of this part of the canal. Measurement of the diameters of the labyrinthine portion on CT images is an inappropriate and unreliable method for clinical purposes. (orig.)

  8. Improving Accuracy of Portion-Size Estimations through a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Nicole L.; Borrero, John C.; Fisher, Alyssa; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to increase in the United States (Gordon-Larsen, The, & Adair, 2010). Obesity can be attributed, in part, to overconsumption of energy-dense foods. Given that overeating plays a role in the development of obesity, interventions that teach individuals to identify and consume appropriate portion sizes are…

  9. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (pchoice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. 110 undergraduate participants (MAge=20.9±2.3; MBMI=22.3±2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body scan). Current level of hunger was assessed unobtrusively on a visual analog scale before the eating situation. Calorie intake from chocolate chip cookies. When presented with a large compared to a small portion, participants consumed more cookies (+83kcal). This was not affected by the mindfulness intervention or by hunger. However, while control participants ate more unhealthy food when hungry than when not hungry (+67kcal), participants in the mindfulness condition did not (+1kcal). Findings confirm the prevalence and robustness of the portion size effect and suggest that it may be independent from awareness of internal cues. Prevention strategies may benefit more from targeting awareness of the external environment. However, mindfulness-based interventions may be effective to reduce effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate

  12. Unit bias. A new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Andrew B; Rozin, Paul; Doros, Gheorghe

    2006-06-01

    People seem to think that a unit of some entity (with certain constraints) is the appropriate and optimal amount. We refer to this heuristic as unit bias. We illustrate unit bias by demonstrating large effects of unit segmentation, a form of portion control, on food intake. Thus, people choose, and presumably eat, much greater weights of Tootsie Rolls and pretzels when offered a large as opposed to a small unit size (and given the option of taking as many units as they choose at no monetary cost). Additionally, they consume substantially more M&M's when the candies are offered with a large as opposed to a small spoon (again with no limits as to the number of spoonfuls to be taken). We propose that unit bias explains why small portion sizes are effective in controlling consumption; in some cases, people served small portions would simply eat additional portions if it were not for unit bias. We argue that unit bias is a general feature in human choice and discuss possible origins of this bias, including consumption norms.

  13. Encouraging vegetable intake as a snack among children: the influence of portion and unit size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Bruggers, I.; Vet, de E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: People eat more unhealthy foods when served more (portion size effect) and when the food is served in larger units (unit size effect). The present study aimed to examine whether these effects can be used for the good: to increase vegetable consumption among children. DESIGN: A 2×2

  14. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Leeuwis, F.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake.Objective:To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal.Design:Longitudinal randomized

  15. Substitution of Earthworm Meal with a Portion of Fishmeal in the Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of mean weight 2.15±0.01g were fed on earthworm meal as a substitute for a portion of fishmeal for 10 weeks to determine the effect on growth and nutrient utilization. The fish were fed isonitrogenous Diets (40% crude protein) containing 10%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 40%, and 0% ...

  16. Encouraging vegetable intake as a snack among children: the influence of portion and unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Bruggers, Ilse; de Vet, Emely

    2015-10-01

    People eat more unhealthy foods when served more (portion size effect) and when the food is served in larger units (unit size effect). The present study aimed to examine whether these effects can be used for the good: to increase vegetable consumption among children. A 2×2 between-subjects experiment was conducted at two schools. Pupils were presented in class with cucumber that varied both in unit size (one piece v. pre-sliced) and portion size (one-third v. two-thirds of a cucumber). Children ate ad libitum during the morning break and filled in a survey. Primary schools in the centre of the Netherlands. Primary-school pupils (n 255) aged 8-13 years. Children ate 54 % more cucumber when served a large compared with a smaller portion (difference of 49 g; P<0·001). Large units did not impact consumption (P=0·58), but were considered as less convenient to eat than small units (P=0·001). Findings suggest that children's vegetable intake can be improved by serving larger portions in smaller-sized pieces.

  17. 9 CFR 205.105 - Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format. 205.105 Section 205.105 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... means recording on paper by any technology in a form that can be read by humans without special...

  18. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or...

  19. 77 FR 62200 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0019(b); FRL-9741-1] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, North Carolina-South Carolina 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area; Reasonable Further Progress Plan AGENCY...

  20. Lead, cadmium and chromium in raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Tarasco, Renata; Amorena, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Lead, cadmium and chromium levels were determined in different raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster caught in the central Adriatic Sea (Italy). In raw specimens, the lowest concentrations were always detected in the white meat. Lead and cadmium content in the edible portion never exceeded the maximum levels set by European legislation. The highest cadmium and chromium values (0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) were detected in the brown meat, while the highest lead concentrations were found in the exoskeleton (0.21 ± 0.01 mg/kg wet weight). Also, the boiled samples showed the lowest metal levels in the white meat, even if a significant increase (p < 0.01) was found for lead and cadmium compared to the corresponding raw portions. Among metals, chromium showed the highest concentrations in both raw and boiled portions, but up to now, the European legislation did not envisage any limits in seafood.

  1. Swallowing thresholds of mandibular implant-retained overdentures with variable portion sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn-Tekamp, F.A.; Slagter, A.P.; Van der Bilt, A.; Van't Hof, M.A.; Kalk, W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We analysed the effect of three portion sizes Optocal Plus (small, medium and large) on swallowing thresholds in subjects with either conventional complete dentures or mandibular implant-retained overdentures (transmandibular and permucosal cylindric implants). Tests were carried out in 52 women and

  2. Reliability and validity of food portion size estimation from images using manual flexible digital virtual meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eButton takes frontal images at 4 second intervals throughout the day. A three-dimensional (3D) manually administered wire mesh procedure has been developed to quantify portion sizes from the two-dimensional (2D) images. This paper reports a test of the interrater reliability and validity of use...

  3. Trigeminal Schwannoma with intra- and extracranial portions - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Setubal, Roger; Florencio, Filipe Toledo; Gomes, Marcio Rogerio Alcala; Mayo, Suzete Varela; Leiro, Luis Carlos Filgueira; Soares, Aldemir Humberto

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 40-year-old male patient presenting a mandibular branch Schwannoma of the trigeminal nerve with intra-and extracranial portions. The radiologic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed and a review of the literature is presented. (author)

  4. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  5. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Intraarticular Injection via the Middle Portion of the Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2017-09-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection is necessary to confirm sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain and is usually performed via the caudal one-third portion of the joint. However, this is occasionally impossible for anatomical reasons, and the success rate is low in clinical settings. We describe a technique via the middle portion of the joint. Observational study. Enrolled were 69 consecutive patients (27 men and 42 women, with an average age of 53 years) in whom the middle portion of 100 joints was targeted. With the patient lying prone-oblique with the painful side down, a spinal needle was inserted into the middle portion of the joint. Subsequently, the fluoroscopy tube was angled at a caudal tilt of 25-30° to clearly detect the recess between the ilium and sacrum and the needle depth and direction. When the needle reached the posterior joint line, 2% lidocaine was injected after the contrast medium outlined the joint. The success rate of the injection method was 80% (80/100). Among 80 successful cases, four were previously unsuccessful when the conventional method was used. Intraarticular injection using the new technique was unsuccessful in 20 joints; in three of these cases, the conventional method proved successful, and no techniques were successful in the other 17 cases. The injection technique via the middle portion of the joint can overcome some of the difficulties of the conventional injection method and can improve the chances of successful intraarticular injection. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; Pportion sizes of a limited number of high-energy-dense foods (high-fibre breakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes.

  7. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  8. Electronically Tunable Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Equal Output Amplitudes during Frequency Tuning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Den Satipar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new configuration of voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator is proposed. The proposed oscillator employs two voltage differencing current conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. In this design, the use of multiple/dual output terminal active building block is not required. The tuning of frequency of oscillation (FO can be done electronically by adjusting the bias current of active device without affecting condition of oscillation (CO. The electronic tuning can be done by controlling the bias current using a digital circuit. The amplitude of two sinusoidal outputs is equal when the frequency of oscillation is tuned. This makes the sinusoidal output voltages meet good total harmonic distortions (THD. Moreover, the proposed circuit can provide the sinusoidal output current with high impedance which is connected to external load or to another circuit without the use of buffer device. To confirm that the oscillator can generate the quadrature sinusoidal output signal, the experimental results using VDCC constructed from commercially available ICs are also included. The experimental results agree well with theoretical anticipation.

  9. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output

  10. Design and optimization of G-band extended interaction klystron with high output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renjie; Ruan, Cunjun; Zhang, Huafeng

    2018-03-01

    A ladder-type Extended Interaction Klystron (EIK) with unequal-length slots in the G-band is proposed and designed. The key parameters of resonance cavities working in the π mode are obtained based on the theoretical analysis and 3D simulation. The influence of the device fabrication tolerance on the high-frequency performance is analyzed in detail, and it is found that at least 5 μm of machining precision is required. Thus, the dynamic tuning is required to compensate for the frequency shift and increase the bandwidth. The input and output coupling hole dimensions are carefully designed to achieve high output power along with a broad bandwidth. The effect of surface roughness of the metallic material on the output power has been investigated, and it is proposed that lower surface roughness leads to higher output power. The focusing magnetic field is also optimized to 0.75 T in order to maintain the beam transportation and achieve high output power. With 16.5 kV operating voltage and 0.30 A beam current, the output power of 360 W, the efficiency of 7.27%, the gain of 38.6 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz are predicted. The output properties of the EIK show great stability with the effective suppression of oscillation and mode competition. Moreover, small-signal theory analysis and 1D code AJDISK calculations are carried out to verify the results of 3D PIC simulations. A close agreement among the three methods proves the relative validity and the reliability of the designed EIK. Thus, it is indicated that the EIK with unequal-length slots has potential for power improvement and bandwidth extension.

  11. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Jin Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.are, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulma.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulma.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  12. Output pressure and harmonic characteristics of a CMUT as function of bias and excitation voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Hansen, Sebastian Molbech

    2015-01-01

    of the transmitted signal. The generation of intrinsic harmonics by the CMUT can be minimized by decreasing the excitation signal. This, however, leads to lower fundamental pressure which limits the desired generation of harmonics in the medium. This work examines the output pressure and harmonic characteristics...... of a CMUT as function of bias and excitation voltage. The harmonic to fundamental ratio of the surface pressures declines for decreasing excitation voltage and increasing bias voltage. The ratio, however, becomes unchanged for bias levels close to the pull-in voltage. The harmonic limitations of the CMUT...

  13. Switched periodic systems in discrete time: stability and input-output norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzern, Paolo; Colaneri, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of stability and the characterisation of input-output norms for discrete-time periodic switched linear systems. Such systems consist of a network of time-periodic linear subsystems sharing the same state vector and an exogenous switching signal that triggers the jumps between the subsystems. The overall system exhibits a complex dynamic behaviour due to the interplay between the time periodicity of the subsystem parameters and the switching signal. Both arbitrary switching signals and signals satisfying a dwell-time constraint are considered. Linear matrix inequality conditions for stability and guaranteed H2 and H∞ performances are provided. The results heavily rely on the merge of the theory of linear periodic systems and recent developments on switched linear time-invariant systems.

  14. Optically coupled CAMAC analog input output system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Katsuzo; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Minehara, Eisuke; Hanashima, Susumu

    1985-08-01

    In an accelerator system, especially in ion sources, signals are exchanged between devices at different potentials. We have four ion sources in the negative ion injector for the JAERI tandem accelerator. Voltage to frequency conversion technic and optical fiber were used in the previous system. When we intended to extend the injector, we decided to revise the system to improve accuracy and reliability. For the purpose, we developed a new CAMAC module. It is an interface device between CAMAC dataway and optical fiber. The module has frequency synthesizers, frequency counters, optical transmitters and optical receivers in it. Accuracy, reliability and maintenability of the system were greatly improved by the module. (author)

  15. Benign compression fractures of the spine: signal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen patients with 38 compression fractures of the spine underwent magnetic resonance(MR) imaging. We retrospectively evaluated MR images in those benign compression fractures. MR images showed four patterns in T1-weighted images. MR imaging patterns were normal signal(21), band like low signal(8), low signal with preservation of peripheral portion of the body(8), and diffuse low signal through the vertebral body(1). The low signal portions were changed to high signal intensities in T2-weighted images. In 7 of 15 patients (11 compression fractures), there was a history of trauma, and the remaining 8 patients (27 compression fractures) had no history of trauma. Benign compression fractures of trauma, remained 8 patients (27 compression fractures) were non-traumatic. Benign compression fractures of the spine reveal variable signal intensities in MR imagings. These patterns of benign compression fractures may be useful in interpretation of MR imagings of the spine

  16. MOSFET analog memory circuit achieves long duration signal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Memory circuit maintains the signal voltage at the output of an analog signal amplifier when the input signal is interrupted or removed. The circuit uses MOSFET /Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor/ devices as voltage-controlled switches, triggered by an external voltage-sensing device.

  17. Evaluation of a photographic food atlas as a tool for quantifying food portion size in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platat, Carine; El Mesmoudi, Najoua; El Sadig, Mohamed; Tewfik, Ihab

    2018-01-01

    Although, United Arab Emirates (UAE) has one of the highest prevalence of overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes in the world, however, validated dietary assessment aids to estimate food intake of individuals and populations in the UAE are currently lacking. We conducted two observational studies to evaluate the accuracy of a photographic food atlas which was developed as a tool for food portion size estimation in the UAE. The UAE Food Atlas presents eight portion sizes for each food. Study 1 involved portion size estimations of 13 food items consumed during the previous day. Study 2 involved portion size estimations of nine food items immediately after consumption. Differences between the food portion sizes estimated from the photographs and the weighed food portions (estimation error), as well as the percentage differences relative to the weighed food portion for each tested food item were calculated. Four of the evaluated food items were underestimated (by -8.9% to -18.4%), while nine were overestimated (by 9.5% to 90.9%) in Study 1. Moreover, there were significant differences between estimated and eaten food portions for eight food items (Pfood item was underestimated (-8.1%) while eight were overestimated (range 2.52% to 82.1%). Furthermore, there were significant differences between estimated and eaten food portions (Pfood items. The limits of agreement between the estimated and consumed food portion size were wide indicating a large variability in food portion estimation errors. These reported findings highlight the need for further developments of the UAE Food Atlas to improve the accuracy of food portion size intake estimations in dietary assessments. Additionally, recalling food portions from the previous day did not seem to increase food portion estimation errors in this study. PMID:29698434

  18. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  19. Impaired clock output by altered connectivity in the circadian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de la Paz; Chu, Jessie; Villella, Adriana; Atkinson, Nigel; Kay, Steve A; Ceriani, María Fernanda

    2007-03-27

    Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the molecular processes that impart a temporal control to physiology and behavior in most eukaryotes. In Drosophila, dorsal and ventral neuronal networks act in concert to convey rhythmicity. Recently, the hierarchical organization among the different circadian clusters has been addressed, but how molecular oscillations translate into rhythmic behavior remains unclear. The small ventral lateral neurons can synchronize certain dorsal oscillators likely through the release of pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a neuropeptide central to the control of rhythmic rest-activity cycles. In the present study, we have taken advantage of flies exhibiting a distinctive arrhythmic phenotype due to mutation of the potassium channel slowpoke (slo) to examine the relevance of specific neuronal populations involved in the circadian control of behavior. We show that altered neuronal function associated with the null mutation specifically impaired PDF accumulation in the dorsal protocerebrum and, in turn, desynchronized molecular oscillations in the dorsal clusters. However, molecular oscillations in the small ventral lateral neurons are properly running in the null mutant, indicating that slo is acting downstream of these core pacemaker cells, most likely in the output pathway. Surprisingly, disrupted PDF signaling by slo dysfunction directly affects the structure of the underlying circuit. Our observations demonstrate that subtle structural changes within the circadian network are responsible for behavioral arrhythmicity.

  20. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  1. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, Joshua; Fredian, Thomas; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud

  2. Assessment of paediatric hydronephrosis using output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saundres, C.A.B.; Choong, K.K.L.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Diuretic renography is an important tool in the evaluation of paediatric hydronephrosis. Recently a newly developed parameter, output efficiency (OE) has allowed normalisation of washout according to renal function. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of OE in 56 children (70 hydronephrotic kidneys). There were 16 females and 41 males (mean age 1.4 years, range 3 weeks-12 years). Diuretic renography ( 99m Tc-MAG3) was performed using i.v. volume expansion (15 mL/kg), frusemide diuresis (1mg/kg) and urethral catheterisation if VUR was present. Final diagnosis was made using surgery (n = 15) or clinical outcome (n = 42). Clinical follow up exceeded one year and included repeat MAG3 scan (n = 20), resolving hydronephrosis on ultrasound (n = 15) or percutaneous antegrade pyelogram (n = 1). Initial scans were classified as obstructed (n 13), indeterminate (n = 13) or non obstructed (n = 30) based on standard qualitative and quantitative criteria. Using a normal range of >84%, OE correctly predicted 12/13 (92%) obstructed kidneys and 44/44 non-obstructed kidneys (100%). In the indeterminate group, three kidneys developed obstruction at follow -up and 10 became non obstructed. Initial OE predicted outcome in two and four kidneys respectively. Overall, OE sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 89%. In the subgroup of patients (n = 19) with reduced differential function (<40%) the sensitivity of OE was 100% and specificity was 75%. This compares to 83% and 66% for Tl/2 in this subgroup. Therefore OE is a useful marker of renal outflow tract obstruction and maybe superior to other parameters such as Tl/2 particularly when renal function is reduced

  3. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  4. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  5. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  6. Estimation of continuous multi-DOF finger joint kinematics from surface EMG using a multi-output Gaussian Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeo, Jimson; Tamei, Tomoya; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals have often been used in estimating upper and lower limb dynamics and kinematics for the purpose of controlling robotic devices such as robot prosthesis and finger exoskeletons. However, in estimating multiple and a high number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF) kinematics from EMG, output DOFs are usually estimated independently. In this study, we estimate finger joint kinematics from EMG signals using a multi-output convolved Gaussian Process (Multi-output Full GP) that considers dependencies between outputs. We show that estimation of finger joints from muscle activation inputs can be improved by using a regression model that considers inherent coupling or correlation within the hand and finger joints. We also provide a comparison of estimation performance between different regression methods, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) which is used by many of the related studies. We show that using a multi-output GP gives improved estimation compared to multi-output ANN and even dedicated or independent regression models.

  7. Acceptability and potential effectiveness of commercial portion control tools amongst people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron-Roig, Eva; Domínguez, Angélica; Vaughan, David; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Jebb, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to large portion sizes is a risk factor for obesity. Specifically designed tableware may modulate how much is eaten and help with portion control. We examined the experience of using a guided crockery set (CS) and a calibrated serving spoon set (SS) by individuals trying to manage their weight. Twenty-nine obese adults who had completed 7-12 weeks of a community weight-loss programme were invited to use both tools for 2 weeks each, in a crossover design, with minimal health professional contact. A paper-based questionnaire was used to collect data on acceptance, perceived changes in portion size, frequency, and type of meal when the tool was used. Scores describing acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were derived from five-point Likert scales from which binary indicators (high/low) were analysed using logistic regression. Mean acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were moderate to high (3·7-4·4 points). Tool type did not have an impact on indicators of acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness (P>0·32 for all comparisons); 55 % of participants used the CS on most days v. 21 % for the SS. The CS was used for all meals, whereas the SS was mostly used for evening meals. Self-selected portion sizes increased for vegetables and decreased for chips and potatoes with both tools. Participants rated both tools as equally acceptable, easy to use and with similar perceived effectiveness. Formal trials to evaluate the impact of such tools on weight control are warranted.

  8. Obese and overweight individuals are less sensitive to information about meal times in portion size judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A R; Mason, A; Rogers, P J; Brunstrom, J M

    2017-11-16

    Obesity is related to a tendency to discount the future. Information regarding inter-meal interval (IMI) allows meal planning. We sought to assess how obese, overweight, and lean people select portion sizes based on the length of an IMI. We hypothesised that individuals with a high BMI would discount information about the IMI. In addition, we investigated how reduced sensitivity to IMIs relates to monetary temporal discounting. Participants (lean, n=35; overweight, n=31; obese, n=22), selected lunchtime portion sizes in response to information about the timings of their next meal. In seven trials, the time of the IMI was systematically manipulated, ranging from 'right now' to '8 h'. Participants then completed a monetary temporal discounting task. BMI was included as a continuous measure. For each participant, we conducted a linear regression of portion size on IMI to yield a gradient that reflected reduced sensitivity to future meal timings. As expected, participants selected larger portion sizes in response to a long IMI. Consistent with our hypothesis, individuals with a high BMI discounted information about the IMI (β=-3.49, P=0.015; confidence interval (CI) 6.29 to -0.70). Monetary discounting also negatively predicted BMI (β=-8.1, P=0.003; CI=-13.43 to -2.77), but did not correlate with IMI sensitivity (P>0.05). These results are the first to demonstrate that temporal discounting operates in planning from one meal to the next, and is more prevalent in obese and overweight, relative to lean individuals. Participants with a high BMI discounted concerns about potential future fullness and hunger in the IMI. Our observations might begin to explain associations between obesity and irregular meal timings or help to form the basis for a targeted intervention that promotes future thinking in meal planning.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.275.

  9. Neutron activation analysis studies of selected portions of the Mahoning River system using 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, E.; Cordon, P.J.; Hazari, A.S.G.; Kline, R.; Mahadeviah, I.; Mooney, E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis study was conducted on portions of the Mahoning River located in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. This river occurs in a highly populated area and is used extensively by numerous industries, including four steel mills, located in the area. Detailed analysis of water and sediment samples indicates the presence of ten different elements. These are sodium, chlorine, bromine, copper, manganese, magnesium, calcium, vanadium, potassium and aluminum. (U.S.)

  10. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change. Methods Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4, four with parents of overweight children (n = 14 and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8. A thematic analysis was performed across the dataset where the TDF/COM-B were used as coding frameworks. Results To achieve the target behaviour, the behavioural analysis revealed the need for eliciting change in all three COM-B domains and nine associated TDF domains. Findings suggest parents’ internal processes such as their emotional responses, habits and beliefs, along with social influences from partners and grandparents, and environmental influences relating to items such as household objects, interact to influence portion size behaviours within the home environment. Conclusion This is the first study underpinned by COM-B/TDF frameworks applied to childhood weight management and provides new targets for intervention development and the opportunity for future research to explore the mediating and moderating effects of these variables on one another.

  11. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: the effects of portion size & energy density

    OpenAIRE

    Cornier Marc A; Burger Kyle S; Ingebrigtsen Jan; Johnson Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. Methods We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n = 129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as...

  12. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: The effects of portion size & energy density

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. Methods: We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n=129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as by parti...

  13. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Portions of Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    and the surrounding portions of central Indiana consists of level plains or gently rolling hills, with streams and small closed depressions ...in enclosed areas, such as basements. The cancer risk caused by exposure, through the inhalation of radon, is currently a topic of concern. 3-70...enter quality should he Implemented. Additional mitigative eggecimnetely 20 Fredetral endeavored, thraetened and candidate mamas should alao he

  14. CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, William; Giorgi, Filippo; Lake, Irene

    2017-04-01

    The Science Advisory Team for the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has developed a baseline framework of specified regions, resolutions and simulation periods intended to provide a foundation for ongoing regional CORDEX activities: the CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation, or CORDEX-CORE. CORDEX-CORE was conceived in part to be responsive to IPCC needs for coordinated simulations that could provide regional climate downscaling (RCD) that yields fine-scale climate information beyond that resolved by GCMs. For each CORDEX region, a matrix of GCM-RCD experiments is designed based on the need to cover as much as possible different dimensions of the uncertainty space (e.g., different emissions and land-use scenarios, GCMs, RCD models and techniques). An appropriate set of driving GCMs can allow a program of simulations that efficiently addresses key scientific issues within CORDEX, while facilitating comparison and transfer of results and lessons learned across different regions. The CORDEX-CORE program seeks to provide, as much as possible, homogeneity across domains, so it is envisioned that a standard set of regional climate models (RCMs) and empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods will downscale a standard set of GCMs over all or at least most CORDEX domains for a minimum set of scenarios (high and low end). The focus is on historical climate simulations for the 20th century and projections for 21st century, implying that data would be needed minimally for the period 1950-2100 (but ideally 1900-2100). This foundational ensemble can be regionally enriched with further contributions (additional GCM-RCD pairs) by individual groups over their selected domains of interest. The RCM model resolution for these core experiments will be in the range of 10-20 km, a resolution that has been shown to provide substantial added value for a variety of climate variables and that represents a significant forward step compared in the CORDEX

  15. Energy content estimation by collegians for portion standardized foods frequently consumed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sun Ha; Yun, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate Korean collegians' knowledge of energy content in the standard portion size of foods frequently consumed in Korea and to investigate the differences in knowledge between gender groups. A total of 600 collegians participated in this study. Participants' knowledge was assessed based on their estimation on the energy content of 30 selected food items with their actual-size photo images. Standard portion size of food was based on 2010 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, and the percentage of participants who accurately estimated (that is, within 20% of the true value) the energy content of the standard portion size was calculated for each food item. The food for which the most participants provided the accurate estimation was ramyun (instant noodles) (67.7%), followed by cooked rice (57.8%). The proportion of students who overestimated the energy content was highest for vegetables (68.8%) and beverages (68.1%). The proportion of students who underestimated the energy content was highest for grains and starches (42.0%) and fruits (37.1%). Female students were more likely to check energy content of foods that they consumed than male students. From these results, it was concluded that the knowledge on food energy content was poor among collegians, with some gender difference. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to improving knowledge on calorie content and to helping them apply this knowledge in order to develop effective dietary plans.

  16. Roentgenological findings in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Yukihisa

    1987-10-01

    Roentgenological findings of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were studied in 61 patients with early gastric cancer by double contrast examination. Incidence of the various types of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were as follows;verrucae 4 %, granularity 34 %, fine granularity 58 %, islet 24 %, network 17 % and irregular network 16 %, respectively. Fine granularity and network were observed in 61 % and 46 % of the cases with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and irregular network were observed in 30 %, 55 % and 40 % of the cases with signet-ring cell carcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and islet were observed in 41 %, 59 % and 30 % of the cases with tubular adenocarcinoma, respectively. These results suggest that fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer showed both findings those found in atrophic gastritis (verrucae, granularity, fine granularity and network) and those in gastric cancer (granularity, fine granularity, islet and irregular network).

  17. Traumatic hematomas in deep middle portion of the cerebrum case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Tetsuya; Nishikawa, Michio; Kim, Suho; Shibata, Taichiro; Iwama, Mitsuru

    1981-01-01

    Recently we have encountered three cases of small traumatic hematoma in deep middle portion of the cerebrum. Patient 1: A 55-year-old male was admitted to our hospital 2-days after the traffic accident. CTscan showed small hematoma around septum pellucidi and fornix and in the posterior horn of left lateral ventricle. Patient 2: A 54-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CTscan showed hematoma in the supraventral portion of the third ventricle. Patient 3: A 27-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CTscan showed hematoma around quadrigeminal cistern and midbrain. Three cases reported here are traumatic hematomas without mass effect, which were pointed out only by autopsy. On traumatic hematoma in the deep middle portion of the brain we have only a few reports. On the mechanism of this bleeding Lindenberg and Kohno reported that the bleeding is caused by outward bending of the skull in injury. Lindenberg et al insisted that when traumatic force goes through corpus callosum over stretching of corpus callosum caused bleeding and that shearing force can damage septum pellucidi and fornix. Although these small hematomas are absorbed gradually functional prognosis is poor. Especially Korsakov syndrome and left hemiparesis in patient 1 shows no sign of recovery. In patient 2 and patient 3 decreased mental activity and hemiparesis have continued. Treatment of these cases cannot be surgical, as far as severe brain edema does not appeared. (author)

  18. Roentgenological findings in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Yukihisa

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenological findings of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were studied in 61 patients with early gastric cancer by double contrast examination. Incidence of the various types of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were as follows ; verrucae 4 %, granularity 34 %, fine granularity 58 %, islet 24 %, network 17 % and irregular network 16 %, respectively. Fine granularity and network were observed in 61 % and 46 % of the cases with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and irregular network were observed in 30 %, 55 % and 40 % of the cases with signet-ring cell carcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and islet were observed in 41 %, 59 % and 30 % of the cases with tubular adenocarcinoma, respectively. These results suggest that fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer showed both findings those found in atrophic gastritis (verrucae, granularity, fine granularity and network) and those in gastric cancer (granularity, fine granularity, islet and irregular network). (author)

  19. Factors Influencing Consumption Speed of Forages Given in Two Portions in Primiparous Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 6 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim was to assess the consumption speed (g/min, as well as the required time for consumption of 1 kg of raw forage for  alfalfa-hay, herbs silage, beet and concentrates, administered in two  portions (P1, P2, per day, in 2 equal feedings (F1, F2 per portion. The administration order of forages (fibrous-succulents and succulents-fibrous, the number of feedings and the average consumption speed among the two portions were the experimental variants. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. The average consumption speed determined was 198.5 g/min for concentrates, 48.28 g/min for alfalfa hay, 203.19 g/min for silage and 235.32 g/min for beets. The required time for 1 kg of raw forage consumption (minutes and seconds was 5.02 for concentrates, 20.43 for alfalfa hay, 4.35 for herbs silage and 4.15 for beets.

  20. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: the effects of portion size & energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Cornier, Marc A; Ingebrigtsen, Jan; Johnson, Susan L

    2011-09-25

    Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n=129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as by participant characteristics. Food appeal ratings were significantly higher than those for desire to eat (57.9±11.6 v. 44.7±18.0; pappeal. Food category analyses revealed that fruit was the highest rated food category for both appeal and desire, followed by discretionary foods. Additionally, overweight individuals reported higher ratings of desire to eat large portions of food compared to smaller portions (pappeal and desire (r's=-0.27; p'sappeal and desire to eat foods when assessing these ratings using the same type of metric. Additionally, relations among food appeal and desire to eat ratings and body mass show overweight individuals could be more responsive to visual foods cues in a manner that contributes to obesity.

  1. Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Lappas, Georgios; Wolk, Alicja; Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the association between meal pattern and obesity. The study is based on data from the INTERGENE research programme, and the study population consists of randomly selected women and men, aged 25-74, living in the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden. A total of 3610 were examined. Participants with measured BMI> or =30 were compared with others (BMIportions. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for age, sex, smoking and physical activity in logistic regression models. Being obese was significantly associated with omitting breakfast, OR 1.41 (1.05-1.90), omitting lunch OR 1.31 (1.04-1.66) and eating at night OR 1.62 (1.10-2.39). Obesity was also related to significantly larger self-reported portion sizes of main meals. No statistically significant relationship with intake of total energy was revealed. Thus, the results indicate that examination of meal patterns and portion sizes might tell us more about obesogenic food patterns than traditional nutrient analyses of food frequencies. Being obese was associated with a meal pattern shifted to later in the day and significantly larger self-reported portions of main meals.

  2. Food photography II: use of food photographs for estimating portion size and the nutrient content of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Atkinson, M; Darbyshire, S

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the errors in the conceptualization of portion size using photographs. Male and female volunteers aged 18-90 years (n 136) from a wide variety of social and occupational backgrounds completed 602 assessments of portion size in relation to food photographs. Subjects served themselves between four and six foods at one meal (breakfast, lunch or dinner). Portion sizes were weighed by the investigators at the time of serving, and any waste was weighed at the end of the meal. Within 5 min of the end of the meal, subjects were shown photographs depicting each of the foods just consumed. For each food there were eight photographs showing portion sizes in equal increments from the 5th to the 95th centile of the distribution of portion weights observed in The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults (Gregory et al. 1990). Subjects were asked to indicate on a visual analogue scale the size of the portion consumed in relation to the eight photographs. The nutrient contents of meals were estimated from food composition tables. There were large variations in the estimation of portion sizes from photographs. Butter and margarine portion sizes tended to be substantially overestimated. In general, small portion sizes tended to be overestimated, and large portion sizes underestimated. Older subjects overestimated portion size more often than younger subjects. Excluding butter and margarine, the nutrient content of meals based on estimated portion sizes was on average within +/- 7% of the nutrient content based on the amounts consumed, except for vitamin C (21% overestimate), and for subjects over 65 years (15-20% overestimate for energy and fat). In subjects whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m2, the energy and fat contents of meals calculated from food composition tables and based on estimated portion size (excluding butter and margarine) were 5-10% greater than the nutrient content calculated using actual portion size, but for those

  3. Computing angle of arrival of radio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John J.; Steele, David K.

    2017-11-07

    Various technologies pertaining to computing angle of arrival of radio signals are described. A system that is configured for computing the angle of arrival of a radio signal includes a cylindrical sheath wrapped around a cylindrical object, where the cylindrical sheath acts as a ground plane. The system further includes a plurality of antennas that are positioned about an exterior surface of the cylindrical sheath, and receivers respectively coupled to the antennas. The receivers output measurements pertaining to the radio signal. A processing circuit receives the measurements and computes the angle of arrival of the radio signal based upon the measurements.

  4. Alternative to Ritt's pseudodivision for finding the input-output equations of multi-output models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Differential algebra approaches to structural identifiability analysis of a dynamic system model in many instances heavily depend upon Ritt's pseudodivision at an early step in analysis. The pseudodivision algorithm is used to find the characteristic set, of which a subset, the input-output equations, is used for identifiability analysis. A simpler algorithm is proposed for this step, using Gröbner Bases, along with a proof of the method that includes a reduced upper bound on derivative requirements. Efficacy of the new algorithm is illustrated with several biosystem model examples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Output controllability of nonlinear systems with bounded control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael; D'Attellis, Carlos

    1990-01-01

    The control problem treated in this paper is the output controllability of a nonlinear system in the form: x = f(x) + g(x)u(t); y = h(x), using bounded controls. The approach to the problem consists of a modification in the system using dynamic feedback in such a way that the input/output behaviour of the closed loop matches the input/output behaviour of a completely output-controllable system with bounded controls. Sufficient conditions are also put forward on the system so that a compact set in the output space may be reached in finite time using uniformally bounded controls, and a result on output regulation in finite time with asymptotic state stabilization is obtained. (Author)

  6. Simulation of Distributed PV Power Output in Oahu Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation in Oahu has grown rapidly since 2008. For applications such as determining the value of energy storage, it is important to have PV power output timeseries. Since these timeseries of not typically measured, here we produce simulated distributed PV power output for Oahu. Simulated power output is based on (a) satellite-derived solar irradiance, (b) PV permit data by neighborhood, and (c) population data by census block. Permit and population data was used to model locations of distributed PV, and irradiance data was then used to simulate power output. PV power output simulations are presented by sub-neighborhood polygons, neighborhoods, and for the whole island of Oahu. Summary plots of annual PV energy and a sample week timeseries of power output are shown, and a the files containing the entire timeseries are described.

  7. Signaling and the Education Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Kurtzon

    2004-01-01

    A large portion of the rise in the education premium can be explained by a signaling theory of education which predicts that in the future, increases in the education level of the workforce will actually cause the education premium to rise, simply because different workers are being labeled as “highly educated†. This prediction is supported by past behavior of the high school education premium. It runs counter to the view that increases in the relative supply of high education workers wil...

  8. Reliability and Validity of Digital Imagery Methodology for Measuring Starting Portions and Plate Waste from School Salad Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Raynor, Hollie A; Thornton, Laura M; Sova, Alexandra; Dunne Stewart, Mary; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2018-04-12

    Scientifically sound methods for investigating dietary consumption patterns from self-serve salad bars are needed to inform school policies and programs. To examine the reliability and validity of digital imagery for determining starting portions and plate waste of self-serve salad bar vegetables (which have variable starting portions) compared with manual weights. In a laboratory setting, 30 mock salads with 73 vegetables were made, and consumption was simulated. Each component (initial and removed portion) was weighed; photographs of weighed reference portions and pre- and post-consumption mock salads were taken. Seven trained independent raters visually assessed images to estimate starting portions to the nearest ¼ cup and percentage consumed in 20% increments. These values were converted to grams for comparison with weighed values. Intraclass correlations between weighed and digital imagery-assessed portions and plate waste were used to assess interrater reliability and validity. Pearson's correlations between weights and digital imagery assessments were also examined. Paired samples t tests were used to evaluate mean differences (in grams) between digital imagery-assessed portions and measured weights. Interrater reliabilities were excellent for starting portions and plate waste with digital imagery. For accuracy, intraclass correlations were moderate, with lower accuracy for determining starting portions of leafy greens compared with other vegetables. However, accuracy of digital imagery-assessed plate waste was excellent. Digital imagery assessments were not significantly different from measured weights for estimating overall vegetable starting portions or waste; however, digital imagery assessments slightly underestimated starting portions (by 3.5 g) and waste (by 2.1 g) of leafy greens. This investigation provides preliminary support for use of digital imagery in estimating starting portions and plate waste from school salad bars. Results might inform

  9. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Kate; Watson, Jane F; Collins, Clare E

    2014-01-01

    Background Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Methods Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data ...

  10. Probing transcription-specific outputs of β-catenin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Tomas; Gay, Max; Steiner, Sarah; Draganova, Kalina; Zemke, Martina; Hoffmans, Raymond; Cinelli, Paolo; Aguet, Michel; Sommer, Lukas; Basler, Konrad

    2011-12-15

    β-Catenin, apart from playing a cell-adhesive role, is a key nuclear effector of Wnt signaling. Based on activity assays in Drosophila, we generated mouse strains where the endogenous β-catenin protein is replaced by mutant forms, which retain the cell adhesion function but lack either or both of the N- and the C-terminal transcriptional outputs. The C-terminal activity is essential for mesoderm formation and proper gastrulation, whereas N-terminal outputs are required later during embryonic development. By combining the double-mutant β-catenin with a conditional null allele and a Wnt1-Cre driver, we probed the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in dorsal neural tube development. While loss of β-catenin protein in the neural tube results in severe cell adhesion defects, the morphology of cells and tissues expressing the double-mutant form is normal. Surprisingly, Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity only moderately regulates cell proliferation, but is crucial for maintaining neural progenitor identity and for neuronal differentiation in the dorsal spinal cord. Our model animals thus allow dissecting signaling and structural functions of β-catenin in vivo and provide the first genetic tool to generate cells and tissues that entirely and exclusively lack canonical Wnt pathway activity. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

  11. Design of optimal input–output scaling factors based fuzzy PSS using bat algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Sambariya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer (FPSS is designed by tuning its input–output scaling factors. Two input signals to FPSS are considered as change of speed and change in power, and the output signal is considered as a correcting voltage signal. The normalizing factors of these signals are considered as the optimization problem with minimization of integral of square error in single-machine and multi-machine power systems. These factors are optimally determined with bat algorithm (BA and considered as scaling factors of FPSS. The performance of power system with such a designed BA based FPSS (BA-FPSS is compared to that of response with FPSS, Harmony Search Algorithm based FPSS (HSA-FPSS and Particle Swarm Optimization based FPSS (PSO-FPSS. The systems considered are single-machine connected to infinite-bus, two-area 4-machine 10-bus and IEEE New England 10-machine 39-bus power systems for evaluating the performance of BA-FPSS. The comparison is carried out in terms of the integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE, integral of absolute error (IAE and integral of square error (ISE of speed response for systems with FPSS, HSA-FPSS and BA-FPSS. The superior performance of systems with BA-FPSS is established considering eight plant conditions of each system, which represents the wide range of operating conditions.

  12. Presence of a temperature gradient among genital tract portions and the thermal changes within these portions over the estrous cycle in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh Ali, Hossam; Kitahara, Go; Tamura, Youji; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Hemmi, Koichiro; Torisu, Shidow; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Horii, Yoichiro; Zaabel, Samy; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (VT), cervix (CT), uterine body (UBT) and uterine horns (UHT). Blood samples were collected immediately before temperature recording to assay peripheral levels of progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17β (E(2)). Moreover, transrectal ultrasonography was carried out after temperature recording to monitor the ovulatory follicle and track ovulation. During the experiment, the ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for further calculation of the temperature humidity index (THI). The temperature within the genital tracts in these cows progressively increased towards the uterine horns from the vagina. The VT, CT, UBT and UHTs were significantly higher in association with peripheral P(4) concentrations greater than 4 ng/ml (mid-luteal phase) when compared with lower peripheral P(4) concentrations. The VT was more significantly (Pfemale genital tract in bovine.

  13. A review of output-only structural mode identification literature employing blind source separation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, A.; Narasimhan, S.; Antoni, J.

    2017-09-01

    Output-only modal identification has seen significant activity in recent years, especially in large-scale structures where controlled input force generation is often difficult to achieve. This has led to the development of new system identification methods which do not require controlled input. They often work satisfactorily if they satisfy some general assumptions - not overly restrictive - regarding the stochasticity of the input. Hundreds of papers covering a wide range of applications appear every year related to the extraction of modal properties from output measurement data in more than two dozen mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering journals. In little more than a decade, concepts of blind source separation (BSS) from the field of acoustic signal processing have been adopted by several researchers and shown that they can be attractive tools to undertake output-only modal identification. Originally intended to separate distinct audio sources from a mixture of recordings, mathematical equivalence to problems in linear structural dynamics have since been firmly established. This has enabled many of the developments in the field of BSS to be modified and applied to output-only modal identification problems. This paper reviews over hundred articles related to the application of BSS and their variants to output-only modal identification. The main contribution of the paper is to present a literature review of the papers which have appeared on the subject. While a brief treatment of the basic ideas are presented where relevant, a comprehensive and critical explanation of their contents is not attempted. Specific issues related to output-only modal identification and the relative advantages and limitations of BSS methods both from theoretical and application standpoints are discussed. Gap areas requiring additional work are also summarized and the paper concludes with possible future trends in this area.

  14. Motor output variability, deafferentation, and putative deficits in kinesthetic reafference in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elizabeth B; Cole, Jonathan; Poizner, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder defined by motor impairments that include rigidity, systemic slowdown of movement (bradykinesia), postural problems, and tremor. While the progressive decline in motor output functions is well documented, less understood are impairments linked to the continuous kinesthetic sensation emerging from the flow of motions. There is growing evidence in recent years that kinesthetic problems are also part of the symptoms of PD, but objective methods to readily quantify continuously unfolding motions across different contexts have been lacking. Here we present evidence from a deafferented subject (IW) and a new statistical platform that enables new analyses of motor output variability measured as a continuous flow of kinesthetic reafferent input. Systematic increasing similarities between the patterns of motor output variability in IW and the participants with increasing degrees of PD severity suggest potential deficits in kinesthetic sensing in PD. We propose that these deficits may result from persistent, noisy, and random motor patterns as the disorder progresses. The stochastic signatures from the unfolding motions revealed levels of noise in the motor output fluctuations of these patients bound to decrease the kinesthetic signal's bandwidth. The results are interpreted in light of the concept of kinesthetic reafference ( Von Holst and Mittelstaedt, 1950). In this context, noisy motor output variability from voluntary movements in PD leads to a returning stream of noisy afference caused, in turn, by those faulty movements themselves. Faulty efferent output re-enters the CNS as corrupted sensory motor input. We find here that severity level in PD leads to the persistence of such patterns, thus bringing the statistical signatures of the subjects with PD systematically closer to those of the subject without proprioception.

  15. Control method for multi-input multi-output non-Gaussian random vibration test with cross spectra consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghui ZHENG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A control method for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO non-Gaussian random vibration test with cross spectra consideration is proposed in the paper. The aim of the proposed control method is to replicate the specified references composed of auto spectral densities, cross spectral densities and kurtoses on the test article in the laboratory. It is found that the cross spectral densities will bring intractable coupling problems and induce difficulty for the control of the multi-output kurtoses. Hence, a sequential phase modification method is put forward to solve the coupling problems in multi-input multi-output non-Gaussian random vibration test. To achieve the specified responses, an improved zero memory nonlinear transformation is utilized first to modify the Fourier phases of the signals with sequential phase modification method to obtain one frame reference response signals which satisfy the reference spectra and reference kurtoses. Then, an inverse system method is used in frequency domain to obtain the continuous stationary drive signals. At the same time, the matrix power control algorithm is utilized to control the spectra and kurtoses of the response signals further. At the end of the paper, a simulation example with a cantilever beam and a vibration shaker test are implemented and the results support the proposed method very well. Keywords: Cross spectra, Kurtosis control, Multi-input multi-output, Non-Gaussian, Random vibration test

  16. The Association Between Urine Output, Creatinine Elevation, and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engoren, Milo; Maile, Michael D; Heung, Michael; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Vahabzadeh, Christie; Haft, Jonathan W; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury can be defined by a fall in urine output, and urine output criteria may be more sensitive in identifying acute kidney injury than traditional serum creatinine criteria. However, as pointed out in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome guidelines, the association of urine output with subsequent creatinine elevations and death is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine what degrees of reduced urine output are associated with subsequent creatinine elevation and death. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients (age ≥18 years) cared for in a cardiovascular intensive care unit after undergoing cardiac operations in a tertiary care university medical center. All adult patients who underwent cardiac operations and were not receiving dialysis preoperatively were studied. The development of acute kidney injury was defined as an increase in creatinine of more than 0.3 mg/dL or by more than 50% above baseline by postoperative day 3. Acute kidney injury developed in 1,061 of 4,195 patients (25%). Urine output had moderate discrimination in predicting subsequent acute kidney injury (C statistic = .637 ± .054). Lower urine output and longer duration of low urine output were associated with greater odds of developing acute kidney injury and death. We found that there is similar accuracy in using urine output corrected for actual, ideal, or adjusted weight to discriminate future acute kidney injury by creatinine elevation and recommend using actual weight for its simplicity. We also found that low urine output is associated with subsequent acute kidney injury and that the association is greater for lower urine output and for low urine output of longer durations. Low urine output (creatinine elevation, is independently associated with mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Output, renewable energy consumption and trade in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2014-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in a sample of 11 African countries covering the period 1980–2008. The results from panel error correction model reveal that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and exports and between output and imports in both the short and long-run. However, in the short-run, there is no evidence of causality between output and renewable energy consumption and between trade (exports or imports) and renewable energy consumption. Also, in the long-run, there is no causality running from output or trade to renewable energy. In the long-run, our estimations show that renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant and positive impact on output. Our energy policy recommendations are that national authorities should design appropriate fiscal incentives to encourage the use of renewable energies, create more regional economic integration for renewable energy technologies, and encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output. - Highlights: • We examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in African countries. • There is a bidirectional causality between output and trade in both the short and long-run. • In the short-run, there is no causality between renewable energy consumption and trade or output. • In the long-run, renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant positive impact on output. • African authorities should encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output

  18. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, H.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photoassociation. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam

  19. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  20. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Meertens, Beth; Wu, Jason H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011–2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years) from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion) of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011–2012 (p ≤ 0.001). kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011–2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995). In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10–40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products. PMID:28587276

  1. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaobing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011–2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011–2012 (p ≤ 0.001. kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011–2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995. In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10–40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products.

  2. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  3. Neurohormones as putative circadian clock output signals in the central nervous system of two cricket species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehadová, H.; Shao, Q. M.; Sehnal, František; Takeda, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 328, č. 1 (2007), s. 239-255 ISSN 0302-766X Grant - others:Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 99L01205; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) ID No. P04197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : circadian rhythm * corazonin * CCAP Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.613, year: 2007

  4. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  5. Global Sensitivity Analysis for multivariate output using Polynomial Chaos Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cabrejo, Oscar; Valocchi, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many mathematical and computational models used in engineering produce multivariate output that shows some degree of correlation. However, conventional approaches to Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) assume that the output variable is scalar. These approaches are applied on each output variable leading to a large number of sensitivity indices that shows a high degree of redundancy making the interpretation of the results difficult. Two approaches have been proposed for GSA in the case of multivariate output: output decomposition approach [9] and covariance decomposition approach [14] but they are computationally intensive for most practical problems. In this paper, Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) is used for an efficient GSA with multivariate output. The results indicate that PCE allows efficient estimation of the covariance matrix and GSA on the coefficients in the approach defined by Campbell et al. [9], and the development of analytical expressions for the multivariate sensitivity indices defined by Gamboa et al. [14]. - Highlights: • PCE increases computational efficiency in 2 approaches of GSA of multivariate output. • Efficient estimation of covariance matrix of output from coefficients of PCE. • Efficient GSA on coefficients of orthogonal decomposition of the output using PCE. • Analytical expressions of multivariate sensitivity indices from coefficients of PCE

  6. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar

    2010-12-01

    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  7. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  8. Smoothing Control of Wind Farm Output by Using Kinetic Energy of Variable Speed Wind Power Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Saitoh, Hiroumi

    This paper proposes a new control method for reducing fluctuation of power system frequency through smoothing active power output of wind farm. The proposal is based on the modulation of rotaional kinetic energy of variable speed wind power generators through power converters between permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) and transmission lines. In this paper, the proposed control is called Fluctuation Absorption by Flywheel Characteristics control (FAFC). The FAFC can be easily implemented by adding wind farm output signal to Maximum Power Point Tracking control signal through a feedback control loop. In order to verify the effectiveness of the FAFC control, a simulation study was carried out. In the study, it was assumed that the wind farm consisting of PMSG type wind power generator and induction machine type wind power generaotors is connected with a power sysem. The results of the study show that the FAFC control is a useful method for reducing the impacts of wind farm output fluctuation on system frequency without additional devices such as secondary battery.

  9. Technical improvement for the output drive unit of the reactor protection system in QNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zuyue

    1995-11-01

    For improving the reliability of the output drive unit of the reactor protection system in Qinshan NPP, the former design of this part was improved and researched on the problem appeared during the commissioning and operation under the conditions of narrow process space of cabinets and unchanged overall arrangement: (1) The output relay modules was redesigned to unify the relay specification to improve the versatility, and also to improve the pin's contact by means of welding them directly on the printed circuit boards and to make the modules detachable by connectors instead of previously non-detachable. Th modules were connected in series by both power supply line and ground line which were finally connected at same point respectively, so that other protection signals can still be output correctly when a single module is removed. (2) The relay drive circuit was also redesigned for working in on-off state instead of in amplification to minimize the power consumption. On the other hand, the CMOS buffers were taken to couple the CMOS circuits to the TTL circuits. The actuating time for the new shutdown relay was decreased from the former 35 ms to 5 ms, the actuating time for the engineered safety feature drive signal relay was decreased from 10 ms to 6 ms after the above-mentioned improvements, the reliability of the RPS is remarkably improved and a great economic benefit is obtained. (4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  10. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators with input saturation using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and disturbance observer. First, the RBFNN is used to approximate the system uncertainty, and the unknown approximation error of the RBFNN and the time-varying unknown external disturbance of robot manipulators are integrated as a compounded disturbance. Then, the state observer and the disturbance observer are proposed to estimate the unmeasured system state and the unknown compounded disturbance based on RBFNN. At the same time, the adaptation technique is employed to tackle the control input saturation problem. Utilizing the estimate outputs of the RBFNN, the state observer, and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural output feedback control scheme is developed for robot manipulators using the backstepping technique. The convergence of all closed-loop signals is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the asymptotically convergent tracking error is obtained under the integrated effect of the system uncertainty, the unmeasured system state, the unknown external disturbance, and the input saturation. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators.

  11. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  12. Adaptive DCTNet for Audio Signal Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to h...

  13. Field-Programmable Logic Devices with Optical Input Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Ted H.; Saint-Laurent, Martin; Tyan, Victor; Au, Albert; Supmonchai, Boonchuay

    2000-02-01

    A field-programmable logic device (FPLD) with optical I O is described. FPLD s with optical I O can have their functionality specified in the field by means of downloading a control-bit stream and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as optical signal processing, optical image processing, and optical interconnects. Our device implements six state-of-the-art dynamically programmable logic arrays (PLA s) on a 2 mm 2 mm die. The devices were fabricated through the Lucent Technologies Advanced Research Projects Agency Consortium for Optical and Optoelectronic Technologies in Computing (Lucent ARPA COOP) workshop by use of 0.5- m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor self-electro-optic device technology and were delivered in 1998. All devices are fully functional: The electronic data paths have been verified at 200 MHz, and optical tests are pending. The device has been programmed to implement a two-stage optical switching network with six 4 4 crossbar switches, which can realize more than 190 10 6 unique programmable input output permutations. The same device scaled to a 2 cm 2 cm substrate could support as many as 4000 optical I O and 1 Tbit s of optical I O bandwidth and offer fully programmable digital functionality with approximately 110,000 programmable logic gates. The proposed optoelectronic FPLD is also ideally suited to realizing dense, statically reconfigurable crossbar switches. We describe an attractive application area for such devices: a rearrangeable three-stage optical switch for a wide-area-network backbone, switching 1000 traffic streams at the OC-48 data rate and supporting several terabits of traffic.

  14. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  15. An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectives on their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Gemma P; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Spence, Michelle; Dean, Moira; O'Brien, Sinead; Gibney, Eileen R; Wallace, Julie M W; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Kerr, Maeve A

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA. Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach. The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. General population, males (n = 17) and females (n = 15) aged 18-64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups. The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup (household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for "visual" PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than 'quantities and measures' such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a "one size fits all" approach. This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of "visual" PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconnection of the islanded portion of the CIGRE low voltage distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, G.M.; Bak, Claus Leth; Somro, Duur M.

    2016-01-01

    Islanding is phenomena in which a part of the distribution grid is electrically disconnected from the main transmission system. Islanded operation is encouraged in order to operate the electrical power networks in reliable manners. However, the reliability of the small networks operating is island...... is less as compared to that of the grid connected system. The islanded portion of the distribution network can be reconnected to the transmission grid if the voltage magnitudes, voltage phase angles and the frequencies of the two systems are synchronized. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate...

  18. Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, we are continuing to map seven MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas: a 4-quadrangle area (-20002, -20007, -25002, -25007) and an L-shaped area (-15017, -20017, -20022) within the region [1-5]. This abstract focuses on the geologic units and history from mapping in the 4-quadrangle area, but includes a brief update on the L-shaped map area.

  19. LDA measurement of droplet behavior across tie plate during dispersed flow portion of loca reflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.L.; Srinivasan, J.; Cho, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The flow of an air-water droplet dispersion in a simulated 3-D test section in the reflood portion of LOCA was studied. For this purpose, a new scheme of Laser-Doppler Anemometry for the simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of large-size [0.5 mm-6 mm] droplets was developed and utilized. It was observed that the size distribution of the reentrained droplets depends mainly on the flow regimes and is essentially independent of that of the incoming dispersion below the tie plate. 8 refs

  20. Retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.T.; Yarbrough, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract of foals was developed and then performed in 25 foals (1 to 30 days old) with colic. Retrograde contrast radiography was shown to be sensitive (100%) and specific (100%) for evaluating obstruction of the small colon or transverse colon. It was slightly less sensitive (86%) and specific (83%) for evaluation of the entire large colon, particularly in older foals. Retrograde contrast radiography provided increased diagnostic capability, compared with that for noncontrast radiography. Retrograde contrast radiography can provide valuable information when evaluating foals with colic and should be part of the diagnostic evaluation

  1. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  2. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  4. Distributed control design for nonlinear output agreement in convergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitenberg, Erik; De Persis, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the problem of output agreement in homogeneous networks of nonlinear dynamical systems under time-varying disturbances using controllers placed at the nodes of the networks. For the class of contractive systems, necessary and sufficient conditions for output agreement are derived,

  5. High output stomas: ensuring safe discharge from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa

    High-output stomas are a challenge for the patient and all health professionals involved. This article discusses safe discharge home for this patient group, encouraging collaborative working practices between acute care trust and the community services. The authors also discuss the management of a high-output stoma and preparation and education of the patient before discharge home.

  6. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  7. Input-Output Economics : Theory and Applications - Featuring Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thijs ten Raa, author of the acclaimed text The Economics of Input–Output Analysis, now takes the reader to the forefront of the field. This volume collects and unifies his and his co-authors' research papers on national accounting, Input–Output coefficients, economic theory, dynamic models,

  8. effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-09

    Sep 9, 2013 ... in Nairobi and their effect on light intensity output, depth of cure (DOC) and ... result in gradual reduction in the energy output of ..... of LED lights are compared with QTH lights could ... influence on the SMH of dark shades.

  9. Using deflation in the pole assignment problem with output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miminis, George

    1989-01-01

    A direct algorithm is suggested for the computation of a linear output feedback for a multi input, multi output system such that the resultant closed-loop matrix has eigenvalues that include a specified set of eigenvalues. The algorithm uses deflation based on unitary similarity transformations. Thus researchers hope the algorithm is numerically stable; however, this has not been proven as yet.

  10. Characterizing the effects of cell settling on bioprinter output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy C; Burg, Karen J L; Groff, Richard E; Seshadri, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    The time variation in bioprinter output, i.e. the number of cells per printed drop, was studied over the length of a typical printing experiment. This variation impacts the cell population size of bioprinted samples, which should ideally be consistent. The variation in output was specifically studied in the context of cell settling. The bioprinter studied is based on the thermal inkjet HP26A cartridge; however, the results are relevant to other cell delivery systems that draw fluid from a reservoir. A simple mathematical model suggests that the cell concentration in the bottom of the reservoir should increase linearly over time, up to some maximum, and that the cell output should be proportional to this concentration. Two studies were performed in which D1 murine stem cells and similarly sized polystyrene latex beads were printed. The bead output profiles were consistent with the model. The cell output profiles initially followed the increasing trend predicted by the settling model, but after several minutes the cell output peaked and then decreased. The decrease in cell output was found to be associated with the number of use cycles the cartridge had experienced. The differing results for beads and cells suggest that a biological process, such as adhesion, causes the decrease in cell output. Further work will be required to identify the exact process. (communication)

  11. Output Enhancement in the Transfer-Field Machine Using Rotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Output Enhancement in the Transfer-Field Machine Using Rotor Circuit Induced Currents. ... The output of a plain transfer-field machine would be much less than that of a conventional machine of comparable size and dimensions. The use of ... The same effects have their parallel for the asynchronous mode of operation.

  12. Duplicating MC-15 Output with Python and MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpaden, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Two Python scripts have been written that process the output files of MCNP6 into a format that mimics the list-mode output of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s MC-15 and NPOD neutron detection systems. This report details the methods implemented in these scripts and instructions on their use.

  13. Figure output program for JFT-2M experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Takada, Susumu.

    1991-11-01

    The software for the figure output of JFT-2M experimental data is reported. Since the configuration of a figure is determined by some easy input parameters, then any format of each experimental output is configured freely by this software. (author)

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Modified Output and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison; Adams, Rebecca; Stafford, Catherine; Winke, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between learners' production of modified output and their working memory (WM) capacity. The task-based interactions of 42 college-level, native English-speaking learners of Spanish as a foreign language were examined. A relationship was found between learners' WM test scores and their tendency to modify output.…

  15. INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS : THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lenzen, Manfred; Los, Bart; Guan, Dabo; Lahr, Michael L.; Sancho, Ferran; Suh, Sangwon; Yang, Cuihong; Sancho, S.

    2013-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Input-Output Association and the 25th volume of Economic Systems Research. To celebrate this anniversary, a group of eight experts provide their views on the future of input-output. Looking forward, they foresee progress in terms of data

  16. Wrong signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.; Telling, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (Dte, abbreviated in Dutch) bases the determination of the efficiency of electricity network businesses on the possibility of businesses to adjust their production capacity on a short term. In reality, however, the production capacity of electricity networks is fixed. By adjusting the model, by means of which the efficiency is determined, to the assumption of Dte, other efficiency scores will be produced. As a result of the output of the present model, many businesses receive the wrong stimuli. In this article the method of Dte is assessed. By putting the method in an international context it is determined whether the aim of the regulation is realized. The production process of the Dutch market is specified and compared internationally.1 ref

  17. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Huitink, M.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Maaskant, A.J.; Heijnen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were

  18. Value for money or making the healthy choice: the impact of proportional pricing on consumers' portion size choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Alting, E.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Large food portion sizes are determinants of a high caloric intake, especially if they have been made attractive through value size pricing (i.e. lower unit prices for large than for small portion sizes). The purpose of the two questionnaire studies that are reported in this article was

  19. From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Food portion-sizes might be a promising starting point for interventions targeting obesity. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess how representatives of point-of-purchase settings perceived the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Methods: Semi-structured

  20. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  1. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... index zone pricing. We approved the Ute Indian Tribe's request; therefore, you must value production... due date for industry to pay additional royalties based on the major portion prices. This notice... additional royalties based on the major portion prices is May 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John...

  2. 26 CFR 1.168A-6 - Depreciation of portion of emergency facility not subject to amortization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation of portion of emergency facility... for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-6 Depreciation of portion of emergency facility not subject... in lieu of any deduction for depreciation which would otherwise be allowable under section 167 is...

  3. 77 FR 10430 - Revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State Implementation Plan, South... South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California SIP. This SIP revision... Coast Air Quality Management District New Source Review by Gerardo C. Rios, October 24, 1996 (TSD). \\2...

  4. 77 FR 27079 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Portion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-480 and 731-TA-1188 (Final)] High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Portion of the Hearing... Commission Rule 201.39 (19 CFR 201.39) that, in his opinion, a portion of the Commission's hearing in High...

  5. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kate; Watson, Jane F; Collins, Clare E

    2014-05-28

    Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data was from children aged 2-16 years who participated in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 2198) and 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 4799). Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories. Of the 61 foods items evaluated across the whole population sample, portion size increased in 18 items, decreased in 22, with no change in 20, although the magnitude of change varied by age and sex. Decreases in portion size were detected for most dairy products, breakfast cereal, some packaged snack foods and vegetables, p portion sizes were detected over 12 years in Australian children and adolescents with the degree of change varying by sex, age and food group. Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents.

  6. Are output measurements always necessary after CT tube replacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Stauduhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: TX regulations and the ACR require that CT radiation output be measured within 30 days of major service. The most common major service is tube replacement. We hypothesized that historical QC data could be used instead to determine if output measurements are necessary, reducing the need for costly output measurements.Methods: We reviewed 66 records of tube replacements to determine with what frequency output falls outside specifications. We also conducted an experiment to verify that clinically significant output changes could be identified by comparing image noise in historical QC data with the same data after tube replacement. We used 30 days of historical QC data to establish a baseline noise level and 95% confidence interval (CI for individual noise measurements. To simulate output changes, we acquired phantom images with our QC protocol while manually changing output (mA. We acquired 10 images using the baseline output and 10 images at each different “output”. We evaluated individual images and subsets of images at each “output” to determine if the system was within the manufacturer’s specifications.Results: None of the 66 tube replacements resulted in an output change that exceeded specifications. Analysis of 30 days of historic QC data for our experimental system indicated a mean noise of 5.4 HU with 95% CI of 5.1 ‒ 5.7 HU. When using the mean noise of 10 images acquired at each of the varying outputs, we were able to identify, with 100% accuracy, images acquired at outputs outside manufacturer’s specifications.Conclusion: The results of our review of historical tube replacement data indicated the likelihood of output falling outside manufacturer’s specifications is low. Considering this, it is likely that by using QC data from programs required by regulation and the ACR physicists can reliably verify radiation output stability remotely instead of making physical measurements.--------------------Cite this article

  7. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  8. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of disaggregate energy consumption on industrial output in the United States. Most of the related research utilizes aggregate data which may not indicate the relative strength or explanatory power of various energy inputs on output. We use monthly data and employ the generalized variance decomposition approach to assess the relative impacts of energy and employment on real output. Our results suggest that unexpected shocks to coal, natural gas and fossil fuel energy sources have the highest impacts on the variation of output, while several renewable sources exhibit considerable explanatory power as well. However, none of the energy sources explain more of the forecast error variance of industrial output than employment

  9. Output gap uncertainty and real-time monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grigoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Output gap estimates are subject to a wide range of uncertainty owing principally to the difficulty in distinguishing between cycle and trend in real time. We show that country desks tend to overestimate economic slack, especially during recessions, and that uncertainty in initial output gap estimates persists several years. Only a small share of output gap revisions is predictable based on output dynamics, data quality, and policy frameworks. We also show that for a group of Latin American inflation targeters the prescriptions from monetary policy rules are subject to large changes due to revised output gap estimates. These explain a sizable proportion of the deviation of inflation from target, suggesting this information is not accounted for in real-time policy decisions.

  10. CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

  11. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H

    2012-01-01

    In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral...... arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P heart rate by up to 54 beats min(−1), cardiac output did not change in any of the three...... demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output....

  12. Instrument Records And Plays Back Acceleration Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Small, battery-powered, hand-held instrument feeds power to accelerometer and records time-varying component of output for 15 seconds in analog form. No power needed to maintain content of memory; memory chip removed after recording and stored indefinitely. Recorded signal plays back at any time up to several years later. Principal advantages: compactness, portability, and low cost.

  13. White light signal simulator microcontroller design | Haghighi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, first through experimental studies, the recorded signals associated with the light white from human retina cells were digitized, then the digital data were calculated and the resulted mathematical equation was programmed on a microcontroller, and by designing a circuit, the output voltage over time similar to ...

  14. Power-Combined GaN Amplifier with 2.28-W Output Power at 87 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, King Man; Ward, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Lin, Robert H.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Mehdi, Imran; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Soria, Mary M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future remote sensing instruments will require focal plane spectrometer arrays with higher resolution at high frequencies. One of the major components of spectrometers are the local oscillator (LO) signal sources that are used to drive mixers to down-convert received radio-frequency (RF) signals to intermediate frequencies (IFs) for analysis. By advancing LO technology through increasing output power and efficiency, and reducing component size, these advances will improve performance and simplify architecture of spectrometer array systems. W-band power amplifiers (PAs) are an essential element of current frequency-multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. This work utilizes GaN monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) PAs developed from a new HRL Laboratories LLC 0.15- m gate length GaN semiconductor transistor. By additionally waveguide power combining PA MMIC modules, the researchers here target the highest output power performance and efficiency in the smallest volume achievable for W-band.

  15. Simplified Soft-output Demapper Based on a Linear Transformation Technique for M-ary PSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining channel coding with high-order modulation schemes, namely coded modulation (CM, is an efficient digital transmission technology. CM requires the demapper to provide a soft decision bit metric as a part of the inputs to the decoder. This paper proposes an efficient soft- output demapper for M-ary PSK. This novel demodulation algorithm continues to evolve the conventional MAX-Log-MAP algorithm and summarizes the final derivation into a form of matrix multiplication. The Computational complexity for getting one bit soft value of a signal by employing the proposed algorithm remains a constant with the increase of modulation order. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis and simulation results prove that the novel simplified soft-output demapper can obtain the same performance as MAX-Log-MAP.

  16. A discriminator with a current-sum multiplicity output for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.S.; Kennedy, E.J.; Jackson, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    A current output multiplicity discriminator for use in the front-end electronics (FEE) of the Multiplicity Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been fabricated in the a 1.2-micro CMOS, n-well process. The discriminator is capable of triggering on input signals ranging from 0.25 MIP to 5 MIP. Frequency response of the discriminator is such that the circuit is capable of generating an output for every bunch crossing (105 ns) of the RHIC collider. Channel-to-channel threshold matching was adjustable to ± 4 mV. One channel of multiplicity discriminator occupied an area of 85 micro x 630 micro and consumed 515 microW from a single 5-V supply. Details of the design and results from prototype device testing are presented

  17. Implementation of Different Variants of Table-Based Frequency Synthesizers with Quadrature Output in VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kekrt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the modelling and implementation of two different variants of direct frequency synthesizer, and evaluation of the performance of the finished design, in terms of memory and speed efficiency. The frequency synthesizer requirement comes from our complex radio transmission system design. The research activity has been focused on finding an optimal balance between simplicity, speed and memory consumption. The modelling was done in MATLAB environment in floating-point and fixed-point arithmetic, and the actual design was implemented and synthesized using the Xilinx ISE suite. The output has been connected to our customized radio front-end built on the Texas Instruments TRF2443 chip. The front-end output signal has been captured and compared with simulation results.

  18. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  19. Evaluating teaching methods: validation of an evaluation tool for hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald J; McCannel, Colin A; Gordon, Lynn K; Hollander, David A; Giaconi, JoAnn A; Stelzner, Sadiqa K; Devgan, Uday; Bartlett, John; Mondino, Bartly J

    2014-09-01

    To develop and assess the validity of an evaluation tool to assess quantitatively the hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery performed by residents. Case series. Jules Stein Eye Institute, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA. The UCLA ophthalmology faculty members were surveyed and the literature was reviewed to develop a grading tool consisting of 15 questions to evaluate surgical technique, including questions from the Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery and from the International Council of Ophthalmology's Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric. Video clips of the hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery performed by 1 postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) resident, 1 PGY3 resident, 2 PGY4 residents, and an advanced surgeon were independently graded in a masked fashion by an 8-member faculty panel. Eleven of the 15 questions had a significant association with surgical experience level (Pinstrument handling, flow of operation, and nucleus rotation. Nucleus cracking also had low variability. Less directly visible tasks, especially 3-dimensional tasks, had wider interobserver variability. Surgical performance can be validly measured using an evaluation tool. Improved videography and studies to identify the best questions for evaluating each step of cataract surgery may help ophthalmic educators more precisely measure training outcomes for improving teaching interventions. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a man with CREST syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragulidis Georgios

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CREST (Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly and Telangiectasias syndrome has been rarely associated with other malignancies (lung, esophagus.This is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. Case presentation A 54-year-old male patient with CREST syndrome presented with colicky postprandial pain of the upper abdomen, diminished food uptake and a 6-Kg-body weight loss during the previous 2 months. An ulcerative lesion in the third portion of the duodenum was revealed during duodenoscopy, with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on biopsy specimen histology. The patient underwent a partial pancreatoduodenectomy. No adjuvant therapy was instituted and follow-up is negative for local recurrence or metastases 21 months postoperatively. Conclusion CREST syndrome has been associated with colon cancer, gastric polyps, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP syndrome and Crohn's disease; however, this is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. However, any etiologic relationship remains to be further investigated.

  1. Leak preventing method and device for penetration portion in reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mitsuyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    A pressurized air is sent to a leak path caused in an electric wire penetration portion on the side of a reactor container to keep the pressure thereof higher than that at the inside of the reactor container, or aerosol is injected to close the leak path. Alternatively, a cooling tube is disposed for cooling a sleeve, or a resin charging device is disposed for injecting a thermosetting resin to close the leak path, and an external power operated compressor is disposed for sending a pressurized air to the resin charging device. Then, pressure is applied in the opposite direction from a pressurizing port so as to provide a higher pressure than the inside of the reactor container by the compressor upon occurrence of an accident. In addition, the sleeve is cooled so as to suppress the less leak path in the wire penetration portion. Further, the leak path is closed by the aerosol or the thermosetting resin, which is quite effective also in view of improvement of the reliability of the reactor container. (N.H.)

  2. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adductor magnus: An EMG investigation into proximal and distal portions and direction specific action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Matthew L; Pizzari, Tania; Rath, Leanne; Tucker, Kylie; Semciw, Adam I

    2018-05-01

    Cadaveric studies indicate that adductor magnus is structurally partitioned into at least two regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the direction-specific actions of proximal and distal portions of adductor magnus, and in doing so determine if these segments have distinct functional roles. Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into two portions of adductor magnus of 12 healthy young adults. Muscle activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) across eight tests (hip flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction, and adduction at 0°, 45°, and 90° hip flexion). Median activity within each action (normalized to peak) was compared between segments using repeated measures nonparametric tests (α = 0.05). An effect size (ES = z-score/√sample size) was calculated to determine the magnitude of difference between muscle segments. The relative contribution of each muscle segment differed significantly during internal rotation (P magnus has at least two functionally unique regions. Differences were most evident during rotation. The different direction-specific actions may imply that each segment performs separate roles in hip stability and movement. These findings may have implications on injury prevention and rehabilitation for adductor-related groin injuries, hamstring strain injury, and hip pathology. Clin. Anat. 31:535-543, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. News Media Framing of New York City's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Portion-Size Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Joanna E; Truant, Patricia L; Rutkow, Lainie; Kanarek, Norma F; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-11-01

    We assessed news media framing of New York City's proposed regulation to prohibit the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages greater than 16 ounces. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of print and television news from within and outside New York City media markets. We examined support for and opposition to the portion-size cap in the news coverage from its May 31, 2012, proposal through the appellate court ruling on July 31, 2013. News coverage corresponded to key events in the policy's evolution. Although most stories mentioned obesity as a problem, a larger proportion used opposing frames (84%) than pro-policy frames (36%). Mention of pro-policy frames shifted toward the policy's effect on special populations. The debate's most prominent frame was the opposing frame that the policy was beyond the government's role (69%). News coverage within and outside the New York City media market was more likely to mention arguments in opposition to than in support of the portion-size cap. Understanding how the news media framed this issue provides important insights for advocates interested in advancing similar measures in other jurisdictions.

  5. Influence of BMI and dietary restraint on self-selected portions of prepared meals in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, David; Rytz, Andréas; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Forde, Ciarán G; Martin, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking. A representative sample of female consumers (N = 300, range 18-55 years) evaluated 15 frozen savoury prepared meals. For each meal, participants rated their expected satiation and expected liking, and selected their ideal portion using a previously validated computer-based task. Dietary restraint was quantified using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-R). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed on self-selected portions with age, hunger level, and meal familiarity entered as control variables in the first step of the model, expected satiation and expected liking as predictor variables in the second step, and DEBQ-R and BMI as exploratory predictor variables in the third step. The second and third steps significantly explained variance in portion size selection (18% and 4%, respectively). Larger portion selections were significantly associated with lower dietary restraint and with lower expected satiation. There was a positive relationship between BMI and portion size selection (p = 0.06) and between expected liking and portion size selection (p = 0.06). Our discussion considers future research directions, the limited variance explained by our model, and the potential for portion size underreporting by overweight participants. Copyright © 2016 Nestec S.A. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Output Feedback Adaptive Control of Non-Minimum Phase Systems Using Optimal Control Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Hashemi, Kelley E.; Yucelen, Tansel; Arabi, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes output feedback adaptive control approaches for non-minimum phase SISO systems with relative degree 1 and non-strictly positive real (SPR) MIMO systems with uniform relative degree 1 using the optimal control modification method. It is well-known that the standard model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) cannot be used to control non-SPR plants to track an ideal SPR reference model. Due to the ideal property of asymptotic tracking, MRAC attempts an unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in unbounded signals for non-minimum phase SISO systems. The optimal control modification can be used to prevent the unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in a stable adaptation of non-minimum phase SISO systems. However, the tracking performance using this approach could suffer if the unstable zero is located far away from the imaginary axis. The tracking performance can be recovered by using an observer-based output feedback adaptive control approach which uses a Luenberger observer design to estimate the state information of the plant. Instead of explicitly specifying an ideal SPR reference model, the reference model is established from the linear quadratic optimal control to account for the non-minimum phase behavior of the plant. With this non-minimum phase reference model, the observer-based output feedback adaptive control can maintain stability as well as tracking performance. However, in the presence of the mismatch between the SPR reference model and the non-minimum phase plant, the standard MRAC results in unbounded signals, whereas a stable adaptation can be achieved with the optimal control modification. An application of output feedback adaptive control for a flexible wing aircraft illustrates the approaches.

  7. Optical design and suspension system of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Junko; Winterflood, John; Li, Ju; Somiya, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    KAGRA is a Japanese large scale, underground, cryogenic gravitational telescope which is under construction in the Kamioka mine. For using cryogenic test masses, the sensitivity of KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce quantum noise, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC) at the output port that filters out junk light but allows the gravitational wave signal to go through. The requirement of the KAGRA OMC is even more challenging than other telescopes in the world since KAGRA plans to tune the signal readout phase so that the signal-to-noise ratio for our primary target source can be maximized. A proper selection of optical parameters and anti-vibration devices is required for the robust operation of the OMC. In this proceeding, we show our final results of modal-model simulations, in which we downselected the cavity length, the round-trip Gouy phase shift, the finesse, and the seismic isolation ratio for the suspended optics.

  8. A Simple Decision Rule for Recognition of Poly(A) Tail Signal Motifs in Human Genome

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Jankovic, Boris R.

    2015-01-01

    Background is the numerous attempts were made to predict motifs in genomic sequences that correspond to poly (A) tail signals. Vast portion of this effort has been directed to a plethora of nonlinear classification methods. Even when such approaches

  9. Output Information Based Fault-Tolerant Iterative Learning Control for Dual-Rate Sampling Process with Disturbances and Output Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For a class of single-input single-output (SISO dual-rate sampling processes with disturbances and output delay, this paper presents a robust fault-tolerant iterative learning control algorithm based on output information. Firstly, the dual-rate sampling process with output delay is transformed into discrete system in state-space model form with slow sampling rate without time delay by using lifting technology; then output information based fault-tolerant iterative learning control scheme is designed and the control process is turned into an equivalent two-dimensional (2D repetitive process. Moreover, based on the repetitive process stability theory, the sufficient conditions for the stability of system and the design method of robust controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique. Finally, the flow control simulations of two flow tanks in series demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Differences between proximal and distal portions of the male rabbit posterior urethra in the physiological role of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Katsushi; Tsujii, Toshihiko; Morita, Takashi; Azuma, Hiroshi; Oshima, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate functional differences between embryologically different portions of the posterior urethra of male rabbits in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation using in vitro isometric tension experiments and radioligand binding studies. In the in vitro isometric tension experiments, carbachol, produced a dose-dependent contraction of the proximal portion under the resting state, but did not change the basal tone of the distal portion. Contraction of the proximal portion by 10−5 M noradrenaline (NA) was dose-dependently enhanced by carbachol either in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOARG). In contrast, carbachol induced relaxation of the distal portion contracted by 10−5 M NA, which was reversed to dose-dependent contraction in the presence of NOARG. Both portions of the urethra had a similar number of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB) binding sites (195.3±74.1 fmols mg−1 protein for the proximal portion and 146.5±8.5 fmols mg−1 protein for the distal portion) with similar affinities (115.0±45.4 pM for the proximal portion and 79.9± 2.9 pM for the distal portion). The concentration-response curves to carbachol in both portions were shifted to the right in a parallel manner in the presence of pirenzepine (an M1 antagonist), 11-[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl] acetyl]-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido-2,3-b)-(1,4)-benzodiazepin-6-one (AFDX-116, an M2 antgonist) and 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP, an M1/M3 antagonist). The pA2 values for pirenzepine, AFDX-116 and 4-DAMP were 7.5±0.1, 7.2±0.02 and 9.3±0.1 respectively for the contraction of the proximal portion, and 7.2±0.1, 7.1±0.2 and 9.1±0.2, respectively for the relaxation of the distal portion. In conclusion mAChR subtypes distribute in a similar fashion throughout the length of the male rabbit posterior urethra with the discrepant responses to carbachol attributable to the

  11. Thin disk laser with unstable resonator and reduced output coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavili, Anwar; Shayganmanesh, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, feasibility of using unstable resonator with reduced output coupling in a thin disk laser is studied theoretically. Unstable resonator is modeled by wave-optics using Collins integral and iterative method. An Yb:YAG crystal with 250 micron thickness is considered as a quasi-three level active medium and modeled by solving rate equations of energy levels populations. The amplification of laser beam in the active medium is calculated based on the Beer-Lambert law and Rigrod method. Using generalized beam parameters method, laser beam parameters like, width, divergence, M2 factor, output power as well as near and far-field beam profiles are calculated for unstable resonator. It is demonstrated that for thin disk laser (with single disk) in spite of the low thickness of the disk which leads to low gain factor, it is possible to use unstable resonator (with reduced output coupling) and achieve good output power with appropriate beam quality. Also, the behavior of output power and beam quality versus equivalent Fresnel number is investigated and optimized value of output coupling for maximum output power is achieved.

  12. Experimental characterization of variable output refractive beamshapers using freeform elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jason A.; Smilie, Paul J.; Dutterer, Brian S.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental results from variable output refractive beam shapers based on freeform optical surfaces. Two freeform elements in close proximity comprise a beam shaper that maps a circular Gaussian input to a circular `flat-top' output. Different lateral relative shifts between the elements result in a varying output diameter while maintaining the uniform irradiance distribution. We fabricated the beam shaping elements in PMMA using multi-axis milling on a Moore Nanotech 350FG diamond machining center and tested with a 632.8 nm Gaussian input. Initial optical testing confirmed both the predicted beam shaping and variable functionality, but with poor output uniformity. The effects of surface finish on optical performance were investigated using LightTrans VirtualLabTM to perform physical optics simulations of the milled freeform surfaces. These simulations provided an optimization path for determining machining parameters to improve the output uniformity of the beam shaping elements. A second variable beam shaper based on a super-Gaussian output was designed and fabricated using the newly determined machining parameters. Experimental test results from the second beam shaper showed outputs with significantly higher quality, but also suggest additional areas of study for further improvements in uniformity.

  13. INFLUENCE OF FISCAL POLICY DYNAMICS ON OUTPUT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Antoniu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of fiscal policy, more specific rise in fiscal pressure, increase which can be obtained either through enforcing one or more taxes, or by augmenting at least a tax, has a powerful impact on output management – visible, in the first place, in the realm of output size. But, not only output size will vary, after an increase in fiscal pressure, at least because output management is dealing with more than issue of producing a certain quantity of products, material or not, goods and/or services. Products are made for selling, but selling is impossible but through price and with a price; price is an essential economic variable, both in microeconomic and macroeconomic spheres. Thus, on one side rise in fiscal pressure determines, at least in short term, and, of course, if producers pay, or even support, a tax, be it newly enforced or (newly augmented, a rise of prices for sold products, and, on the other side, this results in a variation in output size, e.g. a reduced output volume, but, though, not in a linear trend. The dynamics, in this case of economic mechanism whose yield is a reduced volume of goods and/or services, in not linear, because essential are, too, the characteristics of products, from which effects of demand price elasticity and offer price elasticity influence significantly, in this framework, output management.

  14. Fast metabolite identification with Input Output Kernel Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouard, Céline; Shen, Huibin; Dührkop, Kai; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Böcker, Sebastian; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: An important problematic of metabolomics is to identify metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry data. Machine learning methods have been proposed recently to solve this problem by predicting molecular fingerprint vectors and matching these fingerprints against existing molecular structure databases. In this work we propose to address the metabolite identification problem using a structured output prediction approach. This type of approach is not limited to vector output space and can handle structured output space such as the molecule space. Results: We use the Input Output Kernel Regression method to learn the mapping between tandem mass spectra and molecular structures. The principle of this method is to encode the similarities in the input (spectra) space and the similarities in the output (molecule) space using two kernel functions. This method approximates the spectra-molecule mapping in two phases. The first phase corresponds to a regression problem from the input space to the feature space associated to the output kernel. The second phase is a preimage problem, consisting in mapping back the predicted output feature vectors to the molecule space. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in metabolite identification. Moreover, our method has the advantage of decreasing the running times for the training step and the test step by several orders of magnitude over the preceding methods. Availability and implementation: Contact: celine.brouard@aalto.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307628

  15. Occurrence of Cyclic di-GMP-Modulating Output Domains in Cyanobacteria: an Illuminating Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Marco; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.; Williams, Barry L.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms use a variety of metabolites to respond to external stimuli, including second messengers that amplify primary signals and elicit biochemical changes in a cell. Levels of the second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) are regulated by a variety of environmental stimuli and play a critical role in regulating cellular processes such as biofilm formation and cellular motility. Cyclic di-GMP signaling systems have been largely characterized in pathogenic bacteria; however, proteins that can impact the synthesis or degradation of c-di-GMP are prominent in cyanobacterial species and yet remain largely underexplored. In cyanobacteria, many putative c-di-GMP synthesis or degradation domains are found in genes that also harbor light-responsive signal input domains, suggesting that light is an important signal for altering c-di-GMP homeostasis. Indeed, c-di-GMP-associated domains are often the second most common output domain in photoreceptors—outnumbered only by a histidine kinase output domain. Cyanobacteria differ from other bacteria regarding the number and types of photoreceptor domains associated with c-di-GMP domains. Due to the widespread distribution of c-di-GMP domains in cyanobacteria, we investigated the evolutionary origin of a subset of genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that c-di-GMP signaling systems were present early in cyanobacteria and c-di-GMP genes were both vertically and horizontally inherited during their evolution. Finally, we compared intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in two cyanobacterial species under different light qualities, confirming that light is an important factor for regulating this second messenger in vivo. PMID:23943760

  16. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P T; Ogilvie, David

    2015-09-14

    Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children.2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. We applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies for inclusion and

  17. Studies on signal validation and sensor surveillance for in-core signals in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, O.

    1991-12-01

    Signal validation and sensor failure detection are two essential tasks to be carried out continuously in an operating reactor. Towards this aim, an optimal filtering approach for in-core NPP signals is implemented. The method concerns the specific measured input signal information as a parameter state and they are estimated by means of Kalman filtering technique. The signal validation and sensor surveillance system comprise filters as many as the states being considered and each filter receives all the measured signals as inputs in such a way that each filter in hand is desensitized to one of the individual input signals relative to others. In case of no failure of sensors all the filter outputs are identical. Each sensor output is tested by means of corresponding estimate present at the output of that filter which is desensitized to the sensor being tested. The comparison test is carried out continuously in real-time and any significant deviation noted during the test process is identified to be a sensor failure together with the faulty sensor. The method is investigated by means of real plant data of the in-core neutron detectors and core-inlet and outlet thermocouples of the Borssele nuclear power plant. The method has proven to be effective for fast and reliable in-core sensor failure detection as well as for in-core signal validation in normal operation indicating its further effectiveness for model validation applications in nuclear power plants. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Signal recovery of the corrupted metal impact signal using the adaptive filtering in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dai Il; Shin, Won Ky; Oh, Sung Hun; Yun, Won Young

    1995-01-01

    Loose Part Monitoring System (LPMS) is one of the fundamental diagnostic tools installed in the nuclear power plants. In this paper, recovery process algorithm and model for the corrupted impact signal generated by loose parts is presented. The characteristics of this algorithm can obtain a proper burst signal even though background noise is considerably high level comparing with actual impact signal. To verify performance of the proposed algorithm, we evaluate mathematically signal-to-noise ratio of primary output and noise. The performance of this recovery process algorithm is shown through computer simulation

  19. Calcium binding to an elastic portion of connectin/titin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, R; Maeda, K; Hattori, A; Takahashi, K

    2001-01-01

    Alpha-connectin/titin-1 exists as an elastic filament that links a thick filament with the Z-disk, keeping thick filaments centered within the sarcomere during force generation. We have shown that the connectin filament has an affinity for calcium ions and its binding site(s) is restricted to the beta-connectin/titin-2 portion. We now report the localization and the characterization of calcium-binding sites on beta-connectin. Purified beta-connectin was digested by trypsin into 1700- and 400-kDa fragments. which were then subjected to fluorescence calcium-binding assays. The 400-kDa fragment possesses calcium-binding activity; the binding constant was 1.0 x 10(7) M(-1) and the molar ratio of bound calcium ions to the 400-kDa fragment reached a maximum of 12 at a free calcium ion concentration of approximately 1.0 microM. Antibodies against the 400-kDa fragment formed a sharp dense stripe at the boundary of the A and the I bands, indicating that the calcium-binding domain constitutes the N-terminal region of beta-connectin, that is, the elastic portion of connectin filaments. Furthermore, we estimated the N-terminal location of beta-connectin of various origins (n = 26). Myofibrils were treated with a solution containing 0.1 mM CaCl2 and 70 microM leupeptin to split connectin filaments into beta-connectin and a subfragment, and chain weights of these polypeptides were estimated according to their mobility in 2% polyacrylamide slab gels. The subfragment exhibited a similar chain weight of 1200+/-33 kDa (mean+/-SD), while alpha- and beta-connectins were variable in size according to their origin. These results suggest that the apparent length of the 1200-kDa subfragment portion is almost constant in all instances, about 0.34 microm at the slack condition, therefore that the C-terminus of the 1200-kDa subfragment, that is, the N-terminus of the calcium-binding domain, is at the N2 line region of parent filaments in situ. Because the secondary structure of the 400-k

  20. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method

  1. Transiently chaotic neural networks with piecewise linear output functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.-S. [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-W. [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cwshih@math.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-01-30

    Admitting both transient chaotic phase and convergent phase, the transiently chaotic neural network (TCNN) provides superior performance than the classical networks in solving combinatorial optimization problems. We derive concrete parameter conditions for these two essential dynamic phases of the TCNN with piecewise linear output function. The confirmation for chaotic dynamics of the system results from a successful application of the Marotto theorem which was recently clarified. Numerical simulation on applying the TCNN with piecewise linear output function is carried out to find the optimal solution of a travelling salesman problem. It is demonstrated that the performance is even better than the previous TCNN model with logistic output function.

  2. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  3. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  4. A Monte Carlo study on multiple output stochastic frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected outputquantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochasticray production frontier (SR), which transforms the output quantities into their Euclideandistance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates...... of the approaches is clearly superior. However, considerable differences are found between the estimates at single replications. Taking average efficiencies from both approaches gives clearly better efficiency estimates than taking just the OD or the SR. In the case of zero values in the output quantities, the SR...

  5. Effect of surface fouling on the output of PV panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-04-01

    Surface fouling on the photovoltaic system caused by the output of a certain impact, therefore, it is very important to explore the effect of fouling on its contribution. Through the use of photovoltaic panels to collect Baoding area under different weather output data, and the collected data for comparative analysis, obtained under different environments on the impact of its contribution. It is concluded that the output of the photovoltaic cells will decrease, and the power drop rate will stabilize after three or four days. The effect of fouling on the fog haze and low temperature is more obvious.

  6. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  7. Restaurant owners' perspectives on a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions, Los Angeles County, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren; Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2014-03-20

    Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic.

  8. Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. Methods In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Results Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. Conclusion A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:24650622

  9. Portion size effects on daily energy intake in low-income Hispanic and African American children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Arreola, Angeles; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-12-01

    Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of 59 low-income Hispanic and African American preschool-aged children and their mothers. The portion size of 3 entrées (lunch, dinner, and breakfast) and an afternoon snack served during a 24-h period were of a reference size in one condition and doubled in the other condition. Portion sizes of other foods and beverages did not vary across conditions. Weighed food intake, anthropometric measures, and self-reported data were obtained. Doubling the portion size of several entrées and a snack served during a 24-h period increased energy intake from those foods by 23% (180 kcal) among children (P kcal) among mothers (P daily intakes among Hispanic and African American children.

  10. An automated procedure for the quality assurance of electron beam output and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M.K.; Videla, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we report on the development of a simple and accurate method for quality assurance of electron beam output and energy. Aluminum disks of thicknesses d max or d 50 of the particular electron energy are positioned sequentially over a parallel-plate ion chamber and the ratio of the two signals is compared to the standard. The positioning of the aluminum disks is carried out remotely and automatically to eliminate the necessity of multiple setups. One method utilizes the remote control feature of the treatment couch and another employs a motor-driven carousel. The superior sensitivity over a commercially available energy monitor is illustrated

  11. Investigating time-efficiency of forward masking paradigms for estimating basilar membrane input-output characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    -output (I/O) function have been proposed. However, such measures are very time consuming. The present study investigated possible modifications of the temporal masking curve (TMC) paradigm to improve time and measurement efficiency. In experiment 1, estimates of knee point (KP) and compression ratio (CR......”, was tested. In contrast to the standard TMC paradigm, the maker level was kept fixed and the “gap threshold” was obtained, such that the masker just masks a low-level (12 dB sensation level) signal. It is argued that this modification allows for better control of the tested stimulus level range, which...

  12. NURE aerial gamma ray and magnetic detail survey of portions of northeast Washington. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    The Northeast Washington Survey was performed under the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, which is designed to provide radioelement distribution information to assist in assessing the uraniferous material potential of the United States. The radiometric and ancilliary data were digitally recorded and processed. The results are presented in the form of stacked profiles, contour maps, flight path maps, statistical tables and frequency distribution histograms. These graphical outputs are presented at a scale of 1:62,500 and are contained in the individual Volume 2 reports

  13. Output levels of commercially available portable compact disc players and the potential risk to hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligor, Brian J; Cox, L Clarke

    2004-12-01

    To measure the sound levels generated by the headphones of commercially available portable compact disc players and provide hearing healthcare providers with safety guidelines based on a theoretical noise dose model. Using a Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustical Research and a personal computer, output levels across volume control settings were recorded from headphones driven by a standard signal (white noise) and compared with output levels from music samples of eight different genres. Many commercially available models from different manufacturers were investigated. Several different styles of headphones (insert, supra-aural, vertical, and circumaural) were used to determine if style of headphone influenced output level. Free-field equivalent sound pressure levels measured at maximum volume control setting ranged from 91 dBA to 121 dBA. Output levels varied across manufacturers and style of headphone, although generally the smaller the headphone, the higher the sound level for a given volume control setting. Specifically, in one manufacturer, insert earphones increased output level 7-9 dB, relative to the output from stock headphones included in the purchase of the CD player. In a few headphone-CD player combinations, peak sound pressure levels exceeded 130 dB SPL. Based on measured sound pressure levels across systems and the noise dose model recommended by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for protecting the occupational worker, a maximum permissible noise dose would typically be reached within 1 hr of listening with the volume control set to 70% of maximum gain using supra-aural headphones. Using headphones that resulted in boosting the output level (e.g., insert earphones used in this study) would significantly decrease the maximum safe volume control setting; this effect was unpredictable from one manufacturer to another. In the interest of providing a straightforward recommendation that should protect the hearing of the majority of

  14. Surface deformation on the west portion of the Chapala lake basin: uncertainties and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hernandez-Marin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate different aspects of land subsidence and ground failures occurring in the west portion of Chapala lake basin. Currently, surface discontinuities seem to be associated with subsiding bowls. In an effort to understand some of the conditioning factors to surface deformation, two sounding cores from the upper sequence (11 m depth were extracted for analyzing physical and mechanical properties. The upper subsoil showed a predominant silty composition and several lenses of pumice pyroclastic sand. Despite the relative predominance of fine soil, the subsoil shows mechanical properties with low clay content, variable water content, low plasticity and variable compressibility index, amongst some others. Some of these properties seem to be influenced by the sandy pyroclastic lenses, therefore, a potential source of the ground failure could be heterogeneities in the upper soil.

  15. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  16. Major hepatectomy using the glissonean approach in cases of right umbilical portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ome, Yusuke; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki; Park, Tae Bum; Ito, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Right umbilical portion (RUP) is a rare congenital anomaly associated with anomalous ramifications of the hepatic vessels and biliary system. As such, major hepatectomy requires a careful approach. We describe the usefulness of the Glissonean approach in two patients with vessel anomalies, such as RUP. The first patient underwent a right anterior sectionectomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We encircled several Glissonean pedicles that entered the right anterior section along the right side of the RUP. We temporarily clamped each pedicle, confirmed the demarcation area, and finally cut them. The operation was performed safely and was successful. The second patient underwent a left trisectionectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. We secured the right posterior Glissonean pedicle. The vessels in the pedicle were preserved, and the other vessels and contents were resected. Identifying the vessels for preservation facilitated the safe lymphadenectomy and dissection of the vessels to be resected. We successfully performed the operation. PMID:28008345

  17. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs

  18. Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Moura, P.L.C.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 μg/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 μg/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 μg/day). (author)

  19. Geological, engineering and economic study of a portion of the Lloydminster Sparky pool, Lloydminster, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, A I; Adams, K C

    1977-05-01

    A tidal-bar model for the deposition of the Sparky Sandstone at Lloydminster is presented and is related to the geology of a portion of the Lloydminster Sparky pool. An engineering and economic evaluation to determine the feasibility of redeveloping this suspended pool is undertaken. This study indicates that installation of a water-injection scheme immediately following a short production evaluation is economically viable. Economics of a tertiary thermal scheme for the pool are presented, on the assumption that present technological problems such as production of high-viscosity emulsions and sand have been overcome. Indications are that the incentive for further research into the solution of these problems is significant. Installation of thermal recovery schemes in this pool can be expected to increase recoverable reserves by 15,000,000 bbl.

  20. Repair of DNA in replicated and unreplicated portions of the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.

    1979-01-01

    Portions of the human genome that have replicated after ultraviolet light irradiation and those that remain unreplicated have both been examined for the distribution of pyrimidine dimers and the extent of repair replication following their removal. The data indicate that the number of unrepaired dimers and the extent of repair replication seen after their excision are equal in the replicated and unreplicated DNA. Furthermore, the daughter strand of replicated DNA is larger than the average interdimer distance found in the parental strand. Hence, DNA replication in normal human fibroblasts is clearly capable of getting past pyrimidine dimers, and a preferential repair of such lesions in DNA that is about to be or has been replicated does not operate to any visible extent in these cells. (author)

  1. Contribution to the geochronological pile of the setentrional portion of Ribeira folded belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, J.J.; Kawashita, K.

    1985-01-01

    Six new Rb-Sr isochrons on samples of rocks of the setentrional portion of the Ribeira folded belt are presented and discussed with others geochronological and geological data. The main object of this study is the search of the understanding of the geodynamic evolution of this Region using the Rb-Sr method. The results obtained for the K-Ar and U-Pb, in other papers, are also commented. The integrated analysis of the date deals with the charnocketic, gneissic - migmatitic and magmatic rocks. All the data are refered to the Brasiliano cicle (Upper Precambrian), and thus, the geochronological pattern points out to an important event in the generation of the geologic processes for the brasilian geotectonic unit. (Author) [pt

  2. Four cases of small, traumatic hemorrhage in the deep midline portion of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suho; Tsukahara, Tetsuya; Iwama, Mitsuru; Nishikawa, Michio

    1981-01-01

    Four cases recently encountered are presented in which computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated a small, traumatic hemorrhage in the deep midline portion of the brain. The lesions of hemorrhage revealed by CT were: Case 1, in the septum pellucidum and left lateral ventricle; Case 2, in the Monro's foramen and right lateral ventricle and Case 3, midbrain. These three cases had no other abnormal findings. In addition, a hemorrhage of the corpus callosum and diffuse brain damage were seen in Case 4. These small hemorrhages might be caused not only by the direct damage, but also by a local tendency to bleed due to hystoiogical fragility or the existence of a vascular anomaly, such as AVM or cryptic angioma. The prognoses quod vitam of our cases were relatively better than the previous reports of these hemorrhages, but the prognoses quod functionem were poor. The patients have shown prolonged psychoneurological disorder; these symptoms might be caused by damage to the limbic system. (author)

  3. Integrin Signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Schelfaut, Roselien

    2005-01-01

    Integrins are receptors presented on most cells. By binding ligand they can generate signalling pathways inside the cell. Those pathways are a linkage to proteins in the cytosol. It is known that tumor cells can survive and proliferate in the absence of a solid support while normal cells need to be bound to ligand. To understand why tumour cells act that way, we first have to know how ligand-binding to integrins affect the cell. This research field includes studies on activation of proteins b...

  4. Microsurgical clipping for the true posterior communicating artery aneurysm in the distal portion of the posterior communicating artery

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Masaru; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Chida, Kohei; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aneurysms arising from the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) itself are rare in which aneurysms usually located in the proximal portion of the PCoA. The authors report a case of the true PCoA ruptured aneurysm in the distal portion of the PCoA. Case Description: The patient was an 83-year-old man who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm arising on the fetal type right PCoA itself in the distal portion of the PCoA. 2 days after...

  5. Effects of energy content and energy density of pre-portioned entrées on energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Blatt, Alexandria D.; Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-portioned entrées are commonly consumed to help control portion size and limit energy intake. The influence of entrée characteristics on energy intake, however, has not been well studied. We determined how the effects of energy content and energy density (ED, kcal/g) of pre-portioned entrées combine to influence daily energy intake. In a crossover design, 68 non-dieting adults (28 men and 40 women) were provided with breakfast, lunch, and dinner on one day a week for four weeks. Each meal...

  6. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-07-15

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  7. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  8. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  9. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...... and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...

  10. Factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study assessed the factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry, a scale-intensive, supplierdominated industry. We concentrated on explanatory variables related to cooperation, information sources, innovation objectives, obstacles to innovation, and innovation

  11. Weak Disposability in Nonparametric Production Analysis with Undesirable Outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group at Wageningen University in The Netherlands Weak disposability of outputs means that firms can abate harmful emissions by decreasing the activity level. Modeling weak disposability in nonparametric production analysis has caused some confusion.

  12. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  13. Science policy through stimulating scholarly output. Reanalyzing the Australian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Heyman, U.; Sandström, U.

    2016-07-01

    There is a long standing debate about perverse effects of performance indicators. A main target is science policy using stimulation of output as instrument. The criticism is to a large extent based on a study of the Australian science policy in the early 1990s. Linda Butler studied the effects and argued that the effect was an growth of output, but also a decrease of average quality of the output. These results have been cited many times. In this paper we reanalyze this case and show that the analysis of Butler was wrong: the new Australian science policy did not only increase the output of the system, but also the quality went up. We discuss the implications. (Author)

  14. Robust output synchronization of heterogeneous nonlinear agents in uncertain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Wan, Fuhua; Tu, Mengchuan; Shen, Guojiang

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the global robust output synchronization problem for a class of nonlinear multi-agent systems. In the considered setup, the controlled agents are heterogeneous and with both dynamic and parametric uncertainties, the controllers are incapable of exchanging their internal states with the neighbors, and the communication network among agents is defined by an uncertain simple digraph. The problem is pursued via nonlinear output regulation theory and internal model based design. For each agent, the input-driven filter and the internal model compose the controller, and the decentralized dynamic output feedback control law is derived by using backstepping method and the modified dynamic high-gain technique. The theoretical result is applied to output synchronization problem for uncertain network of Lorenz-type agents. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bibliometric Analysis of Publication Output Patterns of Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is set out to analyse publication research output patterns of the faculty members of Agriculture and Veterinary Complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ... Faculty of Agriculture (FOA), National Agricultural Extension and Research ...

  16. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  17. Input-output interactions and optimal monetary policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the implications of factor demand linkages for monetary policy design in a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model. Part of the output of each sector serves as a production input in both sectors, in accordance with a realistic input–output structure. Strategic...... complementarities induced by factor demand linkages significantly alter the transmission of shocks and amplify the loss of social welfare under optimal monetary policy, compared to what is observed in standard two-sector models. The distinction between value added and gross output that naturally arises...... in this context is of key importance to explore the welfare properties of the model economy. A flexible inflation targeting regime is close to optimal only if the central bank balances inflation and value added variability. Otherwise, targeting gross output variability entails a substantial increase in the loss...

  18. Aqueous Extract of Flueggea leucopyrus Increases Urine Output in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLAE) on the urinary output of rats. Method: Three different doses of FLAE (500, 1000 and 1500 mgkg-1), furosemide (13 mg kg-1 as diuretic reference) and distilled water (as control) were orally administered to healthy adult hydrated rats.

  19. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  20. Public Investment and Output Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aregbeyen Omo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the direct/indirect long-run relationships and dynamic interactions between public investment (PI and output performance in Nigeria using annual data spanning 1970-2010. A macro-econometric model derived from Keynes’ income-expenditure framework was employed. The model was disaggregated into demand and supply sides to trace the direct and indirect effects of PI on aggregate output. The direct supply side effect was assessed using the magnitude of PI multiplier coefficient, while the indirect effect of PI on the demand side was evaluated with marginal propensity to consume, accelerator coefficient and import multiplier. The results showed relatively less strong direct effect of PI on aggregate output, while the indirect effects were stronger with the import multiplier being the most pronounced. This is attributed to declining capital expenditure, poor implementation and low quality of PI projects due to widespread corruption. By and large, we concluded that PI exerted considerable influence on aggregate output.