WorldWideScience

Sample records for portends stricter limits

  1. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  2. Stricter antitrust legislation?; Verschaerfung des Kartellrechts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-15

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  3. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  4. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  5. Thrombocytosis portends adverse prognostic significance in patients with stage II colorectal carcinoma [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4k6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhua Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytosis portends adverse prognostic significance in many types of cancers including ovarian and lung carcinoma. In this study, we determined the prevalence and prognostic significance of thrombocytosis (defined as platelet count in excess of 400 × 103/μl in patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of 310 consecutive patients diagnosed at our Institution between 2004 and 2013. The patients (48.7% male and 51.3% female had a mean age of 69.9 years (+/- 12.7 years at diagnosis. Thrombocytosis was found in a total of 25 patients, with a higher incidence in those with stage III and IV disease (14.4% of patients. Although the mean platelet count increased with the depth of tumor invasion (pT, its values remained within normal limits in the whole patient cohort. No patient with stage I cancer (n=57 had elevated platelet count at diagnosis. By contrast, five of the 78 patients (6.4% with stage II cancer showed thrombocytosis, and four of these patients showed early recurrence and/or metastatic disease, resulting in shortened survival (they died within one year after surgery. The incidence of thrombocytosis increased to 12.2% and 20.6%, respectively, in patients with stage III and IV disease. The overall survival rate of patients with thrombocytosis was lower than those without thrombocytosis in the stage II and III disease groups, but this difference disappeared in patients with stage IV cancer who did poorly regardless of their platelet count. We concluded that thrombocytosis at diagnosis indicates adverse clinical outcome in colorectal cancer patients with stage II or III disease. This observation is especially intriguing in stage II patients because the clinical management of these patients is controversial. If our data are confirmed in larger studies, stage II colon cancer patients with thrombocytosis may be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy.

  6. Temperature sensitivity of drought-induced tree mortality portends increased regional die-off under global-change-type drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Villegas, Juan Camilo; Breshears, David D.; Zou, Chris B.; Troch, Peter A.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale biogeographical shifts in vegetation are predicted in response to the altered precipitation and temperature regimes associated with global climate change. Vegetation shifts have profound ecological impacts and are an important climate-ecosystem feedback through their alteration of carbon, water, and energy exchanges of the land surface. Of particular concern is the potential for warmer temperatures to compound the effects of increasingly severe droughts by triggering widespread vegetation shifts via woody plant mortality. The sensitivity of tree mortality to temperature is dependent on which of 2 non-mutually-exclusive mechanisms predominates—temperature-sensitive carbon starvation in response to a period of protracted water stress or temperature-insensitive sudden hydraulic failure under extreme water stress (cavitation). Here we show that experimentally induced warmer temperatures (≈4 °C) shortened the time to drought-induced mortality in Pinus edulis (piñon shortened pine) trees by nearly a third, with temperature-dependent differences in cumulative respiration costs implicating carbon starvation as the primary mechanism of mortality. Extrapolating this temperature effect to the historic frequency of water deficit in the southwestern United States predicts a 5-fold increase in the frequency of regional-scale tree die-off events for this species due to temperature alone. Projected increases in drought frequency due to changes in precipitation and increases in stress from biotic agents (e.g., bark beetles) would further exacerbate mortality. Our results demonstrate the mechanism by which warmer temperatures have exacerbated recent regional die-off events and background mortality rates. Because of pervasive projected increases in temperature, our results portend widespread increases in the extent and frequency of vegetation die-off. PMID:19365070

  7. The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: A time series intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly. Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy. The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably. This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breaks in MODIS time series portend vegetation change: verification using long-term data in an arid grassland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Dawn M; Maynard, Jonathan J; Karl, Jason W; Peters, Debra C

    2017-07-01

    Frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are forecast to increase in the 21st century. Predicting how managed ecosystems may respond to climatic extremes is intensified by uncertainty associated with knowing when, where, and how long effects of extreme events will be manifest in an ecosystem. In water-limited ecosystems with high inter-annual variability in rainfall, it is important to be able to distinguish responses that result from seasonal fluctuations in rainfall from long-term directional increases or decreases in precipitation. A tool that successfully distinguishes seasonal from directional biomass responses would allow land managers to make informed decisions about prioritizing mitigation strategies, allocating human resource monitoring efforts, and mobilizing resources to withstand extreme climatic events. We leveraged long-term observations (2000-2013) of quadrat-level plant biomass at multiple locations across a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico to verify the use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from 250-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data as a proxy for changes in aboveground productivity. This period encompassed years of sustained drought (2000-2003) and record-breaking high rainfall (2006 and 2008) followed by subsequent drought years (2011 through 2013) that resulted in a restructuring of plant community composition in some locations. Our objective was to decompose vegetation patterns derived from MODIS NDVI over this period into contributions from (1) the long-term trend, (2) seasonal cycle, and (3) unexplained variance using the Breaks for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) model. BFAST breakpoints in NDVI trend and seasonal components were verified with field-estimated biomass at 15 sites that differed in species richness, vegetation cover, and soil properties. We found that 34 of 45 breaks in NDVI trend reflected large changes in mean biomass and 16 of 19 seasonal

  9. Normal myocardial perfusion scan portends a benign prognosis independent from the pretest probability of coronary artery disease. Sub-analysis of the J-ACCESS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Yosihiro; Fukuyama, Takaya; Nishimura, Sigeyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the usefulness of gated stress/rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to predict ischemic cardiac events in Japanese patients with various estimated pretest probabilities of coronary artery disease (CAD). Of the 4031 consecutively registered patients for a J-ACCESS (Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT) study, 1904 patients without prior cardiac events were selected. Gated stress/rest myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed and segmental perfusion scores and quantitative gated SPECT results were derived. The pretest probability for having CAD was estimated using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/American College of Physicians- American Society of Internal Medicine guideline data for the management of patients with chronic stable angina, which includes age, gender, and type of chest discomfort. The patients were followed up for three years. During the three-year follow-up period, 96 developed ischemic cardiac events: 17 cardiac deaths, 8 nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 71 clinically driven revascularization. The summed stress score (SSS) was the most powerful independent predictor of all ischemic cardiac events (hazard ratio 1.077, confidence interval (CI) 1.045-1.110). Abnormal SSS (>3) was associated with a significantly higher cardiac event rate in patients with an intermediate to high pretest probability of CAD. Normal SSS (≤3) was associated with a low event rate in patients with any pretest probability of CAD. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is useful for further risk-stratification of patients with suspected CAD. The abnormal scan result (SSS>3) is discriminative for subsequent cardiac events only in the groups with an intermediate to high pretest probability of CAD. The salient result is that normal scan results portend a benign prognosis independent from the pretest probability of CAD. (author)

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of a U.S. native fine-leaved Festuca population portends its potential use for low-input urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continued reduction in limited natural resources worldwide increasingly necessitates the incorporation of low maintenance and input plant materials into urban landscapes. Although some fine-leaved Festuca grass species have been utilized in formal gardens and native urban landscapes because of thei...

  11. Dilution of rice with other gluten free grains to lower inorganic arsenic in foods for young children in response to European Union regulations provides impetus to setting stricter standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Emily; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J.

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increasing realisation that young infants are exposed to elevated concentrations of the carcinogen inorganic arsenic, relative to adults. This is because many infant food products are rice based, and rice is ~10-fold elevated in inorganic arsenic compared to most other foods. The European Commission (EC) has acted on this concern setting stricter standards for infants, 100 μg of inorganic arsenic per kg of food (100 μg/kg), as compared to adults (200 μg/kg), for rice based foods, a law that was brought into place in 1st January 2016. Here we investigate how this law has impacted on inorganic arsenic in baby food products in the UK market, and compare the findings to previous baby food surveys taken before and just after the law came into place. We find that for a wide range of UK infant products that the new regulations are being adhered to, with all samples surveyed, being under 100 μg/kg inorganic arsenic. The prevalence of pure rice products had decreased in the UK, and there appears to be careful sourcing of the rice used in these products to ensure conformity with regulations. There has been an increased presence of mixed cereal products, with rice and maize as the main ingredient, appearing on the UK market, with varying rice contents for infant porridges, cakes and mueslis, with the latter being a relatively innovative product for infant foods. There was a highly significant correlation (P<0.0001) between rice content and inorganic arsenic concentration across all infant foods. When UK infant rice cakes, breakfast cereals and porridges were compare to their general, i.e. not labelled specifically for being for infant consumption, equivalent it was found that the adult foods generally exceeded the 100 μg/kg inorganic arsenic standard for infant foods. Thus, infants should not be given rice products not specifically labelled as being for them if a lower inorganic arsenic diet is to be maintained. PMID:29547635

  12. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...... workers aged over 50. From a simple model with endogenous firing and training decisions, we give a theoretical illustration of these results....

  13. SAFETY: STRICTER CONTROLS IN CONTROLLED AREAS IN THE PS

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Daems

    2001-01-01

    The PS accelerators will soon stop for several months. Work will take place in controlled areas in the PS and will involve many people who are not always aware of the risks associated with the work sites. To guarentee the safety of these workers, the following two measures will be applied: everyone working in a controlled zone - Linacs, PSB, and PS machines tunnels, and transfer lines - must wear, visibly, his CERN access card and his film badge. the CERN access card and the film badge will only be issued after following a basic safety course. Regular checks will be carried out during the shutdown. Anyone without these two items on their person will be obliged to leave the area immediately.

  14. Correlation and image compression for limited-bandwidth CCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Douglas G.

    2005-07-01

    As radars move to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with limited-bandwidth data downlinks, the amount of data stored and transmitted with each image becomes more significant. This document gives the results of a study to determine the effect of lossy compression in the image magnitude and phase on Coherent Change Detection (CCD). We examine 44 lossy compression types, plus lossless zlib compression, and test each compression method with over 600 CCD image pairs. We also derive theoretical predictions for the correlation for most of these compression schemes, which compare favorably with the experimental results. We recommend image transmission formats for limited-bandwidth programs having various requirements for CCD, including programs which cannot allow performance degradation and those which have stricter bandwidth requirements at the expense of CCD performance.

  15. Capability and limitation study of the DDT passive-active neutron waste assay instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Coop, K.L.; Estep, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    The differential-dieaway-technique passive-active neutron assay system is widely used by transuranic waste generators to certify their drummed waste for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Stricter criteria being established for waste emplacement at the WIPP site has led to a renewed interest in improvements to and a better understanding of current nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Our study includes the effects of source position, extreme matrices, high neutron backgrounds, and source self-shielding to explore the system's capabilities and limitations and to establish a basis for comparison with other NDA systems. 11 refs

  16. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  17. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  18. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  19. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  20. The implications of the new sulphur limits on the European Ro-Ro sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    -based alternatives. The exact repercussions of the new sulphur limits are difficult to identify in the wake of significant recent reductions of the fuel prices for both low-sulphur and heavy fuel oil. This paper presents a modal split model that estimates modal shifts vis-a-vis competing maritime and land......In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission ControlAreas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0.......1%, which can only be achieved if vessels are using pricier ultra-low sulphur fuel, or invest in abatement technologies. The increased operating costs borne by Ro-Ro operators in SECAs due to the stricter limits can result in the shutting down of some routes and a redistribution of cargo flows with land...

  1. Auto-vehicles and environment: Emission limits and innovative technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchera, G.

    1992-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the main design and performance characteristics and maintenance requirements of the principal types of catalytic converters currently being marketed in Italy. An assessment is made of the contribution of these devices to air pollution abatement in Italy as car owners conform to recently passed stricter emission limits. A historical review is made of trends in auto-vehicle pollution limits in the USA and Italy. Comparisons are made of efforts by industrialized countries to reduce air pollution in the transportation sector. Here, the author notes the slowness of Italy's response to the air pollution problem, in particular, this foreign-oil-dependent Nation's over-emphasis on energy consuming and highly polluting road transport systems, as well as, its lack of technology utilization and commercialization in the pollution equipment sector. Suggestions are made as to ways to overcome the worsening situation with regard to urban area traffic derived air pollution, e.g., the bolstering of mass transit systems and more R ampersand D investment in pollution abatement technologies

  2. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Limits to euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Susanne J

    2015-01-01

    A recent survey showed that less than half of Dutch physicians would find it conceivable to grant a request for euthanasia from a patient suffering from psychiatric disease or dementia, or who is tired of life. Because of a broader interpretation by the Regional Review Committees of the official criteria for due care, all recent cases of euthanasia in these specific groups of patients had been accepted. In this commentary it is argued that, following recent social developments in the Netherlands (including cuts in provision of care for the elderly and of mental health care, and a narrowed view about end-of-life issues), the official euthanasia criteria for due care are no longer suitable if we are to avoid a 'slippery slope' effect in cases such as those mentioned above. The criteria of a) a voluntary and well-considered request and b) absence of reasonable treatment alternatives are particularly under pressure. A plea is hold for a return to stricter interpretation of the criteria.

  4. [Sulfur dioxide limit standard and residues in Chinese medicinal materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Mo, Ge; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Jing-Yi; Lv, Chao-Geng; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Ye; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards, we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (150, 400 mg·kg⁻¹), the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52.43%, but it was reduced to 29.47% if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard (500 mg·kg⁻¹). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances, and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore, the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle, exposure frequency, and application method. In conclusion, it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese

  5. The technology and the limits of increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1994-01-01

    The future world needs a suitable living standard, above all, for the people in the poor countries. This means an increasing use of raw materials, energy and a stricter environmental technology. The technology can make its own contribution. Beside methods of recycling and substitution of material the increasing raw material use requires more energy and stricter avoiding of environmental damage. The today's fossil energy resources are running down and, due to environmental damage, they only can be used restrictedly. For the future there remains solar energy and nuclear energy. Both types of energy are needed. The tasks are to diminish the expense for the solar energy considerably and to introduce a catastrophe-free nuclear technology. For environmental protection a technology in closed cycles has to be applied. It is not necessary that the future of mankind will lead to a dead end. The future task is to solve these problems with caution, discipline and intelligence. (orig.) [de

  6. Advancing the Limits of Dual Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    diesel flow through the nozzle is largely removed. Through investigation and modeling it is shown that the cooling effect of the diesel fuel occurs as the fuel resides injector between injections and not during the actual injection event. For this reason; fuel residing close to the tip absorbs more heat and as a result the dependence of tip temperature on diesel substitution rate is highly non-linear. The problem can be reduced greatly by improved cooling around the diesel injector. Knock and preignitions are limiting the performance of the engine and the behavior of each and how they are affected by gas quality needs to be determined. Based on experiences from this project where pure methane has been used as fuel; preignitions impose a stricter limit on engine operation than knock.

  7. Partnerships – Limited partnerships and limited liability limited partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Johan J.

    2000-01-01

    Consideration of the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000 which introduced a new corporate entity, carrying the designations “partnership” and “limited” which allow members to limit their liability whilst organising themselves internally as a partnership. Article by Professor Johan Henning (Director of the Centre for Corporate Law and Practice, IALS and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced ...

  8. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  9. Limits on fundamental limits to computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Igor L

    2014-08-14

    An indispensable part of our personal and working lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Steady improvements in computer hardware have been supported by periodic doubling of transistor densities in integrated circuits over the past fifty years. Such Moore scaling now requires ever-increasing efforts, stimulating research in alternative hardware and stirring controversy. To help evaluate emerging technologies and increase our understanding of integrated-circuit scaling, here I review fundamental limits to computation in the areas of manufacturing, energy, physical space, design and verification effort, and algorithms. To outline what is achievable in principle and in practice, I recapitulate how some limits were circumvented, and compare loose and tight limits. Engineering difficulties encountered by emerging technologies may indicate yet unknown limits.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Stricter Alcohol Advertising Standards: The Case of Beam Global Spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Sparks, Alicia; Jernigan, David H

    2016-08-01

    Reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising is a global health priority. In most countries around the world, the alcohol industry is given the opportunity to regulate itself with respect to advertising practices. Generally, the alcohol industry self-regulations are lax, allowing youth to be disproportionately exposed to alcohol advertising. However, Beam Global Spirits and Wine (Beam) voluntarily adopted more restrictive advertising standards in the United States in 2007. This study assessed Beam's compliance with their new standard and estimates its effect on youth exposure and advertising costs. We found that Beam's compliance with its more restrictive standards was imperfect, but never-the-less, we estimated that youth exposure to alcohol advertising was reduced compared to other spirits brands. Beam's more restrictive standards did not increase their advertising costs and therefore other alcohol companies should consider adopting similar standards around the world.

  11. Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Guitart, Anna M; Bartroli, Montserrat; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa

    2014-10-01

    To analyse the association between alcohol advertising restrictions and the prevalence of hazardous drinking among people aged 50-64 years in 16 European countries, taking into account both individual and contextual-level factors (alcohol taxation, availability, etc.). Cross-sectional study based on SHARE project surveys. A total of 27 773 subjects, aged 50-64 years, from 16 European countries who participated in wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) project. We estimated the prevalence of hazardous drinking (through adaptation of the SHARE questions to the scheme used by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) for each country. To determine whether the degree of advertising restrictions was associated with prevalence of hazardous drinking, we fitted robust variance multi-level Poisson models, adjusting for various individual and contextual variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained. The observed prevalence of hazardous drinking was 24.1%, varying by sex and country. Countries with greater advertising restrictions had lower prevalence of hazardous drinking: 30.6% (95% CI = 29.3-31.8) in countries with no restrictions, 20.3% (95% CI = 19.3-21.2) in countries with some restrictions and 14.4% (95% CI = 11.9-16.8) in those with greatest restrictions. The PR found (with respect to countries with greatest restrictions) were 1.36 (95% CI = 0.90-2.06) for countries with some restrictions and 1.95 (95% CI = 1.31-2.91) for those with no advertising restrictions. The extent of advertising restrictions in European countries is associated inversely with prevalence of hazardous drinking in people aged 50-64 years. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Emiliania huxleyi endures N-limitation with an efficient metabolic budgeting and effective ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; Von Dassow, Peter; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe

    2014-12-02

    Global change will affect patterns of nutrient upwelling in marine environments, potentially becoming even stricter regulators of phytoplankton primary productivity. To better understand phytoplankton nutrient utilization on the subcellular basis, we assessed the transcriptomic responses of the life-cycle stages of the biogeochemically important microalgae Emiliania huxleyi to nitrogen-limitation. Cells grown in batch cultures were harvested at 'early' and 'full' nitrogen-limitation and were compared with non-limited cells. We applied microarray-based transcriptome profilings, covering ~10.000 known E. huxleyi gene models, and screened for expression patterns that indicate the subcellular responses. The diploid life-cycle stage scavenges nitrogen from external organic sources and -like diatoms- uses the ornithine-urea cycle to rapidly turn over cellular nitrogen. The haploid stage reacts similarly, although nitrogen scavenging is less pronounced and lipid oxidation is more prominent. Generally, polyamines and proline appear to constitute major organic pools that back up cellular nitrogen. Both stages induce a malate:quinone-oxidoreductase that efficiently feeds electrons into the respiratory chain and drives ATP generation with reduced respiratory carbon throughput. The use of the ornithine-urea cycle to budget the cellular nitrogen in situations of limitation resembles the responses observed earlier in diatoms. This suggests that underlying biochemical mechanisms are conserved among distant clades of marine phototrophic protists. The ornithine-urea cycle and proline oxidation appear to constitute a sensory-regulatory system that monitors and controls cellular nitrogen budgets under limitation. The similarity between the responses of the life-cycle stages, despite the usage of different genes, also indicates a strong functional consistency in the responses to nitrogen-limitation that appears to be owed to biochemical requirements. The malate

  13. Robust test limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the

  14. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  15. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2017-06-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  16. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  17. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  18. Reactor limit control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbel, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)

  19. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  20. Performance limitations at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, E.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse stability of coasting beams in the planned ISABELLE storage rings was studied. The beam--beam tune shift limitation at 0.005 can be avoided, and a computer simulation seems to show 0.005 is a pessimistic limit. For beams of reasonable smoothness on the edge, the actual limit should be somewhat higher. Some coupling effects due to the beam--beam interaction are also examined

  1. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Limit analysis via creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroco, E.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author) [pt

  3. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  4. Advanced limiters for ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous removal of heat and particles becomes a vital necessity in future steady-state fusion devices. The pump limiter seems to be an attractive concept to combine these two tasks. On ISX, various schemes of pump limiters are being explored with the final goal to furnish the ISX--C device with a pump limiter to handle heat removal and particle control in steady state. The emphasis of the present paper is on pump limiters based on ballistic particle collection. If this concept turns out to be successful in supplying sufficient pumping efficiency, it may be possible to design pump limiters without a leading edge. Analytical calculations of the particle collection efficiency are given for various limiter configurations. Pumping efficiencies of approximately 4--10%, depending on the specific configuration, seem to be feasible and should be sufficient for steady-state operation. Initial experimental results on pump limiter studies in ISX--B confirm the calculated collection efficiencies. By measuring the ion saturation current to the limiter blade and the pressure buildup simultaneously, we found a correlation between the incident particle flux and the pressure rise that agrees well with a simple model

  5. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  6. Mitigating greenhouse: Limited time, limited options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Most human-caused climate change comes from fossil fuel combustion emissions. To avoid the risk of serious climate change, very recent research suggests that emission reductions will need to be both large and rapidly implemented. We argue that technical solutions-improving energy efficiency, use of renewable and nuclear energy, and carbon capture and sequestration-can only be of minor importance, mainly given the limited time available to take effective climate action. Only curbing energy use, perhaps through 'social efficiency' gains, particularly in the high-energy consumption countries, can provide the rapid emissions reductions needed. The social efficiency approach requires a basic rethinking in how we can satisfy our human needs with low environmental impacts. Large cuts in emissions could then occur rapidly, but only if resistance to such changes can be overcome. Particularly in transport, there are also serious potential conflicts between the technical and the social efficiency approaches, requiring a choice to be made

  7. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  8. Moving toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.

    1983-06-01

    The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)

  9. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  10. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  11. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  12. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  13. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  14. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  15. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  16. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  17. Towards Improved Optical Limiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huffman, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... The first approach was to synthesize and study soluble thallium phthalocyanines. Thallium, due to its proximity to lead and indium on the periodic table, should exhibit favorable optical limiting properties...

  18. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  19. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  20. Limit lines for risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  1. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  2. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let S be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimen- sional split torus Gm,S on a smooth affine S-scheme X. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor Xλ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action. 'admits a limit at 0'. We show that Xλ is representable by a smooth ...

  3. Safety and design limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L. K.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Tsyganov, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues of NPP safety ensuring at the stage of fuel load design and operation by applying special limitations for a series of parameters, that is, design limits. Two following approaches are compared: the one used by west specialists for the PWR reactor and the Russian approach employed for the WWER reactor. The closeness of approaches is established, differences that are mainly peculiarities of terms are noted (Authors)

  4. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  5. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    biodiversity Daniel J. Isaak, Michael K. Young, Charles H. Luce, Steven W. Hostetler, Seth J. Wenger, Erin E author on Google Scholar Find this author on PubMed Search for this author on this site Charles H. Luce climate change will cause widespread extinctions of flora and fauna in mountain environments because of

  6. The "double a" phenotype: Portending allgrove′s syndrome and averting adrenal crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Allgrove′s syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder with only about 70 cases reported thus far and is characterized by alacrima, achalasia, and ACTH insensitivity among other clinical features. However, it has a widely variable clinical presentation, which may result in such cases remaining undiagnosed. Objective: To report a patient with impending Allgrove′s syndrome and to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion in diagnosing the same. Materials and Methods: A 2.5-year-old girl was diagnosed with impending Allgrove′s syndrome on the basis of clinical presentation, barium swallow study, Schirmer′s test, and hormonal evaluation. Results: A 2.5-year-old girl, born of non-consanguineous marriage, presented with failure to thrive and developmental delay with occasional vomiting on taking solid or semi-solid food for past 6 months. Examination revealed stunted weight (SDS of -4.4 and height (SDS of -4.76, and barium swallow showed presence of achalasia. On direct questioning, her mother mentioned presence of decreased tears on crying since birth, and Schirmer′s test confirmed the presence of dry eyes. Baseline ACTH was slightly elevated with normal basal and post-ACTH stimulation serum cortisol. Based on these findings, impending Allgrove′s syndrome was diagnosed with a plan for follow-up study of adrenal function. Conclusions: Allgrove′s syndrome may be an under diagnosed disorder as aclarima is often overlooked. However, a high index of clinical suspicion may help in avoiding adrenal crisis by diagnosing the condition early.

  7. Thrombocytosis portends adverse prognostic significance in patients with stage II colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Tianhua; Krzystanek, Marcin; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre

    2014-01-01

    of the 78 patients (6.4%) with stage II cancer showed thrombocytosis, and four of these patients showed early recurrence and/or metastatic disease, resulting in shortened survival (they died within one year after surgery). The incidence of thrombocytosis increased to 12.2% and 20.6%, respectively...

  8. A century of climate and ecosystem change in Western Montana: What do temperature trends portend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of change in temperature averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana temperature change to hemispheric and global temperature change, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly temperature data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term changes in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in temperature above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily temperature time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw temperatures during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as temperatures exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the changes. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

  9. Force Limit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  10. Theory of limit cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yan-Qian; Lo, Chi Y

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades the theory of limit cycles, especially for quadratic differential systems, has progressed dramatically in China as well as in other countries. This monograph, updating the 1964 first edition, includes these recent developments, as revised by eight of the author's colleagues in their own areas of expertise. The first part of the book deals with limit cycles of general plane stationary systems, including their existence, nonexistence, stability, and uniqueness. The second section discusses the global topological structure of limit cycles and phase-portraits of quadratic systems. Finally, the last section collects important results that could not be included under the subject matter of the previous two sections or that have appeared in the literature very recently. The book as a whole serves as a reference for college seniors, graduate students, and researchers in mathematics and physics.

  11. Hadron collider luminosity limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1992-01-01

    The three colliders operated to date have taught us a great deal about the behaviour of both bunched and debunched beams in storage rings. The main luminosity limitations are now well enough understood that most of them can be stronglu attenuated or eliminated by approriate design precautions. Experience with the beam-beam interaction in both the SPS and the Tevatron allow us to predict the performance of the new generation of colliders with some degree of confidence. One of the main challenges that the accelerator physicist faces is the problem of the dynamic aperture limitations due to the lower field quality expected, imposed by economic and other constraints.

  12. SLC kicker magnet limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Mattison, T.; Bowden, G.; Weaver, J.; Bulos, F.; Fiander, D.

    1991-01-01

    The SLC Damping Ring kicker magnets requires a fast magnetic field rise time of 58 nsec, a peak field of 800 gauss, a pulse amplitude stability of 0.01%, and a reasonable operational lifetime. The original kicker magnets designed by SLAC and at Fermi were not able to fulfill the SLC kicker requirements. Extensive studies were conducted to determine the limitation in the magnets, response of the ferrite in kicker magnet, and the modifications needed to improve the kicker magnet performance. The paper details the SLAC and Fermi kicker magnets limitation of performance

  13. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  14. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  15. The Copyright Agency Limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Caroline

    1993-01-01

    The evolution and functions of Australia's Copyright Agency Limited are described. The agency is a copyright collecting organization which collectively administers the rights of authors and publishers whose works are copied in education, and enters into blanket agreements with educational authorities outside the existing statutory license. Some…

  16. Occupational dose equivalent limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers methods of limiting individual radiation risks by recognizing the variation of risk with age at exposure, taking into account both somatic and genetic risks and proposes a simple formula for controlling individual cumulative exposure and hence risk. (Author)

  17. The Limits of Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    This discussion, presented at the Regent's Trustees' Conference, February 1973, reviews the limits of accountability in higher education. Managerial efficiency is suggested to assist in eliminating educational and financial waste. This, however, is the secondary concept emphasized. The primary emphasis indicates the legitimacy of the claims that a…

  18. Limitations on blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.

    1999-01-01

    The limitations on the performance of breeding blankets in a fusion power plant are evaluated. The breeding blankets will be key components of a plant and their limitations with regard to power density, thermal efficiency and lifetime could determine to a large degree the attractiveness of a power plant. The performance of two rather well known blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European Blanket Programme is assessed and their limitations are compared with more advanced (and more speculative) concepts. An important issue is the question of which material (structure, breeder, multiplier, coatings) will limit the performance and what improvement would be possible with a 'better' structural material. This evaluation is based on the premise that the performance of the power plant will be limited by the blankets (including first wall) and not by other components, e.g. divertors, or the plasma itself. However, the justness of this premise remains to be seen. It is shown that the different blanket concepts cover a large range of allowable power densities and achievable thermal efficiencies, and it is concluded that there is a high incentive to go for better performance in spite of possibly higher blanket cost. However, such high performance blankets are usually based on materials and technologies not yet developed and there is a rather high risk that the development could fail. Therefore, it is explained that a part of the development effort should be devoted to concepts where the materials and technologies are more or less in hand in order to ensure that blankets for a DEMO reactor can be developed and tested in a given time frame. (orig.)

  19. Age Limit of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    Pediatrics is a multifaceted specialty that encompasses children's physical, psychosocial, developmental, and mental health. Pediatric care may begin periconceptionally and continues through gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although adolescence and young adulthood are recognizable phases of life, an upper age limit is not easily demarcated and varies depending on the individual patient. The establishment of arbitrary age limits on pediatric care by health care providers should be discouraged. The decision to continue care with a pediatrician or pediatric medical or surgical subspecialist should be made solely by the patient (and family, when appropriate) and the physician and must take into account the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the abilities of the pediatric provider to meet these needs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. FTU pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  1. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  2. Limits of Nuclear Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B; Kleban, M

    2003-01-01

    The modern version of the liquid-drop model (LSD) is compared with the macroscopic part of the binding energy evaluated within the Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov procedure with the Gogny force and the relativistic mean field theory. The parameters of a liquid-drop like mass formula which approximate on the average the self-consistent results are compared with other models. The limits of nuclear stability predicted by these models are discussed.

  3. Are Limit Orders Rational?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2007), s. 32-38 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417; GA ČR GA402/04/1294; GA ČR GD402/03/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : market microstructure * limit order market * portfolio selection Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  4. INAA - application and limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    1990-01-01

    The uncertainties associated with performing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are discussed in relation to their category. The Comite International de Poids et Mesure (CIPM) distinguishes between uncertainties according to how their contribution to the overall uncertainty is evaluated. INAA is a potentially definitive method, if all sources of uncertainty can be accounted for. The limitation of the method is reached when uncertainties, which cannot be accounted for, assume significance, and the method cannot be brought in statistical control. (orig.)

  5. Density limits in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1984-06-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  6. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  7. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William G.

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  8. Superconductive AC current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhaled, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an AC current limiter for a power transport line including a power supply circuit and feeding a load circuit via an overload circuit-breaker member. The limiter comprises a transformer having a primary winding connected in series between the power supply circuit and the load circuit and at least one secondary winding of superconductor material contained in a cryogenic enclosure and short-circuited on itself. The leakage reactance of the transformer as seen from the primary winding is low, and the resistance of the at least one secondary winding when in the non-superconducting state and as seen from the primary is much greater than the nominal impedance of the transformer. The improvement whereby the at least one secondary winding of the transformer comprises an active winding in association with a set of auxiliary windings. The set of auxiliary windings is constituted by an even number of series-connected auxiliary windings wound in opposite directions, with the total number of turns in one direction being equal to the total number of turns in the opposite direction, and with the thermal capacity of the secondary winding as a whole being sufficiently high to limit the expansion thereof to a value which remains small during the time it takes the circuit-breaking member to operate

  9. Strategic arms limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  10. Beta limits for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    ETF (Engineering Test Facility) one-dimensional transport simulations indicate that a volume-average beta of 4% is required for ignition. It is therefore important that theoretical beta limits, determined by requiring equilibria to be stable to all ideal modes, exceed 4%. This paper documents an ideal MHD analysis wherein it is shown that, with appropriate plasma cross-sectional shape and current profile optimization, operation near 5% is possible. The critical beta value, however, depends on the functional form used for ff', which suggests that higher critical betas could be achieved by directly optimizing the safety factor profile. (author)

  11. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  12. Fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  13. Dose. Detriment. Limit assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    2015-01-01

    One goal of radiation protection is the limitation of stochastic effects due to radiation exposure. The probability of occurrence of a radiation induced stochastic effect, however, is only one of several other parameters which determine the radiation detriment. Though the ICRP-concept of detriment is a quantitative definition, the kind of detriment weighting includes somewhat subjective elements. In this sense, the detriment-concept of ICRP represents already at the stage of effective dose a kind of assessment. Thus, by comparing radiation protection standards and concepts interconvertible or with those of environment or occupational protection one should be aware of the possibly different principles of detriment assessment.

  14. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  15. Limitation of Auditors' Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...... to the fact that the insurance premiums associated with an unlimited liability must of course make the auditor’s tasks more expensive. Relevant EU recommendations and a comparative glance at other EU countries’ proposed solutions to the problem are included....

  16. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  17. Limits to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  18. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  19. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  20. The limitation and modification of flux-limited diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan; Huang Wenkai

    1986-01-01

    The limitation of various typical flux-limited diffusion theory and advantages of asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant are analyzed and compared. The conclusions are as following: Though the flux-limited problem in neutron diffusion theory are theoretically solved by derived flux-limited diffusion equation, it's going too far to limit flux due to the inappropriate assumption in deriving flux-limited diffusion equation. The asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant has eliminated the above-mentioned limitation, and it is more accurate than flux-limited diffusion theory in describing neutron transport problem

  1. Limits of Lubrication in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam

    as delivered stainless steel surfaces implying microstructure changes in terms of larger ratio of closed lubricant pockets due to selective grain boundary etching. Strategic surfaces have also been created by macroscopic texturing using spherical indentations having a very small edge slope in order to promote...... by strategic surfaces in comparison to normal stainless steel surfaces implying a larger extent of bi-axial stretching. Numerical simulations have been applied in order to evaluate limits of lubrication in the simulative strip reduction based on predictions of critical parameters appearing in terms......-models corresponds well to experimental results in terms of lubricant film breakdown and subsequently pick-up development. Punching and blanking have been investigated regarding tribological conditions in case of using stainless steel workpiece materials. However, this has called for development of a new test method...

  2. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  3. [Does medicine limit enlightenment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipperges, H

    1977-01-01

    In the first, historical part the most important programs of "Medical Enlightenment", are pointed out, beginning with Leibniz, followed by the public health movement of the 18th century, up to the time of Immanuel Kant. Based on this historical background several concepts of a "Medical Culture" are analysed in detail, for instance the "Theorie einer Medizinal-Ordnung" by Johann Benjamin Ehrhard (1800), the "Medicinische Reform" by Rudolf Virchow (1848) and the programs of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Arzte" (about 1850-1890), the latter bearing both scientific and political character. Following the historical part, the question is raised whether "Enlightenment" is limited by medicine and whether medicine is able to provide a program for individual health education resulting in a more cultivated style of private life, and lastly how this might be realized.

  4. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  5. Limit, breakthrough and prosperity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that the flow toward serious crises is in progress with regard to energy and industrial problems. Technical and industrial preparation and countermeasure to the flow are proposed, and the existence of a certain new world attainable on the assumption that the countermeasure is successful is described. The relation between oil output and the increasing demand for energy is pointed out as a subject matter of the crisis. The contribution of oil energy to total energy, after the output turns to decreasing process, decreases by 177.87x10 6 tons (converted to coal at the rate 6848 kcal/kg) per year at maximum. Converted to the GNP of the world, this becomes (425 dollar/ton x 177.87 x 10 6 ton=75.6 x 10 9 dollar). This fluctuation width in a year must be compensated by the change of industrial structure and energy supplying means. The countermeasure and preparation are proposed from the viewpoints of the energy and the industrial structure in which nuclear power generation plays important role. The largest production on the earth limited by energy consumption and the temperature balance on the earth is investigated, and the perspective in the future is given. (Yamamoto, Y.)

  6. What value, detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Specific approaches and applications of LLD's to nuclear and ''nuclear-related'' measurements are presented in connection with work undertaken for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. In this work, special attention was given to assumptions and potential error sources, as well as to different types of analysis. For the former, the authors considered random and systematic error associated with the blank and the calibration and sample preparation processes, as well as issues relating to the nature of the random error distributions. Analysis types considered included continuous monitoring, ''simple counting'' involving scalar quantities, and spectrum fitting involving data vectors. The investigation of data matrices and multivariate analysis is also described. The most important conclusions derived from this study are: that there is a significant lack of communication and compatibility resulting from diverse terminology and conceptual bases - including no-basis ''ad hoc'' definitions; that the distinction between detection decisions and detection limits is frequently lost sight of; and that quite erroneous LOD estimates follow from inadequate consideration of the actual variability of the blank, and systematic error associated with the blank, the calibration-recovery factor, matrix effects, and ''black box'' data reduction models

  7. The limits of deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this contribution is to propose a better insight of the validity of the theory of deterrence, and of related doctrines in more complex and more various situations than in the past: emergence of powers like China and India, of new nuclear States like North Korea and Pakistan, of countries planning to acquire nuclear weapons like Iran, and possibility of a new wave of nuclear proliferation in Middle-East and north-eastern Asia. It also aims at providing arguments in the debates on the struggle against nuclear proliferation and on the future of deterrence. The author first presents and comments the principles of deterrence, and illustrates them by more or less recent historical situations (Iran during the war with Iraq, USA after Pearl Harbour, Arab-Israeli wars, Iraq, and so on). He notably outlines that the notion of deterrence is present in Islamic culture, and that Iran has well integrated it in its defence strategy. Examples of statements and behaviours of other Arab leaders are discussed. The author also briefly indicates how the deterrence strategy is present in the official doctrines of Russia, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. In a second part, based on various examples, the author analyses the practical limitations of deterrence by distinguishing the psychological dimension (bounded rationality, political leaders suffering from various psychological problems, importance of the ideological and spiritual dimension, values prevailing on interests, the case of Iran), and the strategic dimension (good understanding of the enemy, sensitivity of the threat of massive damages, existence of a single decision centre and of an efficient communication). The author finally proposes seven recommendations for better deterrence efficiency

  8. Over the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, G

    1989-01-01

    With over 1 billion population, China is adding some 15 million to that total each year. And in the 18 years from 1982 to 2000, the net increase of Chinese population is expected to exceed 200 million. Because of the gigantic pressure from population and some mistakes in policies, the levels of ecological destruction and environment pollution are both serious. This includes deforestation, grassland degradation, desert encroachment, water resources shortage, and waste of mineral resources. Natural disasters including floods and droughts caused by those problems happen more and more frequently. If development damages the resource base, it can only result in a false prosperity, the so-called hollow economy. A large number of environmental problems result directly or indirectly from the pressure of population growth. Studies show that the appropriate number of people that can be supported by China's 9.6 million sq. km is about 700 million. However, this limit is now exceeded by over 300 million people, and will be exceeded by 500 million by the end of this century. Therefore, the task is to implement a birth control policy. At present, in urban areas, the goal of family planning has been reached, but in rural areas hard work is needed. Population control in urban areas, especially in big and medium-sized cities, includes dealing with the inflow of migrants from the countryside. There are 13 cities with a population above 2 million, 37 cities above 1-2 million, and 75 cities above 0.5-1 million. A lot of cities are very crowded, exerting great pressure on the environment. The booming of rural enterprises could provide a good solution to control the flow of rural people into big and medium-sized cities. The relationship between population, resources, environment, and development should be managed properly.

  9. Limitations of Managing Safety by Numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engström, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work, especially in a complex, dynamic workplaces, often requires subtle, local judgment with regard to timing of subtasks, relevance, importance, prioritization, etc. Still, people in the nuclear industry seem to think safety results from error counts and people just following procedures. In the wake of failure it can be tempting to introduce new procedures and an even stricter “rule following culture”. None, or at least very little, attention is given to tacit knowledge and individual skills. I am aiming to highlight the inadequacy of putting too much trust in formalization and that reporting and trending of events will contribute to increased learning, an increased nuclear safety and an efficient operational experience. The ability to interpret a situation concrete depends on proven experience in similar situations, analogical thinking and tacit knowledge. I intend to problematize the introduction and use of so-called Corrective Action Program (CAP) and computerised reporting systems linked to CAP in the nuclear industry. Categorization and trending in computerised reporting systems is only based on the direct or triggering cause and not based on any analyzes, so the question we have to ask is what the trends are really telling us, if anything at all.

  10. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  11. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  12. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a charter...

  13. Firearm Violence in Relation to State Legislation: Does stricter legislation result in lower rates of gun violence?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanel, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Every year, tens of thousands of U.S. civilians are affected by firearm violence yet gun control is still heavily debated. The relationship between gun ownership and violence is hotly disputed and highly politicized; much of this stems from the fact that the research is inconclusive on the direction and strength of this relationship. The research that has been done struggles to find clear evidence because the task of identifying precisely the nature of gun policies is a difficult one. This st...

  14. A Small Step Towards Stricter Practice in Cases of Breach of the Treaty under Article 108(2) TFEU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kasper Ullerup

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the extent to which the Court’s judgment in Case C-331/09 is in line with this case-law, especially the requirements for implementing decisions on repayment. The article starts with a review of the Commission Decision, followed by a description of the implementing measures...... taken by Poland. Next, the judgment of the Court of Justice is analysed in the light of the recent case-law. Finally, some comments are given on the course of events relating to Case C-331/09, and the partial annulment of the Decision by the General Court in Case T-1/08....

  15. On the Sen limit squared

    OpenAIRE

    Fullwood, James; Wang, Dongxu

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a class of F-theory vacua whose smooth elliptic fibers admit a vanishing $j$-invariant, and construct a weak coupling limit associated with such vacua which we view as the `square' of the Sen limit. We find that while Sen's limit is naturally viewed as an orientifold theory, the universal tadpole relation which equates the D3 charge between the associated F-theory compactification and the limit we construct suggests that perhaps the limiting theory is in fact an oriented theory c...

  16. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Material limitations on the detection limit in refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro S; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η, with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.

  18. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Asger Mortensen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.

  19. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro S.; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a...

  20. Thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2014-09-01

    The spatial coherence of solar beam radiation is a key constraint in solar rectenna conversion. Here, we present a derivation of the thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion - an expansion of Landsberg's elegant basic bound, originally limited to incoherent converters at maximum flux concentration. First, we generalize Landsberg's work to arbitrary concentration and angular confinement. Then we derive how the values are further lowered for coherence-limited converters. The results do not depend on a particular conversion strategy. As such, they pertain to systems that span geometric to physical optics, as well as classical to quantum physics. Our findings indicate promising potential for solar rectenna conversion.

  1. Material limitations on the detection limit in refractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro; Xiao, Sanshui

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and...

  2. Further limitations on nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1991-11-01

    This document addresses a number of subjects related to further constraints on nuclear testing, briefly discussing each of the following topics: the current political situation, the kinds of steps that might next be taken in test limitations and the impacts of further testing limits, the need for a test ban readiness program, some issues related to verification, and the possibility of confidence building measures as alternative, or near-term, steps to further test limitations

  3. ICRF power limitation relation to density limit in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.

    1992-01-01

    Launching high ICRF power into ASDEX plasmas required good antenna-plasma coupling. This could be achieved by sufficient electron density in front of the antennas i.e. small antenna-plasma distance (1-2 cm) and moderate to high line-averaged electron density compared to the density window in ASDEX. These are conditions eventually close to the density limit. ICRF heated discharges terminated by plasma disruptions caused by the RF pulse limited the maximum RF power which can be injected into the plasma. The disruptions occurring in these cases have clear phenomenological similarities with those observed in density limit discharges. We show in this paper that the ICRF-power limitation by plasma disruptions in ASDEX was due to reaching the density limit. (orig.)

  4. ICRF power limitation relation to density limit in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.

    1992-01-01

    Launching high ICRF power into ASDEX plasmas required good antenna-plasma coupling. This could be achieved by sufficient electron density in front of the antennas i.e. small antenna-plasma distance (1-2 cm) and moderate to high line-averaged electron density compared to the density window in ASDEX. These are conditions eventually close to the density limit. ICRF heated discharges terminated by plasma disruptions caused by the RF pulse limited the maximum RF power which can be injected into the plasma. The disruptions occurring in these cases have clear phenomenological similarities with those observed in density limit discharges. We show in this paper that the ICRF-power limitation by plasma disruptions in ASDEX was due to reaching the density limit. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  5. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  6. Magnetic shielding of a limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevnov, N.N.; Stepanov, S.B.; Khimchenko, L.N.; Matthews, G.F.; Goodal, D.H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Localization of plasma interaction with material surfaces in a separate chamber, from where the escape of impurities is hardly realized, i.e. application of magnetic divertors or pump limiters, is the main technique for reduction of the impurity content in a plasma. In this case, the production of a divertor configuration requires a considerable power consumption and results in a less effective utilization of the magnetic field volume. Utilization of a pump limiter, for example the ICL-type, under tokamak-reactor conditions would result in the extremely high and forbidden local heat loadings onto the limiter surface. Moreover, the magnetically-shielded pump limiter (MSL) was proposed to combine positive properties of the divertor and the pump limiter. The idea of magnetic shielding is to locate the winding with current inside the limiter head so that the field lines of the resultant magnetic field do not intercept the limiter surface. In this case the plasma flows around the limiter leading edges and penetrates into the space under the limiter. The shielding magnetic field can be directed either counter the toroidal field or counter the poloidal one of a tokamak, dependent on the concrete diagram of the device. Such a limiter has a number of advantages: -opportunity to control over the particle and impurity recycling without practical influence upon the plasma column geometry, - perturbation of a plasma column magnetic configuration from the side of such a limiter is less than that from the side of the divertor coils. The main deficiency is the necessity to locate active windings inside the discharge chamber. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  7. Tachyons in the Galilean limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, Carles [Departament de Matemàtiques and IOC, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG,Av. V. Balaguer 1, Vilanova i la Geltrú, E-08808 (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB),Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain); Mezincescu, Luca [Department of Physics, University of Miami,P.O. Box 248046, Coral Gables, FL, 33124 (United States); Townsend, Paul K. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-20

    The Souriau massless Galilean particle of “colour” k and spin s is shown to be the Galilean limit of the Souriau tachyon of mass m=ik and spin s. We compare and contrast this result with the Galilean limit of the Nambu-Goto string and Green-Schwarz superstring.

  8. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  9. Dose limits for ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, D.

    1989-01-01

    Dose limits for exposure to ionising radiation are assessed to see if they give sufficient protection both for the occupationally exposed and for the general public. It is concluded that current limits give a level of safety that satisfies the necessary criteria in the light of present knowledge and further reductions would be unlikely to improve standards of safety. (author)

  10. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, D.; England, J.; Rothermel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs

  11. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ''active'' protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated

  12. Limits to magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Paul; Mansfield, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The last quarter of the twentieth century saw the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grow from a laboratory demonstration to a multi-billion dollar worldwide industry. There is a clinical body scanner in almost every hospital of the developed nations. The field of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), after mostly being abandoned by researchers in the first decade of MRI, has become an established branch of the science. This paper reviews the development of MRM over the last decade with an emphasis on the current state of the art. The fundamental principles of imaging and signal detection are examined to determine the physical principles which limit the available resolution. The limits are discussed with reference to liquid, solid and gas phase microscopy. In each area, the novel approaches employed by researchers to push back the limits of resolution are discussed. Although the limits to resolution are well known, the developments and applications of MRM have not reached their limit. (author)

  13. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device

  14. Tokamak plasma interaction with limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    The importance of plasma purity is first discussed in terms of the general requirements of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The tokamak approach to fusion and its inherent problem of plasma contamination are introduced. A main source of impurities is due to the bombardment of the limiter by energetic particles and thus the three main aspects of the plasma-limiter interaction are reviewed, boundary plasma conditions, fuelling/recycling and impurity production. The experiments, carried out on the DITE tokamak at Culham Laboratory, UK, investigated these three topics and the results are compared with predicted behaviour; new physical phenomena are presented in all three areas. Simple one-dimensional fluid equations are found to adequately describe the SOL plasma, except in regard to the pre-sheath electric field and ambipolarity; that is, the electric field adjacent to the limiter surface appears to be weak and the associated plasma flow can be non-ambipolar. Recycling of fuel particles from the limiter is observed to be near unity at all times. The break-up behaviour of recycled and gas puffed D 2 molecules is dependent on the electron temperature, as expected. Impurity production at the limiter is chemical erosion of graphite being negligible. Deposition of limiter and wall-produced impurities is found on the limiter. The spatial distributions of impurities released from the limiter are observed and are in good agreement with a sputtered atom transport code. Finally, preliminary experiments on the transport of impurity ions along field lines away from the limiter have been performed and compared with simple analytic theory. The results suggest that the pre-sheath electric field in the SOL is much weaker than the simple fluid model would predict

  15. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...... been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how...

  16. Information Processing and Limited Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Mackowiak; Mirko Wiederholt

    2012-01-01

    Decision-makers often face limited liability and thus know that their loss will be bounded. We study how limited liability affects the behavior of an agent who chooses how much information to acquire and process in order to take a good decision. We find that an agent facing limited liability processes less information than an agent with unlimited liability. The informational gap between the two agents is larger in bad times than in good times and when information is more costly to process.

  17. Limited Releases of Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Krsko Nuclear Power Plant is about 700 MW Pressurised Water Reactor plant located in Slovenia close to the border with Croatia. The authorised limit for the radioactive releases is basically set to 50 μSv effective dose per year to the members of the public. There is also additional limitation of total activities released in a year and concentration. The poster presents the effluents of the year 2000 and evaluated dose referring to the limits and to the natural and other sources of radiation around the plant. (author)

  18. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-01-01

    One of the frontiers of todays nuclear science is the journey to the limits of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei

  19. Biased limiter experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.E.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Hodge, W.L.; Durst, R.D.; McCool, S.C.; Richards, B.; Gentle, K.W.; Schoch, P.; Forster, J.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments using an electrically biased limiter have been performed on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). A small movable limiter is inserted past the main poloidal ring limiter (which is electrically connected to the vacuum vessel) and biased at V Lim with respect to it. The floating potential, plasma potential and shear layer position can be controlled. With vertical strokeV Lim vertical stroke ≥ 50 V the plasma density increases. For V Lim Lim > 0 the results obtained are inconclusive. Variation of V Lim changes the electrostatic turbulence which may explain the observed total flux changes. (orig.)

  20. Superconducting dc fault current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cointe, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to alternative ones, but their protections need to use new systems. Superconducting fault current limiters enable by an overstepping of the critical current to limit the fault current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For these applications, coated conductors offer excellent opportunities. We worked on the implementation of these materials and built a test bench. We carried out limiting experiments to estimate the quench homogeneity at various short-circuit parameters. An important point is the temperature measurement by deposited sensors on the ribbon, results are in good correlation with the theoretical models. Improved quench behaviours for temperatures close to the critical temperature have been confirmed. Our results enable to better understand the limitation mechanisms of coated conductors. (author)

  1. Guidelines for setting speed limits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wium, DJW

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available , parking and loading manoeuvres, access to bounding properties, intersections, width of road without central median and clear roadside area. The method should result in greater uniformity in speed limits for similar circumstances as set by different...

  2. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  3. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  4. US ITER limiter module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.; Hassanein, A.

    1996-08-01

    The recent U.S. effort on the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield has been focused on the limiter module design. This is a multi-disciplinary effort that covers design layout, fabrication, thermal hydraulics, materials evaluation, thermo- mechanical response, and predicted response during off-normal events. The results of design analyses are presented. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented concerning, the capability of the limiter modules to meet performance goals and to be fabricated within design specifications using existing technology

  5. Time Limits : Effects on Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of differing time limits and the level of language proficiency on the written recalls of 66 Japanese EFL undergraduates. Results showed that different time limits affected total recall, but not main ideas recalled. Regardless of proficiency level, the 20-minute group (Group 2) recalled a greater number of idea units than the 8-minute group (Group 1). However, no significant difference was found between Groups 1 and 2 regarding the recall of main ideas, alth...

  6. Limits on the photon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, G.

    1996-03-01

    Is the photon mass strictly null as it is told in quantum electrodynamics. In fact, a coherent theory can be build with a massive photon. Experiences have been regularly led to try to make obvious an eventual non null photon mass. Superior limits more and more strict have been found. Here is given a general survey of the consequences of a non null photon mass, different methods to measure it and the achieved limits. (author). 30 refs., 1 fig

  7. Limited Memory, Categorization, and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; Ganesh Iyer; Amit Pazgal

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of a limited consumer memory on the price competition between firms. It studies a specific aspect of memory--namely, the categorization of available price information that the consumers may need to recall for decision making. This paper analyzes competition between firms in a market with uninformed consumers who do not compare prices, informed consumers who compare prices but with limited memory, and informed consumers who have perfect memory. Consumers, aw...

  8. Major Limitations of Satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wassai, Firouz A.; Kalyankar, N. V.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing has proven to be a powerful tool for the monitoring of the Earth surface to improve our perception of our surroundings has led to unprecedented developments in sensor and information technologies. However, technologies for effective use of the data and for extracting useful information from the data of Remote sensing are still very limited since no single sensor combines the optimal spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. This paper briefly reviews the limitations of satelli...

  9. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  10. Passive fault current limiting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  11. Preliminary disposal limits, plume interaction factors, and final disposal limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    In the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), each final disposal limit was constructed as the product of a preliminary disposal limit and a plume interaction factor. The following mathematical development demonstrates that performance objectives are generally expected to be satisfied with high confidence under practical PA scenarios using this method. However, radionuclides that experience significant decay between a disposal unit and the 100-meter boundary, such as H-3 and Sr-90, can challenge performance objectives, depending on the disposed-of waste composition, facility geometry, and the significance of the plume interaction factor. Pros and cons of analyzing single disposal units or multiple disposal units as a group in the preliminary disposal limits analysis are also identified.

  12. Power limit and quality limit of natural circulation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guochang; Ma Changwen

    1997-01-01

    The circulation characteristics of natural circulation reactor in boiling regime are researched. It is found that, the circulation mass flow rate and the power have a peak value at a mass quality respectively. Therefore, the natural circulation reactor has a power limit under certain technological condition. It can not be increased steadily by continually increasing the mass quality. Corresponding to this, the mass quality of natural circulation reactor has a reasonable limit. The relations between the maximum power and the reactor parameters, such as the resistance coefficient, the working pressure and so on, are analyzed. It is pointed out that the power limit of natural circulation reactor is about 1000 MW at present technological condition. Taking the above result and low quality stability experimental result into account, the authors recommend that the reasonable mass quality of natural circulation reactor working in boiling regime is from 2% to 3% under the researched working pressure

  13. Time-limited optimal dynamics beyond the Quantum Speed Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Das, Kunal K.; Arlt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum speed limit sets the minimum time required to transfer a quantum system completely into a given target state. At shorter times the higher operation speed has to be paid with a loss of fidelity. Here we quantify the trade-off between the fidelity and the duration in a system driven......-off expressed in terms of the direct Hilbert velocity provides a robust prediction of the quantum speed limit and allows to adapt the control optimization such that it yields a predefined fidelity. The results are verified numerically in a multilevel system with a constrained Hamiltonian, and a classification...

  14. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  15. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paiva Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  16. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  17. Penrose limits and RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimon, Eric G.; Sonnenschein, Jacob; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.

    2002-01-01

    The Penrose-Gueven limit simplifies a given supergravity solution into a pp-wave background. Aiming at clarifying its relation to renormalization group flow we study the Penrose-Guven limit of supergravity backgrounds that are dual to non-conformal gauge theories. The resulting backgrounds fall in a class simple enough that the quantum particle is exactly solvable. We propose a map between the effective time-dependent quantum mechanical problem and the RG flow in the gauge theory. As a testing ground we consider explicitly two Penrose limits of the infrared fixed point of the Pilch-Warner solution. We analyze the corresponding gauge theory picture and write down the operators which are the duals of the low lying string states. We also address RG flows of a different nature by considering the Penrose-Gueven limit of a stack of N D p branes. We note that in the far IR (for p<3)the limit generically has negative mass-squared. This phenomenon signals, in the world sheet picture, the necessity to transform to another description. In this regard, we consider explicitly the cases of M2 from D2 and F1 from D1. (author)

  18. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  19. Magnetic limiter for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masatsugu; Nakamura, Hiroo; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Minato, Akihiko; Fukushima, Yutaka.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease X-ray irradiation to coils by constituting magnetic limiters as a laminated structure of a carbon outer layer contacting to plasma and an inner molybdenum layer to thereby reduce braking radiation and secondary X-ray generation. Constitution: Magnetic limiters having a molybdenum substrate laminated with a carbon coating on the front surface is provided to a plasma-confining vacuum container. Fast electrons generated from plasma collide against the magnetic limiter and they are stopped by the carbon layer for suppressing the braking radiation, whereby the braking radiation is ended and the X-rays are decayed by the molybdenum layer. This can decrease the amount of X-rays irradiated on the coil. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Density limit in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Yutaka; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Hirayama, Toshio; Tsunematsu, Toshihide

    1990-05-01

    This report studies mainly the density limit for a series of gas- and pellet-fuelled limiter discharges in JT-60. With the pellet injection into high-current/low-q (q(a)=2.3∼2.5) discharges, the Murakami factor reaches up to 10∼13 x 10 19 m -2 T -1 . The values are about factors of 1.5∼2.0 higher than those for usual gas-fuelled discharges. The pellet injected discharges have high central density, whereas the electron density in the outer region (a/2 abs and n e 2 (r=50 cm) x Z eff (r=50 cm). (author)

  1. Density limit experiments on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.; Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Artaserse, G.; Belli, F.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Buratti, P.; Calabrò, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cianfarani, C.; Cocilovo, V.; Dimatteo, L.; Esposito, B.; Frigione, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Bin, W.; Granucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main problems in tokamak fusion devices concerns the capability to operate at a high plasma density, which is observed to be limited by the appearance of catastrophic events causing loss of plasma confinement. The commonly used empirical scaling law for the density limit is the Greenwald limit, predicting that the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord depends only on the average plasma current density. However, the Greenwald density limit has been exceeded in tokamak experiments in the case of peaked density profiles, indicating that the edge density is the real parameter responsible for the density limit. Recently, it has been shown on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) that the Greenwald density limit is exceeded in gas-fuelled discharges with a high value of the edge safety factor. In order to understand this behaviour, dedicated density limit experiments were performed on FTU, in which the high density domain was explored in a wide range of values of plasma current (I p = 500–900 kA) and toroidal magnetic field (B T = 4–8 T). These experiments confirm the edge nature of the density limit, as a Greenwald-like scaling holds for the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a peripheral chord passing at r/a ≃ 4/5. On the other hand, the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord does not depend on the average plasma current density and essentially depends on the toroidal magnetic field only. This behaviour is explained in terms of density profile peaking in the high density domain, with a peaking factor at the disruption depending on the edge safety factor. The possibility that the MARFE (multifaced asymmetric radiation from the edge) phenomenon is the cause of the peaking has been considered, with the MARFE believed to form a channel for the penetration of the neutral particles into deeper layers of the plasma. Finally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis has shown that also the central line

  2. Penser aux/les limites de nos limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Le mot « frontière » a beaucoup de succès, dans son sens propre mais plus encore comme métaphore d’une multitude de réalités qui ont à voir avec les limites, c’est-à-dire avec notre propension à découper le monde en objets séparables. Mais on constate une grande indétermination entre concept et métaphore et un usage trop facile de mélanges entre ceux-ci. Il faut donc d’abord admettre que la matérialité n’est qu’une des composantes de notre monde, mais que l’immatériel n’est pas l’irréel, le simulé ou le métaphorique. Après un détour par une théorie des limites et ses limites et une distinction entre le topographique (continu et le topologique (discontinu appliquée à l’intérieur et aux limites d’une aire, deux exemples sont développés qui visent à montrer que, si l’on trouve des frontières, ce n’est pas forcément là où on les attend et que l’appréciation juste de la place des frontières suppose la prise en compte de bien d’autres considérations que la seule limitation volontaire et brutale du franchissement d’une ligne imaginaire tracée au sol.Think about limits and the limits of our limitsThe word “boundary” has been very successful in its literal sense but even more so as a metaphor of a multitude of realities involving limits, that is, with regards to our tendency to divide the world into separable objects. However, one can observe a considerable uncertainty between the concept and the metaphor and an utilisation too easy of various mixtures of them. It becomes necessary therefore to first admit that materiality is only one of the components of our world whilst the immaterial is not unreal, simulated or metaphoric. After a detour consisting of examining a theory of limits and its limits and making the distinction between the topographic (continuous and the topologic (discontinuous applied to the interior and the limits of an area, two examples are developed which aim to

  3. Globalization and limit to growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, D.

    2009-01-01

    A global financial crisis is not the only concern the world should have. From oil and other commodities new challenges arise, that could be difficult to face properly and could provide another limit to growth. This Malthusian feature of the 21. century emerges clearly if one focuses on climate change. [it

  4. ITER operating limit definition criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.; Chiocchio, S.; Hureau, D.; Girard, J.Ph.; Gordon, C.; Portone, A.; Rodrigo, L. Rodriguez; Roldan, C.; Saibene, G.; Uzan-Elbez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The operating limits and conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which, together, define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER states (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components that are important for personnel or public safety (safety important class, SIC) are identified considering their functional importance in the overall plant safety analysis. SIC classification has to be presented already in the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing authority before manufacturing and construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits that, if exceeded, could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems, and the operational limits on equipment which warn against or stop a functional deviation from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. Some operational conditions, e.g. in-Vacuum Vessel (VV) radioactive inventories, will be controlled through procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants, is considered to the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines for the development of the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits.

  5. Functional Limitations in Severe Haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, F.R. van

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe the Disablement Process (DP) in Dutch adult patients with severe haemophilia, with specific focus on the domain of “Functional Limitations”. Four main questions underlie this thesis: How can Functional Limitations in severe haemophilia be investigated? Can the

  6. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  7. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  8. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  9. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  10. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  11. Limits on light Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental limits on light Higgs bosons (M/sub H/ < 5 GeV) are examined. Particular attention is paid to the process K → πH. It is shown that there may be an allowed window for light Higgs bosons between about 100 and 210 MeV. 13 refs., 2 figs

  12. The density limit in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alladio, F.

    1985-01-01

    A short summary of the present status of experimental observations, theoretical ideas and understanding of the density limit in tokamaks is presented. It is the result of the discussion that was held on this topic at the 4th European Tokamak Workshop in Copenhagen (December 4th to 6th, 1985). 610 refs

  13. Income trusts and limited partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toews, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This author provided a conceptual overview of income trusts and limited partnerships that are designed to pass operating cash flow directly to investors without the imposition of corporate taxes, discussed the evolution of the market, the mechanism used to price income funds, past and present performance of the sector, and made some predictions concerning the sector's future performance. 13 figs

  14. LIMITS OF THE EARTH BIOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel KUDRNA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the state of CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere demands knowledge on possibilities of the biosphere – its photosynthetizing apparatus, conditions and limits of absorption. A decisive precondition is to determine relation of CO2 accumulation by photosynthesis in dependence on the water balance, especially on its control quantity – transpiration, which is stabilized by supporting of underground waters.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.; Misra, B.

    1984-08-01

    An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on current design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein concern primarily thermal protection, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue

  16. Pushing the limits of NAA. Accuracy, uncertainty and detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes some highlights from the author's efforts to improve neutron activation analysis (NAA) detection limits through development and optimization of radiochemical separations, as well as to improve the overall accuracy of NAA measurements by identifying, quantifying and reducing measurement biases and uncertainties. Efforts to demonstrate the metrological basis of NAA, and to establish it as a 'Primary Method of Measurement' will be discussed. (author)

  17. ITER Operating Limits and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Operating Limits and Conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which together define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER status (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components important for personnel or public safety (Safety Important Class, SIC) are identified from the overall plant safety analysis on functional importance to safety of the components. SIC classification has to be presented already inside the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing safety authority before the relevant construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits, i.e. that if exceeded could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems and the operational limits on equipment which warn from or stop a functional departure from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. The safety limits have to indicate clearly states that leave the nominal safety state of ITER; they are derived from the safety analysis of ITER. OLCs can represent in some cases few parameters grouping together. Some operational conditions, e.g. inventories, will be controlled through no real time measurements and procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants is considered at the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines to develop the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits. A few examples are reported as well as open issues on some OLCs control and measurement and the relevant R-and-D planned to solve the issues. (author)

  18. Projected warming portends seasonal shifts of stream temperatures in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase stream temperatures in mountainous regions of western North America, yet the degree to which future climate change may influence seasonal patterns of stream temperature is uncertain. In this study, a spatially explicit statistical model framework was integrated with empirical stream temperature data (approximately four million bi-hourly recordings) and high-resolution climate and land surface data to estimate monthly stream temperatures and potential change under future climate scenarios in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem, USA and Canada (72,000 km2). Moderate and extreme warming scenarios forecast increasing stream temperatures during spring, summer, and fall, with the largest increases predicted during summer (July, August, and September). Additionally, thermal regimes characteristic of current August temperatures, the warmest month of the year, may be exceeded during July and September, suggesting an earlier and extended duration of warm summer stream temperatures. Models estimate that the largest magnitude of temperature warming relative to current conditions may be observed during the shoulder months of winter (April and November). Summer stream temperature warming is likely to be most pronounced in glacial-fed streams where models predict the largest magnitude (> 50%) of change due to the loss of alpine glaciers. We provide the first broad-scale analysis of seasonal climate effects on spatiotemporal patterns of stream temperature in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem for better understanding climate change impacts on freshwater habitats and guiding conservation and climate adaptation strategies.

  19. Breaks in MODIS time series portend vegetation change: verification using long-term data in an arid grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are forecast to increase in the 21st century. Predicting how managed ecosystems may respond to climatic extremes is intensified by uncertainty associated with knowing when, where, and how long effects of the extreme events will be manifest in the eco...

  20. Drought's legacy: multiyear hydraulic deterioration underlies widespread aspen forest die-off and portends increased future risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R L; Plavcová, Lenka; Anderegg, Leander D L; Hacke, Uwe G; Berry, Joseph A; Field, Christopher B

    2013-04-01

    Forest mortality constitutes a major uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and carbon-cycle feedbacks. Recent drought-induced, widespread forest die-offs highlight that climate change could accelerate forest mortality with its diverse and potentially severe consequences for the global carbon cycle, ecosystem services, and biodiversity. How trees die during drought over multiple years remains largely unknown and precludes mechanistic modeling and prediction of forest die-off with climate change. Here, we examine the physiological basis of a recent multiyear widespread die-off of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) across much of western North America. Using observations from both native trees while they are dying and a rainfall exclusion experiment on mature trees, we measure hydraulic performance over multiple seasons and years and assess pathways of accumulated hydraulic damage. We test whether accumulated hydraulic damage can predict the probability of tree survival over 2 years. We find that hydraulic damage persisted and increased in dying trees over multiple years and exhibited few signs of repair. This accumulated hydraulic deterioration is largely mediated by increased vulnerability to cavitation, a process known as cavitation fatigue. Furthermore, this hydraulic damage predicts the probability of interyear stem mortality. Contrary to the expectation that surviving trees have weathered severe drought, the hydraulic deterioration demonstrated here reveals that surviving regions of these forests are actually more vulnerable to future droughts due to accumulated xylem damage. As the most widespread tree species in North America, increasing vulnerability to drought in these forests has important ramifications for ecosystem stability, biodiversity, and ecosystem carbon balance. Our results provide a foundation for incorporating accumulated drought impacts into climate-vegetation models. Finally, our findings highlight the critical role of drought stress accumulation and repair of stress-induced damage for avoiding plant mortality, presenting a dynamic and contingent framework for drought impacts on forest ecosystems. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Do changing prices portend a shift in fuel consumption, diminished greenhouse gas emissions, and lower fuel tax revenue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The growing uncertainty about oil prices and availability has made long-range transportation planning : more challenging. Rather than relying on trend extrapolation, this study uses market mechanisms to : evaluate key long-range transportation planni...

  2. Limiting the financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints: Applications and opportunities for public policies and private investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam

    Increasing demand for electricity and an aging fleet of generators are the principal drivers behind an increasing need for a large amount of capital investments in the US electric power sector in the near term. The decisions (or lack thereof) by firms, regulators and policy makers in response to this challenge have long lasting consequences, incur large economic and environmental risks, and must be made despite large uncertainties about the future operating and business environment. Capital investment decisions are complex: rates of return are not guaranteed; significant uncertainties about future environmental legislation and regulations exist at both the state and national levels---particularly about carbon dioxide emissions; there is an increasing number of shareholder mandates requiring public utilities to reduce their exposure to potentially large losses from stricter environmental regulations; and there are significant concerns about electricity and fuel price levels, supplies, and security. Large scale, low carbon electricity generation facilities using coal, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facilities coupled with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, have been technically proven but are unprofitable in the current regulatory and business environment where there is no explicit or implicit price on carbon dioxide emissions. The paper examines two separate scenarios that are actively discussed by policy and decision makers at corporate, state and national levels: a future US electricity system where coal plays a role; and one where the role of coal is limited or nonexistent. The thesis intends to provide guidance for firms and policy makers and outline applications and opportunities for public policies and for private investment decisions to limit financial risks of electricity generation capital investments under carbon constraints.

  3. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  4. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  5. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√(n)), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √(n). This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a 'Randomized Central Limit Theorem' (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Levy laws.

  6. The quasi-abelian limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H.M.; Avan, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new, non-perturbative, eikonal method called the ''quasi abelian limit'' (QAL) is suggested for high energy quark (nucleon) scattering involving the exchange of all possible, non-interacting, non-abelian gluons (mesons). With this method, those functional integrals defining, e.g., the exchange of color coordinates in quark-quark scattering, are replaced by a finite number of quadratures over a subset of their coordinates. Mathematically, this procedure is not rigourous, because an unjustified interchange of limits has been performed; physically, it corresponds to the observation that the non-perturbative sum over all color-moment fluctuations can vanish at arbitrarily high energies. The QAL generates a result in agreement with a corrected, ''contiguity'' calculation, when the latter is summed over all perturbative orders. (orig.)

  7. Limitation and life in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Marvin; Smith, T. Scott

    1986-08-01

    ``The Earth is the very quintescence of the human condition...,'' says Hannah Arendt. Georg Simmel writes: ``The stranger is by nature no `owner of soil'—soil not only in the physical, but also in the figurative sense of a life-substance which is fixed, if not in a point in space, at least in an ideal point of social environment.'' How will no longer being Earthbound affect persons' experience of themselves and of others? Space colonization offers an opportunity for new self-definition by the alteration of existing limits. Thus ``limitation'' is a useful concept for exploring the physical, social and psychological significance of the colonization of space. Will people seek the security of routine, of convention, of hierarchy as in the military model governing our present-day astronauts? or will they seek to maximize the freedom inherent in extraordinary living conditions—as bohemians, deviants, travelers?

  8. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  9. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  10. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing mode...

  11. Limit laws for exponential families

    OpenAIRE

    Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.

    1999-01-01

    For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...

  12. On Uselessness of Limit Orders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 24 (2007), s. 45-57 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/03/H057; GA ČR GA402/07/1113; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : market microstructure * limit order market * portfolio selection Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  13. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-01-01

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M and O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits

  14. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  15. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  16. Photon and graviton mass limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. ''Cold dark matter'' (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. ''Modified Newtonian dynamics'' provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. ''Dark energy''might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  17. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  18. Impact-limiting materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Duffey, T.A.; McConnell, P.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of impact-limiting materials have been characterized which have applications in packages for the transport of radioactive materials. These materials are aluminum honeycombs, polyurethane foams, and aluminum foams. The results of the materials characterization have indicated strengths and weaknesses for each type of material. The polyurethane foams provide good impact limiting ability and excellent thermal insulation. However, they burn when subjected to the regulatory thermal event in the presence of air. The aluminum honeycombs provide excellent impact resistance in specific impact orientations. However, they provide relatively poor resistance to thermal assault. Finally, the aluminum foams exhibit relatively poor impact energy absorption capacities, significant variability in energy absorption, and limited thermal insulation. The development of the figures of merit examined the response of the materials to the impact event with the intent of maximizing the energy absorption of the materials with respect to either the volume or mass of the materials. Three figures of merit will be presented for the structural response. The figure of merit for the thermal event is based on minimizing the heat flux to the containment boundary. The paper presents a discussion of the test methods, a summary of the data and the figures of merit for each material. (J.P.N.)

  19. Limiting currents in superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilin, V.E.; Romanovskii, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the results of numerical and analytical calculations of the process of current charging into a round superconducting composite with properties homogenized over cross-section are presented. In the numerical solution taken was into account a common proceeding of the thermal and electromagnetic processes. A wire with real volt-ampere characteristics approximated by exponential dependence was considered. The calculations carried out at various rates of current charging, voltampere characteristics, matrix materials, heat transfer coefficients and other parameters showed: the existence of characteristic limiting value of current below which the wire remains in a superconducting state if the current charging ceases and above which changes into a normal state; this current is somewhat less than a quench current; the existence of finite value for limiting current at any low heat transfer from a surface. The analytical solution of the problem is given. It permitted to write the stability criterion from which the dependence of limiting currents on initial parameters follows. The wire nonisothermality, its heat capacity, thermal and electric conductivities are taken into account additionally, as compared to results published earlier

  20. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. “Cold dark matter” (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. “Modified Newtonian dynamics” provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. “Dark energy” might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  1. Workshop on confidence limits. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, F.; Lyons, L.; Perrin, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The First Workshop on Confidence Limits was held at CERN on 17-18 January 2000. It was devoted to the problem of setting confidence limits in difficult cases: number of observed events is small or zero, background is larger than signal, background not well known, and measurements near a physical boundary. Among the many examples in high-energy physics are searches for the Higgs, searches for neutrino oscillations, B s mixing, SUSY, compositeness, neutrino masses, and dark matter. Several different methods are on the market: the CL s methods used by the LEP Higgs searches; Bayesian methods; Feldman-Cousins and modifications thereof; empirical and combined methods. The Workshop generated considerable interest, and attendance was finally limited by the seating capacity of the CERN Council Chamber where all the sessions took place. These proceedings contain all the papers presented, as well as the full text of the discussions after each paper and of course the last session which was a discussion session. The list of participants and the 'required reading', which was expected to be part of the prior knowledge of all participants, are also included. (orig.)

  2. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  3. Limits to the growth debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.

    The first two major studies sponsored by the club of Rome were the report of the Meadows team at MIT, The Limits to Growth, published in 1972, and the Mesarovic and Pestel report, Mankind at the Turning Point, published in 1974. When the Club of Rome met in Philadelphia in April of 1976, its pronouncements reflected a frame of mind quite different from that of 1972. Recently, Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the Hudson Institute have published The Next 200 Years, a book evidently inspired as much by antagonism to the limits-to-growth school of thought as by affirmative faith in its own vision of technological optimism. The author discusses the content of the studies and summarizes his own position in four areas. (1) While no trend of growth of anything can continue indefinitely in the real world, there are not global physical limits to economic growth within a time frame susceptible to plausible foresight or relevant to policy making. (2) In some world regions, notably South Asia and tropical Africa, population growth rates do indeed threaten to create a kind of Malthusian trap, and the rapid reduction of fertility is critically important to their development prospects and urgent in time. (3) For other parts of the world, both rates and directions of growth will be more influenced by changes in preferences for consumption and in attitudes toward production than by physical constraints, although higher energy costs and environmental pressures will also be important influences in generating such changes in growth patterns. (4) Probable changes in directions of growth will generate new and important issues in international economic and political relations, with both dangers and opportunities for the evolving world order. (MCW)

  4. Casimir effect: The classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, J.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the high temperature (or classical) limit of the Casimir effect. A useful quantity which arises naturally in our discussion is the 'relative Casimir energy', which we define for a configuration of disjoint conducting boundaries of arbitrary shapes, as the difference of Casimir energies between the given configuration and a configuration with the same boundaries infinitely far apart. Using path integration techniques, we show that the relative Casimir energy vanishes exponentially fast in temperature. This is consistent with a simple physical argument based on Kirchhoff's law. As a result the 'relative Casimir entropy', which we define in an obviously analogous manner, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the boundaries. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary, in the classical limit, is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations in temperature from the behavior just described. These logarithmic deviations seem to arise due to our difficulty to separate the Casimir energy (and the other thermodynamical quantities) from the 'electromagnetic' self-energy of each of the connected components of the boundary in a well defined manner. Our approach to the Casimir effect is not to impose sharp boundary conditions on the fluctuating field, but rather take into consideration its interaction with the plasma of 'charge carriers' in the boundary, with the plasma frequency playing the role of a physical UV cutoff. This also allows us to analyze deviations from a perfect conductor behavior

  5. (Plant growth with limited water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  6. Moral Limits of the Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2017-01-01

    that the current pragmatic solutions to sustainable tourism development could not resolve issues of authenticity, equity, rights and fairness. There are three in-built moral limits in the tourism market, and namely: the market assumes it can price everything including culture and nature; the market distributes......Scholars and the practice community unanimously advocate sustainable balanced and sensitive tourism development. Engaging with locals and setting up public-private partnerships are frequently championed. This working paper introduces a set of lenses in the moral philosophy tradition and argues...

  7. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing model that was carrying was not accompanied by a parallel examination of its impact on the presentation of accounts.

  8. CSS3 pushing the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Push CSS3 and your design skills to the limit-and beyond! Representing an evolutionary leap forward for CSS, CSS3 is chock-full of new capabilities that dramatically expand the boundaries of what a styling language can do. But many of those new features remain undocumented, making it difficult to learn what they are and how to use them to create the sophisticated sites and web apps clients demand and users have grown to expect. Until now. This book introduces you to all of CSS3's new and advanced features, and, with the help of dozens of real-world examples and live

  9. Nanofabrication principles, capabilities and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Nanofabrication is one of the most comprehensive introductions on nanofabrication technologies and processes. A practical guide and reference, this book introduces readers to all of the developed technologies that are capable of making structures below 100nm. The principle of each technology is introduced and illustrated with minimum mathematics involved. Also analyzed are the capabilities of each technology in making sub-100nm structures, and the limits of preventing a technology from going further down the dimensional scale. This book provides readers with a toolkit that will help with any of their nanofabrication challenges.

  10. challenges, limitations and technical innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Fallenberg, Eva Maria

    2015-01-01

    The oldest technique dedicated to breast-cancer diagnosis, x-ray mammography, has considerable limitations in patients with dense breast tissue. Therefore it is a central focus of current research on breast cancer to increase the contrast between tissue and tumor, primarily with the use of contrast-agents. The main goal of this body of work was to compare modern ionic and non-ionic macrocyclic gadolinium-containing contrast-agents when used for breast MRI and to research the applicabili...

  11. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.

    1987-01-01

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources. 14 references

  12. The philosophy of dose limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of concepts and terms appearing in the European Rules of 15 July 1980 is briefly described. After a period where ''tolerance doses'' represent definite limits which should be respected, appears the concept of a ''as low as possible'' and ''as low as practicable'' level. The hypothesis that any exposure represents a risk which should be avoided is taken into account in the later evolution. As a consequence one has to examine the advantages and disadvantages in other words to make a cost-benefit analysis. This evolution leads to the concepts of justification and optimization used at the present time. (author)

  13. Dose limits cause unacceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Sylvia.

    1985-01-01

    This paper on radiation dose limits for workers and the public discusses the following: Medical Research Council report; safety standards; risk assessment; deaths from cancers; biological radiation effects; UK legislation; low-level radiation; public concern; UKAEA staff survey; Ionising Radiations Regulations; United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation; US studies on work force in nuclear establishments; problems of extrapolation; Japanese data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations; studies on uranium miners; UK Health and Safety Executive; UK National Radiological Protection Board. (U.K.)

  14. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    As Friday, April 18 and Monday, April 21, 2003 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (AVENANCE : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, April 19 - 20. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 22 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30.

  15. Food irradiation, profits and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)

  16. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oiticica: limites de uma experiência limite

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Cristiane Jara Grubert

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho trata da trajetória artística de Hélio Oiticica, que se empenhou em entender e reformular o perfil do artista, seu lugar e papel na sociedade. Foi esse processo metódico e constante de experimentação e reflexão que o levou a expandir os limites dos suportes artísticos tradicionais, especialmente a partir de meados da década de 60. É realçada a importância da formação de Hélio Oiticica no Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro para sua atuação posterior, aberta ao diálogo com um...

  18. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  19. Hamiltonian mechanics limits microscopic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James; Gilz, Lukas; Thesing, Eike

    2015-05-01

    We propose a definition of fully microscopic engines (micro-engines) in terms of pure mechanics, without reference to thermodynamics, equilibrium, or cycles imposed by external control, and without invoking ergodic theory. This definition is pragmatically based on the observation that what makes engines useful is energy transport across a large ratio of dynamical time scales. We then prove that classical and quantum mechanics set non-trivial limits-of different kinds-on how much of the energy that a micro-engine extracts from its fuel can be converted into work. Our results are not merely formal; they imply manageable design constraints on micro-engines. They also suggest the novel possibility that thermodynamics does not emerge from mechanics in macroscopic regimes, but rather represents the macroscopic limit of a generalized theory, valid on all scales, which governs the important phenomenon of energy transport across large time scale ratios. We propose experimental realizations of the dynamical mechanisms we identify, with trapped ions and in Bose-Einstein condensates (``motorized bright solitons'').

  20. Compliance with public dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation, in various forms, is ubiquitous in the environment. Natural background radiation leads to an average radiation exposure for the general population of about 2 mSv per year. The mining and milling of radioactive ores - uranium and mineral sands - may cause a small increase in radiation exposure for some members of the public. Because any such increment in exposure is small compared with a natural exposure that is variable and difficult to quantify accurately, it is not easy to determine what proportion of the total dose received by a member of the public can be attributed to mining and milling activities. Consequently, because public dose limits apply and to those doses caused by human activity, such as mining and milling, the task of demonstrating compliance can be hampered by uncertainty. Some strategies for handling this situation are discussed. While the discussion concentrates on public dose limits, much of it may also be applicable, or adaptable, to occupational exposure. 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Peptidomics for Studying Limited Proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Osaki, Tsukasa; Minamino, Naoto; Sasaki, Kazuki

    2015-11-06

    Limited proteolysis is a pivotal mechanism regulating protein functions. Identifying physiologically or pathophysiologically relevant cleavage sites helps to develop molecular tools that can be used for diagnostics or therapeutics. During proteolysis of secretory and membrane proteins, part of the cleaved protein is liberated and destined to undergo degradation but should retain original cleavage sites created by proteolytic enzymes. We profiled endogenous peptides accumulated for 4 h in media conditioned by primary cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts. A total of 3916 redundant peptide sequences from 94 secretory proteins and membrane proteins served to identify limited cleavage sites, both annotated and unannotated, for signal peptide or propeptide removal, peptide hormone processing, ectodomain shedding, and regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Incorrectly predicted signal cleavage sites are found in typical proteins such as extracellular matrix proteins and the peptide hormone precursor adrenomedullin ADM. The revealed signal peptide cleavage site for ADM was experimentally verified by identifying the major molecular form of flanking proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide. We suggest that profiling of endogenous peptides, like transcriptome sequence reads, makes sense in regular cells such as fibroblasts and that peptidomics provides insight into proteolysis-regulated protein functions.

  3. Be-limiter experiment on ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    The relevance of this experiment to the JET experiment is described. Data on the following issues are given: (1) thermo-mechanical properties of the Be-limiter; (2) particle flow to limiter; (3) heat flow to the limiter; (4) limiter-plasma-wall interaction; (5) plasma properties/operation; (6) active control of plasma-limiter operation; and (7) fault conditions

  4. Controlling percolation with limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Malte; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Sornette, Didier; Nagler, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity, or the lack thereof, is crucial for the function of many man-made systems, from financial and economic networks over epidemic spreading in social networks to technical infrastructure. Often, connections are deliberately established or removed to induce, maintain, or destroy global connectivity. Thus, there has been a great interest in understanding how to control percolation, the transition to large-scale connectivity. Previous work, however, studied control strategies assuming unlimited resources. Here, we depart from this unrealistic assumption and consider the effect of limited resources on the effectiveness of control. We show that, even for scarce resources, percolation can be controlled with an efficient intervention strategy. We derive such an efficient strategy and study its implications, revealing a discontinuous transition as an unintended side effect of optimal control.

  5. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...

  6. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  7. Mathematical methods for hydrodynamic limits

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, Anna

    1991-01-01

    Entropy inequalities, correlation functions, couplings between stochastic processes are powerful techniques which have been extensively used to give arigorous foundation to the theory of complex, many component systems and to its many applications in a variety of fields as physics, biology, population dynamics, economics, ... The purpose of the book is to make theseand other mathematical methods accessible to readers with a limited background in probability and physics by examining in detail a few models where the techniques emerge clearly, while extra difficulties arekept to a minimum. Lanford's method and its extension to the hierarchy of equations for the truncated correlation functions, the v-functions, are presented and applied to prove the validity of macroscopic equations forstochastic particle systems which are perturbations of the independent and of the symmetric simple exclusion processes. Entropy inequalities are discussed in the frame of the Guo-Papanicolaou-Varadhan technique and of theKipnis-Oll...

  8. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  9. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    As Friday 29 March and Monday 1st April 2002 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP, bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Avenance, bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday 30-31 March. They will reopen on Tuesday 2 April at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR, bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday 28 March, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning. Restaurant Supervisory Committee Tel. 77551

  10. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    As Friday, April 18 and Monday, April 21, 2003 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (AVENANCE : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, April 19 - 20. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 22 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday, April 17, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.

  11. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2001-01-01

    As Friday 13 and Monday 16 April 2001 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP, bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Générale de Restauration, bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday 14 and Sunday 15 April. They will reopen on Tuesday 17 April at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR, bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday 12 April, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no 1, which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.

  12. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    As Friday, March 29 and Monday, April 1st, 2002 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Avenance : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, March 30 - 31. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 2 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday, March 28, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.   Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  13. Material selection for TFTR limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.

    1980-10-01

    The requirements for the material to be used as the first surface of limiters in TFTR are that it: (1) withstand a heat flux of 1 kw/cm 2 for a pulse length of 1.5s and a duty cycle of 1/200 for 10 5 cycles, (2) withstand the thermal and electro-magnetic loads from 10 4 plasma current disruptions lasting about 200 μs, (3) generate impurities at a rate low enough to meet impurity control requirements (which depend on the atomic number of the material) for TFTR, and (4) have tritium retention characteristics consistent with tritium inventory requirements for TFTR. An extensive set of material tests using electron beams, neutral beams, and plasma bombardment have been carried out to identify materials which can meet the thermal requirements of the above

  14. Limits to power system growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.M.; Klein, A.C.; Webb, B.J.; Pauley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of space nuclear power systems a variety of conversion techniques may be used, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. A study was performed which analyzed over 120 proposed system designs. The designs were compared to identify the optimum conversion system as a function of power level and find limits to specific mass (kg/kWe) for each power cycle. Furthermore, the component masses were studied to determine which component of the overall design contributes the most to total system mass over a variety of power levels. The results can provide a focus for future research efforts by selecting the best conversion technology for the desired power range, and optimizing the system component which contributes most to the total mass

  15. Prostatic carcinoma: limited field irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rounsaville, M.C.; Green, J.P.; Vaeth, J.M.; Purdon, R.P.; Heltzel, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 251 patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma treated primarily with limited field radiotherapy techniques, under the principle direction of authors JMV and JPG, between 1968 and 1981 in San Francisco, California. All patients are followed for a minimum of 3 years; mean follow-up is 7.3 years. Routine clinical staging procedures included: HandP, digital prostate exam, cystoscopy, biopsy, blood studies including serum acid phosphatase, and imaging studies including chest X ray, IVP, bone survey or radionucleotide bone scan, and in recent years, pelvic CT scans. Twelve patients are Stage A1, 37-Stage A2, 50-Stage B, 140-Stage C1 and 12-Stage C2. Ninety percent of all cases and 85% of Stage C patients were treated with limited fields to the prostate and periprostatic volume only. Total doses were prescribed at midplane or isocenter and were generally 6500-7000 cGy, daily doses of 180-200 cGy, 5 days per week. Actuarial 5- and 10-year survival rates are: entire population-69% and 47%; Stage A1-74% and 50%; Stage A2-81% and 67%; Stage B-84% and 53%; Stage C1-63% and 42%; Stage C2-32% and 11%. The 5- and 10-year disease-free actuarial survivals are: entire population-71% and 50%; Stage A1-89% and 74%; Stage A2-82% and 69%; Stage B-71% and 52%; Stage C1-67% and 44%; Stage C2-0%. Sites of recurrence, alone or as a component of the failure pattern are: 37 (15%) local, 11 (4%) symptomatic regional recurrence (lower extremity edema, pelvic pain/sciatica, hydroureteronephrosis), and 87 (35%) distant metastasis. Seven (3%) had unknown sites of failure. Local-regional failure occurred in 42% of Stage C2 patients

  16. Do professional boundaries limit trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Hennessy, Julia; Abbott, Max; Hughes, Frances

    2018-02-01

    The present study uses stories of mental health support workers talking about their relationship with clients to wonder about how trust might be limited by the professional boundaries of nursing. The writing arose out of an appreciative inquiry study looking at the role of mental health support workers. Participants talked about how they worked with their clients. As researchers, we were struck by the depth of trust that was built between worker and client. We have brought a phenomenological lens to wonder about the nature of trust, as shown in the data. The original research sought to identify what was working well for mental health support workers. The present study brings a phenomenological interpretive approach to four stories from the discovery phase of the study, with our thinking informed by Heidegger and van Manen. Interviews were conducted with 26 mental health support workers and six stakeholders in 2012-2103. For this paper, we drew from those transcripts stories of three mental health support workers and one stakeholder. Through a process of talking together, writing, and rewriting, we wondered about the meaning within these stories, with a strong focus on how trust was enacted. We saw that mental health support workers in this study, by not carrying the boundaries of being 'professional', seemed free to grow a stronger relationship of trust which was therapeutic. We ask: Is it time to rethink how professional boundaries limit the level of trust achieved with clients to the detriment of impactful care? © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Gepshtein, Sergei

    2015-09-01

    The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation") and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period"). We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation.

  18. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Snider

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation" and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period". We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation.

  19. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-01

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO 2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  20. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  1. Holography beyond the Penrose limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, Curtis G.; McLoughlin, Tristan; Swanson, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The flat pp-wave background geometry has been realized as a particular Penrose limit of AdS 5 xS 5 . It describes a string that has been infinitely boosted along an equatorial null geodesic in the S 5 subspace. The string worldsheet Hamiltonian in this background is free. Finite boosts lead to curvature corrections that induce interacting perturbations of the string worldsheet Hamiltonian. We develop a systematic light-cone gauge quantization of the interacting worldsheet string theory and use it to obtain the interacting spectrum of the so-called 'two-impurity' states of the string. The quantization is technically rather intricate and we provide a detailed account of the methods we use to extract explicit results. We give a systematic treatment of the fermionic states and are able to show that the spectrum possesses the proper extended supermultiplet structure (a nontrivial fact since half the supersymmetry is nonlinearly realized). We test holography by comparing the string energy spectrum with the scaling dimensions of corresponding gauge theory operators. We confirm earlier results that agreement obtains in low orders of perturbation theory, but breaks down at third order. The methods presented here can be used to explore these issues in a wider context than is specifically dealt with in this paper

  2. IDENTIDADES MASCULINAS: LIMITES E POSSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May-Lin Wang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho toma por base uma abordagem psicossocial para discorrer sobre os limites impostos pelos estereótipos de gênero à construção de uma identidade masculina, em contraposição às possibilidades de subjetivação, num cenário cultural de pluralidade identitária. Ênfase é dada à socialização estereotipada dos meninos, num processo no qual se verifica uma espécie de superposição do contexto socio-histórico em que cresceram os pais àquele no qual o menino é socializado, acentuando determinadas crenças sobre gênero. O modelo tradicional de virilidade, que imperava inquestionável até bem pouco tempo, ignorando as necessidades afetivas e valorizando características como a competitividade, a preocupação com o desempenho, o autoritarismo, a dominação e a opressão, vem sendo questionado como pilar maior da identidade masculina tradicional.

  3. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  4. Image artifacts and technical limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The swift temporal progression of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from experimental prototype design to sophisticated instrument production can be sharply contrasted to the more protracted time course that characterized the development of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Most notably, the current generation of CT scanners represents the product of more than a decade of design innovation and technologic improvement, punctuated by the introduction of a whole new ''generation'' of CT scanners at periodic intervals. The more rapid evolutionary changes unique to MRI have been permitted by the greater abundance of sophisticated technologic expertise and necessitated by economic considerations, especially the desire to avoid premature obsolescence. Quite clearly, ''state-of-the-art'' MRI units available today are intended to remain state of the art for many years into the future. In clinical trials, MRI has proved particularly effacacious for evaluation of suspected neurologic disease, prompting neuroradiologists to welcome this new non-invasive diagnostic tool with unprecedented enthusiasm. In early reports, the lack of ionizing radiation, apparent absence of significant biological hazards, and ''elimination'' of artifacts were all acclaimed as major technical advantages. Now, as this diagnostic modality is undergoing widespread dissemination and a large body of clinical experience begins to accumulate, increasing attention is being focused on the limitations of MRI

  5. Microdosimetric basis for exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Braby, L.A.

    1986-10-01

    The new organ-weighted effective dose equivalents should provide a much more accurate estimation of the degree of hazard for a worker's exposure to ionizing radiations. The method involves the microdosimetric concept of lineal energy to help establish exposure limits and will provide a unified system applicable to all types of ionizing radiation. Rather than being only calculated values, the effective dose equivalents and quality factors will be experimentally measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters. The measurement may be difficult to perform at various depths in an anthropomorphic phantom. Operational health physicists will be concerned about the lack of survey instruments and personnel dosimeters that measure lineal energy distributions. Their possible objections may be mitigated by the commercial introduction of instruments based upon tissue equivalent proportional counters or related devices containing inexpensive microprocessors. The many potential benefits include providing a uniform method for implementing the proposed increases in quality factors for neutrons and photons, providing a more unified approach for combining external and internal exposures, and potentially resolving questions about dosimeter placement and dose assessment for nonuniform exposures to mixed radiations. 16 refs., 3 figs

  6. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  7. The limits of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    The patient, a 59-year-old man, was referred to a psychiatric hospital with what appeared initially to be the signs and symptoms of mental disorder. In hospital a lesion of the brain was diagnosed and surgery was proposed to relieve the condition. The patient, however, during this and subsequent admissions to hospital, refused operation. His refusal to consent was regarded as valid as he seemed to have good insight into his condition. Finally, under section 26 of the Mental Health Act, he was treated surgically. Unfortunately the patient died six weeks later of intracranial haemorrhage. Three comments are made on this case - two by psychiatrists, Dr K Davison and Dr Ashley Robin, the other by a professor of Christian ethics, Professor F C Blackie. Both psychiatrists argue that when a patient's mind is affected by mental or organic illness to the degree that 'he cannot bring a rational and conscious mind' to the question of his treatment then the doctor, in consultation with the relatives, making clear to them the likely course of events if an operation is not performed, must take whatever is the proper course of action, in this case surgery. In this view, such an operation performed immediately the diagnosis was confirmed might not have been so complicated. Professor Blackie, commending 'the attempt to regard the patient as a responsible human being' with a 'moral right to be consulted on all aspects of treatment', questions in this patient the limits to which the appeal to reason was carried. He concludes that 'in this situation the advice and consent of the family must weigh more heavily than the statements of the patient'.

  8. The limits of racial prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  9. Opacity Limit for Supermassive Protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Fernando; Marinacci, Federico; Inayoshi, Kohei; Bromm, Volker; Hernquist, Lars E.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the evolution of supermassive protostars from their formation at {M}\\star ≃ 0.1 {M}ȯ until their growth to {M}\\star ≃ {10}5 {M}ȯ . To calculate the initial properties of the object in the optically thick regime, we follow two approaches: one based on idealized thermodynamic considerations, and another based on a more detailed one-zone model. Both methods derive a similar value of {n}{{F}}≃ 2× {10}17 {cm}}-3 for the density of the object when opacity becomes important, i.e., the opacity limit. The subsequent evolution of the growing protostar is determined by the accretion of gas onto the object and can be described by a mass–radius relation of the form {R}\\star \\propto {M}\\star 1/3 during the early stages, and of the form {R}\\star \\propto {M}\\star 1/2 when internal luminosity becomes important. For the case of a supermassive protostar, this implies that the radius of the star grows from {R}\\star ≃ 0.65 {au} to {R}\\star ≃ 250 {au} during its evolution. Finally, we use this model to construct a subgrid recipe for accreting sink particles in numerical simulations. A prime ingredient thereof is a physically motivated prescription for the accretion radius and the effective temperature of the growing protostar embedded inside it. From the latter, we can conclude that photoionization feedback can be neglected until very late in the assembly process of the supermassive object.

  10. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  11. Limitations of Human Visual Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wesenick, Maria-Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The present empirical study investigates limitations of human visual working memory (VWM). The experiments of the present work involve the experimental paradigm of change detection using simple geometrical objects in the form of rectangles of different colour, length, and orientation. It can be shown, that a limited performance in the temporary storage of visual information has multiple sources. Limitations of VWM can be attributed to a limited capacity or a limited duration, but also to limi...

  12. Term limits and the tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Glantz, Stanton A; Bero, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    In the 1990s several American states passed term limits on legislators with the stated intention of reducing the influence of wealthy industries on career legislators. Although term limits in the United States do not have a direct relationship to public health, the tobacco industry anticipated that term limits could have indirect effects by either limiting or expanding industry influence. We detail the strategy of the tobacco industry in the wake of term limits using internal tobacco company documents and a database of campaign contributions made to legislators in term limited states between 1988 and 2002. Despite some expectations that term limits would limit tobacco industry access to state legislators, term limits appear to have had the opposite effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pump limiter studies in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Bonnel, P.; Bruneau, J.L.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Pegourie, B.; Rodriguez, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the Tore Supra pump limiter program is to study particle exhaust with a pump limiter system in long-pulse discharges with continuous pellet fueling and strong auxiliary heating. The pump limiter system consists of six vertical modules, located at the bottom of the machine, and one horizontal module at the outer midplane. The instrumentation of the limiter included pressure gauges, a residual gas analyser Langmuir probes, a spectrometer and water calorimeters. Initial results in low-density discharges, with the outboard limiter only, showed a modest effect on the plasma density, while large exhaust fluxes were measured in the pump limiter, without any external fueling

  14. On thermodynamic limits of entropy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriya, H; Van Enter, A

    We give some sufficient conditions which guarantee that the entropy density in the thermodynamic limit is equal to the thermodynamic limit of the entropy densities of finite-volume (local) Gibbs states.

  15. Setting limits on supersymmetry using simplified models

    CERN Document Server

    Gutschow, C.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental limits on supersymmetry and similar theories are difficult to set because of the enormous available parameter space and difficult to generalize because of the complexity of single points. Therefore, more phenomenological, simplified models are becoming popular for setting experimental limits, as they have clearer physical implications. The use of these simplified model limits to set a real limit on a concrete theory has not, however, been demonstrated. This paper recasts simplified model limits into limits on a specific and complete supersymmetry model, minimal supergravity. Limits obtained under various physical assumptions are comparable to those produced by directed searches. A prescription is provided for calculating conservative and aggressive limits on additional theories. Using acceptance and efficiency tables along with the expected and observed numbers of events in various signal regions, LHC experimental results can be re-cast in this manner into almost any theoretical framework, includ...

  16. Fractional Diffusion Limit for Collisional Kinetic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mellet, Antoine; Mischler, Sté phane; Mouhot, Clé ment

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to diffusion limits of linear Boltzmann equations. When the equilibrium distribution function is a Maxwellian distribution, it is well known that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a

  17. Toward Modeling Limited Plasticity in Ceramic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grinfeld, Michael; Schoenfeld, Scott E; Wright, Tim W

    2008-01-01

    The characteristic features of many armor-related ceramic materials are the anisotropy on the micro-scale level and the very limited, though non-vanishing, plasticity due to limited number of the planes for plastic slip...

  18. 48 CFR 1417.402 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Leader Company Contracting 1417.402 Limitations. Use of leader company contracting for a product, subject to the limitations in FAR 17.402, shall require advance...

  19. The limiting current in a one-dimensional situation: Transition from a space charge limited to magnetically limited flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Raghwendra; Biswas, Debabrata

    2008-01-01

    For a nonrelativistic electron beam propagating in a cylindrical drift tube, it is shown that the limiting current density does not saturate to the electrostatic one-dimensional (1D) estimate with increasing beam radius. Fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation studies show that beyond a critical aspect ratio, the limiting current density is lower than the 1D electrostatic prediction. The lowering in the limiting current density is found to be due to the transition from the space charge limited to magnetically limited flow. An adaptation of Alfven's single particle trajectory method is used to estimate the magnetically limited current as well as the critical radius beyond which the flow is magnetically limited in a drift tube. The predictions are found to be in close agreement with PIC simulations

  20. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D J; Clement, S; Gottardi, N; Gowers, C; Harbour, P; Loarte, A; Horton, L; Lingertat, J; Lowry, C G; Saibene, G; Stamp, M; Stork, D [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  1. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1725 - Limited time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited time. 73.1725 Section 73.1725... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1725 Limited time. (a) Operation is applicable only to... stations on the channel. (b) No authorization will be granted for: (1) A new limited time station; (2) A...

  4. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  5. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  6. Plane wave limits and T-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven, R.

    2000-04-01

    The Penrose limit is generalized to show that, any leading order solution of the low-energy field equations in any one of the five string theories has a plane wave solution as a limit. This limiting procedure takes into account all the massless fields that may arise and commutes with the T-duality so that any dual solution has again a plane wave limit. The scaling rules used in the limit are unique and stem from the scaling property of the D = 11 supergravity action. Although the leading order dual solutions need not be exact or supersymmetric, their plane wave limits always preserve some portion of the Poincare supersymmetry and solve the relevant field equations in all powers of the string tension parameter. Further properties of the limiting procedure are discussed. (author)

  7. Approach to DOE threshold guidance limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.D.; Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for less restrictive criteria governing disposal of extremely low-level radioactive waste has long been recognized. The Low-Level Waste Management Program has been directed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to aid in the development of a threshold guidance limit for DOE low-level waste facilities. Project objectives are concernd with the definition of a threshold limit dose and pathway analysis of radionuclide transport within selected exposure scenarios at DOE sites. Results of the pathway analysis will be used to determine waste radionuclide concentration guidelines that meet the defined threshold limit dose. Methods of measurement and verification of concentration limits round out the project's goals. Work on defining a threshold limit dose is nearing completion. Pathway analysis of sanitary landfill operations at the Savannah River Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is in progress using the DOSTOMAN computer code. Concentration limit calculations and determination of implementation procedures shall follow completion of the pathways work. 4 references

  8. Impact limiter retention using a tape joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, A.; Eakes, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask employs polyurethane foam impact limiters that fit onto the ends of the cask. A foam impact limiter takes energy out of a system during a hypothetical accident condition by allowing foam crush and large deformations to occur. This, in turn, precludes high stresses or deformations from occurring to the cask. Because of the need to transmit significant amounts of heat to the environment, the BUSS cask impact limiters were designed to shield a minimum amount of the cask surface area. With this design impact limiter retention after the initial impact resulting from the 9 meter regulatory drops becomes a concern. Retention is essential to ensure the cask does not experience higher stresses during any secondary or rebound effects without impact limiters than it does during the 9 meter regulatory drop with impact limiters in place

  9. On the Limitations of Biological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge is grounded in a particular epistemology and, owing to the requirements of that epistemology, possesses limitations. Some limitations are intrinsic, in the sense that they depend inherently on the nature of scientific knowledge; others are contingent, depending on the present state of knowledge, including technology. Understanding limitations facilitates scientific research because one can then recognize when one is confronted by a limitation, as opposed to simply being unable to solve a problem within the existing bounds of possibility. In the hope that the role of limiting factors can be brought more clearly into focus and discussed, we consider several sources of limitation as they apply to biological knowledge: mathematical complexity, experimental constraints, validation, knowledge discovery, and human intellectual capacity. PMID:23633917

  10. Limit of the radionuclides in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaling; Jiang Rangrong

    2003-01-01

    Granite is an important sort of building materials. Their radionuclide contents are limited by the national standard GB6566-2001 just as other building materials. This standard divides them into main materials and decorative materials, and relaxes the limit of the latter obviously. Owing to the consideration of public dose limit and environment protection, this method needs discussion. Otherwise, red granite contains high radionuclide contents relatively, especially the sort of Indian Red, and need be paid more attention

  11. Frontiers of particle beams: Intensity limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, M.; Month, M.; Turner, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present volume is the proceedings of the latest of these joint schools, held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, in 1990. This course dealt with intensity limitations and was centered on a series of lectures which could be divided into the following main categories: Self and environmental fields, Coherent instabilities and their simulation, Beam-beam interaction, Other multiparticle effects, Beam source limitations, Engineering limitations. (orig.)

  12. Diffraction limit of refractive compound lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A compound X-ray and neutron lenses is an array of lenses with a common axis. The resolution limited by aberration and by diffraction. Diffraction limit comes from theory based on absorption aperture of the compound refractive lenses. Beam passing through transparent lenses form Airy pattern. Results of calculation of diffraction resolution limit for non-transparent X-ray and neutron lenses are discussed. (authors)

  13. The Limited Liability Company: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Wells; Gary Yoshimoto

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, businesses in many states have been given the opportunity to select a new form in which to conduct business called the limited liability company. This form provides the advantage of the personal liability protection of a corporation, while being taxed as a partnership. If most states create the limited liability company and current issues of uncertainty are favorably resolved, the limited liability company should become the most advantageous business form for most small and m...

  14. Analysis of forming limit in tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Hang; Kim, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has shown increasing interest in tube hydroforming. Despite many automobile structural parts being produced from cylindrical tubes, failures frequently occur during tube hydroforming under improper forming conditions. These problems include wrinkling, buckling, folding back, and bursting. We perform analytical studies to determine forming limits in tube hydroforming and demonstrate how these forming limits are influenced by the loading path. Theoretical results for the forming limits of wrinkling and bursting are compared with experimental results for an aluminum tube.

  15. The Stricter the Better? The Relationship between Targeted HbA1c Values and Metabolic Control of Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Marcin; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Wrona, Ewa; Fendler, Wojciech; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Zmysłowska, Agnieszka; Wilson, Jayne; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how HbA1c recommendations influence metabolic control of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this we compared reported HbA1c with guideline thresholds. We searched systematically MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies reporting on HbA1c in children with T1DM and grouped them according to targeted HbA1c obtained from regional guidelines. We assessed the discrepancies in the metabolic control between these groups by comparing mean HbA1c extracted from each study and the differences between actual and targeted HbA1c. We included 105 from 1365 searched studies. The median (IQR) HbA1c for the study population was 8.30% (8.00%-8.70%) and was lower in "6.5%" than in "7.5%" as targeted HbA1c level (8.20% (7.85%-8.57%) versus 8.40% (8.20%-8.80%); p = 0.028). Median difference between actual and targeted HbA1c was 1.20% (0.80%-1.70%) and was higher in "6.5%" than in "7.5%" (1.70% (1.30%-2.07%) versus 0.90% (0.70%-1.30%), resp.; p HbA1c levels being closer to the therapeutic goal, but the actual values are still higher than those observed in the "6.5%" group. A meta-analysis of raw data from national registries or a prospective study comparing both approaches is warranted as the next step to examine this subject further.

  16. Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, R.; Porto, A.; Pullin, J.

    2006-01-01

    Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations the fundamental laws of physics place on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an 'ultimate laptop' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by 10 51 . The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravitational limits that exist on time measurements. We then particularize for the case of an ultimate laptop and show that the maximum number of operations is further constrained to 10 47 per second. (authors)

  17. Classical limit for quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Sengupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    The classical limit problem is discussed for the quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, free from the problem at the classical turning points. A proper perspective of the whole issue is sought to appreciate the significance of the discussion. It is observed that for bound states in arbitrary potential, appropriate limiting condition is definable in terms of a dimensionless classical limit parameter leading smoothly to all observable classical results. Most important results are the emergence of classical phase space, keeping the observable distribution functions non-zero only within the so-called classical region at the limit point and resolution of some well-known paradoxes. (author)

  18. TFTR movable limiter instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, J.; Collins, D.; Kaufmann, D.; Mamoun, A.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR movable limiter is a single poloidal limiter located within one 18 /SUP o/ segment of the vacuum vessel. It consists of three (3) interconnected inconel backing plates covered with titanium carbide coated graphite tiles. The backing plates are positioned by three independent screw drive actuators. Cooling water is fed through the horizontal port cover to tubes brazed onto the backs of the backing plates. Thermocouples monitor the limiter temperature. (1) and more fully described in refs. (1) and (2). The positioning actuators are driven by independently controlled DC servo motors, controlled either locally or from CICADA. Drive motor shaft position is monitored by chain driven encoders and potentiometers. Limiter blade position can be varied to suit any plasma within the operating range. CICADA is programmed to keep the limiter stroke within safe operating limits. A microprocessor duplicates the CICADA protective function allowing limiter operation without CICADA. The potentiometer signal is sent to an analog computer, which safeguards the limiter against failure of the encoders or the micro-processor. Cooling water flows through the limiter in 3 separate paths, one for each blade. The flow rate and temperature rise through each loop are measured accurately to allow CICADA to calculate the heat into each blade. The water system is also interlocked and alarmed to prevent dumping of water into the vacuum vessel

  19. Successional dynamics drive tropical forest nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that nutrients such as N and P may significantly constrain the land carbon sink. However, we currently lack a complete understanding of these nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems and how to incorporate them into Earth System Models. We have developed a framework of dynamic forest nutrient limitation, focusing on the role of secondary forest succession and canopy gap disturbances as bottlenecks of high plant nutrient demand and limitation. We used succession biomass data to parameterize a simple ecosystem model and examined the dynamics of nutrient limitation throughout tropical secondary forest succession. Due to the patterns of biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests, we found high nutrient demand from rapid biomass accumulation in the earliest years of succession. Depending on previous land use scenarios, soil nutrient availability may also be low in this time period. Coupled together, this is evidence that there may be high biomass nutrient limitation early in succession, which is partially met by abundant symbiotic nitrogen fixation from certain tree species. We predict a switch from nitrogen limitation in early succession to one of three conditions: (i) phosphorus only, (ii) phosphorus plus nitrogen, or (iii) phosphorus, nitrogen, plus light co-limitation. We will discuss the mechanisms that govern the exact trajectory of limitation as forests build biomass. In addition, we used our model to explore scenarios of tropical secondary forest impermanence and the impacts of these dynamics on ecosystem nutrient limitation. We found that secondary forest impermanence exacerbates nutrient limitation and the need for nitrogen fixation early in succession. Together, these results indicate that biomass recovery dynamics early in succession as well as their connection to nutrient demand and limitation are fundamental for understanding and modeling nutrient limitation of the tropical forest carbon sink.

  20. Modelling of particles collection by vented limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Granata, G.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with the use of vented limiters for the collection of neutral particles in Tore Supra. The model developed for experiments is presented together with its experimental validation. Some possible improvements to the present limiter are also proposed. (TEC). 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. 29 CFR 4050.11 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... missing participants. (b) Limitation on benefit value. The total actuarial present value of all benefits... Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS MISSING PARTICIPANTS § 4050.11 Limitations. (a) Exclusive benefit. The benefits provided for under this part will be the only...

  2. Variable Speed Limit (VSL) - Best Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Variable Speed Limit (VSL) system on the I-4 corridor in Orlando was implemented by Florida Department of Transportation in 2008, and since its deployment, it was revealed that the majority of traffic exceeds the speed limit by more mph when the ...

  3. Estimating uncertainty of data limited stock assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkalis, Alexandros; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2017-01-01

    -limited. Particular emphasis is put on providing uncertainty estimates of the data-limited assessment. We assess four cod stocks in the North-East Atlantic and compare our estimates of stock status (F/Fmsy) with the official assessments. The estimated stock status of all four cod stocks followed the established stock...

  4. 50 CFR 20.61 - Importation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.61 Importation limits. No person shall import migratory game birds in excess of the following importation limits: (a) Doves and pigeons. (1) From any foreign country except Mexico, during any one calendar week beginning on Sunday, not to exceed 25 doves...

  5. 47 CFR 90.669 - Emission limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 896-901/935-940 Mhz Band § 90.669 Emission limits. (a) On any frequency in an MTA licensee's spectrum block that is adjacent to a non-MTA frequency, the power of any emission shall be attenuated below the... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.669 Section 90.669...

  6. 26 CFR 1.851-2 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations. 1.851-2 Section 1.851-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-2 Limitations. (a...

  7. 47 CFR 78.115 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 78.115 Section 78.115... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.115 Modulation limits. (a) If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall not exceed 100 percent modulation. [37 FR 3292, Feb. 12, 1972, as amended...

  8. 47 CFR 74.663 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 74.663 Section 74.663 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.663 Modulation limits. If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall...

  9. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  10. 40 CFR 1502.7 - Page limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Page limits. 1502.7 Section 1502.7 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.7 Page limits. The text of final environmental impact statements (e.g., paragraphs (d) through (g) of § 1502.10...

  11. Operational limits and disruptions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunematsu, T; Mizoguchi, T; Yoshino, R [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Borrass, K; Engelmann, F; Pacher, G; Pacher, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). NET Design Team; Cohen, S; Post, D [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.; Hogan, J; Uckan, N A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Krasheninnikov, S; Mukhovatov, V; Parail, V

    1990-12-15

    Detailed knowledge of the operational limits for beta, q and the plasma density will be required for successful and flexible operation of ITER. In this paper, the present data base and guidelines on operational limits and disruptions in the ITER design are presented. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Modular pump limiter systems for large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; McGrath, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Long-pulse (>10-s) operation of large tokamaks with high-power (>10-MW) heating and extensive external fueling will require correspondingly efficient particle exhaust for density control. A pump limiter can provide the needed exhaust capability by removing a small percentage of the particles, which would otherwise be recycled. Single pump limiter modules have been operated successfully on ISX-B, PDX, TEXTOR, and PLT. An axisymmetric pump limiter is now being installed and will be studied in TEXTOR. A third type of pump limiter is a system that consists of several modules and exhibits performance different from that of a single module. To take advantage of the flexibility of a modular pump limiter system in a high-power, long-pulse device, the power load must be distributed among a number of modules. Because each added module changes the performance of all the others, a set of design criteria must be defined for the overall limiter system. The design parameters for the modules are then determined from the system requirements for particle and power removal. Design criteria and parameters are presented, and the impact on module design of the state of the art in engineering technology is discussed. The relationship between modules are considered from the standpoint of flux coverage and shadowing effects. The results are applied to the Tore Supra tokamak. A preliminary conceptual design for the Tore Supra pump limiter system is discussed, and the design parameters of the limiter modules are presented. 21 refs., 12 figs

  13. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper...) Undersized attractants. A live spiny lobster under the minimum size limit specified in paragraph (b)(1) of... future use as an attractant in a trap provided it is held in a live well aboard the vessel. No more than...

  14. Analysis of a T-10 graphite limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Laux, M.; Lingertat, J.; Pech, P.; Reiner, H.D.; Strusny, H.; Wolff, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parts of a T-10 graphite limiter used during ohmic heated discharges have been investigated. Erosion and deposition phenomena have been studied by morphological and elemental surface analysis methods. From the results estimates of the plasma parameters near the limiter surface have been made. (orig.)

  15. Limit theorems for functionals of Gaussian vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshuai DAI; Guangjun SHEN; Lingtao KONG

    2017-01-01

    Operator self-similar processes,as an extension of self-similar processes,have been studied extensively.In this work,we study limit theorems for functionals of Gaussian vectors.Under some conditions,we determine that the limit of partial sums of functionals of a stationary Gaussian sequence of random vectors is an operator self-similar process.

  16. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  17. 6 CFR 13.47 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations. 13.47 Section 13.47 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.47 Limitations. (a) The notice of hearing with respect to a Claim or Statement must be served in the manner...

  18. Gaussian limit of compact spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Angelis, G.F. de

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the Wilson and Wilson-Villain U(1) models reproduce, in the low coupling limit, the gaussian lattice approximation of the Euclidean electromagnetic field. By the same methods it is also possible to prove that the plane rotator and the Villain model share a common gaussian behaviour in the low temperature limit. (Auth.)

  19. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    .... Thus, this modification makes explicit that parties may request extensions for any time limit... Department's attention more quickly, thus increasing the chance that the Department will be able to...; only if the questionnaire is divided into separate sections is the time limit for individual sections...

  20. Back to Classics: Teaching Limits through Infinitesimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Todor D.

    2001-01-01

    Criticizes the method of using calculators for the purpose of selecting candidates for L, for the limit value of a function. Suggests an alternative: a working formula for calculating the limit value L of a real function in terms of infinitesimals. (Author/ASK)

  1. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between courses...

  2. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking that...

  3. Subcritical limits for special fissile actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Critical masses and subcritical mass limits in oxide-water mixtures were calculated for actinide nuclides other than 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu that have an odd number of neutrons in the nucleus: S/sub n/ transport theory was used together with cross sections, drawn from the GLASS multigroup library, developed to provide accurate forecasts of actinide production at Savannah River. The subcritical limits are 201 g for 241 Pu, 13 g for 242 /sup m/Am, 90 g for 243 Cm, 30 g for 245 Cm, 900 g for 247 Cm, 10 g for 249 Cf, and 5 g for 251 Cf. Association of 241 Pu with an equal mass of 240 Pu increases the 241 Pu limit to a value greater than that for pure 239 Pu. Association of 242 /sup m/Am with 241 Am increases the limit for the mixture to that for dry, theoretical density AmO 2 at isotopic concentrations of 242 /sup m/Am less than approx. 6%. Association of 245 Cm with 244 Cm increases the limit according to the formula 30 + 0.3 244 Cm/ 245 Cm up to the limit for dry CmO 2 . A limiting mass of 8.15 kg for plutonium containing at least 67% 238 Pu as oxide was calculated that applies (provided 240 Pu exceeds 241 Pu) with no limit on moderation. 1 figure, 5 tables

  4. 7 CFR 770.5 - Loan limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan limitations. 770.5 Section 770.5 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.5 Loan limitations. (a) Loan funds may not be... title. (b) The amount of loan funds used to acquire land may not exceed the market value of the land...

  5. 7 CFR 761.8 - Loan Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan Limitations. 761.8 Section 761.8 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.8 Loan Limitations. (a) Dollar... cannot exceed any of the following at the time of loan closing or assumption of indebtedness. If the...

  6. Tokamak advanced pump limiter experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    Experiments with pump limiter modules on several operating tokamaks establish such limiters as efficient collectors of particles and has demonstrated the importance of ballistic scattering as predicted theoretically. Plasma interaction with recycling neutral gas appears to become important as the plasma density increases and the effective ionization mean free path within the module decreases. In limiters with particle collection but without active internal pumping, the neutral gas pressure is found to vary nonlinearly with the edge plasma density at the highest densities studies. Both experiments and theory indicate that the energy spectrum of gas atoms in the pump ducting is non-thermal, consistent with the results of Monte Carlo neutral atom transport calculations. The distribution of plasma power over the front surface of such modules has been measured and appears to be consistent with the predictions of simple theory. Initial results from the latest experiment on the ISX-B tokamak with an actively pumped limiter module demonstrates that the core plasma density can be controlled with a pump limiter and that the scrape-off layer plasma can partially screen the core plasma from gas injection. The results from module pump limiter experiments and from the theory and design analysis of advanced pump limiters for reactors are used to suggest the major features of a definitive, axisymmetric, toroidal belt pump limiter experiment

  7. Limits of detection and decision. Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Probability density functions (PDFs) have been derived for a number of commonly used limit of detection definitions, including several variants of the Relative Standard Deviation of the Background-Background Equivalent Concentration (RSDB-BEC) method, for a simple linear chemical measurement system (CMS) having homoscedastic, Gaussian measurement noise and using ordinary least squares (OLS) processing. All of these detection limit definitions serve as both decision and detection limits, thereby implicitly resulting in 50% rates of Type 2 errors. It has been demonstrated that these are closely related to Currie decision limits, if the coverage factor, k, is properly defined, and that all of the PDFs are scaled reciprocals of noncentral t variates. All of the detection limits have well-defined upper and lower limits, thereby resulting in finite moments and confidence limits, and the problem of estimating the noncentrality parameter has been addressed. As in Parts 1-3, extensive Monte Carlo simulations were performed and all the simulation results were found to be in excellent agreement with the derived theoretical expressions. Specific recommendations for harmonization of detection limit methodology have also been made

  8. Heat deposition on the partial limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I; Nagasaki, Kazunobu.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the partial limiter in the outermost magnetic surface of toroidal plasmas is studied. The power deposition on the partial limiter and its effect on the temperature profile are analysed. Interpretation in terms of the perpendicular heat conductivity is also discussed. (author)

  9. 31 CFR 281.7 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 281.7 Section 281.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.7 Limitations. The...

  10. Beam limiter for thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The invention pertains to a beam limiter to prevent collisions between a plasma and the inner surface of a hollow body in which the plasma is confined. The patent claims pertain to suitable geometrical shapes of the beam limiter. (GG) [de

  11. Pushing the Limit: A Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odafe, Victor U.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors are constantly struggling to help students understand mathematical concepts as well as the relevance of mathematics to the real world. In calculus, students possess misconceptions of the limit concept. "Pushing the Limit" refers to a semester-long calculus class project that required students to read about, interview calculus…

  12. Should nuclear liability limits be removed. No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The opposing view to the proposition that limits on nuclear liability under the Price-Anderson Act should be removed cites the historical recognition of the need to protect the public as it was defined in 1957. The limit on liability today is $630 million per nuclear incident, with total protection continuing to increase as new plants come on line and additional purchased insurance becomes available. The limit gives the industry an incentive to commit capital and technical resources to develop new technology. Removing the limit would increase costs, but not benefits, for electric consumers, and would require a new way to protect the public other than through purchased insurance or the utility's resources. The industry will support raising the limit, however

  13. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  14. Determination of the Meteor Limiting Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The limiting meteor magnitude of a meteor camera system will depend on the camera hardware and software, sky conditions, and the location of the meteor radiant. Some of these factors are constants for a given meteor camera system, but many change between meteor shower or sporadic source and on both long and short timescales. Since the limiting meteor magnitude ultimately gets used to calculate the limiting meteor mass for a given data set, it is important to have an understanding of these factors and to monitor how they change throughout the night, as a 0.5 magnitude uncertainty in limiting magnitude translates to a uncertainty in limiting mass by a factor of two.

  15. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  16. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L; Suarez, P; Alvarez, A

    2010-01-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  17. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing [Albany, NY; Tekletsadik, Kasegn [Rexford, NY

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  18. Anomalies and the Large N Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.; Akant, L.

    2003-01-01

    Operator algebra aspects of the Large N limit of Bosonic vector models are analyzed. It is shown that the Large N limit is a classical theory, and a general method, based on defromation quatization, for calculating the Poisson algebra of dynamical observables in the limiting classical theory is presented. The Poisson algebra of O(N) invariant observables of Bosonic vector models is constructed in this approach, and is shown to be a central extension of the Symplectic Lie algebra. The relation of the central term to anomalies is discussed. A comparision of the classical theories obtained in the Large N limit and that in the small (ℎ/2π) limit is also presented

  19. ITER Experts' meeting on density limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Igitkhanov, Y.L.; Uckan, N.A.

    1989-12-01

    The necessity of achieving a prescribed wall load or fusion power essentially determines the plasma pressure in a device like ITER. The range of operation densities and temperatures compatible with this condition is constrained by the problems of power exhaust and the disruptive density limit. The maximum allowable heat loads on the divertor plates and the maximum allowable sheath edge temperature practically impose a lower limit on the operating densities, whereas the disruptive density limit imposes an upper limit. For most of the density limit scalings proposed in the past an overlap of the two constraints or at best a very narrow accessible density range is predicted for ITER. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms is therefore a crucial issue in order to provide a more reliable basis for extrapolation to ITER and to identify possible ways of alleviating the problem

  20. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs

  1. Physics considerations for the FED limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1981-07-01

    The physics of the scrapeoff plasma and its interaction with a pumping limiter is reviewed. The governing equations for heat and particle transport in the scrapeoff are solved analytically with several simplifying assumptions. The assumed scrapeoff model is widely used and is presented here for completeness. From the solution, a shape for the limiter is derived which has a uniform heat loading on the front surface. The assumed crossfield transport coefficient is varied to examine the sensitivity of the heat loading to variations in plasma scrapeoff thickness. The heat flux to the limiter leading edge is an extremely sensitive function of variations in scrapeoff thickness, and we argue that uncertainties in the plasma crossfield transport preclude derivation of a believable limiter shape. We also discuss the problems involved with an edgeless, perforated limiter and with a global limiter. Finally, a solution is proposed using a flat-plate limiter with the heat flux to the leading edge controlled by major radius motion of the plasma

  2. Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi

    2018-04-01

    Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.

  3. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  4. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  5. Alignment of the TFTR bumper limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.W.; Owens, D.K.; Loesser, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The TFTR Bumper Limiter (BL) is an axisymmetric toroidal limiter mounted on the inner wall of the vacuum vessel. It subtends 120 degree poloidally and has a surface area of 22 m 2 . The plasma facing surface consists of 1,000 kg of graphite tiles mounted on watercooled Inconel backing plates. During the initial installation in the Spring of 1985, the limiter surface was aligned to the toroidal magnetic field by mechanical and magnetic measurements to an estimated accuracy of ±2 mm. During subsequent operation, especially in the 1988 run period in which 30 MW of Neutral Beam Injection routinely occurred, several tiles at points on the limiter which protruded slightly into the plasma were severely damaged. The damage, cracked and spalled tiles, is believed to be initiated by high energy disruptions and aggravated by normal high power operation. The damage pattern and temperature rise during normal operation are consistent with this interpretation. A vacuum vessel opening to replace the damaged tiles and realign the limiter was required. The bumper limiter was reshaped to be circular to ±0.5 mm at the midplane by means of mechanical measurements in order to better distribute the heat loads and eliminate hot spots. The ±0.5 mm accuracy is determined by the variation in individual tile thickness which is ±0.5 mm. This paper describes the methods used to mechanically align the limiter and presents evidence based on machine operation with plasma that the limiter is reasonably well aligned with the toroidal field. Future work dealing with the alignment of the total limiter to the toroidal field using mechanical and magnetic measurements and the replacement of a subset of the carbon tiles with carbon-carbon composite material is also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

  6. Multidimensional flux-limited advection schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuburn, J.

    1996-01-01

    A general method for building multidimensional shape preserving advection schemes using flux limiters is presented. The method works for advected passive scalars in either compressible or incompressible flow and on arbitrary grids. With a minor modification it can be applied to the equation for fluid density. Schemes using the simplest form of the flux limiter can cause distortion of the advected profile, particularly sideways spreading, depending on the orientation of the flow relative to the grid. This is partly because the simple limiter is too restrictive. However, some straightforward refinements lead to a shape-preserving scheme that gives satisfactory results, with negligible grid-flow angle-dependent distortion

  7. Establishment of limits of detection and decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, O.; Michel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and test procedures to establish limits of decision and detection for spectrometric nuclear radiation measurements. Beside the determination of the limits of application of DIN 25482 part 2 and 5 - both primarily suitable for high resoluted spectra areas -the statistical model was expanded in such a way that henceforth blanks and influences of sample treatment can also be taken into account; the corresponding procedures to calculate the limits of decision and detection have a high precision. Additional procedures of calculation were developed to take the special characteristics of the analysis of complex spectra areas into account. (orig.) [de

  8. Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sia, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.disia@univr.it, E-mail: 10alla33@virgilio.it [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Verona University, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy) and Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bozen, Piazza Domenicani 3, I-39100 Bozen-Bolzano (Italy)

    2011-07-08

    A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

  9. Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sia, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

  10. Smooth massless limit of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1980-01-01

    The massless limit of Fierz-Pauli field theories, describing fields with fixed mass and spin interacting with external sources, is examined. Results are obtained for spins, 1, 3/2, 2 and 3 using conventional models, and then for all half-integral spins in a relatively model-independent manner. It is found that the massless limit is smooth provided that the sources satisfy certain conditions. In the massless limit these conditions reduce to the conservation laws required by internal consistency of massless field theory. Smoothness simply requires that quantities that vanish in the massless case approach zero in a certain well-defined manner. (orig.)

  11. Electrical characteristics of an ideal tokamak limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The intrusion of an equipotential poloidal limiter into the edge plasma of a circular tokamak discharge distorts the axisymmetry in several ways: (1) it (partially) shorts out the top-to-bottom Pfirsch-Schlueter potentials, (2) it creates zones of reversed equilibrium current flow into the limiter, and (3) it generates an electrostatic field opposing the loop current. The resulting boundary mismatch between the outer layers and the inner axisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlueter layer increases the free energy available to drive the edge plasma unstable. A number of special limiters are proposed to symmetrize the edge plasma and thereby reduce the electrical and MHD activity in the boundary layer. (author)

  12. Fractional Diffusion Limit for Collisional Kinetic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mellet, Antoine

    2010-08-20

    This paper is devoted to diffusion limits of linear Boltzmann equations. When the equilibrium distribution function is a Maxwellian distribution, it is well known that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a diffusion equation. In this paper, we consider situations in which the equilibrium distribution function is a heavy-tailed distribution with infinite variance. We then show that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a fractional diffusion equation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  13. 41 CFR 109-50.204 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL AUTHORITIES 50.2-Math and Science Equipment Gift Program § 109-50.204 Limitations. (a) Excess and... (or unlimited) level of authority. (d) Gifts shall be serviceable and in working order. Disposal...

  14. Bohmian measures and their classical limit

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter; Paul, Thierry; Sparber, Christof

    2010-01-01

    We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations

  15. 14 CFR 183.55 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Organization Designation Authorization § 183.55 Limitations... structure), no Unit member may perform that function until the Administrator is notified of the change, and...

  16. Space-charge limits in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents equations that allow an approximate evaluation of the limiting beam current for a large class of radio-frequency linear accelerators, which use quadrupole strong focusing. Included are the Alvarez, the Wideroe, and the radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The limiting-current formulas are presented for both the longitudinal and the transverse degrees of freedom by assuming that the average space-charge force in the beam bunch arises from a uniformly distributed charge within an azimuthally symmetric three-dimensional ellipsoid. The Mathieu equation is obtained as an approximate, but general, form for the transverse equation of motion. The smooth-approximation method is used to obtain a solution and an expression for the transverse current limit. The form of the current-limit formulas for different linac constraints is discussed

  17. The limitation of radioactive wastes from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, B.; IJtsma, D.; Zwigt, A.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews were made with radiation experts working at hospitals about the treatment and limiting of radioactive wastes. The authors conclude that with the aid of hospital personnel a decrease of the volume of radioactive waste is possible. 25 refs

  18. Matrix model calculations beyond the spherical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Chekhov, L.; Kristjansen, C.F.; Makeenko, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    We propose an improved iterative scheme for calculating higher genus contributions to the multi-loop (or multi-point) correlators and the partition function of the hermitian one matrix model. We present explicit results up to genus two. We develop a version which gives directly the result in the double scaling limit and present explicit results up to genus four. Using the latter version we prove that the hermitian and the complex matrix model are equivalent in the double scaling limit and that in this limit they are both equivalent to the Kontsevich model. We discuss how our results away from the double scaling limit are related to the structure of moduli space. (orig.)

  19. 48 CFR 46.705 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.705 Limitations. (a) Except for the warranties in the clauses at 52.246-3, Inspection of Supplies—Cost-Reimbursement, and 52.246-8, Inspection of Research and Development—Cost...

  20. Rural variable speed limits : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The Wyoming Department of Transportation (WYDOT) installed its first variable speed limit (VSL) corridor along : Interstate 80 in the Elk Mountain Corridor in the Spring of 2009 in an effort to improve safety and reduce road closures, : particularly ...

  1. First pump limiter experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chappuis, P.; Gil, C.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Vallet, J.C.; Van Houtte, D.; Watkins, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal load and the particle pumping effects on the outboard pump limiters (OPL), in Tore Supra are analyzed. The investigations are performed for the plasma either in contact with the OPL/ONPL (outboard non pumped limiters) alone or with the OPL and the vertical limiters together. Calorimetric measurements provide estimates of the time-integrated balance of the energy flow at the plasma edge. Radiated and charge exchange energy losses are deduced from the inner vessel calorimetry (R=242cm, a=94cm). Conductive/convective losses on the OPL and vertical (top and bottom) limiters are independently measured, as well as the integrated energy flow on the ergodic divertors. The calorimetric results, the bolometric measurements of the radiated power and the Ohmic power estimates, are indicated. The central line density from interferometric measurement for the two successive shots, with the ONPL and with the OPL, are given

  2. Noncommuting limits of oscillator wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daboul, J.; Pogosyan, G. S.; Wolf, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum harmonic oscillators with spring constants k > 0 plus constant forces f exhibit rescaled and displaced Hermite-Gaussian wave functions, and discrete, lower bound spectra. We examine their limits when (k, f) → (0, 0) along two different paths. When f → 0 and then k → 0, the contraction is standard: the system becomes free with a double continuous, positive spectrum, and the wave functions limit to plane waves of definite parity. On the other hand, when k → 0 first, the contraction path passes through the free-fall system, with a continuous, nondegenerate, unbounded spectrum and displaced Airy wave functions, while parity is lost. The subsequent f → 0 limit of the nonstandard path shows the dc hysteresis phenomenon of noncommuting contractions: the lost parity reappears as an infinitely oscillating superposition of the two limiting solutions that are related by the symmetry

  3. Classical limit for semirelativistic Hartree systems

    KAUST Repository

    Aki, Gonca L.; Markowich, Peter A.; Sparber, Christof

    2008-01-01

    Wigner transformation techniques that its classical limit yields the well known relativistic Vlasov-Poisson system. The result holds for the case of attractive and repulsive mean-field interactions, with an additional size constraint in the attractive

  4. Elastic stability and the limit of strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris Jr., J.W.; Krenn, C.R.; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    The upper limit of strength (the ''theoretical strength'') has been an active subject of research and speculation for the better part of a century. The subject has recently become important, for two reasons. First, given recent advances in ab initio techniques and computing machines, the limits of strength can be calculated with considerable accuracy, making this one of the very few problems in mechanical behavior that can actually be solved. Second, given recent advances in materials engineering, the limits of strength are being approached in some systems, such as hardened or defect-free films, and their relevance is becoming recognized in others. The present paper discusses some interesting results from recent research on the limits of strength, with an intermixture of speculations based on those results. Topics include the inherent nature of {100} cleavage and ''pencil slip'' in bcc metals, the inherent ductility of fcc metals, the anomalous properties of Al, and the possibility of measuring ideal strength with nanoindentation

  5. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.

  6. Analysis of performance limitations for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. R. Delayen; L. R. Doolittle; C. E. Reece

    1998-01-01

    The performance of superconducting cavities in accelerators can be limited by several factors, such as: field emission, quenches, arcing, rf power; and the maximum gradient at which a cavity can operate will be determined by the lowest of these limitations for that particular cavity. The CEBAF accelerator operates with over 300 cavities and, for each of them, the authors have determined the maximum operating gradient and its limiting factor. They have developed a model that allows them to determine the distribution of gradients that could be achieved for each of these limitations independently of the others. The result of this analysis can guide an R and D program to achieve the best overall performance improvement. The same model can be used to relate the performance of single-cell and multi-cell cavities

  7. Beam limiter for thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    A beam limiter circumscribes the interior surface of a vacuum vessel to inhibit collisions of contained plasma and the vessel walls. The cross section of the material making up the limiter has a flatsided or slightly concave portion of increased width towards the plasma and portions of decreased width towards the interior surface of the vessel. This configuration is designed to prevent a major fraction of the material sputtered, vaporized and blistered from the limiter from reaching the plasma. It also allows adequate heat transfer from the wider to the narrower portions. The preferred materials for the beam limiter are solids of sintered, particulate materials of low atomic number with low vapor pressure and low sputtering and blistering yields. 7 claims, 3 figures

  8. Foods to Avoid or Limit during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... during pregnancy Foods to avoid or limit during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  9. HELIOS: Application for criticality limits assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonov, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the early years, after the discovery of fission, the criticality safety assessment and the established safety limits, have been mainly based on direct experiments. Later, following the advances in the theory, computational methods and computer hardware, theoretical methods have been elaborated to the level to become reliable assessment tools. The computer codes started replacing the experiments, while the experimental data became a valuable validation source for their models. An application of the two-dimensional transport theory code HELIOS for assessment of criticality limits is presented in this paper. The effect of the enrichment, the system dimensions, H/U5 ration and different reflectors were studied in heterogeneous and homogenized systems. Comparisons with published experimental data and evaluated safety limits are made here to demonstrate the range of HELIOS applicability and limitations. (Author)

  10. On Prohorov's criterion for projective limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Erik G. F.; Koelink, E; VanNeerven, J; DePagter, B; Sweers, G

    2006-01-01

    We propose a modification of Prohorov's theorem on projective limits of Radon measures which can be directly applied to the construction of Wiener measure on the space of continuous functions, and we give such a construction.(1)

  11. The classical limit of W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Ramos, E.

    1992-01-01

    We define and compute explicitly the classical limit of the realizations of W n appearing as hamiltonian structures of generalized KdV hierarchies. The classical limit is obtained by taking the commutative limit of the ring of pseudodifferential operators. These algebras - denoted w n - have free field realizations in which the generators are given by the elementary symmetric polynomials in the free fields. We compute the algebras explicitly and we show that they are all reductions of a new algebra w KP , which is proposed as the universal classical W-algebra for the w n series. As a deformation of this algebra we also obtain w 1+∞ , the classical limit of W 1+∞ . (orig.)

  12. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  13. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  14. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  15. Asymptotic limits of a statistical transport description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvagi, F.; Levermore, C.D.; Pomraning, G.C.; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721)

    1989-01-01

    We consider three different asymptotic limits of a model describing linear particle transport in a stochastic medium consisting of two randomly mixed immiscible fluids. These three limits are: (1) the fluid packets are small compared to the particle mean free path in the packet; (2) a small amount of large cross section fluid is admixed with a large amount of small cross section fluid; and (3) the angular dependence of the intensity (angular flux) is nearly isotropic. The first two limits reduce the underlying model, which consists of two coupled transport equations, to a single transport equation of the usual form. The third limit yields a two-equation diffusion approximation, and a boundary layer analysis gives boundary conditions for these two coupled diffusion equations

  16. Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...

  17. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  18. Limiting effects in double EEX beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, G.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Doran, D. S.; Gai, W.

    2017-07-01

    The double emittance exchange (EEX) beamline is suggested to overcome the large horizontal emittance and transverse jitter issues associated with the single EEX beamline while preserving its powerful phase-space manipulation capability. However, the double EEX beamline also has potential limitations due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and transverse jitter. The former limitation arises because double EEX uses twice as many bending magnets as single EEX which means stronger CSR effects degrading the beam quality. The latter limitation arises because a longitudinal jitter in front of the first EEX beamline is converted into a transverse jitter in the middle section (between the EEX beamlines) which can cause beam loss or beam degradation. In this paper, we numerically explore the effects of these two limitations on the emittance and beam transport.

  19. Limiting effects in double EEX beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, G; Power, J G; Conde, M; Doran, D S; Gai, W

    2017-01-01

    The double emittance exchange (EEX) beamline is suggested to overcome the large horizontal emittance and transverse jitter issues associated with the single EEX beamline while preserving its powerful phase-space manipulation capability. However, the double EEX beamline also has potential limitations due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and transverse jitter. The former limitation arises because double EEX uses twice as many bending magnets as single EEX which means stronger CSR effects degrading the beam quality. The latter limitation arises because a longitudinal jitter in front of the first EEX beamline is converted into a transverse jitter in the middle section (between the EEX beamlines) which can cause beam loss or beam degradation. In this paper, we numerically explore the effects of these two limitations on the emittance and beam transport. (paper)

  20. 48 CFR 817.402 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Leader Company Contracting 817.402 Limitations. (a... company contracts. (b) The DSPE may designate a contracting officer to enter into a leader company...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.612 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.612 Loan limits. The maximum loan amount will be 100 percent of the allowable total development costs of on-farm labor housing and...

  2. Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.

    1981-11-01

    This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified

  3. MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present physics understandings of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamak plasmas, the threshold conditions for onset of MHD instability, and the resulting operational limits on attainable plasma pressure (beta limit) and density (density limit), and the consequences of plasma disruption and disruption related effects are reviewed and assessed in the context of their application to a future DT burning reactor prototype tokamak experiment such as ITER. The principal considerations covered within the MHD stability and beta limit assessments are (i) magnetostatic equilibrium, ideal MHD stability and the resulting ideal MHD beta limit; (ii) sawtooth oscillations and the coupling of sawtooth activity to other types of MHD instability; (iii) neoclassical island resistive tearing modes and the corresponding limits on beta and energy confinement; (iv) wall stabilization of ideal MHD instabilities and resistive wall instabilities; (v) mode locking effects of non-axisymmetric error fields; (vi) edge localized MHD instabilities (ELMs, etc.); and (vii) MHD instabilities and beta/pressure gradient limits in plasmas with actively modified current and magnetic shear profiles. The principal considerations covered within the density limit assessments are (i) empirical density limits; (ii) edge power balance/radiative density limits in ohmic and L-mode plasmas; and (iii) edge parameter related density limits in H-mode plasmas. The principal considerations covered in the disruption assessments are (i) disruption causes, frequency and MHD instability onset; (ii) disruption thermal and current quench characteristics; (iii) vertical instabilities (VDEs), both before and after disruption, and plasma and in-vessel halo currents; (iv) after disruption runaway electron formation, confinement and loss; (v) fast plasma shutdown (rapid externally initiated dissipation of plasma thermal and magnetic energies); (vi) means for disruption avoidance and disruption effect mitigation; and

  4. The separate universe approach to soft limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenton, Zachary; Mulryne, David J., E-mail: z.a.kenton@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: d.mulryne@qmul.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    We develop a formalism for calculating soft limits of n -point inflationary correlation functions using separate universe techniques. Our method naturally allows for multiple fields and leads to an elegant diagrammatic approach. As an application we focus on the trispectrum produced by inflation with multiple light fields, giving explicit formulae for all possible single- and double-soft limits. We also investigate consistency relations and present an infinite tower of inequalities between soft correlation functions which generalise the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality.

  5. Theoretical Prediction of the Forming Limit Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banabic, D.; Paraianu, L.; Vos, M.; Jurco, P.

    2007-01-01

    Forming Limit Band (FLB) is a very useful tool to improve the sheet metal forming simulation robustness. Until now, the study of the FLB was only experimental. This paper presents the first attempt to model the FLB. The authors have established an original method for predicting the two margins of the limit band. The method was illustrated on the AA6111-T43 aluminum alloy. A good agreement with the experiments has been obtained

  6. Theoretical Prediction of the Forming Limit Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banabic, D.; Vos, M.; Paraianu, L.; Jurco, P.

    2007-04-01

    Forming Limit Band (FLB) is a very useful tool to improve the sheet metal forming simulation robustness. Until now, the study of the FLB was only experimental. This paper presents the first attempt to model the FLB. The authors have established an original method for predicting the two margins of the limit band. The method was illustrated on the AA6111-T43 aluminum alloy. A good agreement with the experiments has been obtained.

  7. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  8. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators

  9. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2006-11-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  10. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: one bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  11. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [Physikalisches Institut, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, W. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2006-11-27

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  12. Mass limits for the muon neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.; Sandberg, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of improving the present limit on the mass of the muon neutrino is discussed. It is found that decays of muons and pions are not useful means to significantly improve this limit. On the other hand, the decays K 0 /sub L/ → π/sup +-/μ/sup -+/nu/sub μ/ and K + → π 0 μ + nu/sub μ/ appear to be quite promising. Possible experiments are discussed

  13. Loop quantization as a continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, Elisa; Oeckl, Robert; Weber, Axel; Zapata, Jose A

    2006-01-01

    We present an implementation of Wilson's renormalization group and a continuum limit tailored for loop quantization. The dynamics of loop-quantized theories is constructed as a continuum limit of the dynamics of effective theories. After presenting the general formalism we show as a first explicit example the 2D Ising field theory, an interacting relativistic quantum field theory with local degrees of freedom quantized by loop quantization techniques

  14. Supply and demand law under limited information

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    We present a model for the supply-demand law with quality and limited information capability. We postulate that imperfect information permeates in almost all economic transactions to varying degrees. Through a simple model we outline a research agenda that re-examines many standard issues in economics. Our analysis shows that whereas imperfect information can be improved, it leads to new uncertainties so that the perfect information limit can never be reached. As a corollary neoclassical perf...

  15. Computer modelling of superconductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A.; Cardwell, D.A.; Storey, R.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Hancox, J. [Rolls Royce, Applied Science Division, Derby (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out on the use of superconductors for fault current limiting applications. A number of computer programs are being developed to predict the behavior of different `resistive` fault current limiter designs under a variety of fault conditions. The programs achieve solution by iterative methods based around real measured data rather than theoretical models in order to achieve accuracy at high current densities. (orig.) 5 refs.

  16. Inviscid incompressible limits on expanding domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka; Sun, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2014), s. 2465-2477 ISSN 0951-7715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * large domain * inviscid limit * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0951-7715/27/10/2465/

  17. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    1. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions. However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. 2. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits....

  18. Limits and signatures of relativistic spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Ulvi; Wilkinson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave photons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.

  19. Hayflick, his limit, and cellular ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, J W; Wright, W E

    2000-10-01

    Almost 40 years ago, Leonard Hayflick discovered that cultured normal human cells have limited capacity to divide, after which they become senescent -- a phenomenon now known as the 'Hayflick limit'. Hayflick's findings were strongly challenged at the time, and continue to be questioned in a few circles, but his achievements have enabled others to make considerable progress towards understanding and manipulating the molecular mechanisms of ageing.

  20. Limiting currents of overcompensated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malafaev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    A possibility of producing recompensated electron beam and increasing its limiting currents in the magnetic field is experimentally investigated. It is shown that such a possibility is realized when the beam is surrounded by a cylindrical net placed into the tube located under the positive potential relative to the net. In this case an increase of limiting current at the expense of increasing the ion life time, takes place. Current, exceeding the Pierce threshold 1.5 times, is obtained

  1. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range

  2. Physical limits of silicon transistors and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, Robert W

    2005-01-01

    A discussion on transistors and electronic computing including some history introduces semiconductor devices and the motivation for miniaturization of transistors. The changing physics of field-effect transistors and ways to mitigate the deterioration in performance caused by the changes follows. The limits of transistors are tied to the requirements of the chips that carry them and the difficulties of fabricating very small structures. Some concluding remarks about transistors and limits are presented

  3. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  4. Laser-limiting materials for medical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgaetsky, Vitaly M.; Kopylova, Tat'yana N.; Tereshchenko, Sergey A.; Reznichenko, Alexander V.; Selishchev, Sergey V.

    2004-03-01

    The important problem of modern laser medicine is the decrease of an exposure of biological tissues outside of an operational field and can be solved by optical radiation limiting. Organic dyes with reversibly darkening can be placed onto surfaces of irradiated tissues or can be introduced in solder for laser welding of vessels. The limiting properties of a set of nontoxic organic compounds were investigated. Nonlinear optical properties of dyes having reverse saturable absorption (pyran styryl derivatives, cyanine and porphyrine compounds) were studied under XeCl and YAG:Nd (II harmonics) lasers excitation. The effect of attenuation of a visible laser radiation is obtained for ethanol solutions of cyanines: radiation attenuation coefficient ( AC) = 25-35 at N/S = 100-250 MW/cm2. In water solutions of such compounds in UV spectrum range AC ~ 10. The spectral characteristics of compounds appeared expedient enough to operational use in laser limiters (broad passband in visible range of a spectrum). Under the data of Z-scanning (the scheme F/10) value AC ~ 70 was reached. The limiting of power laser radiation in visible (λ = 532 nm) and UV- (λ = 308 nm) spectral region and nanosecond pulse duration (7 -13 ns) across porphyrine solutions and their complexes with some metals (13 compounds) was investigated too. The comparative study of optical limiting dependence on intensity of laser radiation, solvent type and concentration of solutions was carried out for selecte wavelength. There was shown a possible use of pyran styryl derivatives DCM as limiters of visual laser radiation. To understand a mechanism of laser radiation limitation the light induced processes were experimentally and theoretically studied in organic molecules. The quantum-chemical investigation of one cyanine compound was carried out. There were noted the perspectives of laser radiation limiting by application of inverted schemes of traditional laser shutters. Usage of phenomena of light -induced

  5. Optimal Taxation in a Limited Commitment Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yena Park

    2012-01-01

    This article studies optimal Ramsey taxation when risk sharing in private insurance markets is imperfect due to limited enforcement. In a limited commitment economy, there are externalities associated with capital and labour because individuals do not take into account that their labour and saving decisions affect aggregate labour and capital supply and wages, and thus the value of autarky. Therefore, a Ramsey government has an additional goal, which is to internalize these externalities of l...

  6. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  7. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs

  8. Survey of beam-beam limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Cornacchia, M.; Donald, M.M.R.; Evans, L.R.; Tazzari, S.; Wilson, E.J.N.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of beam-beam interaction is known to limit the luminosity of electron-positron storage rings and will, no doubt, limit the proton-antiproton collision scheme for the SPS. While theorists are struggling to explain this phenomenon it is more instructive to list their failures than their rather limited successes, in the hope that experiments may emerge which will direct their endeavors. The search for a description of a nonlinear system as it approaches the limit in which ordered motion breaks down, is the nub of the problem. It has engaged many fine mathematical intellects for decades and will no doubt continue to do so long after ISABELLE, the p antip and LEP are past achievements. Empirical scaling laws are emerging which relate electron machines to each other but their extrapolation to proton machines remain a very speculative exercise. Experimental data on proton limits is confined to one machine, the ISR, which does not normally suffer the beam-beam effect and where it must be artificially induced or simulated. This machine is also very different in important ways from the p antip collider. The gloomy picture which has emerged recently is that the fixed limits which were conventionally assumed for proton and electron machines can only be said to be valid for the machines which engendered them - the best guess that could be made at the time. They are very difficult to extrapolate to other sets of parameters

  9. Pump limiter experiment in the TFR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Pump limiter experiments are carried out in the TFR Tokamak. The first TFR pump limiter is located in the outer part of the torus, its double-throat head is made of graphite tiles, the neutralizer plates are made of stainless steel, and it is pumped by a 3500 l s -1 titanium sublimation pump. The first attempts showed that the exhaust efficiency ε of this pump limiter was low (1.5% of the total plasma particle efflux). To improve on these results, a new limiter head with a single longer throat has been built. The particles were better trapped and the pumping achieved an important decrease of the recycling coefficient. Geometric features and also the highly non linear regime of pressure in the pump limiter as a function of the density at the entrance slot could explain the increase by a factor 3.5 of the exhaust efficiency (ε = 5%). Ion temperatures of the order of a few eV have been deduced from Doppler broadening measurements at the neutralizer plate of the pump limiter. (orig.)

  10. Photonic limiters with enhanced dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Rodion; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos; Anisimov, Igor; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Chabanov, Andrey

    2018-02-01

    Optical limiters transmit low intensity input light while blocking input light with the intensity exceeding certain limiting threshold. Conventional passive limiters utilize nonlinear optical materials, which are transparent at low light intensity and turn absorptive at high intensity. Strong nonlinear absorption, though, can result in over- heating and destruction of the limiter. Another problem is that the limiting threshold provided by the available optical material with nonlinear absorption is too high for many applications. To address the above problems, the nonlinear material can be incorporated in a photonic structure with engineered dispersion. At low intensity, the photonic structure can display resonant transmission via localized mode(s), while at high intensity the resonant transmission can disappear, and the entire stack can become highly re ective (not absorptive) within a broad frequency range. In the proposed design, the transition from the resonant transmission at low intensity to nearly total re ectivity at high intensity does not rely on nonlinear absorption; instead, it requires only a modest change in the refractive index of the nonlinear material. The latter implies a dramatic increase in the dynamic range of the limiter. The main idea is to eliminate the high-intensity resonant transmission by decoupling the localized (resonant) modes from the input light, rather than suppressing those modes using nonlinear absorption. Similar approach can be used for light modulation and switching.

  11. Risk based limits for Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    OSR limits are designed to protect the assumptions made in the facility safety analysis in order to preserve the safety envelope during facility operation. Normally, limits are set based on ''worst case conditions'' without regard to the likelihood (frequency) of a credible event occurring. In special cases where the accident analyses are based on ''time at risk'' arguments, it may be desirable to control the time at which the facility is at risk. A methodology has been developed to use OSR limits to control the source terms and the times these source terms would be available, thus controlling the acceptable risk to a nuclear process facility. The methodology defines a new term ''gram-days''. This term represents the area under a source term (inventory) vs time curve which represents the risk to the facility. Using the concept of gram-days (normalized to one year) allows the use of an accounting scheme to control the risk under the inventory vs time curve. The methodology results in at least three OSR limits: (1) control of the maximum inventory or source term, (2) control of the maximum gram-days for the period based on a source term weighted average, and (3) control of the maximum gram-days at the individual source term levels. Basing OSR limits on risk based safety analysis is feasible, and a basis for development of risk based limits is defensible. However, monitoring inventories and the frequencies required to maintain facility operation within the safety envelope may be complex and time consuming

  12. Determination and Interpretation of Characteristic Limits for Radioactivity Measurements: Decision Threshhold, Detection Limit and Limits of the Confidence Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at developing a set of procedures for analytical measurements of radionuclides in food and the environment. Reliable, comparable and fit for purpose results are essential for any analytical measurement. Guidelines and national and international standards for laboratory practices to fulfil quality assurance requirements are extremely important when performing such measurements. The guidelines and standards should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer. ISO 11929:2010 is the international standard on the determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval) for measuring ionizing radiation. For nuclear analytical laboratories involved in the measurement of radioactivity in food and the environment, robust determination of the characteristic limits of radioanalytical techniques is essential with regard to national and international regulations on permitted levels of radioactivity. However, characteristic limits defined in ISO 11929:2010 are complex, and the correct application of the standard in laboratories requires a full understanding of various concepts. This publication provides additional information to Member States in the understanding of the terminology, definitions and concepts in ISO 11929:2010, thus facilitating its implementation in Member State laboratories.

  13. Threshold limit values, permissible exposure limits, and feasibility: The bases for exposure limits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of exposure limits in the United States has always relied heavily upon the threshold limit values (TLVs) developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In fact, the TLVs were adopted as official exposure limits by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1972 and 1989. Given the continuing importance of the ACGIH limits, this paper compares the basis of the TLVs with that employed by OSHA de novo in its 12 new permissible exposure limits (PELs). Using benzene as an example, it is shown that OSHA's new PELs have been established following a rigorous assessment of the inherent risks and the feasibility of instituting the limit. The TLVs, on the other hand, have been developed by ad hoc procedures and appear to have traditionally reflected levels thought to be achievable at the time. However, this might be changing. Analysis of the historical reductions of TLVs, for 27 substances on the 1991-1992 list of intended changes, indicates smaller reductions in the past (median reduction of 2.0-2.5-fold between 1946 and 1988) compared to those currently being observed (median reduction of 7.5-fold between 1989 and 1991). Further analysis suggests a more aggressive policy of the ACGIH regarding TLVs for carcinogens but not for substances that produce effects other than cancer. Regardless of whether the basis of the TLVs has changed recently, it would take a relatively long time for the impact of any change to be felt, since the median age of the 1991-1992 TLVs is 16.5 years, and 75% of these limits are more than 10 years old. The implications of OSHA's continued reliance on the TLVs as a means of updating its PELs are discussed, and four alternatives are presented to the ACGIH regarding the future of its activities related to exposure limits. It is concluded that new mechanisms are needed for OSHA to update its PELs in a timely fashion so that the TLVs will not be adopted by default in the future

  14. The thermal limits to life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Living organisms on Earth are characterized by three necessary features: a set of internal instructions encoded in DNA (software), a suite of proteins and associated macromolecules providing a boundary and internal structure (hardware), and a flux of energy. In addition, they replicate themselves through reproduction, a process that renders evolutionary change inevitable in a resource-limited world. Temperature has a profound effect on all of these features, and yet life is sufficiently adaptable to be found almost everywhere water is liquid. The thermal limits to survival are well documented for many types of organisms, but the thermal limits to completion of the life cycle are much more difficult to establish, especially for organisms that inhabit thermally variable environments. Current data suggest that the thermal limits to completion of the life cycle differ between the three major domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. At the very highest temperatures only archaea are found with the current high-temperature limit for growth being 122 °C. Bacteria can grow up to 100 °C, but no eukaryote appears to be able to complete its life cycle above ~60 °C and most not above 40 °C. The lower thermal limit for growth in bacteria, archaea, unicellular eukaryotes where ice is present appears to be set by vitrification of the cell interior, and lies at ~-20 °C. Lichens appear to be able to grow down to ~-10 °C. Higher plants and invertebrates living at high latitudes can survive down to ~-70 °C, but the lower limit for completion of the life cycle in multicellular organisms appears to be ~-2 °C.

  15. The Cognitive Limits to Economic Cluster Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Carrol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the social dimensions of economic clusters. The literature now includes select examples of social network analysis plus an extensive discussion of learning regions. Unfortunately, much of this work treats the network as the primary unit of analysis. It may be that network attributes such as density, centrality, and power are primarily dependent on human limitations and not instituted factors. In other words, a human’s limited ability to process information may be a better determinant of cluster success than economic or network theory. The purpose of this paper is to highlight human limits in cluster formation. To do this, we draw on recent developments in the cognitive psychology and communications literatures. We explain that many of the factors that lead to underperforming cluster policies are the result of a human’s inability to develop and sustain a large number of social interactions. Any cluster policy must be cognizant of such limitations and carefully address these limits in the formation of the initial strategy.

  16. Equilibrium 𝛽-limits in classical stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Nührenberg, C.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out to understand the equilibrium -limit in a classical stellarator. The stepped-pressure equilibrium code (Hudson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 19 (11), 2012) is used in order to assess whether or not magnetic islands and stochastic field-lines can emerge at high . Two modes of operation are considered: a zero-net-current stellarator and a fixed-iota stellarator. Despite the fact that relaxation is allowed (Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58 (3), 1986, pp. 741-763), the former is shown to maintain good flux surfaces up to the equilibrium -limit predicted by ideal-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), above which a separatrix forms. The latter, which has no ideal equilibrium -limit, is shown to develop regions of magnetic islands and chaos at sufficiently high , thereby providing a `non-ideal -limit'. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the value of at which the Shafranov shift of the axis reaches a fraction of the minor radius follows in all cases the scaling laws predicted by ideal-MHD. We compare our results to the High-Beta-Stellarator theory of Freidberg (Ideal MHD, 2014, Cambridge University Press) and derive a new prediction for the non-ideal equilibrium -limit above which chaos emerges.

  17. Limiting factors in caribou population ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou and wild reindeer populations fluctuate over time. On this fact there is general agreement. Factors responsible for population limitation and subsequent declines have been examined within the framework of animal population theory. There is, however, little agreement when factors limiting specific populations are generalized to Rangifer populations over broad geographic regions. Comparative examinations of wild Rangifer populations worldwide discloses that factors that have regulated those populations are highly variable between populations, apparently as a reflection of the differences in environmental variables unique to each population. Examples exist of populations where major regulating factors have been climatic extremes, predation, hunting mortality, food limitation, insects, parasites, disease, interspecific competition, and human developmental impacts or combinations of these factors. This diversity of limiting factors affecting caribou and wild reindeer populations is a reflection of the ecologial complexity of the species, a concept that has often been ignored in past efforts to reach management decisions by extrapolation from the limited localized knowledge available on the species.

  18. Universality, marginal operators, and limit cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.; Wilson, Kenneth G.

    2004-01-01

    The universality of renormalization-group limit-cycle behavior is illustrated with a simple discrete Hamiltonian model. A nonperturbative renormalization-group equation for the model is soluble analytically at criticality and exhibits one marginal operator (made necessary by the limit cycle) and an infinite set of irrelevant operators. Relevant operators are absent. The model exhibits an infinite series of bound-state energy eigenvalues. This infinite series approaches an exact geometric series as the eigenvalues approach zero--also a consequence of the limit cycle. Wegner's eigenvalues for irrelevant operators are calculated generically for all choices of parameters in the model. We show that Wegner's eigenvalues are independent of location on the limit cycle, in contrast with Wegner's operators themselves, which vary depending on their location on the limit cycle. An example is then used to illustrate numerically how one can tune the initial Hamiltonian to eliminate the first two irrelevant operators. After tuning, the Hamiltonian's bound-state eigenvalues converge much more quickly than otherwise to an exact geometric series

  19. First pump limiter experiments in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Klepper, C.C.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chappuis, P.; Gil, C.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Vallet, J.C.; Van Houtte, D.; Watkins, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of TORE SUPRA at full power (25MW, 30s) has led to the design of a full set of actively pumped carbon limiters to remove at least 8MW and to partially control the particle balance. An interim version is now installed, composed of 5 vertical and one horizontal outboard (OPL) pump limiters, semi-inertially water cooled. The latter is a result of a collaboration between the US DOE and the Association EUR-CEA, it is fully instrumented and therefore can serve as a reference for the final design. Ohmic discharges (1.85T, 740kA, 8.5s) in helium have been used to test the thermal load on and the particle exhaust efficiency of the OPL. In these experiments the plasma is formed on the inner wall (R = 232 cm, a = 76 cm) and subsequently displaced (6 cm) outward, early on the current plateau, to lean on the OPL (R = 238 cm, a = 75 cm). In addition to the limiters above, a non-pumped outboard (ONLP) limiter of identical shape to the OPL served to produce similar discharges for better comparison and determination of particle control. A comparison is made hereafter of the thermal load and particle pumping effects on the OPL when the plasma is in contact either with the OPL/ONPL alone or with the OPL and the vertical limiters together. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. On the ultrarelativistic limit of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautcourt, G.

    1998-01-01

    As is well-known, Newton's gravitational theory can be formulated as a four-dimensional space-time theory and follows as singular limit from Einstein's theory, if the velocity of light tends to the infinity. Here 'singular' stands for the fact, that the limiting geometrical structure differs from a regular Riemannian space-time. Geometrically, the transition Einstein → Newton can be viewed as an 'opening' of the light cones. This picture suggests that there might be other singular limits of Einstein's theory: Let all light cones shrink and ultimately become part of a congruence of singular world lines. The limiting structure may be considered as a null hypersurface embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime. While the velocity of light tends to zero here, all other velocities tend to the velocity of light. Thus one may speak of an ultrarelativistic limit of General Relativity. The resulting theory is as simple as Newton's gravitational theory, with the basic difference, that Newton's elliptic differential equation is replaced by essentially ordinary differential equations, with derivatives tangent to the generators of the singular congruence. The Galilei group is replaced by the Carroll group introduced by Levy-Leblond. We suggest to study near ultrarelativistic situations with a perturbational approach starting from the singular structure, similar to post-Newtonian expansions in the c → ∞ case. (author)

  1. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  2. Power balance limit in collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The power balance limit to the IREB beam front propagation velocity, as first applied to the problem of collective ion acceleration by Olson in 1973, is investigated in view of recent data of Ecker and Putnam. The beam front velocity β/sub f/c as a function of IREB impedance Z is given, showing the dependence on the power balance limit, the ionization front velocity, and the runaway cutoff. The Olson theory predictions, with no fitted parameters, are shown to be in agreement with the data. Further comparisons of β/sub f/ with respect to the IREB electron energy, the IREB current, and the neutral gas pressure are given. Various forms for the power balance limit are discussed; it is shown that inclusion of the secondary electron power loss term results in an essentially negligible correction to β/sub f/ for typical data parameters. The power balance limit used by Ecker and Putnam is shown to be simply a 3-parameter curve fit, wherein the fitted parameters must exceed their allowed physical values to obtain a reasonable fit for β/sub f/ vs Z. Further, it is shown that this curve fitting leads to serious disagreements with other aspects of the data. It is concluded that the original Olson theory adequately accounts for the data, and that the power balance limit for IREB/gas data is typically not significant except for very small values of Z

  3. Numerical Limit Analysis of Precast Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen

    Precast concrete elements are widely used in the construction industry as they provide a number of advantages over the conventional in-situ cast concrete structures. Joints cast on the construction site are needed to connect the precast elements, which poses several challenges. Moreover, the curr...... problems are solved efficiently using state-of-the-art solvers. It is concluded that the framework and developed joint models have the potential to enable efficient design of precast concrete structures in the near future......., the current practice is to design the joints as the weakest part of the structure, which makes analysis of the ultimate limit state behaviour by general purpose software difficult and inaccurate. Manual methods of analysis based on limit analysis have been used for several decades. The methods provide...... of the ultimate limit state behaviour. This thesis introduces a framework based on finite element limit analysis, a numerical method based on the same extremum principles as the manual limit analysis. The framework allows for efficient analysis and design in a rigorous manner by use of mathematical optimisation...

  4. Scrape-off layer based modelling of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Vlases, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a scrape-off layer based interpretation of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges. In these discharges, JET edge parameters show a complicated time evolution as the density limit is approached and the limit is manifested as a non-disruptive density maximum which cannot be exceeded by enhanced gas puffing. The occurrence of Marfes, the manner of density control and details of recycling are essential elements of the interpretation. Scalings for the maximum density are given and compared with JET data. The relation to disruptive density limits, previously observed in JET carbon limiter discharges, and to density limits in divertor discharges is discussed. (author). 18 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  5. Force Limited Vibration Test of HESSI Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Deborah; Pankow, David; Thomsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    The High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) is a solar x-ray and gamma-ray observatory scheduled for launch in November 2000. Vibration testing of the HESSI imager flight unit was performed in August 1999. The HESSI imager consists of a composite metering tube, two aluminum trays mounted to the tube on titanium flexure mounts, and nine modulation grids mounted on each tray. The vibration tests were acceleration controlled and force limited, in order to prevent overtesting. The force limited strategy reduced the shaker force and notched the acceleration at resonances. The test set-up, test levels, and results are presented. The development of the force limits is also discussed. The imager successfully survived the vibration testing.

  6. Limited aperture effects on ultrasonic image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, V.G.; Rose, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the inverse Born approximation the shape of a weak scatterer can be determined from a knowledge of the backscattered ultrasonic amplitude for all directions of incidence and all frequencies. Two questions are considered. First, what information on the scatterer shape is preserved and what is degraded if the scattering data are available only within a limited set of incident directions (limited aperture). This problem is addressed for a spherical weakly scattering uniform flaw. It is shown that the problem of a general uniform ellipsoidal flaw can be reduced to the spherical case by a scale transformation; however, the apertures in these two cases must be related by the same transformation. Second, limited aperture and finite bandwidth Born inversions were performed for strongly scattering flaws (voids and cracks) using numerically generated scattering amplitudes. These inversions were then compared with the weak scattering analytic results, which show many common features

  7. Occupational Exposures and Chronic Airflow Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dimich-Ward

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature was reviewed to evaluate whether chronic airflow limitation is associated with occupational exposures to dusts. Only those studies that controlled for the effects of smoking were included. There is compelling evidence that exposure to inorganic dusts, such as from coal and hardrock mining or asbestos, are associated with the development of chronic airflow limitation, independently of pneumoconiosis. Nonsmoking gold miners are particularly at high risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema. Findings from studies of organic dusts, such as exposures to wood, cotton, grain or other agricultural dusts, or to mixed dust exposures, were less consistent but tended to show positive dose-response associations. In the majority of studies, no statistical interaction was shown between dust exposures and smoking; however, the effects of the dust exposures were often more pronounced. An occupational history should be considered, in addition to a smoking history, as an integral part of an investigation of chronic airflow limitation in a patient.

  8. Performance limitations of translationally symmetric nonimaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortz, John C.; Shatz, Narkis E.; Winston, Roland

    2001-11-01

    The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quality, referred to herein as the translational skew invariant, is analogous to the conventional skew invariant, which is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. The invariance of both of these quantities is a consequence of Noether's theorem. We show how performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices can be derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. Examples of computed performance limits are provided. In addition, we show that a numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking surface microstructure can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry. The optimized design provides a 47.4% increase in efficiency and concentration relative to an ideal translationally symmetric concentrator.

  9. Multiple soft limits of cosmological correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q 2 ) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure

  10. β limit disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Janos, A.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Manickam, J.; Mynick, H.; Nazikian, R.; Taylor, G.

    1994-11-01

    A disruptive β limit (β = plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) is observed in high performance plasmas in TFTR. The MHD character of these disruptions differs substantially from the disruptions in high density plasmas (density limit disruptions) on TFTR. The high β disruptions can occur with less than a milliseconds warning in the form of a fast growing precursor. The precursor appears to be an external kink or internal (m,n)=(1,1) kink strongly coupled through finite β effects and toroidal terms to higher m components. It does not have the open-quote cold bubble close-quote structure found in density limit disruptions. There is also no evidence for a change in the internal inductance, i.e., a major reconnection of the flux, at the time of the thermal quench

  11. Limit on the tau neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinabro, D.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Ball, S.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; O'Neill, J.J.; Romero, V.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Skovpen, Y.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.L.; Wood, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H.; Sanghera, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; He, D.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Muheim, F.; Mukhin, Y.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Vasseur, G.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Egyed, Z.; Jain, V.; Sheldon, P.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Acosta, D.; Athanas, M.; Masek, G.; Ong, B.; Paar, H.; Sivertz, M.; Bean, A.; Gronberg, J.; Kutschke, R.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R.J.; Nakanishi, S.; Nelson, H.N.; Nelson, T.K.; Richman, J.D.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Witherell, M.S.; Procario, M.; Yang, S.; Balest, R.; Cho, K.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.

    1993-01-01

    A limit on the tau neutrino mass M ντ is obtained from a study of tau decays in the reaction e + e-→τ + τ - at center-of-mass energies ∼10.6 GeV. The result is based on an end-point analysis of the invariant mass spectrum of the decay products in the decay modes τ - →3h - 2h + ν τ and τ - →2h - h+2π 0 ν τ . The data sample used in this analysis contains 1.77x10 6 tau pairs, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.92 fb -1 , and is substantially larger than previous data samples used to place a limit on M ντ . The limit obtained for both five-hadron modes together is 32.6 MeV at 95% C.L

  12. Predicting incident size from limited information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  13. Dose limits to the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, N.

    2016-01-01

    Protecting the human body from the effects of ionizing radiation is essential to forestall stochastic effects and require placing limits on the effective dose. Dose limits on specific organs are also necessary to reduce the deterministic effects and tissue reactions. The standard for radiation protection was ISO 15382 (2002) which mainly dealt with beta radiation for nuclear power plant workers. Clearly an update is required to allow for new technology and the proliferative use of radiation in medical practices. There is a need for more explicit radiation monitoring to operators and staff. ICRP118 (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Ref. 1, evolved their recommendations to include eye lens doses as a follow on to their publication 103 and to focus on radiation exposures. It provides updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury at the level of 1% incidence. This paper discusses the current status and the recommendation for a drastic reduction of the dose limit to the eye lens. (author)

  14. Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... methods provide engineers with valuable tools for limit sta- te analysis, their application becomes difficult with increased structural complexity. The main challenge is to solve the optimization problem posed by the extremum principles. This thesis is a study of how numerical methods can be used to solve...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...

  15. Limits to fuel/coolant mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor explosion process involves the mixing of fuel with coolant prior to the explosion. A number of analysts have identified limits to the amount of fuel/coolant mixing that could occur within the reactor vessel following a core melt accident. Past models are reviewed and a sim plified approach is suggested to estimate the upper limit on the amount of fuel/coolant mixing pos sible. The approach uses concepts first advanced by Fauske in a different way. The results indicat that water depth is an important parameter as well as the mixing length scale D /SUB mix/ , and for large values of D /SUB mix/ the fuel mass mixed is limited to <7% of the core mass

  16. Primary system temperature limits and transient mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, G.S.; Bost, D.S.

    1978-10-03

    Results of a study to determine the limiting temperature conditions in a large reactor system are presented. The study considers a sodium-cooled breeder reactor system having a loop-type primary system configuration. A temperature range of 930 to 1050/sup 0/F in reactor outlet temperature is covered. Significant findings were that the use of the materials for the 930/sup 0/F reference design, i.e., a core material of 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel, a primary piping material of 316SS, and a steam generator material of unstabilized 2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo resulted in limiting conditions in component performance at the higher temperatures. Means to circumvent these limits through the use of alternate materials, mitigation of thermal transients, and/or design changes are presented. The economic incentive to make some materials changes is also presented.

  17. Limit analysis and design of containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Save, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the introduction, the theory of plastic analysis of shells is briefly recalled. Minimum-volume design for assigned load factor at plastic collapse is then considered and optimality criteria are derived for plates and shells of continuously varying or piecewise-constant thickness. In the first part, containers made of metal are examined. Analytical and numerical limit analysis solutions and corresponding experimental results are considered for various types of vessels, including intersecting shells. Attention is given to experimental post-yield behavior. Some tests up to fracture are discussed. New theoretical and experimental results of limit analysis of stiffened cylindrical vessels are presented, in which reinforcing rings are treated as discrete structural element (no smearing out) and due account is taken of their strong curvature. Cases of collapse by instability under internal pressure are pointed out. Minimum-volume design of circular plates and cylindrical shells is then formulated and various examples are presented of sandwich and solid metal structures. Containers of piecewise-constant thickness are given particular attention. Available experimental evidence on minimum-volume design of plates and shells is reviewed and commented upon. The second part deals with reinforced concrete vessels. Cylindrical containers are studied, from both points of view of limit analysis and of limit design with minimum volume of reinforcement. The practical use of the latter solutions is discussed. A third part reviews other loading cases (including cyclic and impact loads) and gives indications on corresponding theories, formulations and solution methods. The last part is devoted to a discussion of the limitations of the methods presented, within the frame of the 'limit states' design philosophy, which is first briefly recalled. Considerations on further research in the field conclude the paper. (orig.)

  18. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  19. Coding of Information in Limit Cycle Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Jan-Hendrik; Stemmler, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Starting from a general description of noisy limit cycle oscillators, we derive from the Fokker-Planck equations the linear response of the instantaneous oscillator frequency to a time-varying external force. We consider the time series of zero crossings of the oscillator’s phase and compute the mutual information between it and the driving force. A direct link is established between the phase response curve summarizing the oscillator dynamics and the ability of a limit cycle oscillator, such as a heart cell or neuron, to encode information in the timing of peaks in the oscillation.

  20. Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.

  1. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  2. Critical point inequalities and scaling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A refined and extended version of the Buckingham-Gunton inequality relating various pairs of critical exponents is shown to be valid for a large class of statistical mechanical models. If this inequality is an equality (in the refined sense) and one of the critical exponents has a non-Gaussian value, then any scaling limit must be non-Gaussian. This result clarifies the relationships between the nontriviality of triviality of the scaling limit for ordinary critical points in four dimensions (or tricritical points in three dimensions) and the existence of logarithmic factors in the asymptotics which define the two critical exponents. (orig.) [de

  3. Poisson-Hopf limit of quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, A; Celeghini, E; Olmo, M A del

    2009-01-01

    The Poisson-Hopf analogue of an arbitrary quantum algebra U z (g) is constructed by introducing a one-parameter family of quantizations U z,ℎ (g) depending explicitly on ℎ and by taking the appropriate ℎ → 0 limit. The q-Poisson analogues of the su(2) algebra are discussed and the novel su q P (3) case is introduced. The q-Serre relations are also extended to the Poisson limit. This approach opens the perspective for possible applications of higher rank q-deformed Hopf algebras in semiclassical contexts

  4. BCS gap equations in the quantum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    It was shown that in the quantum limit where only one Landau level is occupied,Tc diverges with increasing H.It was also indcated that Tc is unaffected impurities or by a nonzero g factor, in contrast to what was indicated in Ref. 2.The authors result is due to an assumption that the DOS about a Debye width of the chemical potential is constant. This approximation is questionable sice chemical potential decrease rapidly as H increases.Here Tc is calculated as a function of H in the quantum limit for an appropriate set of parameters to understand how impurities and nonzero g factor affect the result

  5. Limit values for exposure to physical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The limit values for exposure to thermal environments adopted by the French AFNOR and by the ISO Working Group (AFNOR Standard X 35-201 and ISO Standard 7243, and AFNOR Standard X 35-204). The limit values for exposure to other physical agents established by the American ACGIH for 1982. The following agents are covered: - laser radiation (ocular and skin exposure); - ultraviolet radiation; - visible and near-infrared radiation (retinal thermal and photochemical injury); - airborne and upper sonic and ultrasonic acoustic radiation; - radiofrequency radiation [fr

  6. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  7. Current limiting capability of diffused resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedd, W.; Cappelli, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the current limiting capability of dielectrically isolated diffused resistors at transient ionizing dose rates up to 6*10 12 rads(Si)/sec is presented. Existing theoretical predictions of the transient response of diffused resistors are summarized and compared to the experimentally measured values. The test resistors used allow the effects of sheet resistance and geometry on the transient response to be determined. The experimental results show that typical dielectrically isolated diffused resistors maintain adequate current limiting capability for use in radiation hardened integrated circuits

  8. Embracing the quantum limit in silicon computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John J L; McCamey, Dane R; Eriksson, Mark A; Lyon, Stephen A

    2011-11-16

    Quantum computers hold the promise of massive performance enhancements across a range of applications, from cryptography and databases to revolutionary scientific simulation tools. Such computers would make use of the same quantum mechanical phenomena that pose limitations on the continued shrinking of conventional information processing devices. Many of the key requirements for quantum computing differ markedly from those of conventional computers. However, silicon, which plays a central part in conventional information processing, has many properties that make it a superb platform around which to build a quantum computer. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  9. Limitations, insights and improvements to gyrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, Peter J.; Parra, Felix I.; Kagan, Grigory; Simakov, Andrei N.

    2009-01-01

    We first consider gyrokinetic quasineutrality limitations when evaluating the axisymmetric radial electric field in a non-turbulent tokamak by an improved examination of intrinsic ambipolarity. We next prove that the background ions in a pedestal of poloidal ion gyroradius scale must be Maxwellian and nearly isothermal in Pfirsch-Schlueter and banana regime tokamak plasmas, and then consider zonal flow behaviour in a pedestal. Finally, we focus on a simplifying procedure for our transport time scale hybrid gyrokinetic-fluid treatment that removes the limitations of gyrokinetic quasineutrality and remains valid in the pedestal.

  10. Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion reaction are considered. The experimental signatures and the importance of a quasi-fission process are examined. The anaular distributions of fission fragments for the 32 S+ 208 Pb and 16 O+ 238 U systems are presented. It is shown that the observations of quasi-fission for even rather ''light'' heavy ions poeess severe limitations on the fusion process. This result may consequently be responsible for the lack of success of the search for super heavy elements in heavy ion fusion reactions

  11. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  12. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered

  13. Pumped-limiter study for Alcator DCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.; Cha, Y.S.; Hassanein, A.M.; Majumdar, S.

    1983-06-01

    A study was performed for a pumped-limiter design for the proposed Alcator DCT device. The study focused on reactor-relevant issues. The main issues examined were configuration, surface erosion, thermal hydraulics, and the choice of structural and surface materials. A bottom, flat limiter, with a copper-alloy substrate, seems to be a reasonable design and should provide an opportunity to test high power and particle loadings. Carbon is recommended as a surface material if acceptable redeposition properties can be demonstrated

  14. Pumped-limiter study for Alcator DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.; Cha, Y.S.; Hassanein, A.M.; Majumdar, S.

    1983-06-01

    A study was performed for a pumped-limiter design for the proposed Alcator DCT device. The study focused on reactor-relevant issues. The main issues examined were configuration, surface erosion, thermal hydraulics, and the choice of structural and surface materials. A bottom, flat limiter, with a copper-alloy substrate, seems to be a reasonable design and should provide an opportunity to test high power and particle loadings. Carbon is recommended as a surface material if acceptable redeposition properties can be demonstrated.

  15. Beam-intensity limitations in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent demand for high-intensity beams of various particles has renewed interest in the investigation of beam current and beam quality limits in linear RF and induction accelerators and beam-transport channels. Previous theoretical work is reviewed, and new work on beam matching and stability is outlined. There is a real need for extending the theory to handle the time evolution of beam emittance; some present work toward this goal is described. The role of physical constraints in channel intensity limitation is emphasized. Work on optimizing channel performance, particularly at low particle velocities, has resulted in major technological advances. The opportunities for combining such channels into arrays are discussed. 50 references

  16. Relativistic classical limit of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, G.R.; Rafelski, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study the classical limit of the equal-time relativistic quantum transport theory. We discuss in qualitative terms the need to fold first the Wigner function with a coarse-graining function. Only then does the singularity at ℎ→0 seem to be manageable. In the limit ℎ→0, we obtain the relativistic Vlasov equations for the particle and the antiparticle sector of the Fock space. Similarly, we address the evolution equations of the spin and the magnetic-moment density

  17. 78 FR 75679 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... practices for compliance with Designated Contract Market (``DCM'') core principle 5 and Swap Execution Facility (``SEF'') core principle 6 in respect of exchange- set speculative position limits and position... To Become Guidance on and Acceptable Practices for Compliance with DCM Core Principle 5 3. The CFTC...

  18. 28 CFR 513.31 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 513.31 Section 513.31 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION... published in 5 CFR part 297 and by Department of Justice regulations published in 28 CFR part 16. ...

  19. Hanford defined waste model limitations and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan, Milestone 5,6.3.1.i requires issuance of this report which addresses ''updates to the tank contents model''. This report summarizes the review of the Hanford Defined Waste, Revision 4, model limitations and provides conclusions and recommendations for potential updates to the model

  20. The capacity limitations of orientation summary statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarha, Mouna; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous–sequential method was used to test the processing capacity of establishing mean orientation summaries. Four clusters of oriented Gabor patches were presented in the peripheral visual field. One of the clusters had a mean orientation that was tilted either left or right while the mean orientations of the other three clusters were roughly vertical. All four clusters were presented at the same time in the simultaneous condition whereas the clusters appeared in temporal subsets of two in the sequential condition. Performance was lower when the means of all four clusters had to be processed concurrently than when only two had to be processed in the same amount of time. The advantage for establishing fewer summaries at a given time indicates that the processing of mean orientation engages limited-capacity processes (Experiment 1). This limitation cannot be attributed to crowding, low target-distractor discriminability, or a limited-capacity comparison process (Experiments 2 and 3). In contrast to the limitations of establishing multiple summary representations, establishing a single summary representation unfolds without interference (Experiment 4). When interpreted in the context of recent work on the capacity of summary statistics, these findings encourage reevaluation of the view that early visual perception consists of summary statistic representations that unfold independently across multiple areas of the visual field. PMID:25810160

  1. Factors limiting device efficiency in organic photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.A.J.; Nelson, J.

    2013-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of the most efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has recently increased to over 10%. To enable further increases, the factors limiting the device efficiency in OPV must be identified. In this review, the operational mechanism of OPV cells is explained and the

  2. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  3. Z limit of elements in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1985-02-01

    From a general consideration of atomic models, the Z of elements cannot exceed 1/α, where α is the fine structure constant. Combined with a knowledge of nuclear physics, we may conclude that the limit on strong interaction is that no long-lived nucleus exists beyond Z = 1/α

  4. Limiting rotational period of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    1992-11-01

    We seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties in which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M=1.442Msolar neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). A still lower curve, based only on the structure of Einstein's equations, limits any star whatsoever to lie in the plane above it. Hypothetical stars such as strange stars, if the matter of which they are made is self-bound in bulk at a sufficiently large equilibrium energy density, can lie in the region above the general-relativistic forbidden region, and in the region forbidden to neutron stars.

  5. Limiting rotational period of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    We seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties in which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M=1.442M circle-dot neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). A still lower curve, based only on the structure of Einstein's equations, limits any star whatsoever to lie in the plane above it. Hypothetical stars such as strange stars, if the matter of which they are made is self-bound in bulk at a sufficiently large equilibrium energy density, can lie in the region above the general-relativistic forbidden region, and in the region forbidden to neutron stars

  6. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  7. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... ratification by the Management Conference and must include the following elements: (1) Introduction. A... unless and until the scope of work and overall budget have been approved by the Management Conference of...

  8. Fundamental Limitations for Imaging GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Fundamental limitations for imaging GEO satellites D. Mozurkewich Seabrook Engineering , Seabrook, MD 20706 USA H. R. Schmitt, J. T. Armstrong Naval...higher spatial frequency. Send correspondence to David Mozurkewich, Seabrook Engineering , 9310 Dubarry Ave., Seabrook MD 20706 E-mail: dave

  9. Numerical Limit Analysis of Precast Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    ; the framework is based on the theory of rigid-plasticity, and the resulting mathematical optimisation problem can be solved efficiently using modern algorithms. This paper gives a brief introduction to convex optimisation and numerical limit analysis. The mathematical formulation of lower bound load...

  10. Diffusion-limited mixing by incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher J.; Doering, Charles R.

    2018-05-01

    Incompressible flows can be effective mixers by appropriately advecting a passive tracer to produce small filamentation length scales. In addition, diffusion is generally perceived as beneficial to mixing due to its ability to homogenize a passive tracer. However we provide numerical evidence that, in cases where advection and diffusion are both actively present, diffusion may produce negative effects by limiting the mixing effectiveness of incompressible optimal flows. This limitation appears to be due to the presence of a limiting length scale given by a generalised Batchelor length (Batchelor 1959 J. Fluid Mech. 5 113–33). This length scale limitation may in turn affect long-term mixing rates. More specifically, we consider local-in-time flow optimisation under energy and enstrophy flow constraints with the objective of maximising the mixing rate. We observe that, for enstrophy-bounded optimal flows, the strength of diffusion may not impact the long-term mixing rate. For energy-constrained optimal flows, however, an increase in the strength of diffusion can decrease the mixing rate. We provide analytical lower bounds on mixing rates and length scales achievable under related constraints (point-wise bounded speed and rate-of-strain) by extending the work of Lin et al (2011 J. Fluid Mech. 675 465–76) and Poon (1996 Commun. PDE 21 521–39).

  11. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Poset limits can be totally ordered

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.; Viresh, P.; Pikhurko, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 367, č. 6 (2015), s. 4319-4337 ISSN 0002-9947 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : limits of discrete structures * regularity lemma * poset Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2015 http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06299-0/home.html

  13. Density limit studies on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    The authors have studied the processes limiting plasma density and successfully achieved discharges with density {approximately}50% above the empirical Greenwald density limit with H-mode confinement. This was accomplished by density profile control, enabled through pellet injection and divertor pumping. By examining carefully the criterion for MARFE formation, the authors have derived an edge density limit with scaling very similar to Greenwald scaling. Finally, they have looked in detail at the first and most common density limit process in DIII-D, total divertor detachment, and found that the local upstream separatrix density (n{sub e}{sup sep,det}) at detachment onset (partial detachment) increases with the scrape-off layer heating power, P{sub heat}, i.e., n{sub e}{sup sep,det} {approximately} P{sub heat}{sup 0.76}. This is in marked contrast to the line-average density at detachment which is insensitive to the heating power. The data are in reasonable agreement with the Borass model, which predicted that the upstream density at detachment would increase as P{sub heat}{sup 0.7}.

  14. 5 CFR 551.702 - Time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... at any time file a complaint under the child labor provisions of the Act or an FLSA claim challenging... claim concerning his or her entitlement to minimum wage or overtime pay for work performed under the Act... limitations is 3 years. In deciding a claim, a determination must be made as to whether the cause or basis of...

  15. Ensemble methods for seasonal limited area forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Takle, Eugene S.

    2004-01-01

    The ensemble prediction methods used for seasonal limited area forecasts were examined by comparing methods for generating ensemble simulations of seasonal precipitation. The summer 1993 model over the north-central US was used as a test case. The four methods examined included the lagged-average...

  16. 47 CFR 18.307 - Conduction limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduction limits. 18.307 Section 18.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical... outside of the frequency bands specified in § 18.301. (f) For ultrasonic equipment, compliance with the...

  17. Aluminum limiter experiment in ST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meservey, E.B.; Bretz, N.; Dimock, D.L.; Hinnov, E.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of a light-element limiter on plasma parameters, aluminum rail limiters interchangeable with Mo rails were installed top, bottom, and outside directions in the ST tokamak. The inside limiter remained a fixed Mo rail. Compared with discharges produced immediately before and after with the usual Mo limiters, the ''aluminum'' discharges showed an increase of T/sub e/ (by factors of 1.4-2 near the center) and of energy confinement (by factors of 2 to 3 in el. energy/power input, depending on time of observation). H 2 and He discharges showed practically identical effects. In plasma composition, the Mo concentration dropped significantly, but Fe only slightly if at all; the Al concentration was about 3-5 percent (i.e., large compared to the heavier metals), whereas oxygen, about 4 to 8 percent to start with, dropped to insignificance, probably as a result of Al evaporation. The z/sub eff/ from resistivity increased 20-30 percent although the resistance dropped because of the higher T/sub e/. The improved T/sub e/ and energy confinement are thought to be the result of cumulative effects of more favorable radial current and power input distributions rather than direct energy losses by radiation

  18. Accessibility Limits Recall from Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Swan, Garrett; Wilson, Daryl E.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate limitations of accessibility of information in visual working memory (VWM). Recently, cued-recall has been used to estimate the fidelity of information in VWM, where the feature of a cued object is reproduced from memory (Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009; Wilken & Ma, 2004; Zhang & Luck, 2008). Response…

  19. Plugging regime in the pump limiter throat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The plugging regime -with no outstreaming neutral flux- is studied for a closed configuration pump limiter (throat). We derive the plugging length and the neutral density build-up at the neutralizer plate. The analytical expressions are supported by numerical evidence. We find an improved efficiency related to the throat effect mainly due to neutral-sidewall interactions

  20. The limited angle problem in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    Fast reconstruction formulae in X-ray computerized tomography demand the directions, in which the measurements are taken, to be equally distributed over the whole circle. In many applications data can only be provided in a restricted range. Here the intrinsic difficulties are studied by giving a singular value decomposition of the Radon transform in a restricted range. Practical limitations are deduced. (orig.)

  1. Poset limits can be totally ordered

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.; Viresh, P.; Pikhurko, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 367, č. 6 (2015), s. 4319-4337 ISSN 0002-9947 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : limits of discrete structures * regularity lemma * poset Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2015 http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06299-0/ home .html

  2. Fault current limiter using bulk oxides superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmont, O.; Ferracci, P.; Porcar, L.; Barbut, J.M.; Tixador, P.; Noudem, J.G.; Bourgault, D.; Tournier, R.

    1998-01-01

    We study the limitation possibilities of bulk Bi high T c materials. For this we test these materials with AC or DC currents above their critical currents. We study particularly the evolution of the voltage with time or with current. The material, the value of the current and the time duration play important parts. For sintered Bi samples the voltage depends only on the current even for values much larger than the critical current. With textured samples the V(I) curves shows an hysteretic behaviour due to a warming up. The textured materials are more interesting than sintered ones in terms of required volume for the current limitation. In both cases the superconductors are in a dissipative state but not in the normal state. This state is nevertheless reached if the dissipated energy inside the sample is sufficient. We have tried to apply a magnetic field on the samples in order to trigger a more effective limitation. The voltage increases but with a limited effect for currents much higher (3-4 times) than the critical zero field current. We think that the dissipative state is due mainly to the grain boundaries which become resistive above the critical current. (orig.)

  3. Radioactive decays at limits of nuclear stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfützner, M.; Karny, M.; Grigorenko, L. V.

    2012-01-01

    , and their relative probabilities. When approaching limits of nuclear stability, new decay modes set in. First, beta decays are accompanied by emission of nucleons from highly excited states of daughter nuclei. Second, when the nucleon separation energy becomes negative, nucleons start being emitted from the ground...

  4. Mass limit for the lightest neutralino

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.N.; Nief, J.Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I.C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J.A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E.B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I.R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D.E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S.J.; Halley, A.W.; Knowles, I.G.; Lynch, J.G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J.M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R.M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Stacey, A.M.; Williams, M.D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A.P.; Bowdery, C.K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E.P.; Williams, M.I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A.M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J.J.; Bencheikh, A.M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lutjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Richter, Robert; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Hocker, Andreas; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D.W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Lutz, A.M.; Nikolic, Irina; Park, H.J.; Schune, M.H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M.A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G.A.; Bryant, L.M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J.T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Wright, A.E.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Johnson, R.P.; Kim, H.Y.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C.A.J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W.M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L.F.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, N.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.S.; Gonzales, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T.C.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nachtman, J.M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, A.M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J.M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1996-01-01

    Indirect limits on the mass of the lightest neutralino are derived from the results of searches for charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons performed with data taken by the ALEPH Collaboration at centre-of-mass energies near the Z peak and at 130 and 136 GeV. Within the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and when $M_{\\tilde\

  5. Oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jutfelt, Fredrik; Norin, Tommy; Ern, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The Commentary by Pörtner, Bock and Mark (Pörtner et al., 2017) elaborates on the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Biology Commentaries allow for personal and controversial views, yet the journal also mandates that ‘opinion and fact must b...

  6. Density limit studies on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.

    1998-08-01

    The authors have studied the processes limiting plasma density and successfully achieved discharges with density ∼50% above the empirical Greenwald density limit with H-mode confinement. This was accomplished by density profile control, enabled through pellet injection and divertor pumping. By examining carefully the criterion for MARFE formation, the authors have derived an edge density limit with scaling very similar to Greenwald scaling. Finally, they have looked in detail at the first and most common density limit process in DIII-D, total divertor detachment, and found that the local upstream separatrix density (n e sep,det ) at detachment onset (partial detachment) increases with the scrape-off layer heating power, P heat , i.e., n e sep,det ∼ P heat 0.76 . This is in marked contrast to the line-average density at detachment which is insensitive to the heating power. The data are in reasonable agreement with the Borass model, which predicted that the upstream density at detachment would increase as P heat 0.7

  7. On radiative density limits in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobig, H.

    2001-01-01

    Density limits in stellarators are caused mainly by enhanced impurity radiation leading to a collapse of the temperature. A simple model can be established, which computes the temperature in the plasma with a fixed heating profile and a temperature-dependent radiation profile. If the temperature-dependent radiation function has one or several extrema, multiple solutions of the transport equation exist and radiative collapse occurs when the high temperature branch merges with the unstable temperature branch. At this bifurcation point the temperature decreases to a stable low temperature solution. The bifurcation point is a function of the heating power and the plasma density. Thus a density limit can be defined as the point where bifurcation occurs. It is shown that bifurcation and sudden temperature collapse does not occur below a power threshold. Anomalous thermal conductivity and the details of the impurity radiation, which in the present model is assumed to be in corona equilibrium, determine the scaling of the density limit. A model of the anomalous transport is developed, which leads to Gyro-Bohm scaling of the confinement time. The density limit based on this transport model is close to experimental findings in Wendelstein 7-AS. (author)

  8. Design of the TPX outboard toroidal limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment outboard limiter system incorporates the passive stabilizer plates, the ripple armor, the toroidal break and the support structures. These components are designed to withstand substantial steady state heat loads and high mechanical forces caused by plasma disruptions. The design of these components has been developed to deal with the challenging thermal, structural and remote handling requirements

  9. 10 CFR 72.96 - Siting limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL... site within which there is a candidate site for a HLW repository. This limitation shall apply until such time as DOE decides that such candidate site is no longer a candidate site under consideration for...

  10. 10 CFR 503.33 - Site limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.33... include: (i) Inaccessibility of alternate fuels as a result of a specific physical limitation; (ii) Unavailability of transportation facilities for alternate fuels; (iii) Unavailability of adequate land or...

  11. 47 CFR 25.204 - Power limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power limits. 25.204 Section 25.204 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... purposes shall be coordinated between and among adjacent satellite operators. (f) In the band 13.75-14 GHz...

  12. Liquid tin limiter for FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertkov, A., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M.L.; Iafrati, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, Frascati, Rome, Italy, (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • First steady state operating liquid tin limiter TLL is under study on FTU tokamak. • The cooling system with water spray coolant for TLL has been developed and tested. • High corrosion resistance of W and Mo in molten Sn confirmed up to 1000 °C. • Wetting process with Sn has been developed for Mo and W. - Abstract: The liquid Sn in a matrix of Capillary Porous System (CPS) has a high potential as plasma facing material in steady state operating fusion reactor owing to its physicochemical properties. However, up to now it has no experimental confirmation in tokamak conditions. First steady state operating limiter based on the CPS with liquid Sn installed on FTU tokamak and its experimental study is in progress. Several aspects of the design, structural materials and operation parameters of limiter based on tungsten CPS with liquid Sn are considered. Results of investigation of corrosion resistance of Mo and W in Sn and their wetting process are presented. The heat removal for limiter steady state operation is provided by evaporation of flowing gaswater spray. The effectiveness of such heat removal system is confirmed in modelling tests with power flux up to 5 MW/m2.

  13. Quantum remnants in the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, A.M.; Plastino, A.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.

  14. 40 CFR 35.718 - Award limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the Performance Partnership Grant work plan. Hazardous Waste Management Program Grants (Pub.L... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Toxic Substances Compliance Monitoring (section 28) § 35.718 Award limitation. If the Toxic Substances Compliance Monitoring grant funds are included in a...

  15. 12 CFR 1805.402 - Assistance limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.402 Assistance limits. (a... Affiliates during any three-year period. (b) If an Awardee proposes to establish a new Affiliate to serve an..., currently served by the Awardee or its Affiliates, the Awardee may receive additional assistance pursuant to...

  16. Getting Limits off the Ground via Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Most beginning calculus courses spend little or no time on a technical definition of the limit concept. In most of the remaining courses, the definition presented is the traditional epsilon-delta definition. An alternative approach that bases the definition on infinite sequences has occasionally appeared in commercial textbooks but has not yet…

  17. Spectral concentration in the nonrelativistic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Grosse, H.; Thaller, B.

    1982-01-01

    First order relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger operator according to Foldy and Wouthuysen are rigorously discussed in the framework of singular perturbation theory. For Coulomb plus short-range interactions we investigate the corresponding spectral properties and prove spectral concentration and existence of first order pseudoeigenvalues in the nonrelativistic limit. (Author)

  18. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  19. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as go...

  20. Possible limits of plasma linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma linear colliders have been proposed as next or next-next generation energy-frontier machines for high-energy physics. I investigate possible fundamental limits on energy and luminosity of such type of colliders, considering acceleration, multiple scattering off plasma ions, intrabeam scattering, bremsstrahlung, and betatron radiation. The question of energy efficiency is also addressed.

  1. Limitations in dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Merel Mathilde

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the effect of information-processing overload on working-memory dependent information processing was examined using dual-task paradigms. The experiments described strengthen the importance of a functional explanation for dual-task limitations. First, it showed evidence for a unified

  2. Practical roadmap and limits to nanostructured photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, Richard R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Osedach, Timothy P. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, Patrick R. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rowehl, Jill A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bulovic, Vladimir [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The significant research interest in the engineering of photovoltaic (PV) structures at the nanoscale is directed toward enabling reductions in PV module fabrication and installation costs as well as improving cell power conversion efficiency (PCE). With the emergence of a multitude of nanostructured photovoltaic (nano-PV) device architectures, the question has arisen of where both the practical and the fundamental limits of performance reside in these new systems. Here, the former is addressed a posteriori. The specific challenges associated with improving the electrical power conversion efficiency of various nano-PV technologies are discussed and several approaches to reduce their thermal losses beyond the single bandgap limit are reviewed. Critical considerations related to the module lifetime and cost that are unique to nano-PV architectures are also addressed. The analysis suggests that a practical single-junction laboratory power conversion efficiency limit of 17% and a two-cell tandem power conversion efficiency limit of 24% are possible for nano-PVs, which, when combined with operating lifetimes of 10 to 15 years, could position them as a transformational technology for solar energy markets. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. 29 CFR 553.202 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 553.202 Section 553.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law...

  4. On the Limitation of Warranty Duration.

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the frequently-observed phenomenon that firms offer product warranties that are of much shorter duration than the life expectancy of these products. It is shown that competitive equilibria may entail limitation of warranty duration if firms face adverse selection problems with respect to different consumers. Copyright 1989 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. On the density limit of Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1982-12-01

    Under the conditions of so far performed quasi-steady tokamak experiments near the density limit, the plasma pressure gradient in the outer layers of the plasma body becomes mainly determined by the plasma-neutral gas balance. An earlier analysis of ballooning instabilities driven by this gradient in regions of bad curvature has been extended to deduce an explicit stability criterion which determines the density limit. This criterion is closely related to the empirical Murakami limit. At relevant tokamak data, the deduced limit becomes proportional to J(sub)zR(sup)1/2 where J(sub)z is the average current density and R the major plasma radius. It is further found to be independent of the toroidal magnetic field strength and anomalous transport, as well as to be a slow function of the outer layer temperature and the mass number. The deduced stability criterion is consistent with so far performed experiments. Provided that the present analysis can be extrapolated to a wider range of parameter data and be combined with Alcator scaling, conditions near ignition appear to become realizable in small tokamaks by ohmic heating alone. These conditions can be satisfied at relevant magnetic field strengths and plasma currents, by imposing a high plasma current density. (author)

  6. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93 Airplane...

  7. Chromatic roots and limits of dense graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, P. E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012365X16303661

  8. 31 CFR 210.11 - Limited liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited liability. 210.11 Section 210.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.63 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.63 Loan limits. (a... Agency will analyze Federal Government and other assistance provided to any MFH project to establish the... differently in a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the state agency that allocates low-income...

  10. Chromatic Roots and Limits of Dense Graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016

  11. 42 CFR 93.105 - Time limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limitations. 93.105 Section 93.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  12. Quantum remnants in the classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Científicas (CIC) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); SThAR, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-09-16

    We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.

  13. 48 CFR 17.402 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Leader Company Contracting 17.402 Limitations. (a) Leader company contracting is to be used only when— (1) The leader company has the necessary production... the Government's requirements without the assistance of a leader company; (3) The assistance required...

  14. 48 CFR 3017.402 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations. 3017.402 Section 3017.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Leader Company...

  15. Habitable zone limits for dry planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

  16. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimised. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. The degree of safety which should be regarded as appropriate in different circumstances remains a matter for review, but suggestions are made as to levels which would be advocated by informed opinion, and the exposure limits which would correspond to these. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. Increasing epidemiological evidence is available on the relative sensitivity to radiation induction of malignancies in a number of organs, and to the apparently much lower sensitivity of other organs; and experimental evidence in animals allows a comparable

  17. Sea-land limits: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afranio R. de Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The limits between sea and land were estimated at "Pulso" beach located in the Southeastern Brazilian shelf (φ = 23°33/17.4886"S; Λ = 045° 13'13.0504"W - WGS84, between the island of São Sebastião and the city of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil. The relative sea level of the year 1831 at "Pulso" beach, as per Brazilian law Number 9760 dated from 1946, was estimated and materialized. The retro-estimation allowed the demarcation of the Legal Sea-Land Limits at "Pulso" beach as per the terms of the law. The accuracy of the procedure for the transference of the long-term sea level from the research station of Ubatuba to "Pulso" beach was assessed by parallel work of geometrical leveling referred to the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics geodetic network. The motivation, the hypotheses (Brest, Cananeia and IPCC and the methods here used are described, together with a short history of the Legal Sea-Land Limits. The results indicated that the legal Sea-Land Limits at "Pulso" beach are well within the beach area. They were determined as per law 9760, and there is the need to reactivate the national network of sea level gauge.Os limites entre mar e terra foram estimados na praia chamada Pulso, localizada na costa sudeste do Brasil (φ = 23°33'17, 4886"S; Λ = 045°13'13, 0504"W entre a Ilha de São Sebastião e a cidade de Ubatuba, no Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O nível relativo do mar do ano de 1831 na praia do Pulso, ou "Praia do Pulso" (PP, foi estimado e materializado, de acordo com a Lei brasileira Número 9760 de 1946. A acurácia do procedimento foi acompanhada por trabalho paralelo de nivelamento geométrico referido ao sistema nacional de geodésia do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. A motivação, as hipóteses (Brest, Cananeia e IPCC e os métodos utilizados são descritos, acompanhados por um breve histórico dos "Terrenos de Marinha". Os resultados indicaram que os limites em (PP estão bem dentro

  18. TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.S.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm 2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs

  19. From Limits to Growth to Limitless Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the Club of Rome’s landmark report ‘The Limits to Growth’ in 1972 shook the intellectual foundations of social theory and challenged the very premises on which modern economy and prosperity are based. Once set in motion, it led to a revolutionary re-evaluation of human aspirations and economic activities. Among its many consequences, it has stimulated creative minds to look freshly at the underlying processes governing the wealth and welfare of nations. The article then traces their creative impact on the mind of one of the most original economic theorists of our age – Orio Giarini.[*] As ‘The Limits to Growth’ alarmed the world by the unsustainability and dire consequences of unbridled economic growth, Giarini offers a correspondingly affirmative vision of economics with unlimited potential for wealth and welfare.

  20. Lower pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-01-01

    In an Extrap pinch there is a superimposed magnetic octupole field which forms a magnetic separatrix with the field generated by the pinch current. Earlier experiments have shown that the octupole field has a stabilizing influence on the plasma. Regardless of the details of this stabilizing mechanism, it is expected that the influence of the octupole field should become negligible for a sufficiently small ratio between the characteristic pinch and separatrix radii. In other words, there should exist a lower limit of this ratio below which the system approaches the state of an ordinary unstabilized Z-pinch. The present paper presents an extended version of an earlier theoretical model of this lower limit, and its relation to the corresponding critical ratio between the external conductor and pinch currents. This ratio is found to vary substantially with the plasma parameters. (authors)