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Sample records for pore expansion mediated

  1. Fabrication of epoxy composites with large-pore sized mesoporous silica and investigation of their thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Kiba, Shosuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2012-02-01

    We fabricate epoxy composites with low thermal expansion by using mesoporous silica particles with a large pore diameter (around 10 nm) as inorganic fillers. From a simple calculation, almost all the mesopores are estimated to be completely filled with the epoxy polymer. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) values of the obtained epoxy composites proportionally decrease with the increase of the mesoporous silica content.

  2. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV-vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, Irina; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2018-03-02

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV-vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV-vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c -axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV-vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  3. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV–vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV–vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c-axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV–vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  4. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Goetze, Joris

    2018-02-06

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV–vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV–vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c-axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV–vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  5. The effect of firing temperature on the irreversible expansion, water absorption and pore structure of a brick body during freeze-thaw cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš ŠVEDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the monitoring of brick body in the process of volumetric freezing and thawing. The samples were fired at temperatures of 900, 1000 and 1060 °C. Attention is focused on monitoring of the irreversible expansion, water absorption and pore structure of a brick body. We found that in all cases the endpoints take place continuously, where the amount firing temperature plays a crucial role. The greatest influence of freeze/thaw cycles on the change of the pore structure was also observed at the lowest temperature. The change of the pore system during the freeze-thaw cycles occurs in such a way, that the pore volume of small pores further decreases and conversely, the pore volume of large pores increases. The knowledge gained can be used not only in the production of new but also in predicting the remaining durability of older clay roofing tiles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2741

  6. Immune mediated disorders in women with a fragile X expansion and FXTAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalnapurkar, Isha; Rafika, Nuva; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Premutation alleles in fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) can cause the late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and/or the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency in approximately 20% of heterozygotes. Heterozygotes of the FMR1 premutation have a higher incidence of immune mediated disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disorder, especially when accompanied by FXTAS motor signs. We describe the time course of symptoms of immune mediated disorders and the subsequent development of FXTAS in four women with an FMR1 CGG expansion, including three with the premutation and one with a gray zone expansion. These patients developed an immune mediated disorder followed by neurological symptoms that become consistent with FXTAS. In all patients we observed a pattern involving an initial appearance of disease symptoms-often after a period of heightened stress (depression, anxiety, divorce, general surgery) followed by the onset of tremor and/or ataxia. Immune mediated diseases are associated with the manifestations of FXTAS temporally, although further studies are needed to clarify this association. If a cause and effect relationship can be established, treatment of pre-existing immune mediated disorders may benefit patients with pathogenic FMR1 mutations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Kinetic models of controllable pore growth of anodic aluminum oxide membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zeng, Hong-yan; Zhao, Ce; Qu, Ye-qing; Zhang, Pin

    2012-06-01

    An anodized Al2O3 (AAO) membrane with apertures about 72 nm in diameter was prepared by two-step anodic oxidation. The appearance and pore arrangement of the AAO membrane were characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was confirmed that the pores with high pore aspect ratio were parallel, well-ordered, and uniform. The kinetics of pores growth in the AAO membrane was derived, and the kinetic models showed that pores stopped developing when the pressure ( σ) trended to equal the surface tension at the end of anodic oxidation. During pore expansion, the effects of the oxalic acid concentration and expansion time on the pore size were investigated, and the kinetic behaviors were explained with two kinetic models derived in this study. They showed that the pore size increased with extended time ( r= G· t+ G'), but decreased with increased concentration ( r = - K·ln c- K') through the derived mathematic formula. Also, the values of G, G', K, and K' were derived from our experimental data.

  8. Tandem-pore K+ channels mediate inhibition of orexin neurons by glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burdakov, Denis; Jensen, Lise T; Alexopoulos, Haris

    2006-01-01

    Glucose-inhibited neurons orchestrate behavior and metabolism according to body energy levels, but how glucose inhibits these cells is unknown. We studied glucose inhibition of orexin/hypocretin neurons, which promote wakefulness (their loss causes narcolepsy) and also regulate metabolism...... and reward. Here we demonstrate that their inhibition by glucose is mediated by ion channels not previously implicated in central or peripheral glucose sensing: tandem-pore K(+) (K(2P)) channels. Importantly, we show that this electrical mechanism is sufficiently sensitive to encode variations in glucose...... levels reflecting those occurring physiologically between normal meals. Moreover, we provide evidence that glucose acts at an extracellular site on orexin neurons, and this information is transmitted to the channels by an intracellular intermediary that is not ATP, Ca(2+), or glucose itself...

  9. Nuclear pore complex protein mediated nuclear localization of dicer protein in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Ando

    Full Text Available Human DICER1 protein cleaves double-stranded RNA into small sizes, a crucial step in production of single-stranded RNAs which are mediating factors of cytoplasmic RNA interference. Here, we clearly demonstrate that human DICER1 protein localizes not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleoplasm. We also find that human DICER1 protein associates with the NUP153 protein, one component of the nuclear pore complex. This association is detected predominantly in the cytoplasm but is also clearly distinguishable at the nuclear periphery. Additional characterization of the NUP153-DICER1 association suggests NUP153 plays a crucial role in the nuclear localization of the DICER1 protein.

  10. Pore-expanded SBA-15 sulfonic acid silicas for biodiesel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacquin, J P; Lee, A F; Pirez, C; Wilson, K

    2012-01-07

    Here we present the first application of pore-expanded SBA-15 in heterogeneous catalysis. Pore expansion over the range 6-14 nm confers a striking activity enhancement towards fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from triglycerides (TAG), and free fatty acid (FFA), attributed to improved mass transport and acid site accessibility. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  11. Understanding the mechanisms behind coking pressure: Relationship to pore structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; M. Castro Diaz; Colin E. Snape; Karen M. Steel; Merrick R. Mahoney [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-09-15

    Three low volatile coals A, B and C with oven wall pressures of 100 kPa, 60 kPa and 20 kPa respectively were investigated using high-temperature rheometry, {sup 1}H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis and SEM, with the primary aim to better understand the mechanisms behind the coking pressure phenomenon. Rheometer plate displacement measurements ({Delta}L) have shown differences in the expansion and contraction behaviour of the three coals, which seem to correlate with changes in rheological properties; while SEM images have shown that the expansion process coincides with development of pore structure. It is considered that the point of maximum plate height ({Delta}L{sub max}) prior to contraction may be indicative of a cell opening or pore network forming process, based on analogies with other foam systems. Such a process may be considered important for coking pressure since it provides a potential mechanism for volatile escape, relieving internal gas pressure and inducing charge contraction. For coal C, which has the highest fluidity {delta}L{sub max} occurs quite early in the softening process and consequently a large degree of contraction is observed; while for the lower fluidity coal B, the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. When {Delta}L{sub max} is attained, a lower degree of contraction is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification where the increasing viscosity/elasticity can stabilise the expanded pore structure. For coal A which is relatively high fluidity, but also high coking pressure, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, which may be due to greater fluid elasticity during the expansion process. This excessive expansion is considered to be a potential reason for its high coking pressure. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A statistical image analysis framework for pore-free islands derived from heterogeneity distribution of nuclear pore complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Satoko; Tachibana, Taro; Ogawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Masaomi; Yokota, Hideo; Imamoto, Naoko

    2017-11-24

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) maintain cellular homeostasis by mediating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Although cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate NPC assembly in interphase, the location of NPC assembly on the nuclear envelope is not clear. CDKs also regulate the disappearance of pore-free islands, which are nuclear envelope subdomains; this subdomain gradually disappears with increase in homogeneity of the NPC in response to CDK activity. However, a causal relationship between pore-free islands and NPC assembly remains unclear. Here, we elucidated mechanisms underlying NPC assembly from a new perspective by focusing on pore-free islands. We proposed a novel framework for image-based analysis to automatically determine the detailed 'landscape' of pore-free islands from a large quantity of images, leading to the identification of NPC intermediates that appear in pore-free islands with increased frequency in response to CDK activity. Comparison of the spatial distribution between simulated and the observed NPC intermediates within pore-free islands showed that their distribution was spatially biased. These results suggested that the disappearance of pore-free islands is highly related to de novo NPC assembly and indicated the existence of specific regulatory mechanisms for the spatial arrangement of NPC assembly on nuclear envelopes.

  13. Microenvironmental cues enhance mesenchymal stem cell-mediated immunomodulation and regulatory T-cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadle, Rohini L; Abdou, Salma A; Villarreal-Ponce, Alvaro P; Soares, Marc A; Sultan, Darren L; David, Joshua A; Massie, Jonathan; Rifkin, William J; Rabbani, Piul; Ceradini, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to both have powerful immunosuppressive properties and promote allograft tolerance. Determining the environmental oxygen tension and inflammatory conditions under which MSCs are optimally primed for this immunosuppressive function is essential to their utilization in promoting graft tolerance. Of particular interest is the mechanisms governing the interaction between MSCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is relatively unknown. We performed our experiments utilizing rat bone marrow derived MSCs. We observed that priming MSCs in hypoxia promotes maintenance of stem-like characteristics, with greater expression of typical MSC cell-surface markers, increased proliferation, and maintenance of differentiation potential. Addition of autologous MSCs to CD4+/allogeneic endothelial cell (EC) co-culture increases regulatory T cell (Treg) proliferation, which is further enhanced when MSCs are primed in hypoxia. Furthermore, MSC-mediated Treg expansion does not require direct cell-cell contact. The expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a mediator of MSC immunomodulation, increases when MSCs are primed in hypoxia, and inhibition of IDO significantly decreases the expansion of Tregs. Priming with inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα increases also expression of markers associated with MSC immunomodulatory function, but decreases MSC proliferation. The expression of IDO also increases when MSCs are primed with inflammatory cytokines. However, there is no increase in Treg expansion when MSCs are primed with IFNγ, suggesting an alternate mechanism for inflammatory-stimulated MSC immunomodulation. Overall, these results suggest that MSCs primed in hypoxia or inflammatory conditions are optimally primed for immunosuppressive function. These results provide a clearer picture of how to enhance MSC immunomodulation for clinical use.

  14. Study of pore growth in glassy carbon using small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, J.

    1982-07-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to study the average pore size in glass-like carbon as a function of both heat-treatment time and heat-treatment temperature. A pore-growth model based on graphitization processes is presented. The simple mechanism shows that the change in the average radius of gyration with time is related to the total number of pores as a function of time, which in turn depends on the irreversible thermal-expansion phenomenon. The results of this study are inconsistent with a vacancy-migration pore-growth mechanism proposed earlier

  15. Beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion signalling is essential for epidermal progenitor cell expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwko-Czuchra, Aleksandra; Koegel, Heidi; Meyer, Hannelore

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a major discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results regarding the role of beta1 integrins in the maintenance of epidermal stem/progenitor cells. Studies of mice with skin-specific ablation of beta1 integrins suggested that epidermis can form and be maintained in thei...... of increased keratinocyte proliferation such as wound healing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that expression of beta1 integrins is critically important for the expansion of epidermal progenitor cells to maintain epidermal homeostasis....... that developed similar, but less severe defects than mice with beta1-deficient keratinocytes. Surprisingly we found that upon aging these abnormalities attenuated due to a rapid expansion of cells, which escaped or compensated for the down-regulation of beta1 integrin expression. A similar phenomenon...... was observed in aged mice with a complete, skin-specific ablation of the beta1 integrin gene, where cells that escaped Cre-mediated recombination repopulated the mutant skin in a very short time period. The expansion of beta1 integrin expressing keratinocytes was even further accelerated in situations...

  16. Experimental study on the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure under loading and unloading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Dingyi; Zhang, Cun; Wang, Chen

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure, seepage experiments under different simulated in situ stresses on loading and unloading paths are carried out using the self-developed Gas Flow and Displacement Testing Apparatus (GFDTA) system. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, the relationship between average pore pressure and permeability is found to basically obey the function distribution of a two degree polynomial. In this paper, two aspects of the relationship between permeability and pore pressure are explained: the Klinbenberg effect and expansion, and the penetration of the initial fracture. Under low pore pressure, the decrease in the Klinbenberg effect is the main reason for the decrease in permeability with increased pore pressure. Under relatively high pore pressure, the increase in pore pressure leads to the initial fracture expansion and penetration of the coal sample, which causes an increase in permeability. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the permeability response to pore pressure changes, the permeability dispersion and pore pressure sensitivity coefficients are defined. After the sensitivity analysis, it was concluded that the loading history changed the fracture structure of the original coal sample and reduced its permeability sensitivity to pore pressure. Under low pore pressure, the Klinbenberg effect is the reason for the decrease in pore pressure sensitivity. Lastly, the permeability-pore pressure relationship is divided into three stages to describe the different response characteristics individually.

  17. Role of the synaptobrevin C terminus in fusion pore formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngatchou, Annita N; Kisler, Kassandra; Fang, Qinghua

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release is mediated by the SNARE proteins synaptobrevin II (sybII, also known as VAMP2), syntaxin, and SNAP-25, generating a force transfer to the membranes and inducing fusion pore formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which this force leads to opening of a fusion pore...... stimulation, the SNARE complex pulls the C terminus of sybII deeper into the vesicle membrane. We propose that this movement disrupts the vesicular membrane continuity leading to fusion pore formation. In contrast to current models, the experiments suggest that fusion pore formation begins with molecular...

  18. Beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion signalling is essential for epidermal progenitor cell expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Piwko-Czuchra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a major discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results regarding the role of beta1 integrins in the maintenance of epidermal stem/progenitor cells. Studies of mice with skin-specific ablation of beta1 integrins suggested that epidermis can form and be maintained in their absence, while in vitro data have shown a fundamental role for these adhesion receptors in stem/progenitor cell expansion and differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate this discrepancy we generated hypomorphic mice expressing reduced beta1 integrin levels on keratinocytes that developed similar, but less severe defects than mice with beta1-deficient keratinocytes. Surprisingly we found that upon aging these abnormalities attenuated due to a rapid expansion of cells, which escaped or compensated for the down-regulation of beta1 integrin expression. A similar phenomenon was observed in aged mice with a complete, skin-specific ablation of the beta1 integrin gene, where cells that escaped Cre-mediated recombination repopulated the mutant skin in a very short time period. The expansion of beta1 integrin expressing keratinocytes was even further accelerated in situations of increased keratinocyte proliferation such as wound healing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that expression of beta1 integrins is critically important for the expansion of epidermal progenitor cells to maintain epidermal homeostasis.

  19. Pore collapse and regrowth in silicon electrodes for rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCaluwe, S. C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering; Colorado School of Mines; USA; Center for Neutron Research; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Dhar, B. M. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Material Measurement Laboratory; Huang, L. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; He, Y. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy; Yang, K. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Owejan, J. P. [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Technology; State University of New York; Alfred; USA; Zhao, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy; University of Georgia; Athens; USA; Talin, A. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Gaithersburg; USA; Sandia National Laboratories; Dura, J. A. [Center for Neutron Research; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Gaithersburg; USA; Wang, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering; University of Maryland; College Park; USA; Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-01-01

    In-operando Neutron Reflectometry establishes the pore collapse and regrowth (PCRG) mechanism in amorphous Si. Upon lithiation, porosity is first consumed by expansion of solid Si domains, with little thickness increase. After, the whole film expands. Porosity returns upon delithiation.

  20. Corrosion behavior of a self-sealing pore micro-arc oxidation film on AM60 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kaihui; Song, Yingwei; Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pore sealing constituents fall off and titanium oxides remain during corrosion. • Dark regions of film are corroded by migration of corrosion media through pores. • Light regions of film are corroded by transverse expansion of cracks. • Both outer and inner layers of the film provide effective protection to substrate. - Abstract: The deterioration process of a self-sealing pore micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film was investigated. The surface and cross-section corrosion morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition was detected by EDS elemental mapping and XRD. The corrosion process was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The surface of the film in dark and light regions exhibits different corrosion behavior. In the dark regions, the corrosion process mainly concentrates on the migration of corrosion media through the pores inward. In the light regions, the transverse expansion of cracks plays a key role, accompanying the exfoliation of film constituents.

  1. Mechanical constraint and release generates long, ordered horizontal pores in anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolger, Ciara T; Petkov, Nikolay; Holmes, Justin D; Fois, Giovanni; Cross, Graham L W; Sassiat, Nicolas; Burke, Micheál; Quinn, Aidan J

    2012-01-01

    We describe the formation of long, highly ordered arrays of planar oriented anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) pores during plane parallel anodization of thin aluminum ‘finger’ microstructures fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates and capped with a silicon oxide layer. The pore morphology was found to be strongly influenced by mechanical constraint imposed by the oxide layers surrounding the Al fingers. Tractions induced by the SiO 2 substrate and capping layer led to frustrated volume expansion and restricted oxide flow along the interface, with extrusion of oxide into the primary pore volume, leading to the formation of dendritic pore structures and meandering pore growth. However, partial relief of the constraint by a delaminating interfacial fracture, with its tip closely following the anodization front, led to pore growth that was highly ordered with regular, hexagonally packed arrays of straight horizontal pores up to 3 µm long. Detailed characterization of both straight and dendritic planar pores over a range of formation conditions using advanced microscopy techniques is reported, including volume reconstruction, enabling high quality 3D visualization of pore formation. (paper)

  2. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  3. The origin of early age expansions induced in cementitious materials containing shrinkage reducing admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lothenbach, Barbara; Juilland, Patrick; Le Saout, Gwenn; Weiss, Jason; Scrivener, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the early-age shrinkage behavior of cement pastes, mortars, and concretes containing shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRAs) have indicated these mixtures frequently exhibit an expansion shortly after setting. While the magnitude of the expansion has been noted to be a function of the chemistry of the cement and the admixture dosage; the cause of the expansion is not clearly understood. This investigation uses measurements of autogenous deformation, X-ray diffraction, pore solution analysis, thermogravimetry, and scanning electron microscopy to study the early-age properties and describe the mechanism of the expansion in OPC pastes made with and without SRA. The composition of the pore solution indicates that the presence of the SRA increases the portlandite oversaturation level in solution which can result in higher crystallization stresses which could lead to an expansion. This observation is supported by deformation calculations for the systems examined.

  4. NOTCH-Mediated Maintenance and Expansion of Human Bone Marrow Stromal/Stem Cells: A Technology Designed for Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yufeng; Long, Teng; Wang, Cuicui; Mirando, Anthony J; Chen, Jianquan; O'Keefe, Regis J; Hilton, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) have great therapeutic potential for treating skeletal disease and facilitating skeletal repair, although maintaining their multipotency and expanding these cells ex vivo have proven difficult. Because most stem cell-based applications to skeletal regeneration and repair in the clinic would require large numbers of functional BMSCs, recent research has focused on methods for the appropriate selection, expansion, and maintenance of BMSC populations during long-term culture. We describe here a novel biological method that entails selection of human BMSCs based on NOTCH2 expression and activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway in cultured BMSCs via a tissue culture plate coated with recombinant human JAGGED1 (JAG1) ligand. We demonstrate that transient JAG1-mediated NOTCH signaling promotes human BMSC maintenance and expansion while increasing their skeletogenic differentiation capacity, both ex vivo and in vivo. This study is the first of its kind to describe a NOTCH-mediated methodology for the maintenance and expansion of human BMSCs and will serve as a platform for future clinical or translational studies aimed at skeletal regeneration and repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Energetics of Transport through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghavami, Ali; van der Giessen, Erik; Onck, Patrick R

    2016-01-01

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells is solely controlled by the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The NPC provides two types of nucleocytoplasmic transport: passive diffusion of small molecules and active chaperon-mediated translocation of large molecules. It has been shown

  6. Nuclear pore complex tethers to the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Martin W

    2017-08-01

    The nuclear envelope is tethered to the cytoskeleton. The best known attachments of all elements of the cytoskeleton are via the so-called LINC complex. However, the nuclear pore complexes, which mediate the transport of soluble and membrane bound molecules, are also linked to the microtubule network, primarily via motor proteins (dynein and kinesins) which are linked, most importantly, to the cytoplasmic filament protein of the nuclear pore complex, Nup358, by the adaptor BicD2. The evidence for such linkages and possible roles in nuclear migration, cell cycle control, nuclear transport and cell architecture are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. LMP1-mediated glycolysis induces myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Cai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections. The full process has been reconstituted in vitro. LMP1 promotes the expression of multiple glycolytic genes, including GLUT1. This metabolic reprogramming results in increased expression of the Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 and, consequently, increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF. Finally, these changes in the environment of malignant cells result in enhanced NPC-derived MDSC induction. One key step is the physical interaction of LMP1 with GLUT1 to stabilize the GLUT1 protein by blocking its K48-ubiquitination and p62-dependent autolysosomal degradation. This work indicates that LMP1-mediated glycolysis regulates IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF production through the NLRP3 inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 signaling pathways to enhance tumor-associated MDSC expansion, which leads to tumor immunosuppression in NPC.

  8. Nitrogen-mediated effects of elevated CO2 on intra-aggregate soil pore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Giménez, Daniel; Subroy, Vandana; Heck, Richard J; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen

    2017-04-01

    Soil pore structure has a strong influence on water retention, and is itself influenced by plant and microbial dynamics such as root proliferation and microbial exudation. Although increased nitrogen (N) availability and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (eCO 2 ) often have interacting effects on root and microbial dynamics, it is unclear whether these biotic effects can translate into altered soil pore structure and water retention. This study was based on a long-term experiment (7 yr at the time of sampling) in which a C 4 pasture grass (Paspalum notatum) was grown on a sandy loam soil while provided factorial additions of N and CO 2 . Through an analysis of soil aggregate fractal properties supported by 3D microtomographic imagery, we found that N fertilization induced an increase in intra-aggregate porosity and a simultaneous shift toward greater accumulation of pore space in larger aggregates. These effects were enhanced by eCO 2 and yielded an increase in water retention at pressure potentials near the wilting point of plants. However, eCO 2 alone induced changes in the opposite direction, with larger aggregates containing less pore space than under control conditions, and water retention decreasing accordingly. Results on biotic factors further suggested that organic matter gains or losses induced the observed structural changes. Based on our results, we postulate that the pore structure of many mineral soils could undergo N-dependent changes as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations rise, having global-scale implications for water balance, carbon storage, and related rhizosphere functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hydration properties of mechanosensitive channel pores define the energetics of gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishkin, A; Akitake, B; Kamaraju, K; Chiang, C-S; Sukharev, S

    2010-01-01

    Opening of ion channels directly by tension in the surrounding membrane appears to be the most ancient and simple mechanism of gating. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels MscL and MscS are the best-studied tension-gated nanopores, yet the key physical factors that define their gating are still hotly debated. Here we present estimations, simulations and experimental results showing that hydration of the pore might be one of the major parameters defining the thermodynamics and kinetics of mechanosensitive channel gating. We associate closing of channel pores with complete dehydration of the hydrophobic gate (occlusion by 'vapor lock') and formation of two water-vapor interfaces above and below the constriction. The opening path is the expansion of these interfaces, ultimately leading to wetting of the hydrophobic pore, which does not appear to be the exact reverse of the closing path, thus producing hysteresis. We discuss specifically the role of polar groups (glycines) buried in narrow closed conformations but exposed in the open states that change the wetting characteristics of the pore lining and stabilize conductive states of the channels.

  10. Pore-Confined Carriers and Biomolecules in Mesoporous Silica for Biomimetic Separation and Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan

    Selectively permeable biological membranes composed of lipophilic barriers inspire the design of biomimetic carrier-mediated membranes for aqueous solute separation. This work imparts selective permeability to lipid-filled pores of silica thin film composite membranes using carrier molecules that reside in the lipophilic self-assemblies. The lipids confined inside the pores of silica are proven to be a more effective barrier than bilayers formed on the porous surface through vesicle fusion, which is critical for quantifying the function of an immobilized carrier. The ability of a lipophilic carrier embedded in the lipid bilayer to reversibly bind the target solute and transport it through the membrane is demonstrated. Through the functionalization of the silica surface with enzymes, enzymatic catalysis and biomimetic separations can be combined on this nanostructured composite platform. The successful development of biomimetic nanocomposite membrane can provide for efficient dilute aqueous solute upgrading or separations using engineered carrier/catalyst/support systems. While the carrier-mediated biomimetic membranes hold great potential, fully understanding of the transport processes in composite synthetic membranes is essential for improve the membrane performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique is demonstrated to be a useful tool for characterizing the thin film pore accessibility. Furthermore, the effect of lipid bilayer preparation methods on the silica thin film (in the form of pore enveloping, pore filling) on ion transport is explored, as a lipid bilayer with high electrically insulation is essential for detecting activity of proteins or biomimetic carriers in the bilayer. This study provides insights for making better barriers on mesoporous support for carrier-mediated membrane separation process. Porous silica nanoparticles (pSNPs) with pore sizes appropriate for biomolecule loading are potential for encapsulating dsRNA within the

  11. ROS-mediated PARP activity undermines mitochondrial function after permeability transition pore opening during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriewer, Jacqueline M; Peek, Clara Bien; Bass, Joseph; Schumacker, Paul T

    2013-04-18

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) studies have implicated oxidant stress, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as contributing factors in myocardial cell death. However, the interdependence of these factors in the intact, blood-perfused heart is not known. We therefore wanted to determine whether oxidant stress, mPTP opening, and PARP activity contribute to the same death pathway after myocardial I/R. A murine left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion (30 minutes) and release (1 to 4 hours) model was employed. Experimental groups included controls and antioxidant-treated, mPTP-inhibited, or PARP-inhibited hearts. Antioxidant treatment prevented oxidative damage, mPTP opening, ATP depletion, and PARP activity, placing oxidant stress as the proximal death trigger. Genetic deletion of cyclophilin D (CypD(-/-)) prevented loss of total NAD(+) and PARP activity, and mPTP-mediated loss of mitochondrial function. Control hearts showed progressive mitochondrial depolarization and loss of ATP from 1.5 to 4 hours of reperfusion, but not outer mitochondrial membrane rupture. Neither genetic deletion of PARP-1 nor its pharmacological inhibition prevented the initial mPTP-mediated depolarization or loss of ATP, but PARP ablation did allow mitochondrial recovery by 4 hours of reperfusion. These results indicate that oxidant stress, the mPTP, and PARP activity contribute to a single death pathway after I/R in the heart. PARP activation undermines cell survival by preventing mitochondrial recovery after mPTP opening early in reperfusion. This suggests that PARP-mediated prolongation of mitochondrial depolarization contributes significantly to cell death via an energetic crisis rather than by mitochondrial outer membrane rupture.

  12. Automatic facial pore analysis system using multi-scale pore detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J Y; Kim, S W; Lee, S H; Choi, J E; Ko, S J

    2017-08-01

    As facial pore widening and its treatments have become common concerns in the beauty care field, the necessity for an objective pore-analyzing system has been increased. Conventional apparatuses lack in usability requiring strong light sources and a cumbersome photographing process, and they often yield unsatisfactory analysis results. This study was conducted to develop an image processing technique for automatic facial pore analysis. The proposed method detects facial pores using multi-scale detection and optimal scale selection scheme and then extracts pore-related features such as total area, average size, depth, and the number of pores. Facial photographs of 50 subjects were graded by two expert dermatologists, and correlation analyses between the features and clinical grading were conducted. We also compared our analysis result with those of conventional pore-analyzing devices. The number of large pores and the average pore size were highly correlated with the severity of pore enlargement. In comparison with the conventional devices, the proposed analysis system achieved better performance showing stronger correlation with the clinical grading. The proposed system is highly accurate and reliable for measuring the severity of skin pore enlargement. It can be suitably used for objective assessment of the pore tightening treatments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Stepwise visualization of membrane pore formation by suilysin, a bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Carl; Dudkina, Natalya V; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Hodel, Adrian W; Farabella, Irene; Pandurangan, Arun P; Jahan, Nasrin; Pires Damaso, Mafalda; Osmanović, Dino; Reboul, Cyril F; Dunstone, Michelle A; Andrew, Peter W; Lonnen, Rana; Topf, Maya; Saibil, Helen R; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2014-12-02

    Membrane attack complex/perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins constitute a major superfamily of pore-forming proteins that act as bacterial virulence factors and effectors in immune defence. Upon binding to the membrane, they convert from the soluble monomeric form to oligomeric, membrane-inserted pores. Using real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM), and atomic structure fitting, we have mapped the structure and assembly pathways of a bacterial CDC in unprecedented detail and accuracy, focussing on suilysin from Streptococcus suis. We show that suilysin assembly is a noncooperative process that is terminated before the protein inserts into the membrane. The resulting ring-shaped pores and kinetically trapped arc-shaped assemblies are all seen to perforate the membrane, as also visible by the ejection of its lipids. Membrane insertion requires a concerted conformational change of the monomeric subunits, with a marked expansion in pore diameter due to large changes in subunit structure and packing.

  14. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-01

    High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  15. Silencing SlMED18, tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene, restricts internode elongation and leaf expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunshu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Jianling; Yu, XiaoHui; Guo, Jun-E; Liang, Honglian; Liao, Changguang; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-19

    Mediator complex, a conserved multi-protein, is necessary for controlling RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription in eukaryotes. Given little is known about them in tomato, a tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene was isolated and named SlMED18. To further explore the function of SlMED18, the transgenic tomato plants targeting SlMED18 by RNAi-mediated gene silencing were generated. The SlMED18-RNAi lines exhibited multiple developmental defects, including smaller size and slower growth rate of plant and significantly smaller compound leaves. The contents of endogenous bioactive GA 3 in SlMED18 silenced lines were slightly less than that in wild type. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes such as SlGACPS and SlGA20x2, auxin transport genes (PIN1, PIN4, LAX1 and LAX2) and several key regulators, KNOX1, KNOX2, PHAN and LANCEOLATE(LA), which involved in the leaf morphogenesis were significantly down-regulated in SlMED18-RNAi lines. These results illustrated that SlMED18 plays an essential role in regulating plant internode elongation and leaf expansion in tomato plants and it acts as a key positive regulator of gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as auxin proper transport signalling. These findings are the basis for understanding the function of the individual Mediator subunits in tomato.

  16. Forming and control of pores by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing in NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, B; Zhu, M; Gao, Y; Li, X; Chung, C Y

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pore evolution process of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) fabricated by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (CF-HIP) was investigated by adopting different fabricating parameters. It is shown that porous NiTi SMAs with homogeneous pore distribution and nearly spherical pore shape can be prepared by CF-HIP under suitable conditions. In addition, two novel pore structures were produced, one with a sandwich-like structure, and another with controlled gradient of porosity along the radial direction, with pore size increasing from the outside towards the center of the specimen. The former was obtained by balancing the pressure in the HIP chamber and the gas pressure resulting from the gas expansion in the green sample. The latter resulted from the formation of air bubbles in the liquid phase during the sintering

  17. Inter-subunit interactions across the upper voltage sensing-pore domain interface contribute to the concerted pore opening transition of Kv channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzilhav Shem-Ad

    Full Text Available The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels.

  18. Inter-subunit interactions across the upper voltage sensing-pore domain interface contribute to the concerted pore opening transition of Kv channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Irit, Orr; Yifrach, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels.

  19. Molecular basis of usher pore gating in Escherichia coli pilus biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkan, Ender; Kalas, Vasilios; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Henderson, Nadine S; Pham, Thieng; Waksman, Gabriel; Delcour, Anne H; Thanassi, David G; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-12-17

    Extracellular fibers called chaperone-usher pathway pili are critical virulence factors in a wide range of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria that facilitate binding and invasion into host tissues and mediate biofilm formation. Chaperone-usher pathway ushers, which catalyze pilus assembly, contain five functional domains: a 24-stranded transmembrane β-barrel translocation domain (TD), a β-sandwich plug domain (PLUG), an N-terminal periplasmic domain, and two C-terminal periplasmic domains (CTD1 and 2). Pore gating occurs by a mechanism whereby the PLUG resides stably within the TD pore when the usher is inactive and then upon activation is translocated into the periplasmic space, where it functions in pilus assembly. Using antibiotic sensitivity and electrophysiology experiments, a single salt bridge was shown to function in maintaining the PLUG in the TD channel of the P pilus usher PapC, and a loop between the 12th and 13th beta strands of the TD (β12-13 loop) was found to facilitate pore opening. Mutation of the β12-13 loop resulted in a closed PapC pore, which was unable to efficiently mediate pilus assembly. Deletion of the PapH terminator/anchor resulted in increased OM permeability, suggesting a role for the proper anchoring of pili in retaining OM integrity. Further, we introduced cysteine residues in the PLUG and N-terminal periplasmic domains that resulted in a FimD usher with a greater propensity to exist in an open conformation, resulting in increased OM permeability but no loss in type 1 pilus assembly. These studies provide insights into the molecular basis of usher pore gating and its roles in pilus biogenesis and OM permeability.

  20. Pore volume is most highly correlated with the visual assessment of skin pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Shin, M K; Back, J H; Koh, J S

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have been focused on evaluating assessment techniques for facial pores amid growing attention on skin care. Ubiquitous techniques used to assess the size of facial pores include visual assessment, cross-section images of the skin surface, and profilometric analysis of silicone replica of the facial skin. In addition, there are indirect assessment methods, including observation of pores based on confocal laser scanning microscopy and the analysis of sebum secretion and skin elasticity. The aim of this study was to identify parameters useful in estimating pore of surface in normal skin. The severity of pores on the cheek area by frontal optical images was divided on a 0-6 scale with '0' being faint and small pore and '6' being obvious and large pore. After the photos of the frontal cheek of 32 women aged between 35 and 49 were taken, the size of their pores was measured on a 0-6 scale; and the correlation between visual grading of pore and various evaluations (pore volume by 3-D image, pore area and number by Optical Image Analyzer) contributing to pore severity investigated using direct, objective, and noninvasive evaluations. The visual score revealed that the size of pores was graded on a 1-6 scale. Visual grading of pore was highly correlated with pore volume measured from 3-D images and pore area measured from 2-D optical images in the order (P pore was also slightly correlated with the number of pores in size of over 0.04 mm(2) (P pore score and pore volume can be explained by 3-D structural characteristics of pores. It is concluded that pore volume and area serve as useful parameters in estimating pore of skin surface. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers as pore-blocking binary toxin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förstner, Philip; Bayer, Fabienne; Kalu, Nnanya; Felsen, Susanne; Förtsch, Christina; Aloufi, Abrar; Ng, David Y W; Weil, Tanja; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M; Barth, Holger

    2014-07-14

    Dendrimers are unique highly branched macromolecules with numerous groundbreaking biomedical applications under development. Here we identified poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as novel blockers for the pore-forming B components of the binary anthrax toxin (PA63) and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin (C2IIa). These pores are essential for delivery of the enzymatic A components of the internalized toxins from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. We demonstrate that at low μM concentrations cationic PAMAM dendrimers block PA63 and C2IIa to inhibit channel-mediated transport of the A components, thereby protecting HeLa and Vero cells from intoxication. By channel reconstitution and high-resolution current recording, we show that the PAMAM dendrimers obstruct transmembrane PA63 and C2IIa pores in planar lipid bilayers at nM concentrations. These findings suggest a new potential role for the PAMAM dendrimers as effective polyvalent channel-blocking inhibitors, which can protect human target cells from intoxication with binary toxins from pathogenic bacteria.

  2. 1.9 μm superficially porous packing material with radially oriented pores and tailored pore size for ultra-fast separation of small molecules and biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yi; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ci; Xia, Simin; Zhang, Xiaodan; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-08-22

    In this work, 1.9 μm reversed-phase packing materials with superficially porous structure were prepared to achieve the rapid and high efficient separation of peptides and proteins. The silica particles were synthesized via three steps, nonporous silica particle preparation by a modified seeded growth method, mesoporous shell formation by a one pot templated dissolution and redeposition strategy, and pore size expansion via acid-refluxing. By such a method, 1.9 μm superficially porous materials with 0.18 μm shell thickness and tailored pore diameter (10 nm, 15 nm) were obtained. After pore enlargement, the formerly dense arrays of mesoporous structure changed, the radially oriented pores dominated the superficially porous structure. The chromatographic performance of such particles was investigated after C18 derivatization. For packing materials with 1.9 μm diameter and 10 nm pore size, the column efficiency could reach 211,300 plates per m for naphthalene. To achieve the high resolution separation of peptides and proteins, particles with pore diameter of 15 nm were tailored, by which the baseline separation of 5 peptides and 5 intact proteins could be respectively achieved within 1 min, demonstrating the superiority in the high efficiency and high throughput analysis of biomolecules. Furthermore, BSA digests were well separated with peak capacity of 120 in 30 min on a 15 cm-long column. Finally, we compared our columns with a 1.7 μm Kinetex C18 column under the same conditions, our particles with 10nm pore size demonstrated similar performance for separation of the large intact proteins. Moreover, the particles with 15 nm pore size showed more symmetrical peaks for the separation of large proteins (BSA, OVA and IgG) and provided rapid separation of protein extracts from Escherichia coli in 5 min. All these results indicated that the synthesized 1.9 μm superficially porous silica packing materials would be promising in the ultra-fast and high

  3. Pore-scale evaporation-condensation dynamics resolved by synchrotron x-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Capillary processes greatly influence vapor mediated transport dynamics and associated changes in liquid phase content of porous media. Rapid x-ray synchrotron tomography measurements were used to resolve liquid-vapor interfacial dynamics during evaporation and condensation within submillimetric pores forming between sintered glass bead samples subjected to controlled ambient temperature and relative humidity. Evolution of gas-liquid interfacial shapes were in agreement with predictions based on our analytical model for interfacial dynamics in confined wedge-shaped pores. We also compared literature experimental data at the nanoscale to illustrate the capability of our model to describe early stages of condensation giving rise to the onset of capillary forces between rough surfaces. The study provides high resolution, synchrotron-based observations of capillary evaporation-condensation dynamics at the pore scale as the confirmation of the pore scale analytical model for capillary condensation in a pore and enables direct links with evolution of macroscopic vapor gradients within a sintered glass bead sample through their effect on configuration and evolution of the local interfaces. Rapid condensation processes play a critical role in the onset of capillary-induced friction affecting mechanical behavior of physical systems and industrial applications.

  4. A nonlinear electromechanical coupling model for electropore expansion in cell electroporation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang

    2014-10-15

    Under an electric field, the electric tractions acting on a cell membrane containing a pore-nucleus are investigated by using a nonlinear electromechanical coupling model, in which the cell membrane is treated as a hyperelastic material. Iterations between the electric field and the structure field are performed to reveal the electrical forces exerting on the pore region and the subsequent pore expansion process. An explicit exponential decay of the membrane\\'s edge energy as a function of pore radius is defined for a hydrophilic pore and the transition energy as a hydrophobic pore converts to a hydrophilic pore during the initial stage of pore formation is investigated. It is found that the edge energy for the creation of an electropore edge plays an important role at the atomistic scale and it determines the hydrophobic-hydrophilic transition energy barrier. Various free energy evolution paths are exhibited, depending on the applied electric field, which provides further insight towards the electroporation (EP) phenomenon. In comparison with previous EP models, the proposed model has the ability to predict the metastable point on the free energy curve that is relevant to the lipid ion channel. In addition, the proposed model can also predict the critical transmembrane potential for the activation of an effective electroporation that is in a good agreement with previously published experimental data.

  5. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment were used. • HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose. • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) could remove these impurities from the pores. • They could effectively improve pore size distribution and decrease the bulk density. • Catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst was significantly improved. - Abstract: High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite

  6. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chong [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jianfeng [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment were used. • HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose. • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) could remove these impurities from the pores. • They could effectively improve pore size distribution and decrease the bulk density. • Catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst was significantly improved. - Abstract: High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  7. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  8. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra B Wolf

    Full Text Available The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions. These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  9. TIG Dressing Effects on Weld Pores and Pore Cracking of Titanium Weldments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jun Yi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Weld pores redistribution, the effectiveness of using tungsten inert gas (TIG dressing to remove weld pores, and changes in the mechanical properties due to the TIG dressing of Ti-3Al-2.5V weldments were studied. Moreover, weld cracks due to pores were investigated. The results show that weld pores less than 300 μm in size are redistributed or removed via remelting due to TIG dressing. Regardless of the temperature condition, TIG dressing welding showed ductility, and there was a loss of 7% tensile strength of the weldments. Additionally, it was considered that porosity redistribution by TIG dressing was due to fluid flow during the remelting of the weld pool. Weld cracks in titanium weldment create branch cracks around pores that propagate via the intragranular fracture, and oxygen is dispersed around the pores. It is suggested that the pore locations around the LBZ (local brittle zone and stress concentration due to the pores have significant effects on crack initiation and propagation.

  10. BIM-Mediated Membrane Insertion of the BAK Pore Domain Is an Essential Requirement for Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Weber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BAK activation represents a key step during apoptosis, but how it converts into a mitochondria-permeabilizing pore remains unclear. By further delineating the structural rearrangements involved, we reveal that BAK activation progresses through a series of independent steps: BH3-domain exposure, N-terminal change, oligomerization, and membrane insertion. Employing a “BCL-XL-addiction” model, we show that neutralization of BCL-XL by the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 resulted in death only when cells were reconstituted with BCL-XL:BAK, but not BCL-2/ BCL-XL:BIM complexes. Although this resembles the indirect model, release of BAK from BCL-XL did not result in spontaneous adoption of the pore conformation. Commitment to apoptosis required association of the direct activator BIM with oligomeric BAK promoting its conversion to a membrane-inserted pore. The sequential nature of this cascade provides multiple opportunities for other BCL-2 proteins to interfere with or promote BAK activation and unites aspects of the indirect and direct activation models.

  11. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, Irina; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained

  12. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV-vis Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, I.; Gascon Sabate, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose

  13. Functions of phenylalanine residues within the beta-barrel stem of the anthrax toxin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A key step of anthrax toxin action involves the formation of a protein-translocating pore within the endosomal membrane by the Protective Antigen (PA moiety. Formation of this transmembrane pore by PA involves interaction of the seven 2beta2-2beta3 loops of the heptameric precursor to generate a 14-strand transmembrane beta barrel.We examined the effects on pore formation, protein translocation, and cytotoxicity, of mutating two phenylalanines, F313 and F314, that lie at the tip the beta barrel, and a third one, F324, that lies part way up the barrel.Our results show that the function of these phenylalanine residues is to mediate membrane insertion and formation of stable transmembrane channels. Unlike F427, a key luminal residue in the cap of the pore, F313, F314, and F324 do not directly affect protein translocation through the pore. Our findings add to our knowledge of structure-function relationships of a key virulence factor of the anthrax bacillus.

  14. Force Triggers YAP Nuclear Entry by Regulating Transport across Nuclear Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Andreu, Ion; Beedle, Amy E M; Lezamiz, Ainhoa; Uroz, Marina; Kosmalska, Anita J; Oria, Roger; Kechagia, Jenny Z; Rico-Lastres, Palma; Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Shanahan, Catherine M; Trepat, Xavier; Navajas, Daniel; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Roca-Cusachs, Pere

    2017-11-30

    YAP is a mechanosensitive transcriptional activator with a critical role in cancer, regeneration, and organ size control. Here, we show that force applied to the nucleus directly drives YAP nuclear translocation by decreasing the mechanical restriction of nuclear pores to molecular transport. Exposure to a stiff environment leads cells to establish a mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, allowing forces exerted through focal adhesions to reach the nucleus. Force transmission then leads to nuclear flattening, which stretches nuclear pores, reduces their mechanical resistance to molecular transport, and increases YAP nuclear import. The restriction to transport is further regulated by the mechanical stability of the transported protein, which determines both active nuclear transport of YAP and passive transport of small proteins. Our results unveil a mechanosensing mechanism mediated directly by nuclear pores, demonstrated for YAP but with potential general applicability in transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. KCNK10, a Tandem Pore Domain Potassium Channel, Is a Regulator of Mitotic Clonal Expansion during the Early Stage of Adipocyte Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nishizuka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available KCNK10, a member of tandem pore domain potassium channel family, gives rise to leak K+ currents. It plays important roles in stabilizing the negative resting membrane potential and in counterbalancing depolarization. We previously demonstrated that kcnk10 expression is quickly elevated during the early stage of adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells and that reduction of kcnk10 expression inhibits adipocyte differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism of KCNK10 in adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. Here we revealed that kcnk10 is induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor and a potent inducer of adipogenesis, during the early stage of adipocyte differentiation. We also demonstrated that KCNK10 functions as a positive regulator of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE, a necessary process for terminal differentiation. The reduction of kcnk10 expression repressed the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ as well as the phosphorylation level of Akt during the early phase of adipogenesis. In addition, knockdown of kcnk10 expression suppressed insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that KCNK10 contributes to the regulation of MCE through the control of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ expression and insulin signaling.

  16. Lattice density functional theory investigation of pore shape effects. I. Adsorption in single nonperiodic pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanoski, A P; van Swol, Frank

    2002-10-01

    A fully explicit in three dimensions lattice density functional theory is used to investigate adsorption in single nonperiodic pores. The effect of varying pore shape from the slits and cylinders that are normally simulated was our primary interest. A secondary concern was the results for pores with very large diameters. The shapes investigated were square pores with or without surface roughness, cylinders, right triangle pores, and trapezoidal pores. It was found that pores with very similar shape factors gave similar results but that the introduction of acute angled corners or very large side ratio lengths in rectangular pores gave results that were significantly different. Further, a rectangular pore going towards the limit of infinite side ratio does not approach the results of a slit pore. In all of these cases, the importance of features that are present for only a small portion of the pore is demonstrated.

  17. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  18. Pore formation and occurrence in the organic-rich shales of the Triassic Chang-7 Member, Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Er

    2016-12-01

    .75%. Consequently, low organic pores could have been caused by the combination effect of low maturity and compaction. In addition, hydrocarbon is adsorbed on the surface of the organic matter, which could have caused the expansion of kerogen and then the reduction of organic pore.

  19. Pore REconstruction and Segmentation (PORES) method for improved porosity quantification of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eyndhoven, G., E-mail: geert.vaneyndhoven@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Kurttepeli, M. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Oers, C.J.; Cool, P. [Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bals, S. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, K.J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 1, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sijbers, J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2015-01-15

    Electron tomography is currently a versatile tool to investigate the connection between the structure and properties of nanomaterials. However, a quantitative interpretation of electron tomography results is still far from straightforward. Especially accurate quantification of pore-space is hampered by artifacts introduced in all steps of the processing chain, i.e., acquisition, reconstruction, segmentation and quantification. Furthermore, most common approaches require subjective manual user input. In this paper, the PORES algorithm “POre REconstruction and Segmentation” is introduced; it is a tailor-made, integral approach, for the reconstruction, segmentation, and quantification of porous nanomaterials. The PORES processing chain starts by calculating a reconstruction with a nanoporous-specific reconstruction algorithm: the Simultaneous Update of Pore Pixels by iterative REconstruction and Simple Segmentation algorithm (SUPPRESS). It classifies the interior region to the pores during reconstruction, while reconstructing the remaining region by reducing the error with respect to the acquired electron microscopy data. The SUPPRESS reconstruction can be directly plugged into the remaining processing chain of the PORES algorithm, resulting in accurate individual pore quantification and full sample pore statistics. The proposed approach was extensively validated on both simulated and experimental data, indicating its ability to generate accurate statistics of nanoporous materials. - Highlights: • An electron tomography reconstruction/segmentation method for nanoporous materials. • The method exploits the porous nature of the scanned material. • Validated extensively on both simulation and real data experiments. • Results in increased image resolution and improved porosity quantification.

  20. TET proteins regulate the lineage specification and TCR-mediated expansion of iNKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagaratou, Ageliki; González-Avalos, Edahí; Rautio, Sini; Scott-Browne, James P; Togher, Susan; Pastor, William A; Rothenberg, Ellen V; Chavez, Lukas; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Rao, Anjana

    2017-01-01

    TET proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and other oxidation products. We found that simultaneous deletion of Tet2 and Tet3 in mouse CD4 + CD8 + double-positive thymocytes resulted in dysregulated development and proliferation of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). Tet2-Tet3 double-knockout (DKO) iNKT cells displayed pronounced skewing toward the NKT17 lineage, with increased DNA methylation and impaired expression of genes encoding the key lineage-specifying factors T-bet and ThPOK. Transfer of purified Tet2-Tet3 DKO iNKT cells into immunocompetent recipient mice resulted in an uncontrolled expansion that was dependent on the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein CD1d, which presents lipid antigens to iNKT cells. Our data indicate that TET proteins regulate iNKT cell fate by ensuring their proper development and maturation and by suppressing aberrant proliferation mediated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR).

  1. The Effect of the Pore Entrance on Particle Motion in Slit Pores: Implications for Ultrathin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Armin; Baltus, Ruth

    2017-08-10

    Membrane rejection models generally neglect the effect of the pore entrance on intrapore particle transport. However, entrance effects are expected to be particularly important with ultrathin membranes, where membrane thickness is typically comparable to pore size. In this work, a 2D model was developed to simulate particle motion for spherical particles moving at small Re and infinite Pe from the reservoir outside the pore into a slit pore. Using a finite element method, particles were tracked as they accelerated across the pore entrance until they reached a steady velocity in the pore. The axial position in the pore where particle motion becomes steady is defined as the particle entrance length (PEL). PELs were found to be comparable to the fluid entrance length, larger than the pore size and larger than the thickness typical of many ultrathin membranes. Results also show that, in the absence of particle diffusion, hydrodynamic particle-membrane interactions at the pore mouth result in particle "funneling" in the pore, yielding cross-pore particle concentration profiles focused at the pore centerline. The implications of these phenomena on rejection from ultrathin membranes are examined.

  2. NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is required for nuclear envelope formation and completion of nuclear pore complex assembly in Xenopus laevis egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Tina; Ramadan, Kristijan; Schlundt, Andreas; Kartenbeck, Jürgen; Meyer, Hemmo H

    2007-08-15

    Despite the progress in understanding nuclear envelope (NE) reformation after mitosis, it has remained unclear what drives the required membrane fusion and how exactly this is coordinated with nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. Here, we show that, like other intracellular fusion reactions, NE fusion in Xenopus laevis egg extracts is mediated by SNARE proteins that require activation by NSF. Antibodies against Xenopus NSF, depletion of NSF or the dominant-negative NSF(E329Q) variant specifically inhibited NE formation. Staging experiments further revealed that NSF was required until sealing of the envelope was completed. Moreover, excess exogenous alpha-SNAP that blocks SNARE function prevented membrane fusion and caused accumulation of non-flattened vesicles on the chromatin surface. Under these conditions, the nucleoporins Nup107 and gp210 were fully recruited, whereas assembly of FxFG-repeat-containing nucleoporins was blocked. Together, we define NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events as essential steps during NE formation downstream of Nup107 recruitment, and upstream of membrane flattening and completion of NPC assembly.

  3. Impact of Casing Expansion on the Mechanical and Petro-Physical Properties of Wellbore Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyibo, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the applicability of expandable casing technology as a remediation technique for leaky wells resulting in gas migration problems. Micro annulus is usually created at the cement-formation/cement-casing interface or within the cement matrix either due to poor primary cementing or as a result of activities such as temperature and pressure variation or fracturing operations. Recent reports on gas migration in hydraulically fractured wellbores, has raised concerns on the contamination of fresh water aquifers resulting from fluid migration though this flow path. A unique bench-scale physical model which utilizes expandable tubulars in the remediation of micro annular gas flow has been used to simulate expansion of a previously-cemented casing under field-like conditions. Three different designs of cement slurry: regular 16.4 lb. /gal, 16.4 lb. /gal base slurry foamed to 13 lb. /gal and 16.4 lb. /gal cement slurry with 10% salt concentration. Gas flow path (microannulus) was artificially created at the pipe-cement interface by rotating the inner pipe in a pipe inside pipe assembly with cement in the annulus within the first few hours of hydration to create debonding at the cement-casing interface. Nitrogen gas flow-through experiments were performed before and after the expansion to confirm the sealing of the microannulus. The results obtained confirmed the effectiveness of this technique in the complete closure of gas leakage path, providing seal-tight cement-formation interface free of microannulus. The manipulation of the cement sheath during the casing expansion resulted in improved porosity, permeability and the strength of the cement sheath. SEM micrographs revealed decrease in pore size and fracturing of unhydrated cement grains within the cement matrix. This technology has great potential to become one of the leading cement remediation techniques for leaks behind the casing if implemented. Keywords: Wellbore

  4. Mechanical behavior of cellular borosilicate glass with pressurized Ar-filled closed pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Matsumaru, Koji; Yang Jianfeng; Fu Zhengyi; Ishizaki, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    High strength borosilicate foams were fabricated by melting glass powder under high-pressure argon gas and subsequent heat treatment of the glass bulk at atmospheric pressure. In the first step, borosilicate glass powder was melted at 1100 °C for 1 h by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) under a high gas pressure of 10–70 MPa. Pressurized Ar-filled spherical pores were introduced into the glass, and argon atoms were dissolved in the glass network structure. The expansion of argon-filled pores and the release of the dissolved Ar gas resulted in the formation of pressurized Ar-filled closed pores by isothermal heat treatment at 800 °C for 10 min. A high porosity of up to 80% with a bimodal distribution of micro-size cells was obtained for the resultant cellular borosilicate glass. By increasing the total gas pressure from 10 to 70 MPa, the compressive strength and the Young’s modulus were increased considerably from 15 to 52 MPa and from 4.1 to 12.6 GPa, respectively, which can be substantially attributed to the high collapse stress from the high enclosed gas pressure. The cellular glass with a high porosity showed a large failure strain under uniaxial compression.

  5. Nuclear pore complex-mediated modulation of TCR signaling is required for naïve CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, Joana; Sakuma, Stephen; Raices, Marcela; Carrette, Florent; Tinoco, Roberto; Bradley, Linda M; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A

    2018-05-07

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm. We report that loss of the tissue-specific NPC component Nup210 causes a severe deficit of naïve CD4 + T cells. Nup210-deficient CD4 + T lymphocytes develop normally but fail to survive in the periphery. The decreased survival results from both an impaired ability to transmit tonic T cell receptor (TCR) signals and increased levels of Fas, which sensitize Nup210 -/- naïve CD4 + T cells to Fas-mediated cell death. Mechanistically, Nup210 regulates these processes by modulating the expression of Cav2 (encoding Caveolin-2) and Jun at the nuclear periphery. Whereas the TCR-dependent and CD4 + T cell-specific upregulation of Cav2 is critical for proximal TCR signaling, cJun expression is required for STAT3-dependent repression of Fas. Our results uncover an unexpected role for Nup210 as a cell-intrinsic regulator of TCR signaling and T cell homeostasis and expose NPCs as key players in the adaptive immune system.

  6. Active pore space utilization in nanoporous carbon-based supercapacitors: Effects of conductivity and pore accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Koscinski, Mikolaj; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, Malgorzata; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2012-12-01

    Composites of commercial graphene and nanoporous sodium-salt-polymer-derived carbons were prepared with 5 or 20 weight% graphene. The materials were characterized using the adsorption of nitrogen, SEM/EDX, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and potentiometric titration. The samples' conductivity was also measured. The performance of the carbon composites in energy storage was linked to their porosity and electronic conductivity. The small pores (<0.7) were found as very active for double layer capacitance. It was demonstrated that when double layer capacitance is a predominant mechanism of charge storage, the degree of the pore space utilization for that storage can be increased by increasing the conductivity of the carbons. That active pore space utilization is defined as gravimetric capacitance per unit pore volume in pores smaller than 0.7 nm. Its magnitude is affected by conductivity of the carbon materials. The functional groups, besides pseudocapacitive contribution, increased the wettability and thus the degree of the pore space utilization. Graphene phase, owing to its conductivity, also took part in an insitu increase of the small pore accessibility and thus the capacitance of the composites via enhancing an electron transfer to small pores and thus imposing the reduction of groups blocking the pores for electrolyte ions.

  7. Antera 3D capabilities for pore measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Flynn, J; Doyle, L; Robertson, N; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A

    2018-04-29

    The cause of enlarged pores remains obscure but still remains of concern for women. To complement subjective methods, bioengineered methods are needed for quantification of pores visibility following treatments. The study objective was to demonstrate the suitability of pore measurements from the Antera 3D. Pore measurements were collected on 22 female volunteers aged 18-65 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on photographs. Additionally, 4 raters graded pore size on photographs on a scale 0-5. Repeatability of Antera 3D parameters was ascertained and the benefit of a pore minimizer product on the cheek was assessed on a sub panel of seven female volunteers. Pore parameters using the Antera were shown to depict pore severity similar to raters on photographs, except for Max Depth. Mean pore volume, mean pore area and count were moderately correlated with DermaTOP parameters (up to r = .50). No relationship was seen between the Antera 3D and pore visibility analysis on photographs. The most repeatable parameters were found to be mean pore volume, mean pore area and max depth, especially for the small and medium filters. The benefits of a pore minimizer product were the most striking for mean pore volume and mean pore area when using the small filter for analysis, rather than the medium/large ones. Pore measurements with the Antera 3D represent a reliable tool for efficacy and field studies, with an emphasis of the small filter for analysis for the mean pore volume/mean pore area parameters. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Electroosmotic pore transport in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Olivia D; White, Henry S

    2003-04-01

    To determine the pathways and origin of electroosmotic flow in human skin. Iontophoretic transport of acetaminophen in full thickness human cadaver skin was visualized and quantified by scanning electrochemical microscopy. Electroosmotic flow in the shunt pathways of full thickness skin was compared to flow in the pores of excised stratum corneum and a synthetic membrane pore. The penetration of rhodamine 6G into pore structures was investigated by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Electroosmotic transport is observed in shunt pathways in full thickness human skin (e.g., hair follicles and sweat glands), but not in pore openings of freestanding stratum corneum. Absolute values of the diffusive and iontophoretic pore fluxes of acetaminophen in full thickness human skin are also reported. Rhodamine 6G is observed to penetrate to significant depths (approximately 200 microm) along pore pathways. Iontophoresis in human cadaver skin induces localized electroosmotic flow along pore shunt paths. Electroosmotic forces arise from the passage of current through negatively charged mesoor nanoscale pores (e.g., gap functions) within cellular regions that define the pore structure beneath the stratum corneum.

  9. Laboratory characterization of shale pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Listiyowati, Lina

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the potential of shale gas reservoir, one needs to understand the characteristics of pore structures. Characterization of shale gas reservoir microstructure is still a challenge due to ultra-fine grained micro-fabric and micro level heterogeneity of these sedimentary rocks. The sample used in the analysis is a small portion of any reservoir. Thus, each measurement technique has a different result. It raises the question which methods are suitable for characterizing pore shale. The goal of this paper is to summarize some of the microstructure analysis tools of shale rock to get near-real results. The two analyzing pore structure methods are indirect measurement (MIP, He, NMR, LTNA) and direct observation (SEM, TEM, Xray CT). Shale rocks have a high heterogeneity; thus, it needs multiscale quantification techniques to understand their pore structures. To describe the complex pore system of shale, several measurement techniques are needed to characterize the surface area and pore size distribution (LTNA, MIP), shapes, size and distribution of pore (FIB-SEM, TEM, Xray CT), and total porosity (He pycnometer, NMR). The choice of techniques and methods should take into account the purpose of the analysis and also the time and budget.

  10. Using BIB-SEM to determine pore morphology and pore size distributions in coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, S.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Klaver, J.; Urai, J.L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geomechanics

    2013-08-01

    The composition of coalbeds is considerably heterogeneous, affecting the transport pathways for fluids within the coal. Transport pathways include cleats and larger pores. However, only a few clues exist as the nature of these pores. This study examines the morphology and distribution of macro- and mesopores in coal samples, using broad ion beam (BIB) milling to prepare relief- and damage-free polished surfaces of coal samples for high-resolution SEM imaging. Broad ion beam milling is advantageous to focused ion beam milling in that a larger surface area can be milled. Combining that with SEM imaging results in a useful tool to study pore morphology and distributions in the size range between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m. Since BIB-sections of a few square millimeters are not large enough to be statistically representative, results cannot be easily interpreted from a coal seam standpoint. Therefore, porosity was investigated as a function of maceral type to characterize pore morphologies. Macerals from the vitrinite and inertinite groups were selected with a known relationship to bedding. BIB-sections were milled parallel to bedding and perpendicular to bedding, and the pores were evaluated in each section. The goal of this study is to (1) qualitatively describe pore morphology with respect to maceral type and (2) quantitatively characterize pore size distributions with respect to maceral and in relationship to bedding. Our results lead to a better understanding of bulk coal porosity due to the visual, spatial representation and quantification of pores in individual macerals. (orig.)

  11. Estimation of adsorption-induced pore pressure and confinement in a nanoscopic slit pore by a density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, David; Malheiro, Carine; Miqueu, Christelle

    2018-03-01

    This study aims at characterising the adsorption-induced pore pressure and confinement in nanoscopic pores by molecular non-local density functional theory (DFT). Considering its important potential industrial applications, the adsorption of methane in graphitic slit pores has been selected as the test case. While retaining the accuracy of molecular simulations at pore scale, DFT has a very low computational cost that allows obtaining highly resolved pore pressure maps as a function of both pore width and thermodynamic conditions. The dependency of pore pressure on these parameters (pore width, pressure and temperature) is carefully analysed in order to highlight the effect of each parameter on the confined fluid properties that impact the solid matrix.

  12. Facial Pores: Definition, Causes, and Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ju; Seok, Joon; Jeong, Se Yeong; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Seo, Seong Jun

    2016-03-01

    Enlarged skin pores refer to conditions that present with visible topographic changes of skin surfaces. Although not a medical concern, enlarged pores are a cosmetic concern for a large number of individuals. Moreover, clear definition and possible causes of enlarged pores have not been elucidated. To review the possible causes and treatment options for skin pores. This article is based on a review of the medical literature and the authors' clinical experience in investigating and treating skin pores. There are 3 major clinical causes of enlarged facial pores, namely high sebum excretion, decreased elasticity around pores, and increased hair follicle volume. In addition, chronic recurrent acne, sex hormones, and skin care regimen can affect pore size. Given the different possible causes for enlarged pores, therapeutic modalities must be individualized for each patient. Potential factors that contribute to enlarged skin pores include excessive sebum, decreased elasticity around pores, and increased hair follicle volume. Because various factors cause enlarged facial pores, it might be useful to identify the underlying causes to be able to select the appropriate treatment.

  13. Numerical study of viscoelastic polymer flow in simplified pore structures using stabilised finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, M.; Wegner, J.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Polymer flooding, as an EOR method, has become one of the most important driving forces after water flooding. The conventional believe is that polymer flooding can only improve sweep efficiency, but it has no contribution to residual oil saturation reduction. However, experimental studies indicated that polymer solution can also improve displacement efficiency and decrease residual oil saturation. To get a better understanding of the mechanism to increase the microscopic sweep efficiency and the displacement efficiency, theoretical studies are required. In this paper, we studied the viscoelasticity effect of polymer by using a numerical simulator, which is based on Finite Element Analysis. Since it is showed experimentally that the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic polymer solution is higher than the second stress difference, the Oldroyd-B model was selected as the constitutive equation in the simulation. Numerical modelling of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluids is notoriously difficult. Standard Galerkin finite element methods are prone to numerical oscillations, and there is no convergence as the elasticity of fluid increases. Therefore, we use a stabilised finite element model. In order to verify our model, we first built up a model with the same geometry and fluid properties as presented in literature and compared the results. Then, with the tested model we simulated the effect of viscoelastic polymer fluid on dead pores in three simplified pore structures, which are contraction structure, expansion structure and expansion-contraction structure. Correspondingly, the streamlines and velocity contours of polymer solution, with different Reynolds numbers (Re) and Weissenberg numbers (We), flowing in these three structures are showed. The simulation results indicate that the viscoelasticity of polymer solution is the main contribution to increase the micro-scale sweep efficiency. With higher elasticity, the velocity of polymer solution is getting bigger at

  14. [A photographic scale for evaluating facial pores and analysis of factors associated with pore widening in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Cheng-xia; Meng, Hui-min; Wang, Xi; Li, Li

    2010-09-01

    To develop a photographic scale for grading widening of pores, and to identify the factors associated with pore widening. People with widened pores were recruited, with photographs taken on their nasal tips, nasal alas and cheeks. A questionnaire survey was undertaken by dermatologists to assess the severity of pore widening. A Cumulative Logit Model was established to identify factors that were associated with pore widening. A total of 115 people participated in the study and 562 photographs were taken. The photographic scale was highly consistent with the clinical judgment. Another 1011 residents aged from 18 to 70 years old in Chengdu were surveyed. The logit model revealed that facial pore widening were associated with gender, age, oily skin, sun protection and anti-aging cosmetic. The photographic scale is reliable and easy to use. Gender, age and oily skin are risk factors, and sun protection and anti-aging cosmetic are protective factors with related to pore widening.

  15. Measuring kinetic drivers of pneumolysin pore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Robert J C; Sonnen, Andreas F-P

    2016-05-01

    Most membrane attack complex-perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins are thought to form pores in target membranes by assembling into pre-pore oligomers before undergoing a pre-pore to pore transition. Assembly during pore formation is into both full rings of subunits and incomplete rings (arcs). The balance between arcs and full rings is determined by a mechanism dependent on protein concentration in which arc pores arise due to kinetic trapping of the pre-pore forms by the depletion of free protein subunits during oligomerization. Here we describe the use of a kinetic assay to study pore formation in red blood cells by the MACPF/CDC pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that cell lysis displays two kinds of dependence on protein concentration. At lower concentrations, it is dependent on the pre-pore to pore transition of arc oligomers, which we show to be a cooperative process. At higher concentrations, it is dependent on the amount of pneumolysin bound to the membrane and reflects the affinity of the protein for its receptor, cholesterol. A lag occurs before cell lysis begins; this is dependent on oligomerization of pneumolysin. Kinetic dissection of cell lysis by pneumolysin demonstrates the capacity of MACPF/CDCs to generate pore-forming oligomeric structures of variable size with, most likely, different functional roles in biology.

  16. Energetics of Transport through the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghavami

    Full Text Available Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells is solely controlled by the nuclear pore complex (NPC. The NPC provides two types of nucleocytoplasmic transport: passive diffusion of small molecules and active chaperon-mediated translocation of large molecules. It has been shown that the interaction between intrinsically disordered proteins that line the central channel of the NPC and the transporting cargoes is the determining factor, but the exact mechanism of transport is yet unknown. Here, we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the energy barrier that has to be overcome for molecules to pass through the NPC. We focus on two aspects of transport. First, the passive transport of model cargo molecules with different sizes is studied and the size selectivity feature of the NPC is investigated. Our results show that the transport probability of cargoes is significantly reduced when they are larger than ∼5 nm in diameter. Secondly, we show that incorporating hydrophobic binding spots on the surface of the cargo effectively decreases the energy barrier of the pore. Finally, a simple transport model is proposed which characterizes the energy barrier of the NPC as a function of diameter and hydrophobicity of the transporting particles.

  17. Can ash clog soil pores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  18. Dissolution at porous interfaces VI: Multiple pore systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijseels, H; Crommelin, D J; De Blaey, C J

    1984-12-01

    With the aid of rapidly dissolving sodium chloride particles, cubic pores were made in the surface of a theophylline tablet. The influence of the pores on the dissolution rate of the surface was investigated in a rotating disk apparatus. Like the drilled pores used in earlier studies, downstream on the surface they caused a turbulent flow regimen with the development of a trough due to enhanced erosion. The phenomenon of a critical pore diameter, discovered with single, drilled pores, seems to be applicable to the cubic pores investigated in this study, although a higher degree of surface coverage with pores caused complications, probably due to particles bordering one another and forming larger pores. The behavior of the porous surfaces at different rotation speeds was studied. Due to the presence of pores the laminar character of the boundary layer flow changes to turbulent, which induces locally an increased dissolution flux in the wake of a pore.

  19. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Hemant

    2010-08-11

    . Non-sinusoidal blood capillaries were further sub-classified as non-fenestrated or fenestrated based on the absence or presence of endothelial cells with fenestrations. The sinusoidal blood capillaries of the liver, myeloid (red) bone marrow, and spleen were sub-classified as reticuloendothelial or non-reticuloendothelial based on the phago-endocytic capacity of the endothelial cells. The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across capillary walls of non-sinusoidal non-fenestrated blood capillaries is less than 1 nm for those with interendothelial cell clefts lined with zona occludens junctions (i.e. brain and spinal cord), and approximately 5 nm for those with clefts lined with macula occludens junctions (i.e. skeletal muscle). The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated blood capillaries with diaphragmed fenestrae ranges between 6 and 12 nm (i.e. exocrine and endocrine glands); whereas, the physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated capillaries with open 'non-diaphragmed' fenestrae is approximately 15 nm (kidney glomerulus). In the case of the sinusoidal reticuloendothelial blood capillaries of myeloid bone marrow, the transvascular transport of non-endogenous macromolecules larger than 5 nm into the bone marrow interstitial space takes place via reticuloendothelial cell-mediated phago-endocytosis and transvascular release, which is the case for systemic bone marrow imaging agents as large as 60 nm in diameter. The physiologic upper limit of pore size in the capillary walls of most non-sinusoidal blood capillaries to the transcapillary passage of lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules ranges between 5 and 12 nm. Therefore, macromolecules larger than the physiologic upper limits of pore size in the non-sinusoidal blood capillary types generally do not accumulate within the

  20. A matched expansion approach to practical self-force calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Warren G; Wiseman, Alan G

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a practical method of computing the self-force on a particle moving through a curved spacetime. This method involves two expansions to calculate the self-force, one arising from the particle's immediate past and the other from the more distant past. The expansion in the immediate past is a covariant Taylor series and can be carried out for all geometries. The more distant expansion is a mode sum, and may be carried out in those cases where the wave equation for the field mediating the self-force admits a mode expansion of the solution. In particular, this method can be used to calculate the gravitational self-force for a particle of mass μ orbiting a black hole of mass M to order μ 2 , provided μ/M << 1. We discuss how to use these two expansions to construct a full self-force, and in particular investigate criteria for matching the two expansions. As with all methods of computing self-forces for particles moving in black hole spacetimes, one encounters considerable technical difficulty in applying this method; nevertheless, it appears that the convergence of each series is good enough that a practical implementation may be plausible

  1. Disulfide bonds in the ectodomain of anthrax toxin receptor 2 are required for the receptor-bound protective-antigen pore to function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-surface receptors play essential roles in anthrax toxin action by providing the toxin with a high-affinity anchor and self-assembly site on the plasma membrane, mediating the toxin entry into cells through endocytosis, and shifting the pH threshold for prepore-to-pore conversion of anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA to a more acidic pH, thereby inhibiting premature pore formation. Each of the two known anthrax toxin receptors, ANTXR1 and ANTXR2, has an ectodomain comprised of an N-terminal von Willebrand factor A domain (VWA, which binds PA, and an uncharacterized immunoglobulin-like domain (Ig that connects VWA to the membrane-spanning domain. Potential roles of the receptor Ig domain in anthrax toxin action have not been investigated heretofore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We expressed and purified the ANTXR2 ectodomain (R2-VWA-Ig in E. coli and showed that it contains three disulfide bonds: one in R2-VWA and two in R2-Ig. Reduction of the ectodomain inhibited functioning of the pore, as measured by K(+ release from liposomes or Chinese hamster ovary cells or by PA-mediated translocation of a model substrate across the plasma membrane. However, reduction did not affect binding of the ectodomain to PA or the transition of ectodomain-bound PA prepore to the pore conformation. The inhibitory effect depended specifically on reduction of the disulfides within R2-Ig. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that disulfide integrity within R2-Ig is essential for proper functioning of receptor-bound PA pore. This finding provides a novel venue to investigate the mechanism of anthrax toxin action and suggests new strategies for inhibiting toxin action.

  2. Expansion of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Perfused 3D Ceramic Scaffolds Enhances In Vivo Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Allison I; Duhr, Ralph; Di Maggio, Nunzia; Mehrkens, Arne; Jakob, Marcel; Wendt, David

    2017-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC), when expanded directly within 3D ceramic scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, more reproducibly form bone when implanted in vivo as compared to conventional expansion on 2D polystyrene dishes/flasks. Since the bioreactor-based expansion on 3D ceramic scaffolds encompasses multiple aspects that are inherently different from expansion on 2D polystyrene, we aimed to decouple the effects of specific parameters among these two model systems. We assessed the effects of the: 1) 3D scaffold vs. 2D surface; 2) ceramic vs. polystyrene materials; and 3) BMSC niche established within the ceramic pores during in vitro culture, on subsequent in vivo bone formation. While BMSC expanded on 3D polystyrene scaffolds in the bioreactor could maintain their in vivo osteogenic potential, results were similar as BMSC expanded in monolayer on 2D polystyrene, suggesting little influence of the scaffold 3D environment. Bone formation was most reproducible when BMSC are expanded on 3D ceramic, highlighting the influence of the ceramic substrate. The presence of a pre-formed niche within the scaffold pores had negligible effects on the in vivo bone formation. The results of this study allow a greater understanding of the parameters required for perfusion bioreactor-based manufacturing of osteogenic grafts for clinical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Pore-scale modeling of capillary trapping in water-wet porous media: A new cooperative pore-body filling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruspini, L. C.; Farokhpoor, R.; Øren, P. E.

    2017-10-01

    We present a pore-network model study of capillary trapping in water-wet porous media. The amount and distribution of trapped non-wetting phase is determined by the competition between two trapping mechanisms - snap-off and cooperative pore-body filling. We develop a new model to describe the pore-body filling mechanism in geologically realistic pore-networks. The model accounts for the geometrical characteristics of the pore, the spatial location of the connecting throats and the local fluid topology at the time of the displacement. We validate the model by comparing computed capillary trapping curves with published data for four different water-wet rocks. Computations are performed on pore-networks extracted from micro-CT images and process-based reconstructions of the actual rocks used in the experiments. Compared with commonly used stochastic models, the new model describes more accurately the experimental measurements, especially for well connected porous systems where trapping is controlled by subtleties of the pore structure. The new model successfully predicts relative permeabilities and residual saturation for Bentheimer sandstone using in-situ measured contact angles as input to the simulations. The simulated trapped cluster size distributions are compared with predictions from percolation theory.

  4. FINGERPRINT MATCHING BASED ON PORE CENTROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been exponential growth in the use of bio- metrics for user authentication applications. Automated Fingerprint Identification systems have become popular tool in many security and law enforcement applications. Most of these systems rely on minutiae (ridge ending and bifurcation features. With the advancement in sensor technology, high resolution fingerprint images (1000 dpi pro- vide micro level of features (pores that have proven to be useful fea- tures for identification. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for fingerprint matching based on pores by reliably extracting the pore features The extraction of pores is done by Marker Controlled Wa- tershed segmentation method and the centroids of each pore are con- sidered as feature vectors for matching of two fingerprint images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better per- formance with lower false rates and higher accuracy.

  5. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D

    2011-09-06

    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  7. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  8. Pore facies analysis: incorporation of rock properties into pore geometry based classes in a Permo-Triassic carbonate reservoir in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour-Bonab, H; Aliakbardoust, E

    2014-01-01

    Pore facies analysis is a useful method for the classification of reservoir rocks according to pore geometry characteristics. The importance of this method is related to the dependence of the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock on the pore geometry. In this study, pore facies analysis was performed by the quantification and classification of the mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves applying the multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC) method. Each pore facies includes a limited variety of rock samples with different depositional fabrics and diagenetic histories, which are representative of one type of pore geometry. The present pore geometry is the result of the interaction between the primary rock fabric and its diagenetic overprint. Thus the variations in petrographic properties can be correlated with the pore geometry characteristics. Accordingly, the controlling parameters in the pore geometry characteristics were revealed by detailed petrographic analysis in each pore facies. The reservoir rock samples were then classified using the determined petrographic properties which control the pore system quality. This method is proposed for the classification of reservoir rocks in complicated carbonate reservoirs, in order to reduce the incompatibility of traditional facies analysis with pore system characteristics. The method is applicable where enough capillary pressure data is not available. (papers)

  9. Pore surface engineering in covalent organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Atsushi; Guo, Zhaoqi; Feng, Xiao; Jin, Shangbin; Chen, Xiong; Ding, Xuesong; Jiang, Donglin

    2011-11-15

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of important porous materials that allow atomically precise integration of building blocks to achieve pre-designable pore size and geometry; however, pore surface engineering in COFs remains challenging. Here we introduce pore surface engineering to COF chemistry, which allows the controlled functionalization of COF pore walls with organic groups. This functionalization is made possible by the use of azide-appended building blocks for the synthesis of COFs with walls to which a designable content of azide units is anchored. The azide units can then undergo a quantitative click reaction with alkynes to produce pore surfaces with desired groups and preferred densities. The diversity of click reactions performed shows that the protocol is compatible with the development of various specific surfaces in COFs. Therefore, this methodology constitutes a step in the pore surface engineering of COFs to realize pre-designed compositions, components and functions.

  10. Relationship between pore structure and compressive strength

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of concrete are strongly dependent on its pore structure features, porosity being an important one among them. This study deals with developing an understanding of the pore structure-compressive strength relationship in concrete. Several concrete mixtures with different pore structures are proportioned and ...

  11. A pore water conductivity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electrical permittivity and conductivity of the bulk soil are a function of the permittivity and conductivity of the pore water. For soil water contents higher than 0.10 both functions are equal, facilitating in situ conductivity measurements of the pore water. A novel method is described, based

  12. The expansion of electric power systems considering the operation reliability; Expansion de sistemas electricos considerando la securidad de servicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Marcelo A. [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica; Moya A, Oscar [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Civil

    1997-12-31

    This publication describes a procedure based in an linear programming for the planning of the expansion of mediating term in power systems. The implicit alternatives for network expansion, whether power plants or transmission lines, are classified according to indexes of reinforcement. The indexes are gotten resulting shadow pricing upon resolving a problem of minimum cost of operation and outage. The network is subjected to the most probable contingencies and from these outputs the expected reinforcement results are obtained. The problem of the reactive power accounts for restrictions in line capacity and prior evaluation of A C power flux. Results obtained are used for methodology validation. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.; e-mail: mcortes at apolo.cc.uantof.cl.; osmoya at tamarugo.cec.uchile.cl

  13. Mesoscale Simulations of Pore Migration in a Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of pore and grain structure in a nuclear fuel environment is strongly influenced by the local temperature, and the temperature gradient. The evolution of pore and grain structure in an externally imposed temperature gradient is simulated for a hypothetical material using a Potts model approach that allows for porosity migration by mechanisms similar to surface, grain boundary and volume diffusion, as well as the interaction of migrating pores with stationary grain boundaries. First, the migration of a single pore in a single crystal in the presence of the temperature gradient is simulated. Next, the interaction of a pore moving in a temperature gradient with a grain boundary that is perpendicular to the pore migration direction is simulated in order to capture the force exerted by the pore on the grain boundary. The simulations reproduce the expected variation of pore velocity with pore size as well as the variation of the grain boundary force with pore size.

  14. The one-dimensional compression method for extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff and effects on pore-water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, J.D.; Burger, P.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Yang, L.C. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires extraction of pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff bedrock. Two generations of compression cells have been designed and tested for extracting representative, unaltered pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff cores. The one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 552 MPa. Results from 86 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 14% for non welded tuff and about 61% for densely welded tuff. The high-pressure, one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 827 MPa. Results from 109 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 7.5% for non welded tuff and about 34% for densely welded tuff. Geochemical analyses show that, in general, there is a decrease in ion concentration of pore waters as extraction pressures increase. Only small changes in pore-water composition occur during the one-dimensional extraction test.

  15. Influence of system size and solvent flow on the distribution of wormlike micelles in a contraction-expansion geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukan, M. R.; Boek, E. S.; Padding, J. T.; Crawshaw, J. P.

    2008-05-01

    Viscoelastic wormlike micelles are formed by surfactants assembling into elongated cylindrical structures. These structures respond to flow by aligning, breaking and reforming. Their response to the complex flow fields encountered in porous media is particularly rich. Here we use a realistic mesoscopic Brownian Dynamics model to investigate the flow of a viscoelastic surfactant (VES) fluid through individual pores idealized as a step expansion-contraction of size around one micron. In a previous study, we assumed the flow field to be Newtonian. Here we extend the work to include the non-Newtonian flow field previously obtained by experiment. The size of the simulations is also increased so that the pore is much larger than the radius of gyration of the micelles. For the non-Newtonian flow field at the higher flow rates in relatively large pores, the density of the micelles becomes markedly non-uniform. In this case, we find that the density in the large, slowly moving entry corner regions is substantially increased.

  16. The Role of Ion Selectivity of the Fusion Pore on Transmission and the Exocytosis of Neurotransmitters and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn Bongar

    influx and efflux through the fusion pore. The experiments reveal negatively charged transmitter release can occur through a fusion pore at larger conductance values, past a threshold range. Narrow fusion pores with lower conductance values favor cation selectivity, which would accelerate the release of positively charged transmitters such as acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. However, release of negatively charged neurotransmitters such as glutamate can occur if an expanded fusion pore mediates release of this fast major excitatory transmitter. The intention of this research is to expand our understanding of the nervous system, which can contribute to healthy shifts in our clinical and educational interventions that are commonly delivered.

  17. Cytosol-dependent membrane fusion in ER, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore assembly: biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikova, Elvira R; Melikov, Kamran; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope rearrangements after mitosis are often studied in the reconstitution system based on Xenopus egg extract. In our recent work we partially replaced the membrane vesicles in the reconstitution mix with protein-free liposomes to explore the relative contributions of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. Here we discuss our finding that cytosolic proteins mediate fusion between membranes lacking functional transmembrane proteins and the role of membrane fusion in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope reorganization. Cytosol-dependent liposome fusion has allowed us to restore, without adding transmembrane nucleoporins, functionality of nuclear pores, their spatial distribution and chromatin decondensation in nuclei formed at insufficient amounts of membrane material and characterized by only partial decondensation of chromatin and lack of nuclear transport. Both the mechanisms and the biological implications of the discovered coupling between spatial distribution of nuclear pores, chromatin decondensation and nuclear transport are discussed.

  18. Propagation of a plasma streamer in catalyst pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-03-01

    Although plasma catalysis is gaining increasing interest for various environmental applications, the underlying mechanisms are still far from understood. For instance, it is not yet clear whether and how plasma streamers can propagate in catalyst pores, and what is the minimum pore size to make this happen. As this is crucial information to ensure good plasma-catalyst interaction, we study here the mechanism of plasma streamer propagation in a catalyst pore, by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model, for various pore diameters in the nm-range to μm-range. The so-called Debye length is an important criterion for plasma penetration into catalyst pores, i.e. a plasma streamer can penetrate into pores when their diameter is larger than the Debye length. The Debye length is typically in the order of a few 100 nm up to 1 μm at the conditions under study, depending on electron density and temperature in the plasma streamer. For pores in the range of ∼50 nm, plasma can thus only penetrate to some extent and at very short times, i.e. at the beginning of a micro-discharge, before the actual plasma streamer reaches the catalyst surface and a sheath is formed in front of the surface. We can make plasma streamers penetrate into smaller pores (down to ca. 500 nm at the conditions under study) by increasing the applied voltage, which yields a higher plasma density, and thus reduces the Debye length. Our simulations also reveal that the plasma streamers induce surface charging of the catalyst pore sidewalls, causing discharge enhancement inside the pore, depending on pore diameter and depth.

  19. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm(2)) and determination of their respective sizes in mm(2). Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having "enlarged pores" like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore's morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed.

  20. A voltage-gated pore for translocation of tRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley, Sandip; Adhya, Samit, E-mail: nilugrandson@gmail.com

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •A tRNA translocating complex was assembled from purified proteins. •The complex translocates tRNA at a membrane potential of ∼60 mV. •Translocation requires Cys and His residues in the Fe–S center of RIC6 subunit. -- Abstract: Very little is known about how nucleic acids are translocated across membranes. The multi-subunit RNA Import Complex (RIC) from mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania tropica induces translocation of tRNAs across artificial or natural membranes, but the nature of the translocation pore remains unknown. We show that subunits RIC6 and RIC9 assemble on the membrane in presence of subunit RIC4A to form complex R3. Atomic Force Microscopy of R3 revealed particles with an asymmetric surface groove of ∼20 nm rim diameter and ∼1 nm depth. R3 induced translocation of tRNA into liposomes when the pH of the medium was lowered to ∼6 in the absence of ATP. R3-mediated tRNA translocation could also be induced at neutral pH by a K{sup +} diffusion potential with an optimum of 60–70 mV. Point mutations in the Cys{sub 2}–His{sub 2} Fe-binding motif of RIC6, which is homologous to the respiratory Complex III Fe–S protein, abrogated import induced by low pH but not by K{sup +} diffusion potential. These results indicate that the R3 complex forms a pore that is gated by a proton-generated membrane potential and that the Fe–S binding region of RIC6 has a role in proton translocation. The tRNA import complex of L. tropica thus contains a novel macromolecular channel distinct from the mitochondrial protein import pore that is apparently involved in tRNA import in some species.

  1. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  2. Real-Time Pore Pressure Detection: Indicators and Improved Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High uncertainties may exist in the predrill pore pressure prediction in new prospects and deepwater subsalt wells; therefore, real-time pore pressure detection is highly needed to reduce drilling risks. The methods for pore pressure detection (the resistivity, sonic, and corrected d-exponent methods are improved using the depth-dependent normal compaction equations to adapt to the requirements of the real-time monitoring. A new method is proposed to calculate pore pressure from the connection gas or elevated background gas, which can be used for real-time pore pressure detection. The pore pressure detection using the logging-while-drilling, measurement-while-drilling, and mud logging data is also implemented and evaluated. Abnormal pore pressure indicators from the well logs, mud logs, and wellbore instability events are identified and analyzed to interpret abnormal pore pressures for guiding real-time drilling decisions. The principles for identifying abnormal pressure indicators are proposed to improve real-time pore pressure monitoring.

  3. Differential effects of IL-2 and IL-21 on expansion of the CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T regulatory cells with redundant roles in natural killer cell mediated antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Aruna; Ramanunni, Asha; Cheney, Carolyn; Rozewski, Darlene; Kindsvogel, Wayne; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David; Caligiuri, Michael; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells are expanded in solid and hematological malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Several cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules are required for generation, survival and maintenance of their suppressive effect. We and others have shown direct cytotoxic effect of the novel common gamma chain cytokine interleukin (IL)-21 on primary B cells from CLL patients. Since members of this family of cytokines are known to exhibit their effects on diverse immune cells, we have examined the effects of IL-21 on CLL patient derived regulatory T cell (Treg) induction, expansion and the inhibitory effect on natural killer cells in vitro. We demonstrate here the expression of IL-21 receptor in CD4(+)CD25(High) regulatory cells from CLL patients. In contrast to IL-2, the IL-21 cytokine failed to mediate expansion of regulatory T cells or induced expression of Foxp3 in CD4(+)CD25(Intermediate) or CD4(+)CD25(Dim/-) T cells in whole blood derived from CLL patients. Interestingly, in contrast to their differential effects on expansion of the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)T cells, IL-2 and IL-21 exhibited a redundant role in Treg mediated suppression of NK cell mediated antibody dependent cytotoxicity function. Given the infusion related toxicities and pro-survival effect of IL-2 in CLL, these studies provide a rationale to explore IL-21 as an alternate gamma chain cytokine in CLL therapy.

  4. Analysis of the temperature and pore water pressure field in the TED heating experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garitte, B.; Vaunat, J.; Gens, A.; Conil, N.; Armand, G

    2012-01-01

    , convection may be neglected because of the low permeability of the medium. Moreover, considering that the soil remains saturated throughout the experiment and that changes in porosity are minor (because of the high rigidity of the medium's skeleton), couplings from the hydro- and mechanical component to the thermal problem are likely to be very weak. On the basis of these assumptions, the thermal conduction problem can thus be resolved independently. In the first part of the paper, a methodology set up to determine the thermal conductivity of the medium on the basis of this assumption is described and applied to find the best fitting thermal conductivity value to reproduce the measured thermal field. In addition, the applied thermal load triggers a Hydro-Mechanical response of the rock as both, the rock skeleton and the water in the rock pores expand when heated. Thus, the hydro- and the mechanical response are tightly coupled. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the discussion of this response on the basis of theoretical considerations. 3D THM computations run with Code B right are used to analyse the rock response. We show the importance of reproducing correctly the presence of draining entities like the nearby GED gallery and some of the instrumentation boreholes before calibrating the parameters influencing the HM response. Water permeability and thermal expansion of both, rock skeleton and solid grain were identified as most influential parameters. Rock stiffness and its anisotropy are shown to have a secondary but non negligible influence. The temperature measurements are reproduced satisfactorily by the simulation. The overall good reproduction of the temperature field suggests that the effect of several heat sources is additive and was made possible. A clear correlation between temperature and pore water pressure evolution is observed from the first heating step. When temperature increases at sensor location, the pore water is compressed as a consequence of

  5. Multiple Approaches to Characterizing Pore Structure in Natural Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Dultz, S.; Hamamoto, S.; Ewing, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Microscopic characteristics of porous media - pore shape, pore-size distribution, and pore connectivity - control fluid flow and chemical transport, and are important in hydrogeological studies of rock formations in the context of energy, environmental, and water resources management. This presentation discusses various approaches to investigating pore structure of rock, with a particular focus on the Barnett Shale in north Texas used for natural gas production. Approaches include imbibition, tracer diffusion, porosimetry (MIP, vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms, NMR cyroporometry), and imaging (μ-tomography, Wood's metal impregnation, FIB/SEM). Results show that the Barnett Shale pores are predominantly in the nm size range, with a measured median pore-throat diameter of 6.5 nm. But small pore size is not the major contributor to low gas recovery; rather, the low gas diffusivity appears to be caused by low pore connectivity. Chemical diffusion in sparsely-connected pore spaces is not well described by classical Fickian behavior; anomalous behavior is suggested by percolation theory, and confirmed by results of imbibition tests. Our evolving complementary approaches, with their several advantages and disadvantages, provide a rich toolbox for tackling the pore structure characteristics in the Barnett Shale and other natural rocks.

  6. Pore structure of natural and regenerated soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of aggregate pore structure can reveal the evolution of aggregates under different land use and management practices and their effects on soil processes and functions. Advances in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) provide powerful means to conduct such characterization....... This study examined aggregate pore structure of three differently managed same textured Danish soils (mixed forage cropping, MFC; mixed cash cropping, MCC; cereal cash cropping, CCC) for (i) natural aggregates, and (ii) aggregates regenerated after 20 months of incubation. In total, 27 aggregates (8-16 mm...... pore diameter of 200 and 170 Hm, respectively. Pore shape analysis indicated that CCC and MFC aggregates had an abundance of rounded and elongated pores, respectively, and those of MCC were in-between CCC and MFC. Aggregate pore structure development in the lysimeters was nearly similar irrespective...

  7. Enhancement of plasma generation in catalyst pores with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-01

    Plasma generation inside catalyst pores is of utmost importance for plasma catalysis, as the existence of plasma species inside the pores affects the active surface area of the catalyst available to the plasma species for catalytic reactions. In this paper, the electric field enhancement, and thus the plasma production inside catalyst pores with different pore shapes is studied with a two-dimensional fluid model. The results indicate that the electric field will be significantly enhanced near tip-like structures. In a conical pore with small opening, the strongest electric field appears at the opening and bottom corners of the pore, giving rise to a prominent ionization rate throughout the pore. For a cylindrical pore, the electric field is only enhanced at the bottom corners of the pore, with lower absolute value, and thus the ionization rate inside the pore is only slightly enhanced. Finally, in a conical pore with large opening, the electric field is characterized by a maximum at the bottom of the pore, yielding a similar behavior for the ionization rate. These results demonstrate that the shape of the pore has a significantly influence on the electric field enhancement, and thus modifies the plasma properties.

  8. Surfactant-enhanced control of track-etch pore morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Orelovich, O.L.; Samojlova, L.I.; Vutsadakis, V.A.; Root, D.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of surfactants on the process of chemical development of ion tracks in polymers is studied. Based on the experimental data, a mechanism of the surfactant effect on the track-etch pore morphology is proposed. In the beginning of etching the surfactant is adsorbed on the surface and creates a layer that is quasi-solid and partially protects the surface from the etching agent. However, some etchant molecules diffuse through the barrier and react with the polymer surface. This results in the formation of a small hole at the entrance to the ion track. After the hole has attained a few annometers in diameter, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the track and cover its walls. Further diffusion of the surfactant into the growing pore is hindered. The adsorbed surfactant layer is not permeable for large molecules. In contrast, small alkali molecules and water molecules diffuse into the track and provide the etching process enlarging the pore. At this stage the transport of the surfactant into the pore channel can proceed only due to the lateral diffusion in the adsorbed layer. The volume inside the pore is free of surfactant molecules and grows at a higher rate than pore entrance. After a more prolonged etching the bottle-like (or 'cigar-like') pore channels are formed. The bottle-like shape of the pore channels depends on the etching conditions such as alkali and surfactant concentration, temperature, and type of the surfactant. The use of surfactants enables one to produce track-etch membranes with improved flow rate characteristics compared with those having cylindrical pores with the same nominal pore diameters

  9. A method of evaluating facial pores using optical 2D images and analysis of age-dependent changes in facial pores in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S I; Kim, E J; Lee, H K

    2018-05-01

    Enlarged facial pores and changes in pore area are of concern for cosmetic reasons. To evaluate pores, measuring tools based on 3D methodology are used. Yet, these methods are limited by their measuring ranges. In this study, we performed pore analysis by measuring the whole face using 2D optical images. We further sought to understand how the pores of Korean women change with age. One hundred sixteen Korean female subjects aged 20-60 years were recruited for this study. Facial images were taken using the VISIA-CR ® adjusted light source. Images were processed using Image-Pro Plus 9.2. Statistical significance was assumed when P pore area, as indicated by pixel count, gradually increased in patients through their 40s, but decreased through their 50s and 60s. Facial pores generally exhibited directionality through the patients' 30s, but this isotropic feature was more prominent in their 50s. Pore elongation increased stepwise. The first increase occurred during the transition from patients' 30s to their 40s and the second increase occurred during the transition from patients' 50s to their 60s. This indicated that the pores deformed from a circular shape to a long elliptic shape over time. A new evaluation method using 2D optical images facilitates the analysis of pore distribution and elongation throughout the entire cheek. This is an improvement over an analysis of pores over a narrow region of interest. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pore formation by actinoporins, cytolysins from sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojko, Nejc; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Maček, Peter; Anderluh, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    Actinoporins (APs) from sea anemones are ~20 kDa pore forming toxins with a β-sandwich structure flanked by two α-helices. The molecular mechanism of APs pore formation is composed of several well-defined steps. APs bind to membrane by interfacial binding site composed of several aromatic amino acid residues that allow binding to phosphatidylcholine and specific recognition of sphingomyelin. Subsequently, the N-terminal α-helix from the β-sandwich has to be inserted into the lipid/water interphase in order to form a functional pore. Functional studies and single molecule imaging revealed that only several monomers, 3-4, oligomerise to form a functional pore. In this model the α-helices and surrounding lipid molecules build toroidal pore. In agreement, AP pores are transient and electrically heterogeneous. On the contrary, crystallized oligomers of actinoporin fragaceatoxin C were found to be composed of eight monomers with no lipids present between the adjacent α-helices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Maur Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear Pore-Like Structures in a Compartmentalized Bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Sagulenko

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes are distinguished from other Bacteria by compartmentalization of cells via internal membranes, interpretation of which has been subject to recent debate regarding potential relations to Gram-negative cell structure. In our interpretation of the available data, the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus contains a nuclear body compartment, and thus possesses a type of cell organization with parallels to the eukaryote nucleus. Here we show that pore-like structures occur in internal membranes of G.obscuriglobus and that they have elements structurally similar to eukaryote nuclear pores, including a basket, ring-spoke structure, and eight-fold rotational symmetry. Bioinformatic analysis of proteomic data reveals that some of the G. obscuriglobus proteins associated with pore-containing membranes possess structural domains found in eukaryote nuclear pore complexes. Moreover, immunogold labelling demonstrates localization of one such protein, containing a β-propeller domain, specifically to the G. obscuriglobus pore-like structures. Finding bacterial pores within internal cell membranes and with structural similarities to eukaryote nuclear pore complexes raises the dual possibilities of either hitherto undetected homology or stunning evolutionary convergence.

  12. Radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, R.; Schuessler, M.; Vögler, A.; Zakharov, V.

    2007-01-01

    Context. Solar pores represent a class of magnetic structures intermediate between small-scale magnetic flux concentrations in intergranular lanes and fully developed sunspots with penumbrae. Aims. We study the structure, energetics, and internal dynamics of pore-like magnetic structures by means of

  13. MD simulation of organics adsorption from aqueous solution in carbon slit-like pores. Foundations of the pore blocking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester; Zieliński, Wojciech; Włoch, Jerzy; Kowalczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The results of systematic studies of organics adsorption from aqueous solutions (at the neutral pH level) in a system of slit-like carbon pores having different sizes and oxygen groups located at the pore mouth are reported. Using molecular dynamics simulations (GROMACS package) the properties of adsorbent–adsorbate (benzene, phenol or paracetamol) as well as adsorbent–water systems are discussed. After the introduction of surface oxygen functionalities, adsorption of organic compounds decreases (in accordance with experimental data) and this is caused by the accumulation of water molecules at pore entrances. The pore blocking effect decreases with the diameter of slits and practically vanishes for widths larger than approx. 0.68 nm. We observed the increase in phenol adsorption with the rise in temperature. Moreover, adsorbed molecules occupy the external surface of the slit pores (the entrances) in the case of oxidized adsorbents. Among the studied molecules benzene, phenol and paracetamol prefer an almost flat orientation and with the rise in the pore width the number of molecules oriented in parallel decreases. The decrease or increase in temperature (with respect to 298 K) leads to insignificant changes of angular orientation of adsorbed molecules. (paper)

  14. Measurements of pore-scale flow through apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnicki, Kirsten [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Pore-scale aperture effects on flow in pore networks was studied in the laboratory to provide a parameterization for use in transport models. Four cases were considered: regular and irregular pillar/pore alignment with and without an aperture. The velocity field of each case was measured and simulated, providing quantitatively comparable results. Two aperture effect parameterizations were considered: permeability and transmission. Permeability values varied by an order of magnitude between the cases with and without apertures. However, transmission did not correlate with permeability. Despite having much greater permeability the regular aperture case permitted less transmission than the regular case. Moreover, both irregular cases had greater transmission than the regular cases, a difference not supported by the permeabilities. Overall, these findings suggest that pore-scale aperture effects on flow though a pore-network may not be adequately captured by properties such as permeability for applications that are interested in determining particle transport volume and timing.

  15. Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for porous granular materials: Pore morphology method vs. pore unit assembly method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweijen, Thomas; Aslannejad, Hamed; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    2017-09-01

    In studies of two-phase flow in complex porous media it is often desirable to have an estimation of the capillary pressure-saturation curve prior to measurements. Therefore, we compare in this research the capability of three pore-scale approaches in reproducing experimentally measured capillary pressure-saturation curves. To do so, we have generated 12 packings of spheres that are representative of four different glass-bead packings and eight different sand packings, for which we have found experimental data on the capillary pressure-saturation curve in the literature. In generating the packings, we matched the particle size distributions and porosity values of the granular materials. We have used three different pore-scale approaches for generating the capillary pressure-saturation curves of each packing: i) the Pore Unit Assembly (PUA) method in combination with the Mayer and Stowe-Princen (MS-P) approximation for estimating the entry pressures of pore throats, ii) the PUA method in combination with the hemisphere approximation, and iii) the Pore Morphology Method (PMM) in combination with the hemisphere approximation. The three approaches were also used to produce capillary pressure-saturation curves for the coating layer of paper, used in inkjet printing. Curves for such layers are extremely difficult to determine experimentally, due to their very small thickness and the presence of extremely small pores (less than one micrometer in size). Results indicate that the PMM and PUA-hemisphere method give similar capillary pressure-saturation curves, because both methods rely on a hemisphere to represent the air-water interface. The ability of the hemisphere approximation and the MS-P approximation to reproduce correct capillary pressure seems to depend on the type of particle size distribution, with the hemisphere approximation working well for narrowly distributed granular materials.

  16. Pore-Width-Dependent Preferential Interaction of sp2 Carbon Atoms in Cyclohexene with Graphitic Slit Pores by GCMC Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Kojima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of cyclohexene with two sp2 and four sp3 carbon atoms in graphitic slit pores was studied by performing grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The molecular arrangement of the cyclohexene on the graphitic carbon wall depends on the pore width. The distribution peak of the sp2 carbon is closer to the pore wall than that of the sp3 carbon except for the pore width of 0.7 nm, even though the Lennard-Jones size of the sp2 carbon is larger than that of the sp3 carbon. Thus, the difference in the interactions of the sp2 and sp3 carbon atoms of cyclohexene with the carbon pore walls is clearly observed in this study. The preferential interaction of sp2 carbon gives rise to a slight tilting of the cyclohexene molecule against the graphitic wall. This is suggestive of a π-π interaction between the sp2 carbon in the cyclohexene molecule and graphitic carbon.

  17. Leptin-induced cardioprotection involves JAK/STAT signaling that may be linked to the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher C. T.; Dixon, Richard A.; Wynne, Abigail M.; Theodorou, Louise; Ong, Sang-Ging; Subrayan, Sapna; Davidson, Sean M.; Hausenloy, Derek J.; Yellon, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    Leptin-induced protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves the activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway, incorporating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt/protein kinase B and p44/42 MAPK, and the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). Recently published data indicate that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, which mediates the metabolic actions of leptin, also plays a pivotal role in cardioprotection. Consequently, in the...

  18. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fusseis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time.

    We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process.

    Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway.

    Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the

  19. Pore formation during dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron radiation based X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (6.4 × 109 voxel each) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop. We

  20. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2012-03-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop.

  1. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally...... and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines...... the organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  2. An Arabidopsis kinase cascade influences auxin-responsive cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Tara A; Frick, Elizabeth M; Strader, Lucia C

    2017-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades are conserved mechanisms of signal transduction across eukaryotes. Despite the importance of MPK proteins in signaling events, specific roles for many Arabidopsis MPK proteins remain unknown. Multiple studies have suggested roles for MPK signaling in a variety of auxin-related processes. To identify MPK proteins with roles in auxin response, we screened mpk insertional alleles and identified mpk1-1 as a mutant that displays hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays. Further, mutants defective in the upstream MAP kinase kinase MKK3 also display hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays, suggesting that this MPK cascade affects auxin-influenced cell expansion. We found that MPK1 interacts with and phosphorylates ROP BINDING PROTEIN KINASE 1 (RBK1), a protein kinase that interacts with members of the Rho-like GTPases from Plants (ROP) small GTPase family. Similar to mpk1-1 and mkk3-1 mutants, rbk1 insertional mutants display auxin hypersensitivity, consistent with a possible role for RBK1 downstream of MPK1 in influencing auxin-responsive cell expansion. We found that RBK1 directly phosphorylates ROP4 and ROP6, supporting the possibility that RBK1 effects on auxin-responsive cell expansion are mediated through phosphorylation-dependent modulation of ROP activity. Our data suggest a MKK3 • MPK1 • RBK1 phosphorylation cascade that may provide a dynamic module for altering cell expansion. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. X-ray pore optic developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kotska; Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Maximilien; Beijersbergen, Marco; Kraft, Stefan; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Blanquer, Pascal; Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    In support of future x-ray telescopes ESA is developing new optics for the x-ray regime. To date, mass and volume have made x-ray imaging technology prohibitive to planetary remote sensing imaging missions. And although highly successful, the mirror technology used on ESA's XMM-Newton is not sufficient for future, large, x-ray observatories, since physical limits on the mirror packing density mean that aperture size becomes prohibitive. To reduce telescope mass and volume the packing density of mirror shells must be reduced, whilst maintaining alignment and rigidity. Structures can also benefit from a modular optic arrangement. Pore optics are shown to meet these requirements. This paper will discuss two pore optic technologies under development, with examples of results from measurement campaigns on samples. One activity has centred on the use of coated, silicon wafers, patterned with ribs, that are integrated onto a mandrel whose form has been polished to the required shape. The wafers follow the shape precisely, forming pore sizes in the sub-mm region. Individual stacks of mirrors can be manufactured without risk to, or dependency on, each other and aligned in a structure from which they can also be removed without hazard. A breadboard is currently being built to demonstrate this technology. A second activity centres on glass pore optics. However an adaptation of micro channel plate technology to form square pores has resulted in a monolithic material that can be slumped into an optic form. Alignment and coating of two such plates produces an x-ray focusing optic. A breadboard 20cm aperture optic is currently being built.

  4. Human nucleoporins promote HIV-1 docking at the nuclear pore, nuclear import and integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Nunzio

    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex (NPC mediates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of macromolecules and is an obligatory point of passage and functional bottleneck in the replication of some viruses. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has evolved the required mechanisms for active nuclear import of its genome through the NPC. However the mechanisms by which the NPC allows or even assists HIV translocation are still unknown. We investigated the involvement of four key nucleoporins in HIV-1 docking, translocation, and integration: Nup358/RanBP2, Nup214/CAN, Nup98 and Nup153. Although all induce defects in infectivity when depleted, only Nup153 actually showed any evidence of participating in HIV-1 translocation through the nuclear pore. We show that Nup358/RanBP2 mediates docking of HIV-1 cores on NPC cytoplasmic filaments by interacting with the cores and that the C-terminus of Nup358/RanBP2 comprising a cyclophilin-homology domain contributes to binding. We also show that Nup214/CAN and Nup98 play no role in HIV-1 nuclear import per se: Nup214/CAN plays an indirect role in infectivity read-outs through its effect on mRNA export, while the reduction of expression of Nup98 shows a slight reduction in proviral integration. Our work shows the involvement of nucleoporins in diverse and functionally separable steps of HIV infection and nuclear import.

  5. The equivalent pore aspect ratio as a tool for pore type prediction in carbonate reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    FOURNIER , François; Pellerin , Matthieu; Villeneuve , Quentin; Teillet , Thomas; Hong , Fei; Poli , Emmanuelle; Borgomano , Jean; Léonide , Philippe; Hairabian , Alex

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The equivalent pore aspect ratios (EPAR) provide a tool to detect pore types by combining P-and S-wave velocities, porosity, bulk density and mineralogical composition of carbonate rocks. The integration of laboratory measurements, well log data and petrographic analysis of 468 carbonate samples from various depositional and diagenetic settings (Lower Cretaceous pre-salt non-marine carbonates from offshore Brazil, Lower Cretaceous shallow-water platform carbonates from...

  6. An instrument to measure differential pore pressures in deep ocean sediments: Pop-Up-Pore-Pressure-Instrument (PUPPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, P.J.; McPhail, S.D.; Packwood, A.R.; Hart, B.

    1985-01-01

    A Pop-Up-Pore-Pressure-Instrument (PUPPI) has been developed to measure differential pore pressures in sediments. The differential pressure is the pressure above or below normal hydrostatic pressure at the depth of the measurement. It is designed to operate in water depths up to 6000 metres for periods of weeks or months, if required, and measures differential pore pressures at depths of up to 3 metres into the sediments with a resolution of 0.05 kPa. It is a free-fall device with a lance which penetrates the sediments. This lance and the ballast weight is disposed when the PUPPI is acoustically released from the sea floor. When combined with permeability and porosity values of deep-sea sediments the pore pressure measurements made using the PUPPI suggest advection velocities as low as 8.8 mm/yr. The mechanical, electrical and acoustic systems are described together with data obtained from both shallow and deep water trials. (author)

  7. Do Surface Porosity and Pore Size Influence Mechanical Properties and Cellular Response to PEEK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstrick, F Brennan; Evans, Nathan T; Stevens, Hazel Y; Gall, Ken; Guldberg, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    in ductility compared with PEEK-IM and demonstrated fatigue strength > 38 MPa at one million cycles. All PEEK-SP groups also supported greater proliferation and cell-mediated mineralization compared with smooth PEEK and Ti6Al4V. The PEEK-SP formulations evaluated in this study maintained favorable mechanical properties that merit further investigation into their use in load-bearing orthopaedic applications and supported greater in vitro osteogenic differentiation compared with smooth PEEK and Ti6Al4V. These results are independent of pore sizes ranging 200 µm to 508 µm. PEEK-SP may provide enhanced osseointegration compared with current implants while maintaining the structural integrity to be considered for several load-bearing orthopaedic applications such as spinal fusion or soft tissue repair.

  8. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  9. Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutourina, Julie

    2018-04-01

    Alterations in the regulation of gene expression are frequently associated with developmental diseases or cancer. Transcription activation is a key phenomenon in the regulation of gene expression. In all eukaryotes, mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription (Mediator), a large complex with modular organization, is generally required for transcription by RNA polymerase II, and it regulates various steps of this process. The main function of Mediator is to transduce signals from the transcription activators bound to enhancer regions to the transcription machinery, which is assembled at promoters as the preinitiation complex (PIC) to control transcription initiation. Recent functional studies of Mediator with the use of structural biology approaches and functional genomics have revealed new insights into Mediator activity and its regulation during transcription initiation, including how Mediator is recruited to transcription regulatory regions and how it interacts and cooperates with PIC components to assist in PIC assembly. Novel roles of Mediator in the control of gene expression have also been revealed by showing its connection to the nuclear pore and linking Mediator to the regulation of gene positioning in the nuclear space. Clear links between Mediator subunits and disease have also encouraged studies to explore targeting of this complex as a potential therapeutic approach in cancer and fungal infections.

  10. The scavenger activity of the human P2X7 receptor differs from P2X7 pore function by insensitivity to antagonists, genetic variation and sodium concentration: Relevance to inflammatory brain diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Amber; Gu, Ben J; Wiley, James S

    2018-04-01

    Activation of P2X7 receptors is widely recognised to initiate proinflammatory responses. However P2X7 also has a dual function as a scavenger receptor which is active in the absence of ATP and plasma proteins and may be important in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Here, we investigated both P2X7 pore formation and its phagocytic function in fresh human monocytes (as a model of microglia) by measuring ATP-induced ethidium dye uptake and fluorescent bead uptake respectively. This was studied in monocytes expressing various polymorphic variants as well as in the presence of different P2X7 antagonists and ionic media. P2X7-mediated phagocytosis was found to account for about half of Latrunculin (or Cytochalasin D)-sensitive bead engulfment by fresh human monocytes. Monocytes harbouring P2X7 Ala348Thr or Glu496Ala polymorphic variants showed increase or loss of ethidium uptake respectively, but these changes in pore formation did not always correspond to the changes in phagocytosis of YG beads. Unlike pore function, P2X7-mediated phagocytosis was not affected by three potent selective P2X7 antagonists and remained identical in Na + and K + media. Taken together, our results show that P2X7 is a scavenger receptor with important function in the CNS but its phagocytic function has features distinct from its pore function. Both P2X7 pore formation and P2X7-mediated phagocytosis should be considered in the design of new P2X7 antagonists for the treatment of CNS diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state, amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1 Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2 There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3 Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  12. Linking admiration and adoration to self-expansion: different ways to enhance one's potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Ines; Paech, Juliane; Löwenbrück, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    How is admiration different from adoration? We provided one answer to this question by examining the pathways through which admiration and adoration linked to self-expansion in a questionnaire and an experimental (autobiographical recall of emotion episodes) study. Both emotions were associated with increased potential efficacy to accomplish goals (i.e., self-expansion), but different action tendencies accounted for these links. While our emotion inductions did not successfully distinguish between admiration and adoration, we could statistically disentangle their effects through mediator models. In both studies, self-reported admiration linked to self-expansion through the tendency to emulate admired others. Adoration related to self-expansion through the tendency to affiliate with adored others. These findings were obtained after controlling for other emotions in response to the target person (awe, love, hope, benign envy) and mutuality of the relationship. Our findings also suggest that considering specific emotions (rather than undifferentiated positive affect) helps uncover different pathways to self-expansion.

  13. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  14. Accurate relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation and the evaporation of nitrogen in cylindrical pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi

    2006-04-25

    To examine the theoretical and semiempirical relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation or evaporation proposed so far, we constructed an accurate relation between the pore radius and the capillary condensation and evaporation pressure of nitrogen at 77 K for the cylindrical pores of the ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. Here, the pore size was determined from a comparison between the experimental and calculated X-ray diffraction patterns due to X-ray structural modeling recently developed. Among the many theoretical relations that differ from each other in the degree of theoretical improvements, a macroscopic thermodynamic approach based on Broekhoff-de Boer equations was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental relation obtained in the present study.

  15. X-ray CT analysis of pore structure in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Miyata, Yoshihisa; Mikami, Kazuaki; Shiota, Erika

    2016-06-01

    The development of microfocused X-ray computed tomography (CT) devices enables digital imaging analysis at the pore scale. The applications of these devices are diverse in soil mechanics, geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, petroleum engineering, and agricultural engineering. In particular, the imaging of the pore space in porous media has contributed to numerical simulations for single-phase and multiphase flows or contaminant transport through the pore structure as three-dimensional image data. These obtained results are affected by the pore diameter; therefore, it is necessary to verify the image preprocessing for the image analysis and to validate the pore diameters obtained from the CT image data. Moreover, it is meaningful to produce the physical parameters in a representative element volume (REV) and significant to define the dimension of the REV. This paper describes the underlying method of image processing and analysis and discusses the physical properties of Toyoura sand for the verification of the image analysis based on the definition of the REV. On the basis of the obtained verification results, a pore-diameter analysis can be conducted and validated by a comparison with the experimental work and image analysis. The pore diameter is deduced from Young-Laplace's law and a water retention test for the drainage process. The results from previous study and perforated-pore diameter originally proposed in this study, called the voxel-percolation method (VPM), are compared in this paper. In addition, the limitations of the REV, the definition of the pore diameter, and the effectiveness of the VPM for an assessment of the pore diameter are discussed.

  16. Pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts from marine sponges versus synthetic lipofection systems: distinct tools for intracellular delivery of cDNA and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaggan, Debra; Adjimatera, Noppadon; Sepcić, Kristina; Jaspars, Marcel; MacEwan, David J; Blagbrough, Ian S; Scott, Roderick H

    2006-01-16

    Haplosclerid marine sponges produce pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS), which can be used to deliver macromolecules into cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the delivery of DNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow into cells mediated by poly-APS and its potential mechanisms as compared with other lipofection systems (lipofectamine and N4,N9-dioleoylspermine (LipoGen)). DNA condensation was evaluated and HEK 293 and HtTA HeLa cells were used to investigate pore formation and intracellular delivery of cDNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow. Poly-APS and LipoGen were both found to be highly efficient DNA condensing agents. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to measure calcium transients indicative of cell membrane pore forming activity. Calcium transients were evoked by poly-APS but not LipoGen and lipofectamine. The increases in intracellular calcium produced by poly-APS showed temperature sensitivity with greater responses being observed at 12 degrees C compared to 21 degrees C. Similarly, delivery of lucifer yellow into cells with poly-APS was enhanced at lower temperatures. Transfection with cDNA encoding for the expression enhanced green fluorescent protein was also evaluated at 12 degrees C with poly-APS, lipofectamine and LipoGen. Intracellular delivery of siRNA was achieved with knockdown in beta-actin expression when lipofectamine and LipoGen were used as transfection reagents. However, intracellular delivery of siRNA was not achieved with poly-APS. Poly-APS mediated pore formation is critical to its activity as a transfection reagent, but lipofection systems utilise distinct mechanisms to enable delivery of DNA and siRNA into cells.

  17. Pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts from marine sponges versus synthetic lipofection systems: distinct tools for intracellular delivery of cDNA and siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagbrough Ian S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haplosclerid marine sponges produce pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS, which can be used to deliver macromolecules into cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the delivery of DNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow into cells mediated by poly-APS and its potential mechanisms as compared with other lipofection systems (lipofectamine and N4,N9-dioleoylspermine (LipoGen. DNA condensation was evaluated and HEK 293 and HtTA HeLa cells were used to investigate pore formation and intracellular delivery of cDNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow. Results Poly-APS and LipoGen were both found to be highly efficient DNA condensing agents. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to measure calcium transients indicative of cell membrane pore forming activity. Calcium transients were evoked by poly-APS but not LipoGen and lipofectamine. The increases in intracellular calcium produced by poly-APS showed temperature sensitivity with greater responses being observed at 12°C compared to 21°C. Similarly, delivery of lucifer yellow into cells with poly-APS was enhanced at lower temperatures. Transfection with cDNA encoding for the expression enhanced green fluorescent protein was also evaluated at 12°C with poly-APS, lipofectamine and LipoGen. Intracellular delivery of siRNA was achieved with knockdown in beta-actin expression when lipofectamine and LipoGen were used as transfection reagents. However, intracellular delivery of siRNA was not achieved with poly-APS. Conclusion Poly-APS mediated pore formation is critical to its activity as a transfection reagent, but lipofection systems utilise distinct mechanisms to enable delivery of DNA and siRNA into cells.

  18. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Son; Tabarin, Thibault; Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna; Rossy, Jérémie; Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex; Böcking, Till; Leis, Andrew; Gaus, Katharina; Mak, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  19. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Son [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Tabarin, Thibault [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Rossy, Jérémie [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Böcking, Till [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Leis, Andrew [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Gaus, Katharina, E-mail: k.gaus@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Mak, Johnson, E-mail: j.mak@deakin.edu.au [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  20. Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene-Based Adsorbents Reduce Endothelial Activation and Monocyte Adhesion Under Septic Conditions in a Pore Size-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Tanja; Rauscher, Sabine; Hammer, Caroline; Gröger, Marion; Fischer, Michael B; Weber, Viktoria

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial activation with excessive recruitment and adhesion of immune cells plays a central role in the progression of sepsis. We established a microfluidic system to study the activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by conditioned medium containing plasma from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood or from septic blood and to investigate the effect of adsorption of inflammatory mediators on endothelial activation. Treatment of stimulated whole blood with polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based cytokine adsorbents (average pore sizes 15 or 30 nm) prior to passage over the endothelial layer resulted in significantly reduced endothelial cytokine and chemokine release, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 secretion, adhesion molecule expression, and in diminished monocyte adhesion. Plasma samples from sepsis patients differed substantially in their potential to induce endothelial activation and monocyte adhesion despite their almost identical interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Pre-incubation of the plasma samples with a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based adsorbent (30 nm average pore size) reduced endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression to baseline levels, resulting in significantly diminished monocyte adhesion. Our data support the potential of porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based adsorbents to reduce endothelial activation under septic conditions by depletion of a broad range of inflammatory mediators.

  1. Gas transport and subsoil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Arrangements of elementary soil particles during soil deposition and subsequent biological and physical processes in long-term pedogenesis are expected to lead to anisotropy of the non-tilled subsoil pore system. Soil compaction by agricultural machinery is known to affect soil pore characteristics...... were sampled in vertical and horizontal directions from 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m depth (the two lower depths only in Sweden). In the laboratory, water retention, air permeability (ka) and gas diffusivity (Ds/D0) were determined. For the sandy clay loam, morphological characteristics of pores (effective......). In the sandy clay loam soil, dB and nB displayed significant anisotropy (FAcharacteristics because of its origin...

  2. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies.

  3. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  4. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca 2+ -mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1

  5. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  6. Protein crystal nucleation in pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanev, Christo N; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Chayen, Naomi E

    2017-01-16

    The most powerful method for protein structure determination is X-ray crystallography which relies on the availability of high quality crystals. Obtaining protein crystals is a major bottleneck, and inducing their nucleation is of crucial importance in this field. An effective method to form crystals is to introduce nucleation-inducing heterologous materials into the crystallization solution. Porous materials are exceptionally effective at inducing nucleation. It is shown here that a combined diffusion-adsorption effect can increase protein concentration inside pores, which enables crystal nucleation even under conditions where heterogeneous nucleation on flat surfaces is absent. Provided the pore is sufficiently narrow, protein molecules approach its walls and adsorb more frequently than they can escape. The decrease in the nucleation energy barrier is calculated, exhibiting its quantitative dependence on the confinement space and the energy of interaction with the pore walls. These results provide a detailed explanation of the effectiveness of porous materials for nucleation of protein crystals, and will be useful for optimal design of such materials.

  7. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  8. Evaluation of Colloid Retention Site Dominance in Variably Saturated Porous Media: An All Pores Pore-Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Veronica; Perez-Reche, Francisco; Holzner, Markus; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    It is well accepted that colloid and nanoparticle transport processes in porous media differ substantially between water saturated and unsaturated conditions. Differences are frequently ascribed to particle immobilization by association with interfaces with the gas, as well as to restrictions of the liquid medium through which colloids are transported. Yet, the current understanding of the importance of particle retention at gas interfaces is based on observations of single pores or two-dimensional pore network representations, leaving open the question of their statistical significance when all pores in the medium are considered. In order to address this question, column experiments were performed using a model porous medium of glass beads through which Silver particles were transported for conditions of varying water content and water chemistry. X-ray microtomography was subsequently employed as a non-destructive imaging technique to obtain pore-scale information of the entire column regarding: i) the presence and distribution of the main locations where colloids can become retained (interfaces with the water-solid, air-water, air-solid, and air-water-solid, grain-grain contacts, and the bulk liquid), ii) deposition profiles of colloids along the column classified by the available retention location, and iii) channel widths of 3-dimensional pore-water network representations. The results presented provide a direct statistical evaluation on the significance of colloid retention by attachment to interfaces or by strainig at contact points where multiple interfaces meet.

  9. HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE BASED NANOCOMPOSITE HYDROGELS WITH TUNABLE PORE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA based hydrogels have found increasing number of applications in areas such as chromatographic separations, controlled drug release, biosensing, and membrane separations. In all these applications, the pore size and pore interconnectivity are crucial for successful application of these materials as they determine the rate of diffusion through the matrix. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate is a water soluble monomer but its polymer, polyHEMA, is not soluble in water. Therefore, during polymerization of HEMA in aqueous media, a porous structure is obtained as a result of phase separation. Pore size and interconnectivity in these hydrogels is a function of several variables such as monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, temperature etc. In this study, we investigated the effect of monomer concentration, graphene oxide addition or clay addition on hydrogel pore size, pore interconnectivity, water uptake, and thermal properties. PolyHEMA hydrogels have been prepared by redox initiated free radical polymerization of the monomer using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. As a nanofiller, a synthetic hectorite Laponite® XLG and graphene oxide were used. Graphene oxide was prepared by the Tour Method. Pore morphology of the pristine HEMA based hydrogels and nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The formed hydrogels were found to be highly elastic and flexible. A dramatic change in the pore structure and size was observed in the range between 22 to 24 wt/vol monomer at 0.5 % of cross-linker. In this range, the hydrogel morphology changes from typical cauliflower architecture to continuous hydrogel with dispersed water droplets forming the pores where the pores are submicron in size and show an interconnected structure. Such controlled pore structure is highly important when these hydrogels are used for solute diffusion or when there’s flow through monolithic hydrogels

  10. Mitochondrial cyclophilin-D as a critical mediator of ischaemic preconditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hausenloy, Derek J.; Lim, Shiang Y.; Ong, Sang-Ging; Davidson, Sean M.; Yellon, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims It has been suggested that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), Akt and Erk1/2 and more recently the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) may act as mediators of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), although the actual interplay between these mediators is unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the cyclophilin-D (CYPD) component of the mPTP is required by IPC to generate mitochondrial ROS and subsequently activate Akt and Erk1/2. Methods and results...

  11. pH controlled gating of toxic protein pores by dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kanchi, Subbarao; Ayappa, K. G.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2016-06-01

    Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent bacterial strains, on a target cell membrane is a challenging and active area of research. Here we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can act as effective pH controlled gating devices once the pore has been formed. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the cytolysin A (ClyA) protein pores modified with fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimers. Our results show that the PAMAM dendrimer, in either its protonated (P) or non-protonated (NP) states can spontaneously enter the protein lumen. Protonated dendrimers interact strongly with the negatively charged protein pore lumen. As a consequence, P dendrimers assume a more expanded configuration efficiently blocking the pore when compared with the more compact configuration adopted by the neutral NP dendrimers creating a greater void space for the passage of water and ions. To quantify the effective blockage of the protein pore, we have calculated the pore conductance as well as the residence times by applying a weak force on the ions/water. Ionic currents are reduced by 91% for the P dendrimers and 31% for the NP dendrimers. The preferential binding of Cl- counter ions to the P dendrimer creates a zone of high Cl- concentration in the vicinity of the internalized dendrimer and a high concentration of K+ ions in the transmembrane region of the pore lumen. In addition to steric effects, this induced charge segregation for the P dendrimer effectively blocks ionic transport through the pore. Our investigation shows that the bio-compatible PAMAM dendrimers can potentially be used to develop therapeutic protocols based on the pH sensitive gating of pores formed by pore forming toxins to mitigate bacterial infections.Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent

  12. Effects of current density and electrolyte temperature on the volume expansion factor of anodic alumina formed in oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F.; Baron-Wiecheć, A.; Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Curioni, M.; Habazaki, H.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic alumina in 0.4 M oxalic acid is investigated over a range of current density and electrolyte temperature using sputtering-deposited substrates containing tungsten tracer layers. The findings reveal volume expansion factors and efficiencies of film growth that increase with the increase of the current density and decrease of the temperature. Pore generation by the flow of the anodic alumina in the barrier layer toward the pore walls is proposed to dominate at relatively high current densities (above ∼2 mA cm −2 ), with tungsten tracer species being retained within films. Conversely, losses of tungsten species occur at lower current densities, possibly due to increased field-assisted ejection of Al 3+ ions and/or field-assisted dissolution of the anodic alumina.

  13. Tailoring particle translocation via dielectrophoresis in pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Tsutsui, Makusu; Theodore, Hu; Yuhui, He; Arima, Akihide; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling electrophoretic motions of nanoscopic objects in fluidic channels are a central challenge in developing nanopore technology for molecular analyses. Although progress has been made in slowing the translocation velocity to meet the requirement for electrical detections of analytes via picoampere current measurements, there exists no method useful for regulating particle flows in the transverse directions. Here, we report the use of dielectrophoresis to manipulate the single-particle passage through a solid-state pore. We created a trap field by applying AC voltage between electrodes embedded in a low-aspect-ratio micropore. We demonstrated a traffic control of particles to go through center or near side surface via the voltage frequency. We also found enhanced capture efficiency along with faster escaping speed of particles by virtue of the AC-mediated electroosmosis. This method is compatible with nanopore sensing and would be widely applied for reducing off-axis effects to achieve single-molecule identification. PMID:27527126

  14. The pore space scramble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  15. Preparation of micro-pored silicone elastomer through radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoling; Gu Mei; Xie Xubing; Huang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking was adopted to prepare the micro-pored silicone elastomer, which was performed by vulcanization and foaming respectively. Radiation crosslinking is a new method to prepare micro-pored material with high performance by use of radiation technology. Silicon dioxide was used as filler, and silicone elastomer was vulcanized by electron beams, then the micro-pored material was made by heating method at a high temperature. The effects of absorbed dose and filler content on the performance and morphology were investigated. The structure and distribution of pores were observed by SEM. The results show that the micro-pored silicon elastomer can be prepared successfully by controlling the absorbed dose and filler content. It has a smooth surface similar to a rubber meanwhile the pores are round and unconnected to each other with the minimum size of 14 μm. And the good mechanical performance can be suitable for further uses. (authors)

  16. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias C.; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  17. Novel Techniques to Characterize Pore Size of Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulghani, Ali J.

    2016-01-01

    Porous materials are implemented in several industrial applications such as water desalination, gas separation and pharmaceutical care which they are mainly governed by the pore size and the PSD. Analyzing shale reservoirs are not excluded from these applications and numerous advantages can be gained by evaluating the PSD of a given shale reservoir. Because of the limitations of the conventional characterization techniques, novel methods for characterizing the PSD have to be proposed in order to obtain better characterization results for the porous materials, in general, and shale rocks in particular. Thus, permporosimetry and evapoporometry (EP) technologies were introduced, designed and utilized for evaluating the two key parameters, pore size and pore size distribution. The pore size and PSD profiles of different shale samples from Norway and Argentina were analyzed using these technologies and then confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP). Norway samples showed an average pore diameter of 12.94 nm and 19.22 nm with an average diameter of 13.77 nm and 23.23 nm for Argentina samples using permporosimetry and EP respectively. Both techniques are therefore indicative of the heterogeneity of the shales. The results from permporosimetry are in good agreement with those obtained from MIP technique, but EP for most part over-estimates the average pore size. The divergence of EP results compared to permporosimetry results is referred to the fact that the latter technique measures only the active pores which is not the case with the former technique. Overall, both techniques are complementary to each other which the results from both techniques seem reasonable and reliable and provide two simple techniques to estimate the pore size and pore size distributions for shale rocks.

  18. Novel Techniques to Characterize Pore Size of Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulghani, Ali J.

    2016-04-24

    Porous materials are implemented in several industrial applications such as water desalination, gas separation and pharmaceutical care which they are mainly governed by the pore size and the PSD. Analyzing shale reservoirs are not excluded from these applications and numerous advantages can be gained by evaluating the PSD of a given shale reservoir. Because of the limitations of the conventional characterization techniques, novel methods for characterizing the PSD have to be proposed in order to obtain better characterization results for the porous materials, in general, and shale rocks in particular. Thus, permporosimetry and evapoporometry (EP) technologies were introduced, designed and utilized for evaluating the two key parameters, pore size and pore size distribution. The pore size and PSD profiles of different shale samples from Norway and Argentina were analyzed using these technologies and then confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP). Norway samples showed an average pore diameter of 12.94 nm and 19.22 nm with an average diameter of 13.77 nm and 23.23 nm for Argentina samples using permporosimetry and EP respectively. Both techniques are therefore indicative of the heterogeneity of the shales. The results from permporosimetry are in good agreement with those obtained from MIP technique, but EP for most part over-estimates the average pore size. The divergence of EP results compared to permporosimetry results is referred to the fact that the latter technique measures only the active pores which is not the case with the former technique. Overall, both techniques are complementary to each other which the results from both techniques seem reasonable and reliable and provide two simple techniques to estimate the pore size and pore size distributions for shale rocks.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  20. Estimation of pore pressure from seismic velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Zayra; Ojeda, German Y; Mateus, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    On pore pressure calculations it is common to obtain a profile in a well bore, which is then extrapolated toward offset wells. This practice might generate mistakes on pore pressure measurements, since geological conditions may change from a well bore to another, even into the same basin. Therefore, it is important to use other tools which allow engineers not only to detect and estimate in an indirect way overpressure zones, but also to keep a lateral tracking of possible changes that may affect those values in the different formations. Taking into account this situation, we applied a methodology that estimates formation pressure from 3D seismic velocities by using the Eaton method. First, we estimated formation pore pressure; then, we identified possible overpressure zones. Finally, those results obtained from seismic information were analyzed involving well logs and pore pressure tests, in order to compare real data with prediction based on seismic information from the Colombian foothill.

  1. The effect of keratinocytes on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin using deep dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Mathew; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2014-12-01

    Fibrosis affects most organs, it results in replacement of normal parenchymal tissue with collagen-rich extracellular matrix, which compromises tissue architecture and ultimately causes loss of function of the affected organ. Biochemical pathways that contribute to fibrosis have been extensively studied, but the role of biomechanical signaling in fibrosis is not clearly understood. In this study, we assessed the effect keratinocytes have on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin made with superficial or deep dermal fibroblasts in order to determine any biomaterial-mediated anti-fibrotic influences on tissue engineered skin. Tissue engineered skin with deep dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were found to be less stiff and contracted and had reduced number of myofibroblasts and lower expression of matrix crosslinking factors compared to matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. However, there were no such differences between tissue engineered skin with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes and matrices with superficial fibroblasts alone. Also, tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes had smaller pores compared to those with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes; pore size of tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes were not different from those matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. A better understanding of biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin may prove beneficial in promoting normal wound healing over pathologic healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. X-ray microtomography application in pore space reservoir rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M F S; Lima, I; Borghi, L; Lopes, R T

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of porosity in carbonate rocks is important in the oil and gas industry since a major hydrocarbons field is formed by this lithology and they have a complex media porous. In this context, this research presents a study of the pore space in limestones rocks by x-ray microtomography. Total porosity, type of porosity and pore size distribution were evaluated from 3D high resolution images. Results show that carbonate rocks has a complex pore space system with different pores types at the same facies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impedance nanopore biosensor: influence of pore dimensions on biosensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Yu, Jingxian; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about electrochemical and electrical properties of nanopore structures and the influence of pore dimensions on these properties is important for the development of nanopore biosensing devices. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nanopore dimensions (diameter and length) on biosensing performance using non-faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs) prepared by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of aluminium were used as model nanopore sensing platforms. NPAMs with different pore diameters (25-65 nm) and lengths (4-18 μm) were prepared and the internal pore surface chemistry was modified by covalently attaching streptavidin and biotin. The performance of this antibody nanopore biosensing platform was evaluated using various concentrations of biotin as a model analyte. EIS measurements of pore resistivity and conductivity were carried out for pores with different diameters and lengths. The results showed that smaller pore dimensions of 25 nm and pore lengths up to 10 μm provide better biosensing performance.

  4. A mathematical study of the influence of pore geometry on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, T.W.; Skeet, A.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusion into the pore space of plutonic rock matrices is an important phenomenon that can affect the migration of radionuclides and other contaminants in groundwater systems. The effects of irregular pore geometry on rates of diffusive transport are examined in this report. Approximate equations describing steady-state diffusive transport in pores of variable geometry are presented and indicate a strong dependence of the diffusion rates on the geometry of the pore space. Finite-element diffusion calculations were carried out for a series of pores containing storage spaces with rectangular cross-sections. The calculations showed the time taken to reach steady-state is affected by the pore geometry. The results of these calculations were used to simulate typical laboratory diffusion experiments and to evaluate the interpretation of effective diffusion parameters obtained from analysis of the simulated experiments using both capillary and dead-end pore models of the pore space. A capillary model of the pore space requires two independent parameters to characterize the pore space, and is shown, in general, to be inadequate to describe the pre-steady-state regime. The diffusion of radionuclides in groundwater systems lies in this non-steady-state regime. More complex mathematical descriptions of the pore space, using more variables and parameters, can accurately describe the non-steady-state transport. The capillary model, with effective parameter values, gives reasonable results when the size of the dead-end pore space is small relative to the overall diffusion distance under consideration

  5. Micro/Nano-pore Network Analysis of Gas Flow in Shale Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N; Gao, Shengyan

    2015-08-27

    The gas flow in shale matrix is of great research interests for optimized shale gas extraction. The gas flow in the nano-scale pore may fall in flow regimes such as viscous flow, slip flow and Knudsen diffusion. A 3-dimensional nano-scale pore network model was developed to simulate dynamic gas flow, and to describe the transient properties of flow regimes. The proposed pore network model accounts for the various size distributions and low connectivity of shale pores. The pore size, pore throat size and coordination number obey normal distribution, and the average values can be obtained from shale reservoir data. The gas flow regimes were simulated using an extracted pore network backbone. The numerical results show that apparent permeability is strongly dependent on pore pressure in the reservoir and pore throat size, which is overestimated by low-pressure laboratory tests. With the decrease of reservoir pressure, viscous flow is weakening, then slip flow and Knudsen diffusion are gradually becoming dominant flow regimes. The fingering phenomenon can be predicted by micro/nano-pore network for gas flow, which provides an effective way to capture heterogeneity of shale gas reservoir.

  6. Integrating complex functions: coordination of nuclear pore complex assembly and membrane expansion of the nuclear envelope requires a family of integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, Roger; Cole, Charles N

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope harbors numerous large proteinaceous channels, the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), through which macromolecular exchange between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm occurs. This double-membrane nuclear envelope is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and thus functionally connected to such diverse processes as vesicular transport, protein maturation and lipid synthesis. Recent results obtained from studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that assembly of the nuclear pore complex is functionally dependent upon maintenance of lipid homeostasis of the ER membrane. Previous work from one of our laboratories has revealed that an integral membrane protein Apq12 is important for the assembly of functional nuclear pores. Cells lacking APQ12 are viable but cannot grow at low temperatures, have aberrant NPCs and a defect in mRNA export. Remarkably, these defects in NPC assembly can be overcome by supplementing cells with a membrane fluidizing agent, benzyl alcohol, suggesting that Apq12 impacts the flexibility of the nuclear membrane, possibly by adjusting its lipid composition when cells are shifted to a reduced temperature. Our new study now expands these findings and reveals that an essential membrane protein, Brr6, shares at least partially overlapping functions with Apq12 and is also required for assembly of functional NPCs. A third nuclear envelope membrane protein, Brl1, is related to Brr6, and is also required for NPC assembly. Because maintenance of membrane homeostasis is essential for cellular survival, the fact that these three proteins are conserved in fungi that undergo closed mitoses, but are not found in metazoans or plants, may indicate that their functions are performed by proteins unrelated at the primary sequence level to Brr6, Brl1 and Apq12 in cells that disassemble their nuclear envelopes during mitosis.

  7. Silver Nanoparticle Transport Through Soil: Illuminating the Pore-Scale Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I. L.; Willson, C. S.; Gerhard, J.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    For nanoparticle transport through soil, the pore-scale (i.e., tens to hundreds of grains and pores) is a crucial intermediate scale which links nanoparticle-surface interactions with field-scale transport behaviour. However, very little information exists on how nanoparticles behave within real three-dimensional pore spaces. As a result, pore-scale processes are poorly characterized for nanoparticle systems and, subsequently, continuum-scale transport models struggle to describe commonly observed 'anomalous' behaviour such as extended tailing. This knowledge gap is due to two primary factors: an inability to experimentally observe nanoparticles within real pore spaces, and the computationally expensive models required to simulate nanoparticle movement. However, due to recent advances in Synchrotron X-Ray Computed Microtomography (SXCMT), it is now possible to quantify in-situ pore-scale nanoparticle concentrations during transport through real 3-dimensional porous media [1]. Employing this SXCMT quantification method to examine real nanoparticle/soil transport experiments has yielded new insights into the pore-scale processes governing nanoparticle transport. By coupling SXCMT nanoparticle quantification method with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations we are able to construct a better picture of how nanoparticles flow through real pore spaces. This talk presents SXCMT/CFD analyses of three silver nanoparticle transport experiments. Silver nanoparticles were flushed through three different sands to characterize the influence of grain distribution and retention rates on pore-scale flow and transport processes. These CFD/SXCMT analyses illuminate how processes such as temporary hydraulic retention govern nanoparticle transport. In addition, the observed distributions of pore water velocities and nanoparticle mass flow rates challenge the standard conceptual model of nanoparticle transport, suggesting that pore-scale processes require explicit consideration

  8. Atomistic Insight on the Charging Energetics in Sub-nanometer Pore Supercacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University

    2010-01-01

    Electrodes featuring sub-nanometer pores can significantly enhance the capacitance and energy density of supercapacitors. However, ions must pay an energy penalty to enter sub-nanometer pores as they have to shed part of their solvation shell. The magnitude of such energy penalty plays a key role in determining the accessibility and charging/discharging of these sub-nanometer pores. Here we report on the atomistic simulation of Na+ and Cl ions entering a polarizable slit pore with a width of 0.82 nm. We show that the free energy penalty for these ions to enter the pore is less than 14 kJ/mol for both Na+ and Cl ions. The surprisingly small energy penalty is caused by the van der Waals attractions between ion and pore walls, the image charge effects, the moderate (19-26%) de-hydration of the ions inside the pore, and the strengthened interactions between ions and their hydration water molecules in the sub-nanometer pore. The results provide strong impetus for further developing nanoporous electrodes featuring sub- nanometer pores.

  9. Pore growth in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jeong, G.Y.; Sohn, D.-S. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jamison, L.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel is currently under development in the DOE’s Material Management and Minimization program to convert HEU-fueled research reactors to LEU-fueled reactors. In some demanding conditions in high-power and high-performance reactors, large pores form in the interaction layers between the U-Mo fuel particles and the Al matrix, which pose a potential to cause fuel failure. In this study, comprehension of the formation and growth of these pores was explored. As a product, a model to predict pore growth and porosity increase was developed. The model includes three major topics: fission gas release from the U-Mo and the IL to the pores, stress evolution in the fuel meat, and the effect of amorphous IL growth. Well-characterized in-pile data from reduced-size plates were used to fit the model parameters. A data set from full-sized plates, independent and distinctively different from those used to fit the model parameters, was used to examine the accuracy of the model. The model showed fair agreement with the measured data. The model suggested that the growth of the IL has a critical effect on pore growth, as both its material properties and energetics are favorable to pore formation. Therefore, one area of the current effort, focused on suppressing IL growth, appears to be on the right track to improve the performance of this fuel.

  10. Pore opening dynamics in the exocytosis of serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Cercos, Montserrat G.; Martinez-Valencia, Alejandro; Salinas Hernandez, Israel; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo; de-Miguel, Francisco F.

    2015-03-01

    The current view of the exocytosis of transmitter molecules is that it starts with the formation of a fusion pore that connects the intravesicular and the extracellular spaces, and is completed by the release of the rest of the transmitter contained in the vesicle upon the full fusion and collapse of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. However, under certain circumstances, a rapid closure of the pore before the full vesicle fusion produces only a partial release of the transmitter. Here we show that whole release of the transmitter occurs through fusion pores that remain opened for tens of milliseconds without vesicle collapse. This was demonstrated through amperometric measurements of serotonin release from electrodense vesicles in the axon of leech Retzius neurons and mathematical modelling. By modeling transmitter release with a diffusion equation subjected to boundary conditions that are defined by the experiment, we showed that those pores with a fast half rise time constant remained opened and allowed the full quantum release without vesicle collapse, whereas pores with a slow rise time constant closed rapidly, thus producing partial release. We conclude that a full transmitter release may occur through the fusion pore in the absence of vesicle collapse. This work was founded by a DGAPA-UNAM grants IN200914 and IN118410 CONACYT GRANT 130031, and CONACyT doctoral fellowships.

  11. Moving Magnetic Features Around a Pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaithakkal, A. J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Lagg, A.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; VanNoort, M. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, Göttingen D-37077 (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: anjali@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations from Sunrise/IMaX, obtained in 2013 June, are used for a statistical analysis to determine the physical properties of moving magnetic features (MMFs) observed near a pore. MMFs of the same and opposite polarity, with respect to the pore, are found to stream from its border at an average speed of 1.3 km s{sup −1} and 1.2 km s{sup −1}, respectively, with mainly same-polarity MMFs found further away from the pore. MMFs of both polarities are found to harbor rather weak, inclined magnetic fields. Opposite-polarity MMFs are blueshifted, whereas same-polarity MMFs do not show any preference for up- or downflows. Most of the MMFs are found to be of sub-arcsecond size and carry a mean flux of ∼1.2 × 10{sup 17} Mx.

  12. X-ray microtomography application in pore space reservoir rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.F.S.; Lima, I. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borghi, L. [Geology Department, Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Characterization of porosity in carbonate rocks is important in the oil and gas industry since a major hydrocarbons field is formed by this lithology and they have a complex media porous. In this context, this research presents a study of the pore space in limestones rocks by x-ray microtomography. Total porosity, type of porosity and pore size distribution were evaluated from 3D high resolution images. Results show that carbonate rocks has a complex pore space system with different pores types at the same facies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is about porosity parameter in carbonate rocks by 3D X-Ray Microtomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has become useful as data input for modeling reservoir characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique was able to provide pores, grains and mineralogical differences among the samples.

  13. IL-2-Mediated In Vivo Expansion of Regulatory T Cells Combined with CD154–CD40 Co-Stimulation Blockade but Not CTLA-4 Ig Prolongs Allograft Survival in Naive and Sensitized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dela Golshayan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, regulatory T cells (Treg-based immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy to promote operational tolerance after solid organ transplantation (SOT. However, a main hurdle for the therapeutic use of Treg in transplantation is their low frequency, particularly in non-lymphopenic hosts. We aimed to expand Treg directly in vivo and determine their efficacy in promoting donor-specific tolerance, using a stringent experimental model. Administration of the IL-2/JES6-1 immune complex at the time of transplantation resulted in significant expansion of donor-specific Treg, which suppressed alloreactive T cells. IL-2-mediated Treg expansion in combination with short-term CD154–CD40 co-stimulation blockade, but not CTLA-4 Ig or rapamycin, led to tolerance to MHC-mismatched skin grafts in non-lymphopenic mice, mainly by hindering alloreactive CD8+ effector T cells and the production of alloantibodies. Importantly, this treatment also allowed prolonged survival of allografts in the presence of either donor-specific or cross-reactive memory cells. However, late rejection occurred in sensitized hosts, partly mediated by activated B cells. Overall, these data illustrate the potential but also some important limitations of Treg-based therapy in clinical SOT as well as the importance of concomitant immunomodulatory strategies in particular in sensitized hosts.

  14. Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase Fluid Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.

    2010-10-19

    Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the fluids. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed fluid distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-phase flows.

  15. Pore-Fractal Structure in Porous Carbons Made from Corn and Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Y. M.; Schmidt, P. W.; Rice, Randall D.; Shulse, Laural; Voss, D. J.; Venkatraman, A.; Fan, L. T.; Walawender, W. P.; Rieker, T. P.

    1998-03-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering has been used in a study of the pore structure of some porous and activated carbons on length scales between about 5 and 10^4 ÅThe carbons were obtained by pyrolysis and activation of wheat and American corn (maize). The scattering data showed that in each carbon there are at least two of the following four types of pores: (1) pores with diameters of at least 10^4 Åpores with smooth or fractal surfaces and diameters of at least 5 x 10^3 Åpore-fractals with diameters of no more than about 10^3 Åand (4) pores with diameters no larger than 100 ÅThe relation between the pore structure and the procedure used to obtain the carbon and will be discussed.

  16. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  17. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F; Carlson, Kimberly M; Fagan, Matthew E; DeFries, Ruth S; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H; Macedo, Marcia N; Curran, Lisa M; Dyer, George A; Gibbs, Holly K; Morton, Douglas C; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  18. Monte-Carlo simulation of crystallographical pore growth in III-V-semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisner, Malte; Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The growth of crystallographical pores in III-V-semiconductors can be understood in the framework of a simple model, which is based on the assumption that the branching of pores is proportional to the current density at the pore tips. The stochastic nature of this model allows its implementation into a three-dimensional Monte-Carlo-simulation of pore growth. The simulation is able to reproduce the experimentally observed crysto pore structures in III-V-semiconductors in full quantitative detail. The different branching probabilities for different semiconductors, as well as doping levels, can be deduced from the specific passivation behavior of the semiconductor-electrolyte-interface at the pore tips.

  19. Long-pore Electrostatics in Inward-rectifier Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janice L.; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels differ from the canonical K+ channel structure in that they possess a long extended pore (∼85 Å) for ion conduction that reaches deeply into the cytoplasm. This unique structural feature is presumably involved in regulating functional properties specific to Kir channels, such as conductance, rectification block, and ligand-dependent gating. To elucidate the underpinnings of these functional roles, we examine the electrostatics of an ion along this extended pore. Homology models are constructed based on the open-state model of KirBac1.1 for four mammalian Kir channels: Kir1.1/ROMK, Kir2.1/IRK, Kir3.1/GIRK, and Kir6.2/KATP. By solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the electrostatic free energy of a K+ ion is determined along each pore, revealing that mammalian Kir channels provide a favorable environment for cations and suggesting the existence of high-density regions in the cytoplasmic domain and cavity. The contribution from the reaction field (the self-energy arising from the dielectric polarization induced by the ion's charge in the complex geometry of the pore) is unfavorable inside the long pore. However, this is well compensated by the electrostatic interaction with the static field arising from the protein charges and shielded by the dielectric surrounding. Decomposition of the static field provides a list of residues that display remarkable correspondence with existing mutagenesis data identifying amino acids that affect conduction and rectification. Many of these residues demonstrate interactions with the ion over long distances, up to 40 Å, suggesting that mutations potentially affect ion or blocker energetics over the entire pore. These results provide a foundation for understanding ion interactions in Kir channels and extend to the study of ion permeation, block, and gating in long, cation-specific pores. PMID:19001143

  20. Impact of Pore-Scale Wettability on Rhizosphere Rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Benard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of water flow through a thin layer of soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, where high microbial activity takes place—an important hydrological and biological hotspot. The rhizosphere was shown to turn water repellent upon drying, which has been interpreted as the effect of mucilage secreted by roots. The effects of such rhizosphere water dynamics on plant and microbial activity are unclear. Furthermore, our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms controlling the rhizosphere water repellency remains largely speculative. Our hypothesis is that the key to describe the emergence of water repellency lies within the microscopic distribution of wettability on the pore-scale. At a critical mucilage content, a sufficient fraction of pores is blocked and the rhizosphere turns water repellent. Here we tested whether a percolation approach is capable to predict the flow behavior near the critical mucilage content. The wettability of glass beads and sand mixed with chia seed mucilage was quantified by measuring the infiltration rate of water drops. Drop infiltration was simulated using a simple pore-network model in which mucilage was distributed heterogeneously throughout the pore space with a preference for small pores. The model approach proved capable to capture the percolation nature of the process, the sudden transition from wettable to water repellent and the high variability in infiltration rates near the percolation threshold. Our study highlights the importance of pore-scale distribution of mucilage in the emergent flow behavior across the rhizosphere.

  1. Software Image J to study soil pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Passoni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the soil science, a direct method that allows the study of soil pore distribution is the bi-dimensional (2D digital image analysis. Such technique provides quantitative results of soil pore shape, number and size. The use of specific softwares for the treatment and processing of images allows a fast and efficient method to quantify the soil porous system. However, due to the high cost of commercial softwares, public ones can be an interesting alternative for soil structure analysis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of data provided by the Image J software (public domain used to characterize the voids of two soils, characterized as Geric Ferralsol and Rhodic Ferralsol, from the southeast region of Brazil. The pore distribution analysis technique from impregnated soil blocks was utilized for this purpose. The 2D image acquisition was carried out by using a CCD camera coupled to a conventional optical microscope. After acquisition and treatment of images, they were processed and analyzed by the software Noesis Visilog 5.4® (chosen as the reference program and ImageJ. The parameters chosen to characterize the soil voids were: shape, number and pore size distribution. For both soils, the results obtained for the image total porosity (%, the total number of pores and the pore size distribution showed that the Image J is a suitable software to be applied in the characterization of the soil sample voids impregnated with resin.

  2. Analysis of pore pressure response of Callovo Oxfordian clay-stone to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobmann, M.; Polster, M.; Li, S.; Schlegel, R.; Will, J.; Vymlatil, P.; Conil, N.

    2012-01-01

    assigned process-level code ANSYS (Figure 2). As a result of this analysis, a best design of a parameter set can be defined based on the minimal Euclidian distance between the measured and calculated values. The constitutive models applied consider anisotropic THM behavior (e.g. thermal and hydraulic conductivity) of the rock and the hydraulic parameters are dependent on rock stress and plastic strain. The initial values for the THM input parameters have been taken from laboratory investigations on drill core samples as well as from former in-situ experiments at the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL. As a first step, an automatic sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most significant thermal hydraulic and mechanical parameters that have the greatest impact on the modelling results regarding the pore water pressure development. Focussing on these parameters, a further calibration of the model was performed by fitting the measured and calculated values which resulted in a 'best design' parameter set. The analysis covers both, the excavation induced pore water pressure change due to stress redistribution and damage and the pore pressure change due to the heating and thermal expansion of the pore water and the clay matrix. The paper will present the methodology and the analysis results obtained in detail. (authors)

  3. The effect of scaffold pore size in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Michele M; Draghi, Lorenza; Giordano, Carmen; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2016-07-26

    The effect of scaffold pore size and interconnectivity is undoubtedly a crucial factor for most tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pore size and porosity on cartilage construct development in different scaffolds seeded with articular chondrocytes. We fabricated poly-L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate scaffolds with different pore sizes, using a solvent-casting/particulate-leaching technique. We seeded primary bovine articular chondrocytes on these scaffolds, cultured the constructs for 2 weeks and examined cell proliferation, viability and cell-specific production of cartilaginous extracellular matrix proteins, including GAG and collagen. Cell density significantly increased up to 50% with scaffold pore size and porosity, likely facilitated by cell spreading on the internal surface of bigger pores, and by increased mass transport of gases and nutrients to cells, and catabolite removal from cells, allowed by lower diffusion barriers in scaffolds with a higher porosity. However, both the cell metabolic activity and the synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins significantly decreased by up to 40% with pore size. We propose that the association of smaller pore diameters, causing 3-dimensional cell aggregation, to a lower oxygenation caused by a lower porosity, could have been the condition that increased the cell-specific synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins in the scaffold with the smallest pores and the lowest porosity among those tested. In the initial steps of in vitro cartilage engineering, the combination of small scaffold pores and low porosity is an effective strategy with regard to the promotion of chondrogenesis.

  4. YaxAB, a Yersinia enterocolitica Pore-Forming Toxin Regulated by RovA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nikki J.; Lin, Carolina P.; Borst, Luke B.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator RovA positively regulates transcription of the Yersinia enterocolitica virulence gene inv. Invasin, encoded by inv, is important for establishment of Y. enterocolitica infection. However, a rovA mutant is more attenuated for virulence than an inv mutant, implying that RovA regulates additional virulence genes. When the Y. enterocolitica RovA regulon was defined by microarray analysis, YE1984 and YE1985 were among the genes identified as being upregulated by RovA. Since these genes are homologous to Xenorhabdus nematophila cytotoxin genes xaxA and xaxB, we named them yaxA and yaxB, respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the effects of YaxAB on the course of infection in the murine model. While a yaxAB mutant (ΔyaxAB) is capable of colonizing mice at the same level as the wild type, it slightly delays the course of infection and results in differing pathology in the spleen. Further, we found that yaxAB encode a probable cytotoxin capable of lysing mammalian cells, that both YaxA and YaxB are required for cytotoxic activity, and that the two proteins associate. YaxAB-mediated cell death occurs via osmotic lysis through the formation of distinct membrane pores. In silico tertiary structural analysis identified predicted structural homology between YaxA and proteins in pore-forming toxin complexes from Bacillus cereus (HBL-B) and Escherichia coli (HlyE). Thus, it appears that YaxAB function as virulence factors by inducing cell lysis through the formation of pores in the host cell membrane. This characterization of YaxAB supports the hypothesis that RovA regulates expression of multiple virulence factors in Y. enterocolitica. PMID:24002058

  5. Effect of Pore Size and Pore Connectivity on Unidirectional Capillary Penetration Kinetics in 3-D Porous Media using Direct Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, An; Palakurthi, Nikhil; Konangi, Santosh; Comer, Ken; Jog, Milind

    2017-11-01

    The physics of capillary flow is used widely in multiple fields. Lucas-Washburn equation is developed by using a single pore-sized capillary tube with continuous pore connection. Although this equation has been extended to describe the penetration kinetics into porous medium, multiple studies have indicated L-W does not accurately predict flow patterns in real porous media. In this study, the penetration kinetics including the effect of pore size and pore connectivity will be closely examined since they are expected to be the key factors effecting the penetration process. The Liquid wicking process is studied from a converging and diverging capillary tube to the complex virtual 3-D porous structures with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) method within the OpenFOAM CFD Solver. Additionally Porous Medium properties such as Permeability (k) , Tortuosity (τ) will be also analyzed.

  6. Characteristics of Pore Structure and Fractal Dimension of Isometamorphic Anthracite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The geologic conditions of No. 3 coal seams are similar to Sihe and Zhaozhuang Collieries, however, the gas production is significantly different. To better understand the effect of pores, by means of experimental measurements and quantitative analysis, the pore properties of high-rank isometamorphic anthracite were thoroughly studied. Our study showed that the pore structures were predominantly adsorptive, accounting for more than 88% of the specific surface area. The coal pores showed typical three-stage fractal characteristics at boundary points of 1 nm and 9 nm (7 nm of coal samples from Zhaozhuang Colliery, and the fractal dimension with 1–9 nm (or 1–7 nm, as being significantly larger than those measured outside the given ranges. Pores in samples from Sihe Colliery were mainly open spherical or ellipsoidal pores in shape; conversely, those from Zhaozhuang Colliery were mainly Y-shaped, V-shaped, or ‘ink-bottle’ type.

  7. Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Film Using Mixed Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jung Ha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with nanosized and well-arranged pores have been researched actively in order to be applied to new technology fields. Especially, mesoporous material containing various pore structures is expected to have different pore structure. To form a mixed pore structure, ordered mesoporous silica films were prepared with a mixture of surfactant; Brij-76 and P-123 block copolymer. In mixed surfactant system, mixed pore structure was observed in the region of P-123/(Brij-76 + P-123 with about 50.0 wt.% while a single pore structure was observed in regions which have large difference in ratio between Brij-76 and P-123 through the X-ray diffraction analysis. Regardless of surfactant ratio, porosity was retained almost the same. It is expected that ordered mesoporous silica film with mixed pore structure can be one of the new materials which has distinctive properties.

  8. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  9. Effects of Coke Calcination Level on Pore Structure in Carbon Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ning; Xue, Jilai; Lang, Guanghui; Bao, Chongai; Gao, Shoulei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of coke calcination levels on pore structure of carbon anodes have been investigated. Bench anodes were prepared by 3 types of cokes with 4 calcination temperatures (800°C, 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C). The cokes and anodes were characterized using hydrostatic method, air permeability determination, mercury porosimetry, image analysis and confocal microscopy (CSLM). The cokes with different calcination levels are almost the same in LC values (19-20 Å) and real density (1.967-1.985 g/cm3), while the anode containing coke calcined at 900°C has the lowest open porosity and air permeability. Pore size distribution (represented by Anode H sample) can be roughly divided into two ranges: small and medium pores in diameter of 10-400 μm and large pores of 400-580 μm. For the anode containing coke calcined at 800°C, a number of long, narrow pores in the pore size range of 400-580 μm are presented among cokes particles. Formation of these elongated pores may be attributed to coke shrinkages during the anode baking process, which may develop cracking in the anode under cell operations. More small or medium rounded pores with pore size range of 10-400 μm emerge in the anodes with coke calcination temperatures of 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, which may be generated due to release of volatiles from the carbon anode during baking. For the anode containing coke calcined at 1100°C, it is found that many rounded pores often closely surround large coke particles, which have potential to form elongated, narrow pores.

  10. Hexadecane trapped in nano-pores of silica-aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavikova, B.; Jesenak, K.; Iskrova, M.; Majernik, V.; Sausa, O.; Kristiak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ways of filling of the high-porous silica-aerogel with hydrocarbon C 16 H 34 and its efficient removal from the pores by physical method of the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy were studied. As the most effective way to fill the SiO 2 aerogel appears through the implementation of a liquid phase, while the most appropriate way of removing of hexadecane is firing at an elevated temperature. Molecular system of hexadecane closed in nano-pores of silica-aerogel behaves otherwise than volume system of the same molecules. In the case of pure hexadecane phase transition was observed at 291 K, while solidification process is gradual with decrease of temperature in cetane trapped in pores of silica-aerogel. The results of the periods of life of o-Ps indicate greater turbidity in the pores of the molecular system compared to the volume sample of hexadecane.

  11. Position-Dependent Dynamics Explain Pore-Averaged Diffusion in Strongly Attractive Adsorptive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekelberg, William P; Siderius, Daniel W; Shen, Vincent K; Truskett, Thomas M; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-12

    Using molecular simulations, we investigate the relationship between the pore-averaged and position-dependent self-diffusivity of a fluid adsorbed in a strongly attractive pore as a function of loading. Previous work (Krekelberg, W. P.; Siderius, D. W.; Shen, V. K.; Truskett, T. M.; Errington, J. R. Connection between thermodynamics and dynamics of simple fluids in highly attractive pores. Langmuir 2013, 29, 14527-14535, doi: 10.1021/la4037327) established that pore-averaged self-diffusivity in the multilayer adsorption regime, where the fluid exhibits a dense film at the pore surface and a lower density interior pore region, is nearly constant as a function of loading. Here we show that this puzzling behavior can be understood in terms of how loading affects the fraction of particles that reside in the film and interior pore regions as well as their distinct dynamics. Specifically, the insensitivity of pore-averaged diffusivity to loading arises from the approximate cancellation of two factors: an increase in the fraction of particles in the higher diffusivity interior pore region with loading and a corresponding decrease in the particle diffusivity in that region. We also find that the position-dependent self-diffusivities scale with the position-dependent density. We present a model for predicting the pore-average self-diffusivity based on the position-dependent self-diffusivity, which captures the unusual characteristics of pore-averaged self-diffusivity in strongly attractive pores over several orders of magnitude.

  12. Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, M; Han, M; Kim, D; Chung, K

    2006-11-01

    Many endogenous and exogenous factors are known to cause enlarged pilosebaceous pores. Such factors include sex, genetic predisposition, ageing, chronic ultraviolet light exposure, comedogenic xenobiotics, acne and seborrhoea. This study was an attempt to determine the factors related to enlarged pores. To assess the relationship of sebum output, age, sex, hormonal factors and severity of acne with pore size. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. A total of 60 volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, were recruited for this study. Magnified images of pores were taken using a dermoscopic video camera and measured using an image analysis program. The sebum output level was measured with a Sebumeter. Using multiple linear regression analysis, increased pore size was significantly associated with increased sebum output level, sex and age. Among the variables, sebum output level correlated most with the pore size followed by male sex. In comparing male and female participants, males had higher correlation between the sebum output level and the pore size (male: r = 0.47, female: r = 0.38). Thus, additional factors seem to influence pore size in females. Pore size was significantly increased during the ovulation phase (P = 0.008), but severity of acne was not significantly associated with the pore size. Enlarged pore sizes are associated with increased sebum output level, age and male sex. In female patients, additional hormonal factors, such as those of the menstrual cycle, affect the pore size.

  13. Scanning electron microscope investigations of nuclear pore filters in polyester foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfe, J.

    1980-01-01

    In order to understand and characterize the action of nuclear pore filters it is necessary to know their surface, as well as their bulk, structure. In the present work, investigations of the surface structure (pore size, pore density, pore distribution) and of the pore geometry, especially in the bulk of the filters, are carried out by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies. The preparation technique needed is liquid-nitrogen freeze-fracturing followed by a conductive-coating step. Nuclear pore filters studied in this paper were produced by a track etching technique. Laboratory specimens were obtained by bombarding 10 μm thick polyester foils with Xe-ions and a subsequent etching with 20% NaOH. The SEM results are shown and discussed. (author)

  14. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tousheh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  15. Radial distribution of ions in pores with a surface charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, J.H.G. van der; Görtzen, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    A sorption model applicable to calculate the radial equilibrium concentrations of ions in the pores of ion-selective membranes with a pore structure is developed. The model is called the radial uptake model. Because the model is applied to a Nafion sulfonic layer with very small pores and the radial

  16. Pore shape of honeycomb-patterned films: modulation and interfacial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ling-Shu; Ke, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2012-01-12

    The control of the pore size of honeycomb-patterned films has been more or less involved in most work on the topic of breath figures. Modulation of the pore shape was largely ignored, although it is important to applications in replica molding, filtration, particle assembly, and cell culture. This article reports a tunable pore shape for patterned films prepared from commercially available polystyrene (PS). We investigated the effects of solvents including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform (CF) and hydrophilic additives including poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Water droplets on/in the polymer solutions were observed and analyzed for simulating the formation and stabilization of breath figures. Interfacial tensions of the studied systems were measured and considered as a main factor to modulate the pore shape. Results indicate that the pores gradually change from near-spherical to ellipsoidal with the increase of additive content when using CF as the solvent; however, only ellipsoidal pores are formed from the THF solution. It is demonstrated that the aggregation of the additives at the water/polymer solution interface is more efficient in the THF solution than that in the CF solution. This aggregation decreases the interfacial tension, stabilizes the condensed water droplets, and shapes the pores of the films. The results may facilitate our understanding of the dynamic breath figure process and provide a new pathway to prepare patterned films with different pore structures.

  17. Tension-induced vesicle fusion: pathways and pore dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2008-01-01

    and eventually opens a pore to complete the fusion process. In pathway II, at higher tension, a stalk is formed during the fusion process that is then transformed by transmembrane pore formation into a fusion pore. Whereas the latter pathway II resembles stalk pathways as observed in other simulation studies......, fusion pathway I, which does not involve any stalk formation, has not been described previously to the best of our knowledge. A statistical analysis of the various processes shows that fusion is the dominant pathway for releasing the tension of the vesicles. The functional dependence of the observed...

  18. Study of pore pressure reaction on hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimonova, Mariia; Baryshnikov, Nikolay; Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeniy; Zenchenko, Petr

    2017-04-01

    We represent the results of the experimental study of the hydraulic fracture propagation influence on the fluid pore pressure. Initial pore pressure was induced by injection and production wells. The experiments were carried out according to scaling analysis based on the radial model of the fracture. All required geomechanical and hydrodynamical properties of a sample were derived from the scaling laws. So, gypsum was chosen as a sample material and vacuum oil as a fracturing fluid. The laboratory setup allows us to investigate the samples of cylindrical shape. It can be considered as an advantage in comparison with standard cubic samples, because we shouldn't consider the stress field inhomogeneity induced by the corners. Moreover, we can set 3D-loading by this setting. Also the sample diameter is big enough (43cm) for placing several wells: the fracturing well in the center and injection and production wells on two opposite sides of the central well. The experiment consisted of several stages: a) applying the horizontal pressure; b) applying the vertical pressure; c) water solution injection in the injection well with a constant pressure; d) the steady state obtaining; e) the oil injection in the central well with a constant rate. The pore pressure was recorded in the 15 points along bottom side of the sample during the whole experiment. We observe the pore pressure change during all the time of the experiment. First, the pore pressure changed due to water injection. Then we began to inject oil in the central well. We compared the obtained experimental data on the pore pressure changes with the solution of the 2D single-phase equation of pore-elasticity, and we found significant difference. The variation of the equation parameters couldn't help to resolve the discrepancy. After the experiment, we found that oil penetrated into the sample before and after the fracture initiation. This fact encouraged us to consider another physical process - the oil

  19. Effects of fibers on expansive shotcrete mixtures consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, ordinary Portland cement, and calcium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry often uses shotcrete for ground stabilization. However, cracking within shotcrete is commonly observed, which delays production schedules and increases maintenance costs. A possible crack reduction method is using expansive shotcrete mixture consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, ordinary Portland cement (OPC, and calcium sulfate (CS to reduce shrinkage. Furthermore, fibers can be added to the mixture to restrain expansion and impede cracking. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of nylon fiber, glass fiber, and steel fiber on an expansive shotcrete mixture that can better resist cracking. In this study, parameters such as density, water absorption, volume of permeable voids, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, splitting tensile strength (STS, and volume change of fiber-added expansive mixtures were determined at different time periods (i.e. the strengths on the 28th day, and the volume changes on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days. The results show that addition of fibers can improve mixture durability, in the form of decreased water absorption and reduced permeable pore space content. Moreover, the expansion of the CSA-OPC-CS mixture was restrained up to 50% by glass fiber, up to 43% by nylon fiber, and up to 28% by steel fiber. The results show that the STS was improved by 57% with glass fiber addition, 43% with steel fiber addition, and 38% with nylon fiber addition. The UCS was also increased by 31% after steel fiber addition, 26% after nylon fiber addition, and 16% after glass fiber addition. These results suggest that fiber additions to the expansive shotcrete mixtures can improve durability and strengths while controlling expansion. Keywords: Shotcrete, Restrained expansion, Fibers, Calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, Ordinary Portland cement (OPC, Calcium sulfate (CS

  20. Extraction of pores from microtomographic reconstructions of intact soil aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albee, P. B.; Stockman, G. C.; Smucker, A. J. M.

    2000-02-29

    Segmentation of features is often a necessary step in the analysis of volumetric data. The authors have developed a simple technique for extracting voids from irregular volumetric data sets. In this work they look at extracting pores from soil aggregates. First, they identify a threshold that gives good separability of the object from the background. They then segment the object, and perform connected components analysis on the pores within the object. Using their technique pores that break the surface can be segmented along with pores completely contained in the initially segmented object.

  1. Superplastically foaming method to make closed pores inclusive porous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    Porous ceramics incorporates pores to improve several properties including thermal insulation maintaining inherenet ceramic properties such as corrosion resistance and large mechanical strength. Conventional porous ceramics is usually fabricated through an insufficient sintering. Since the sintering accompanies the exclusion of pores, it must be terminated at the early stage to maintain the high porosity, leading to degraded strength and durability. Contrary to this, we have innovated superplastically foaming method to make ceramic foams only in the solid state. In this method, the previously inserted foam agent evaporates after the full densification of matrix at around the sintering temperature. Closed pores expand utilizing the superplastic deformation driven by the evolved gas pressure. The typical features of this superplastically foaming method are listed as follows, 1. The pores are introduced after sintering the solid polycrystal. 2. Only closed pores are introduced, improving the insulation of gas and sound in addition to heat. 3. The pore walls are fully densified expecting a large mechanical strength. 4. Compared with the melt foaming method, this method is practical because the fabrication temperature is far below the melting point and it does not need molds. 5. The size and the location pores can be controlled by the amount and position of the foam agent.

  2. Stochastic generation of explicit pore structures by thresholding Gaussian random fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jhyman@lanl.gov [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0089 (United States); Computational Earth Science, Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES-16), and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Winter, C. Larrabee, E-mail: winter@email.arizona.edu [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0089 (United States); Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0011 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We provide a description and computational investigation of an efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures. Smolarkiewicz and Winter introduced this specific method in pores resolving simulation of Darcy flows (Smolarkiewicz and Winter, 2010 [1]) without giving a complete formal description or analysis of the method, or indicating how to control the parameterization of the ensemble. We address both issues in this paper. The method consists of two steps. First, a realization of a correlated Gaussian field, or topography, is produced by convolving a prescribed kernel with an initial field of independent, identically distributed random variables. The intrinsic length scales of the kernel determine the correlation structure of the topography. Next, a sample pore space is generated by applying a level threshold to the Gaussian field realization: points are assigned to the void phase or the solid phase depending on whether the topography over them is above or below the threshold. Hence, the topology and geometry of the pore space depend on the form of the kernel and the level threshold. Manipulating these two user prescribed quantities allows good control of pore space observables, in particular the Minkowski functionals. Extensions of the method to generate media with multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions are also discussed. To demonstrate its usefulness, the method is used to generate a pore space with physical and hydrological properties similar to a sample of Berea sandstone. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures is provided. •Samples are generated by applying a level threshold to a Gaussian field realization. •Two user prescribed quantities determine the topology and geometry of the pore space. •Multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions can be produced. •A pore space based on Berea sandstone is generated.

  3. METHODS FOR PORE WATER EXTRACTION FROM UNSATURATED ZONE TUFF, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. SCOFIELD

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits taken from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate, while the chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no significant fractionation of solutes

  4. Unstable Pore-Water Flow in Intertidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D. A.; Shen, C.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are important intertidal wetlands strongly influenced by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Bordered by coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur over vastly different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil condition, particularly aeration, which influences the marsh plant growth. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the pore-water flow process in the marsh soil driven by tides, focusing on stable flow with the assumption of homogeneity in soil and fluid properties. This assumption, however, is questionable given the actual inhomogeneous conditions in the field. For example, the salinity of surface water in the tidal creek varies temporally and spatially due to the influence of rainfall and evapotranspiration as well as the freshwater input from upland areas to the estuary, creating density gradients across the marsh surface and within the marsh soil. Many marshes possess soil stratigraphy with low-permeability mud typically overlying high-permeability sandy deposits. Macropores such as crab burrows are commonly distributed in salt marsh sediments. All these conditions are prone to the development of non-uniform, unstable preferential pore-water flow in the marsh soil, for example, funnelling and fingering. Here we present results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to explore such unstable flow. In particular, the analysis aims to address how the unstable flow modifies patterns of local pore-water movement and solute transport, as well as the overall exchange between the marsh soil and

  5. Pore-scale uncertainty quantification with multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2014-01-06

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of pore-scale transport processes in porous media have recently gained large popularity. However the geometrical details of the pore structures can be known only in a very low number of samples and the detailed flow computations can be carried out only on a limited number of cases. The explicit introduction of randomness in the geometry and in other setup parameters can be crucial for the optimization of pore-scale investigations for random homogenization. Since there are no generic ways to parametrize the randomness in the porescale structures, Monte Carlo techniques are the most accessible to compute statistics. We propose a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) technique to reduce the computational cost of estimating quantities of interest within a prescribed accuracy constraint. Random samples of pore geometries with a hierarchy of geometrical complexities and grid refinements, are synthetically generated and used to propagate the uncertainties in the flow simulations and compute statistics of macro-scale effective parameters.

  6. Nuclear Track-Etched Pore Membrane Production Using OAEP's Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittrakarn, Thawat; Bhongsuwan, Tripob; Wanichapichart, Pikul; Nuanuin, Paiboon; Chongkum, Somporn; Khonduangkaew, Areerat; Bordeepong, Sunaree

    2003-10-01

    Result of this study shows that the OAEP's nuclear research reactor is a good source of both fast and thermal neutrons for pore piercing process on polycarbonate thin film. With our experimental design, the fast neutron provides better results in pore piercing comparing with thermal neutron bombardment. This can be explained that most of the latent tracks that occur by thermal neutron bombardment do not piercing through the thin film. Chemical etching process using NaOH solution with an appropriated time, concentration and temperature was employed to enlarge the latent tracks in the bombarded film by fast neutrons. Fast neutron bombardment with 5, 10 and 20 minutes bombarding time successfully produces the nuclear track membrane. Pore size and pore density of the produced membranes examined by SEM were 0.24-1.01 μm and 4.67 - 245 x 10 6 pore/cm 2 , respectively. Bubble point test showed the maximum pore diameter of the produced membrane ranged between 1.18 - 3.25 μm. Water permeability was studied and compared between the produced and commercial membranes

  7. Controlled synthesis of ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-supported on activated carbon and pore-pore synergistic photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chen; Li, Youji, E-mail: bcclyj@163.com; Xu, Peng; Li, Ming; Zeng, Mengxiong

    2015-01-15

    Ordered mesoporous titania/activated carbon (OMTAC) were prepared by the template technique with the aid of an ultrasonic method. To explore the relationship between the structure and properties of OMTAC, the ultrasonic-sol-gel technique was applied to synthesize titania dioxide/activated carbon (USTAC). The obtained material structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption – desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV diffuse reflectance (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra. OMTAC photocatalytic performance was evaluated by means of acid red B (ARB) degradation. The pore-pore synergistic amplification mechanism of photocatalysis was proposed and the effects of catalytic conditions on synergistic amplification were explored. The results show that compared to OMT, OMTAC has a small particle size, low electron-hole recombination rate and high surface areas, due to the hindering effect of activated carbon on crystalline grain growth and an ordered mesoporous structure of titania. OMTAC has higher catalytic activity than USTAC, OMT and P25, due to pore-pore synergistic amplification effect of photocatalysis. The OMT content is strongly affected OMTAC photocatalytic activity, and OMTAC-3 (loading 3 times of OMT on AC) has the highest photocatalytic activity due to high hydroxyl concentration, surface area and low electron-hole recombination rate. When ARB is degraded by OMTAC-3, the optimum catalytic conditions are a catalyst concentration of 1 g/L, an ARB concentration of 15 mg/L and a pH of 5. - Graphical abstract: We investigate the influence of mesoporous titania content upon the photocatalytic performance of OMTAC in acid red B degradation. - Highlights: • OMTAC were fabricated by a template technique with the aid of an ultrasonic method. • OMTAC show high photoactivity for acid red B (ARB) degradation. • OMTAC also show pore-pore synergistic photocatalytic

  8. Investigating the effects of stress on the pore structures of nuclear grade graphites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Joshua E.L., E-mail: joshua.taylor@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Hall, Graham N., E-mail: graham.n.hall@manchester.ac.uk; Mummery, Paul M., E-mail: paul.m.mummery@manchester.ac.uk

    2016-03-15

    Graphite is used as a moderating material and as a structural component in a number of current generation nuclear reactors. During reactor operation stresses develop in the graphite components, causing them to deform. It is important to understand how the microstructure of graphite affects the material's response to these stresses. A series of experiments were performed to investigate how the pore structures of Pile Grade A and Gilsocarbon graphites respond to loading stresses. A compression rig was used to simulate the build-up of operational stresses in graphite components, and a confocal laser microscope was used to study variation of a number of important pore properties. Values of elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio were calculated and compared to existing literature to confirm the validity of the experimental techniques. Mean pore areas were observed to decrease linearly with increasing applied load, mean pore eccentricity increased linearly, and a small amount of clockwise pore rotation was observed. The response to build-up of stresses was dependent on the orientation of the pores and basal planes and the shapes of the pores with respect to the loading axis. It was proposed that pore closure and pore reorientation were competing processes. Pore separation was quantified using ‘nearest neighbour’ and Voronoi techniques, and non-pore regions were found to shrink linearly with increasing applied load. - Highlights: • Effects of stress on pore structures of Gilsocarbon and PGA graphites were studied. • Application of a compressive load was used to generate stresses in graphite. • Inverse linear relationship between stress and pore area was observed. • Mean pore eccentricity increased, clockwise pore rotation observed. • Separation of pores quantified using Voronoi and ‘nearest-neighbour’ methods.

  9. Effect of porosity and pore morphology on the low-frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of porosity and pore size distribution on the low-frequency dielectric response, in the range 0.01-100 kHz, in sintered ZrO2-8 mol% Y2O3 ceramic compacts have been investigated. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique has been employed to obtain the pore characteristics like pore size distribution, ...

  10. Pore Structure and Fractal Characteristics of Niutitang Shale from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodong Xi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A suite of shale samples from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in northwestern Hunan Province, China, were investigated to better understand the pore structure and fractal characteristics of marine shale. Organic geochemistry, mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, porosity, permeability, mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption and methane adsorption experiments were conducted for each sample. Fractal dimension D was obtained from the nitrogen adsorption data using the fractal Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH model. The relationships between total organic carbon (TOC content, mineral compositions, pore structure parameters and fractal dimension are discussed, along with the contributions of fractal dimension to shale gas reservoir evaluation. Analysis of the results showed that Niutitang shale samples featured high TOC content (2.51% on average, high thermal maturity (3.0% on average, low permeability and complex pore structures, which are highly fractal. TOC content and mineral compositions are two major factors affecting pore structure but they have different impacts on the fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher TOC content had a larger specific surface area (SSA, pore volume (PV and fractal dimension, which enhanced the heterogeneity of the pore structure. Quartz content had a relatively weak influence on shale pore structure, whereas SSA, PV and fractal dimension decreased with increasing clay mineral content. Shale with a higher clay content weakened pore structure heterogeneity. The permeability and Langmuir volume of methane adsorption were affected by fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher fractal dimension had higher adsorption capacity but lower permeability, which is favorable for shale gas adsorption but adverse to shale gas seepage and diffusion.

  11. Pore-water chemistry explains zinc phytotoxicity in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Mohammed; Lamb, Dane T; Correll, Ray; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a widespread soil contaminant arising from a numerous anthropogenic sources. However, adequately predicting toxicity of Zn to ecological receptors remains difficult due to the complexity of soil characteristics. In this study, we examined solid-solution partitioning using pore-water data and toxicity of Zn to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spiked soils. Pore-water effective concentration (ECx, x=10%, 20% and 50% reduction) values were negatively related to pH, indicating lower Zn pore water concentration were needed to cause phytotoxicity at high pH soils. Total dissolved zinc (Znpw) and free zinc (Zn(2+)) in soil-pore water successfully described 78% and 80.3% of the variation in relative growth (%) in the full dataset. When the complete data set was used (10 soils), the estimated EC50pw was 450 and 79.2 µM for Znpw and Zn(2+), respectively. Total added Zn, soil pore water pH (pHpw) and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were the best predictors of Znpw and Zn(2+) in pore-water. The EC10 (total loading) values ranged from 179 to 5214 mg/kg, depending on soil type. Only pH measurements in soil were related to ECx total Zn data. The strongest relationship to ECx overall was pHca, although pHw and pHpw were in general related to Zn ECx. Similarly, when a solution-only model was used to predict Zn in shoot, DOC was negatively related to Zn in shoot, indicating a reduction in uptake/ translocation of Zn from solution with increasing DOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Capillary pressure at irregularly shaped pore throats: Implications for water retention characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyoung Suk; Kang, Dong Hun; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Yun, Tae Sup

    2017-12-01

    The random shapes of pore throats in geomaterials hinder accurate estimation of capillary pressure, and conventional pore network models that simply use the Young-Laplace equation assuming circular pore throats overestimate the capillary pressure. As a solution to this problem that does not complicate the pore network model or slow its implementation, we propose a new morphological analysis method to correlate the capillary pressure at an irregular pore channel with its cross-sectional geometry using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation and Mayer and Stowe-Princen theory. Geometry-based shape factors for pore throats are shown here to correlate strongly with the capillary pressure obtained by LB simulation. Water retention curves obtained by incorporating the morphological calibration into conventional pore network simulation and their correlative scheme agree well with experimental data. The suggested method is relevant to pore-scale processes such as geological CO2 sequestration, methane bubbling from wetlands, and enhanced carbon recovery.

  13. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  14. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  15. Effects of intermediate wettability on entry capillary pressure in angular pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Harris Sajjad; Joekar-Niasar, Vahid; Shokri, Nima

    2016-07-01

    Entry capillary pressure is one of the most important factors controlling drainage and remobilization of the capillary-trapped phases as it is the limiting factor against the two-phase displacement. It is known that the entry capillary pressure is rate dependent such that the inertia forces would enhance entry of the non-wetting phase into the pores. More importantly the entry capillary pressure is wettability dependent. However, while the movement of a meniscus into a strongly water-wet pore is well-defined, the invasion of a meniscus into a weak or intermediate water-wet pore especially in the case of angular pores is ambiguous. In this study using OpenFOAM software, high-resolution direct two-phase flow simulations of movement of a meniscus in a single capillary channel are performed. Interface dynamics in angular pores under drainage conditions have been simulated under constant flow rate boundary condition at different wettability conditions. Our results shows that the relation between the half corner angle of pores and contact angle controls the temporal evolution of capillary pressure during the invasion of a pore. By deviating from pure water-wet conditions, a dip in the temporal evolution of capillary pressure can be observed which will be pronounced in irregular angular cross sections. That enhances the pore invasion with a smaller differential pressure. The interplay between the contact angle and pore geometry can have significant implications for enhanced remobilization of ganglia in intermediate contact angles in real porous media morphologies, where pores are very heterogeneous with small shape factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Involvement of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 signaling on the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Hachiya, Akira; Kitahara, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious esthetic defects for many women. We previously reported that the severity of impairment of skin architecture around facial pores correlates well with the appearance of facial pores in several ethnic groups. In our last report, we showed that serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) correlate well with facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. However, our results could not fully explain the implication between facial pores and IGF signaling. In this study, we conducted a histological analysis of facial skin to determine whether potential changes in IGF-1 availability occur in the skin with or without conspicuous pores. Immunohistochemical observations showed that expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is limited to the suprapapillary epidermis around facial pores and to basal cells of rete pegs without tips in epidermis with conspicuous pores. In contrast, in basal cells of skin without conspicuous pores, IGFBP-3 expression is very low. Ki-67 and IGF-1 receptor-positive cells are abundant in basal cells in the tips of the rete pegs in skin with typical epidermal architecture around facial pores. No obvious differences were observed in the expression of filaggrin, involucrin, K1, K6 or K17 in skin with or without conspicuous pores. However, increased expression of K16 was observed in skin with conspicuous pores suggesting hyperproliferation. These results suggest that the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 signaling pathway is involved in the formation of conspicuous facial pores due to the epidermal architecture around facial pores.

  17. Comparison of predicted and observed pore pressure increases on Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.; Ellett, D.M.; Pyke, R.; Winters, L.

    1976-01-01

    The RIO BLANCO event presented the opportunity to monitor, under controlled conditions in the field, the increase in pore pressures resulting from ground motion similar to an earthquake. In situ measurements of pore pressure changes were made by Sandia Laboratories and Dames and Moore. This report contains the results of laboratory tests believed to be indicative in assessing the magnitude of pore pressure increases and probability of soil liquefaction. These include triaxial load tests, gradation of grain size, and relative density. No liquefaction was observed in the field, and the increase of in situ pore pressures were much less than expected from laboratory measurements. Allied subjects presented in this report are pore pressure propagation and dissipation profiles, the previously unpublished pore pressure measurements made by Dames and Moore, and the boring logs for the various sites where measurements were taken. It is concluded that methods used to predict pore pressure increases and liquefaction potential are overly conservative, at least for these alluvial and colluvial soils found in Colorado

  18. Effect of diffuse layer and pore shapes in mesoporous carbon supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In the spirit of the theoretical evolution from the Helmholtz model to the Gouy Chapman Stern model for electric double-layer capacitors, we explored the effect of a diffuse layer on the capacitance of mesoporous carbon supercapacitors by solving the Poisson Boltzmann (PB) equation in mesopores of diameters from 2 to 20 nm. To evaluate the effect of pore shape, both slit and cylindrical pores were considered. We found that the diffuse layer does not affect the capacitance significantly. For slit pores, the area-normalized capacitance is nearly independent of pore size, which is not experimentally observed for template carbons. In comparison, for cylindrical pores, PB simulations produce a trend of slightly increasing area-normalized capacitance with pore size, similar to that depicted by the electric double-cylinder capacitor model proposed earlier. These results indicate that it is appropriate to approximate the pore shape of mesoporous carbons as being cylindrical and the electric double-cylinder capacitor model should be used for mesoporous carbons as a replacement of the traditional Helmholtz model.

  19. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology: integrating theories of the mediated mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-03-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré's hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology is meant to assist in integrating theoretical perspectives and research interests that are often thought of as incompatible, among them neuroscience, phenomenology of the body, social practice theory and technology studies. A main point of the article is that these perspectives each are necessary for an integrative approach to the human mind.

  20. Diode-like properties of single- and multi-pore asymmetric track membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, K.; Gapeeva, A. R.; Orelovich, O. L.; Apel, P. Yu.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we investigated the ionic transport properties of asymmetric polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track membranes with the thickness of 5 μm. The samples containing single pores and arrays of many pores were fabricated by irradiation with accelerated ions and subsequent physicochemical treatment. The method of etching in the presence of a surface-active agent was used to prepare the pores with highly-tapered tip. The transport of monovalent inorganic ions through the nano-scale holes was studied in a conductivity cell. The effective pore radii, electrical conductance and rectification ratios of pores were measured. The geometric characteristics of nanopores were investigated using FESEM.

  1. Role of scaffold mean pore size in meniscus regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Jiang, Dong; Ding, Jian-Xun; Wang, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Qi, Yan-Song; Chen, Xue-Si; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Recently, meniscus tissue engineering offers a promising management for meniscus regeneration. Although rarely reported, the microarchitectures of scaffolds can deeply influence the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation in meniscus tissue engineering. Herein, a series of three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with three distinct mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The scaffold with the mean pore size of 215μm significantly improved both the proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production/deposition of mesenchymal stem cells compared to all other groups in vitro. Moreover, scaffolds with mean pore size of 215μm exhibited the greatest tensile and compressive moduli in all the acellular and cellular studies. In addition, the relatively better results of fibrocartilaginous tissue formation and chondroprotection were observed in the 215μm scaffold group after substituting the rabbit medial meniscectomy for 12weeks. Overall, the mean pore size of 3D-printed PCL scaffold could affect cell behavior, ECM production, biomechanics, and repair effect significantly. The PCL scaffold with mean pore size of 215μm presented superior results both in vitro and in vivo, which could be an alternative for meniscus tissue engineering. Meniscus tissue engineering provides a promising strategy for meniscus regeneration. In this regard, the microarchitectures (e.g., mean pore size) of scaffolds remarkably impact the behaviors of cells and subsequent tissue formation, which has been rarely reported. Herein, three three-dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with different mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The results suggested that the mean pore size significantly affected the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation. This study furthers

  2. Microfiltration of distillery stillage: Influence of membrane pore size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stillage is one of the most polluted waste products of the food industry. Beside large volume, the stillage contains high amount of suspended solids, high values of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, so it should not be discharged in the nature before previous purification. In this work, three ceramic membranes for microfiltration with different pore sizes were tested for stillage purification in order to find the most suitable membrane for the filtration process. Ceramic membranes with a nominal pore size of 200 nm, 450 nm and 800 nm were used for filtration. The influence of pore size on permeate flux and removal efficiency was investigated. A membrane with the pore size of 200 nm showed the best filtration performance so it was chosen for the microfiltration process.

  3. Graphite oxide-mediated synthesis of porous CeO2 quadrangular prisms and their high-efficiency adsorptive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ling; Wang, Fengxian; Xie, Dong; Zhang, Jun; Du, Gaohui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous CeO 2 quadrangular prisms have been prepared via graphite oxide-mediated synthesis. • Dual-pore hierarchical systems are formed with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. • Porous CeO 2 exhibits a rapid adsorption to Rhodamine B with a removal efficiency of ∼99%. • Porous CeO 2 retains the same performances in different pH solutions. - Abstract: We report a graphite oxide-mediated approach for synthesizing porous CeO 2 through a facile hydrothermal process followed by thermal annealing in air. The phase structure, morphology, microstructure and porosity of the products have been revealed by a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N 2 adsorption. The as-prepared CeO 2 products show well-defined quadrangular prism morphology, and they are composed of interconnected nanoparticles with diameters around 30–100 nm. In particular, the dual-pore hierarchical systems are created in the CeO 2 quadrangular prisms with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. The dye sorption capacity of the porous CeO 2 is investigated, which exhibits a rapid adsorption to rhodamine B with a high removal efficiency of ∼99%. Moreover, the CeO 2 absorbent retains the same performances in different pH solutions

  4. Pore Structure Model for Predicting Elastic Wavespeeds in Fluid-Saturated Sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. W.; David, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    During hydrostatic compression, in the elastic regime, ultrasonic P and S wave velocities measured on rock cores generally increase with pressure, and reach asymptotic values at high pressures. The pressure dependence of seismic velocities is generally thought to be due to the closure of compliant cracks, in which case the high-pressure velocities must reflect only the influence of the non-closable, equant "pores". Assuming that pores can be represented by spheroids, we can relate the elastic properties to the pore structure using an effective medium theory. Moreover, the closure pressure of a thin crack-like pore is directly proportional to its aspect ratio. Hence, our first aim is to use the pressure dependence of seismic velocities to invert the aspect ratio distribution. We use a simple analytical algorithm developed by Zimmerman (Compressibility of Sandstones, 1991), which can be used for any effective medium theory. Previous works have used overly restrictive assumptions, such as assuming that the stiff pores are spherical, or that the interactions between pores can be neglected. Here, we assume that the rock contains an exponential distribution of crack aspect ratios, and one family of stiff pores having an aspect ratio lying somewhere between 0.01 and 1. We develop our model in two versions, using the Differential Scheme, and the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The inversion is done using data obtained in dry experiments, since pore fluids have a strong effect on velocities and tend to mask the effect of the pore geometry. This avoids complicated joint inversion of dry and wet data, such as done by Cheng and Toksoz (JGR, 1979). Our results show that for many sets of data on sandstones, we can fit very well the dry velocities. Our second aim is to predict the saturated velocities from our pore structure model, noting that at a given differential stress, the pore structure should be the same as for a dry test. Our results show that the Biot-Gassmann predictions always

  5. Mechanism and the origins of stereospecificity in copper-catalyzed ring expansion of vinyl oxiranes: a traceless dual transition-metal-mediated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Thomas J L; Mack, Daniel J; Njardarson, Jon T; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon

    2013-01-30

    Density functional theory computations of the Cu-catalyzed ring expansion of vinyloxiranes is mediated by a traceless dual Cu(I)-catalyst mechanism. Overall, the reaction involves a monomeric Cu(I)-catalyst, but a single key step, the Cu migration, requires two Cu(I)-catalysts for the transformation. This dual-Cu step is found to be a true double Cu(I) transition state rather than a single Cu(I) transition state in the presence of an adventitious, spectator Cu(I). Both Cu(I) catalysts are involved in the bond forming and breaking process. The single Cu(I) transition state is not a stationary point on the potential energy surface. Interestingly, the reductive elimination is rate-determining for the major diastereomeric product, while the Cu(I) migration step is rate-determining for the minor. Thus, while the reaction requires dual Cu(I) activation to proceed, kinetically, the presence of the dual-Cu(I) step is untraceable. The diastereospecificity of this reaction is controlled by the Cu migration step. Suprafacial migration is favored over antarafacial migration due to the distorted Cu π-allyl in the latter.

  6. Understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis in porous silicon: network effects within independent pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Sergej; Khokhlov, Alexey; Valiullin, Rustem; Kärger, Jörg; Monson, Peter A

    2008-12-01

    The ability to exert a significant degree of pore structure control in porous silicon materials has made them attractive materials for the experimental investigation of the relationship between pore structure, capillary condensation, and hysteresis phenomena. Using both experimental measurements and a lattice gas model in mean field theory, we have investigated the role of pore size inhomogeneities and surface roughness on capillary condensation of N2 at 77K in porous silicon with linear pores. Our results resolve some puzzling features of earlier experimental work. We find that this material has more in common with disordered materials such as Vycor glass than the idealized smooth-walled cylindrical pores discussed in the classical adsorption literature. We provide strong evidence that this behavior comes from the complexity of the processes within independent linear pores, arising from the pore size inhomogeneities along the pore axis, rather than from cooperative effects between different pores.

  7. Invariance of single-file water mobility in gramicidin-like peptidic pores as function of pore length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Guillem; Pohl, Peter; de Groot, Bert L

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the structural and energetic determinants underlying water permeation through peptidic nanopores, motivated by recent experimental findings that indicate that water mobility in single-file water channels displays nonlinear length dependence. To address the molecular mechanism determining the observed length dependence, we studied water permeability in a series of designed gramicidin-like channels of different length using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We found that within the studied range of length the osmotic water permeability is independent of pore length. This result is at variance with textbook models, where the relationship is assumed to be linear. Energetic analysis shows that loss of solvation rather than specific water binding sites in the pore form the main energetic barrier for water permeation, consistent with our dynamics results. For this situation, we propose a modified expression for osmotic permeability that fully takes into account water motion collectivity and does not depend on the pore length. Different schematic barrier profiles are discussed that explain both experimental and computational interpretations, and we propose a set of experiments aimed at validation of the presented results. Implications of the results for the design of peptidic channels with desired permeation characteristics are discussed.

  8. Influence of the pore network on hydrogen diffusion through blended cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boher, Cedric; Frizon, Fabien; Bart, Florence; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study on the influence of the pore size distribution on gas diffusion through CEM V cement pastes, for different water saturation degrees. The numerical results are compared to the experimental hydrogen diffusion coefficients obtained with water saturation levels ranging from 20% to 95%. The model developed in our research group accounts for the various types of transfer through the pore network: Knudsen diffusion or molecular diffusion depending on the pore size, together with hydrogen diffusion through water. The virtual pore network is created from mercury porosimetry data as a result of the combination of different sizes pore families. By testing different combinations, we could propose pore arrangements leading to diffusion coefficients corresponding to the experimental ones, and show how the combinations of the biggest pore family contribute to control the gas diffusion process. (authors)

  9. Direct Numerical Simulation of Low Capillary Number Pore Scale Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Soulaine, C.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    The arrangement of void spaces and the granular structure of a porous medium determines multiple macroscopic properties of the rock such as porosity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. Therefore, it is important to study the microscopic structure of the reservoir pores and understand the dynamics of fluid displacements through them. One approach for doing this, is direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow that requires a robust numerical tool for prediction of fluid dynamics and a detailed understanding of the physical processes occurring at the pore-scale. In pore scale flows with a low capillary number, Eulerian multiphase methods are well-known to produce additional vorticity close to the interface. This is mainly due to discretization errors which lead to an imbalance of capillary pressure and surface tension forces that causes unphysical spurious currents. At the pore scale, these spurious currents can become significantly stronger than the average velocity in the phases, and lead to unphysical displacement of the interface. In this work, we first investigate the capability of the algebraic Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in OpenFOAM for low capillary number pore scale flow simulations. Afterward, we compare VOF results with a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method and Iso-Advector method. It has been shown that the former one reduces the VOF's unphysical spurious currents in some cases, and both are known to capture interfaces sharper than VOF. As the conclusion, we will investigate that whether the use of CLSVOF or Iso-Advector will lead to less spurious velocities and more accurate results for capillary driven pore-scale multiphase flows or not. Keywords: Pore-scale multiphase flow, Capillary driven flows, Spurious currents, OpenFOAM

  10. FORMATION OF PORES ASSOCIATED WITH THE INFLOW OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhiliang [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, XinJieKouWai St., HaiDian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Hongqi, E-mail: zlyang@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-07-10

    We investigate the formation of pores in NOAA AR 10930 associated with the inflow of moving magnetic features (MMFs) using simultaneous Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope filtergrams and magnetograms. The main results are outlined as follows: (1) the existence of MMFs around pores is a fairly common phenomenon. Around the four innate and one residue pores investigated, there are obvious inflows of MMFs during the pores’ growth phase. (2) The observed magnetic flux transport conveyed by MMFs is strongly correlated with the change in the pore’s flux content, and therefore reflects the pore’s growth and decay. The concentration and dissolution of the pores are direct results of the local convergence and convection of sunspots’ magnetic outflow. (3) The most common source of MMF flows into pores are produced near sunspots and move along the connection lines between the sunspots’ penumbrae and the pores. These monopolar and bipolar magnetic elements are either fragments from the penumbra or continuations of penumbral fibrils. Pores also merge dissociated elements and receive flows produced by small-scale bipolar emergence. MMF inflows that diminish a pore’s magnetic flux often trigger chromospheric bright points. (4) In their decay phase, the pores release outflows of magnetic elements. The distribution of flows around pores is asymmetrical: the inflow is concentrated on the side facing the parent sunspot, while the outflow is generally concentrated on the opposite side. A pore’s outflow is also part of the process of decomposing and removing of the active region’s magnetic field.

  11. Confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dali; Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong; Mao, Xinyue; Zhao, Weiqian

    2014-09-01

    A confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration is proposed to obtain a fast and accurate measurement for submicrometer pore size of nuclear track-etched membranes (NTEMs). This method facilitates the online inspection of the pore size evolution during etching. Combining confocal microscopy with super-resolution image restoration significantly improves the lateral resolution of the NTEM image, yields a reasonable circle edge-setting criterion of 0.2408, and achieves precise pore edge detection. Theoretical analysis shows that the minimum measuring diameter can reach 0.19 μm, and the root mean square of the residuals is only 1.4 nm. Edge response simulation and experiment reveal that the edge response of the proposed method is better than 80 nm. The NTEM pore size measurement results obtained by the proposed method agree well with that obtained by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Capillary condensation hysteresis in overlapping spherical pores: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Gennady Yu; Rasmussen, Christopher J; Neimark, Alexander V

    2012-08-21

    The mechanisms of hysteretic phase transformations in fluids confined to porous bodies depend on the size and shape of pores, as well as their connectivity. We present a Monte Carlo simulation study of capillary condensation and evaporation cycles in the course of Lennard-Jones fluid adsorption in the system of overlapping spherical pores. This model system mimics pore shape and connectivity in some mesoporous materials obtained by templating cubic surfactant mesophases or colloidal crystals. We show different mechanisms of capillary hysteresis depending on the size of the window between the pores. For the system with a small window, the hysteresis cycle is similar to that in a single spherical pore: capillary condensation takes place upon achieving the limit of stability of adsorption film and evaporation is triggered by cavitation. When the window is large enough, the capillary condensation shifts to a pressure higher than that of the isolated pore, and the possibility for the equilibrium mechanism of desorption is revealed. These finding may have important implications for practical problems of assessment of the pore size distributions in mesoporous materials with cagelike pore networks.

  13. Pore dimensions and the role of occupancy in unitary conductance of Shaker K channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Navarro-Quezada, Nieves; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    K channels mediate the selective passage of K+ across the plasma membrane by means of intimate interactions with ions at the pore selectivity filter located near the external face. Despite high conservation of the selectivity filter, the K+ transport properties of different K channels vary widely, with the unitary conductance spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude. Mutation of Pro475, a residue located at the cytoplasmic entrance of the pore of the small-intermediate conductance K channel Shaker (Pro475Asp (P475D) or Pro475Gln (P475Q)), increases Shaker’s reported ∼20-pS conductance by approximately six- and approximately threefold, respectively, without any detectable effect on its selectivity. These findings suggest that the structural determinants underlying the diversity of K channel conductance are distinct from the selectivity filter, making P475D and P475Q excellent probes to identify key determinants of the K channel unitary conductance. By measuring diffusion-limited unitary outward currents after unilateral addition of 2 M sucrose to the internal solution to increase its viscosity, we estimated a pore internal radius of capture of ∼0.82 Å for all three Shaker variants (wild type, P475D, and P475Q). This estimate is consistent with the internal entrance of the Kv1.2/2.1 structure if the effective radius of hydrated K+ is set to ∼4 Å. Unilateral exposure to sucrose allowed us to estimate the internal and external access resistances together with that of the inner pore. We determined that Shaker resistance resides mainly in the inner cavity, whereas only ∼8% resides in the selectivity filter. To reduce the inner resistance, we introduced additional aspartate residues into the internal vestibule to favor ion occupancy. No aspartate addition raised the maximum unitary conductance, measured at saturating [K+], beyond that of P475D, suggesting an ∼200-pS conductance ceiling for Shaker. This value is approximately one third of the maximum

  14. Is intercultural mediation necessary? An approach from a communications perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ridao Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalized intercultural mediation is expanding as a result of the increase in the number of immigrants in our country. Institutionalized intercultural mediation, which started in the early Nineties in Spain, is understood to mean activities carried out by ONGs and by the social services of the host nation. In line with Giménez (1997: 127, we understand intercultural mediation as a modality within the broader field of mediation. Because of its recent expansion, there is not at present a unique methodology accepted by experts in this field. In this paper, our aims are focused on describing various mediation techniques and the possibility of their application within intercultural contexts

  15. Br2 induced oxidative pore modification of a porous coordination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Kawano, Masaki

    2016-01-14

    Iodinated pores of a Zn-based coordination network were modified by Br2 oxidation to produce brominated pores in a polycrystalline-to-polycrystalline manner while maintaining the same network topology. Ab initio X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the brominated pore can trap Br2 or I2 by strong σ/π-type interactions. A kinetic study in solution revealed that the pore modification by Br2 oxidation is much faster than the Br2 encapsulation process.

  16. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in em>Vicia faba em>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Hafke, Jens B.; Schulz, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    According to an established concept, injury of the phloem triggers local sieve plate occlusion including callose-mediated constriction and, possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores. Sieve plate occlusion can also be achieved by distant stimuli, depends on the passage of electropotential waves...

  17. Long n-alkanes isomerization by medium pore zeolites with pore mouth and key lock mechanisms; Isomerisation des paraffines longues par des zeolithes a pores moyens selon les mecanismes ouverture de pore et cle serrure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claude, M.

    1999-10-01

    Skeletal isomerization of long n-alkanes is practiced to improve cold flow properties of diesel and lubricant fractions. In this work, model long n-alkanes (n-C{sub 10} - n-C{sub 24}) were hydro-isomerized in a fixed bed down flow vapour phase reactor loaded with bifunctional Pt/H-ZSM-22 zeolite catalyst. The skeletal isomers were analysed and identified with GC/MS. High isomer yields were obtained. The distribution of positional mono-methyl-branched isomers obtained from n-C{sub 12} to n-C{sub 24} are typically bimodal. This is explained by adsorption and reaction of the alkanes in pore mouths and locks on the external surface of the zeolite crystals. The pore mouth mode favours branching at C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}. The 'key lock' type proceeds by penetration of the two ends of the hydrocarbon chain into a different pore opening and favours more central mono-branching of the chain. The contribution of the key lock mode increases with increasing chain length and with the reaction temperature. The preferentially formed dimethyl-branched isomers have a separation between branchings of three up to fourteen carbon atoms. The formation of the second methyl-branching occurs preferentially from a centrally branched mono-methyl-branched isomer, so that the second branching is generated always more toward the end of the chain. Owing to the differences in adsorption entropy among the locks, at higher temperatures the largest lock is preferred and the distance between the two branching along the carbon chain in the preferred isomers is biggest. Thus the work resulted in the formulation of structure-selectivity relationships. n-C{sub 18} was hydro-isomerized on other zeolites. The nature and distribution of the isomers obtained suggest that the tubular 10-ring zeolites ZSM-23, ZSM-35 and SAPO-11 also operate according to pore mouth and key lock concepts. Zeolites with 12-rings show typical product patterns for catalysis in absence of steric hindrance. (author)

  18. Time evolution of pore system in lime - Pozzolana composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleželová, Magdaléna; Čáchová, Monika; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Keppert, Martin

    2017-11-01

    The lime - pozzolana mortars and plasters are used in restoration works on building cultural heritage but these materials are also following the trend of energy - efficient solutions in civil engineering. Porosity and pore size distribution is one of crucial parameters influencing engineering properties of porous materials. The pore size distribution of lime based system is changing in time due to chemical processes occurring in the material. The present paper describes time evolution of pore system in lime - pozzolana composites; the obtained results are useful in prediction of performance of lime - pozzolana systems in building structures.

  19. Effect of Pore Geometry on Gas Adsorption: Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulation Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eon Ji; Chang, Rak Woo; Han, Ji Hyung; Chung, Taek Dong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pure geometrical effect of porous materials in gas adsorption using the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of primitive gas-pore models with various pore geometries such as planar, cylindrical, and random pore geometries. Although the model does not possess atomistic level details of porous materials, our simulation results provided many insightful information in the effect of pore geometry on the adsorption behavior of gas molecules. First, the surface curvature of porous materials plays a significant role in the amount of adsorbed gas molecules: the concave surface such as in cylindrical pores induces more attraction between gas molecules and pore, which results in the enhanced gas adsorption. On the contrary, the convex surface of random pores gives the opposite effect. Second, this geometrical effect shows a nonmonotonic dependence on the gas-pore interaction strength and length. Third, as the external gas pressure is increased, the change in the gas adsorption due to pore geometry is reduced. Finally, the pore geometry also affects the collision dynamics of gas molecules. Since our model is based on primitive description of fluid molecules, our conclusion can be applied to any fluidic systems including reactant-electrode systems

  20. A Defective mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Complex Facilitates Expansions of Transcribed (GAAn Repeats Associated with Friedreich’s Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. McGinty

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of microsatellite repeats are responsible for numerous hereditary diseases in humans, including myotonic dystrophy and Friedreich’s ataxia. Whereas the length of an expandable repeat is the main factor determining disease inheritance, recent data point to genomic trans modifiers that can impact the likelihood of expansions and disease progression. Detection of these modifiers may lead to understanding and treating repeat expansion diseases. Here, we describe a method for the rapid, genome-wide identification of trans modifiers for repeat expansion in a yeast experimental system. Using this method, we found that missense mutations in the endoribonuclease subunit (Ysh1 of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation complex dramatically increase the rate of (GAAn repeat expansions but only when they are actively transcribed. These expansions correlate with slower transcription elongation caused by the ysh1 mutation. These results reveal an interplay between RNA processing and repeat-mediated genome instability, confirming the validity of our approach.

  1. Extracellular-matrix-mediated osmotic pressure drives Vibrio cholerae biofilm expansion and cheater exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Nadell, Carey D; Stone, Howard A; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-08-23

    Biofilms, surface-attached communities of bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix, are a major mode of bacterial life. How the material properties of the matrix contribute to biofilm growth and robustness is largely unexplored, in particular in response to environmental perturbations such as changes in osmotic pressure. Here, using Vibrio cholerae as our model organism, we show that during active cell growth, matrix production enables biofilm-dwelling bacterial cells to establish an osmotic pressure difference between the biofilm and the external environment. This pressure difference promotes biofilm expansion on nutritious surfaces by physically swelling the colony, which enhances nutrient uptake, and enables matrix-producing cells to outcompete non-matrix-producing cheaters via physical exclusion. Osmotic pressure together with crosslinking of the matrix also controls the growth of submerged biofilms and their susceptibility to invasion by planktonic cells. As the basic physicochemical principles of matrix crosslinking and osmotic swelling are universal, our findings may have implications for other biofilm-forming bacterial species.Most bacteria live in biofilms, surface-attached communities encased in an extracellular matrix. Here, Yan et al. show that matrix production in Vibrio cholerae increases the osmotic pressure within the biofilm, promoting biofilm expansion and physical exclusion of non-matrix producing cheaters.

  2. The hydraulic conductivity of sediments: A pore size perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, X.W.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    in the void ratio is higher than the theoretical value due to two concurrent phenomena: 1) percolating large pores are responsible for most of the flow, and 2) the larger pores close first during compaction. The prediction of hydraulic conductivity based

  3. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining pra...

  4. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D.; Hogan, Joanna A.; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S.; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R.; Greenberg, Charles H.; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Yu, Zhiheng; de La Cruz, M. Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L.; Aitchison, John D.; Jarrold, Martin F.; Gerton, Jennifer L.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Akey, Christopher W.; Chait, Brian T.; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P.

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  5. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D; Hogan, Joanna A; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R; Greenberg, Charles H; Jacobs, Erica Y; Yu, Zhiheng; de la Cruz, M Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L; Aitchison, John D; Jarrold, Martin F; Gerton, Jennifer L; Ludtke, Steven J; Akey, Christopher W; Chait, Brian T; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P

    2018-03-22

    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  6. Coarse and fine root plants affect pore size distributions differently

    OpenAIRE

    Bodner, G.; Leitner, D.; Kaul, H.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Small scale root-pore interactions require validation of their impact on effective hydraulic processes at the field scale. Our objective was to develop an interpretative framework linking root effects on macroscopic pore parameters with knowledge at the rhizosphere scale. Methods A field experiment with twelve species from different families was conducted. Parameters of Kosugi?s pore size distribution (PSD) model were determined inversely from tension infiltrometer data. Measured root tr...

  7. Following Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion, Do Tooth-Borne or Bone-Borne Appliances Provide More Skeletal Expansion and Dental Expansion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi-Sangsari, Adrien; Chinipardaz, Zahra; Carrasco, Lee

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare outcome measurements of skeletal and dental expansion with bone-borne (BB) versus tooth-borne (TB) appliances after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). This study was performed to provide quantitative measurements that will help the oral surgeon and orthodontist in selecting the appliance with, on average, the greatest amount of skeletal expansion and the least amount of dental expansion. A computerized database search was performed using PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar on publications in reputable oral surgery and orthodontic journals. A systematic review and meta-analysis was completed with the predictor variable of expansion appliance (TB vs BB) and outcome measurement of expansion (in millimeters). Of 487 articles retrieved from the 6 databases, 5 articles were included, 4 with cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) data and 1 with non-CBCT 3-dimensional cast data. There was a significant difference in skeletal expansion (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.30; P appliances. However, there was no significant difference in dental expansion (SMD, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.24 to 0.34; P = .03). According to the literature, to achieve more effective skeletal expansion and minimize dental expansion after SARPE, a BB appliance should be favored. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the microscopic moisture migration in pore space using DEM simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The deformation of soil skeleton and migration of pore fluid are the major factors relevant to the triggering of and damages by liquefaction. The influence of pore fluid migration during earthquake has been demonstrated from recent model experiments and field case studies. Most of the current liquefaction assessment models are based on testing of isotropic liquefiable materials. However the recent New Zealand earthquake shows much severer damages than those predicted by existing models. A fundamental cause has been contributed to the embedded layers of low permeability silts. The existence of these silt layers inhibits water migration under seismic loads, which accelerated liquefaction and caused a much larger settlement than that predicted by existing theories. This study intends to understand the process of moisture migration in the pore space of sand using discrete element method (DEM simulation. Simulations were conducted on consolidated undrained triaxial testing of sand where a cylinder sample of sand was built and subjected to a constant confining pressure and axial loading. The porosity distribution was monitored during the axial loading process. The spatial distribution of porosity change was determined, which had a direct relationship with the distribution of excess pore water pressure. The non-uniform distribution of excess pore water pressure causes moisture migration. From this, the migration of pore water during the loading process can be estimated. The results of DEM simulation show a few important observations: (1 External forces are mainly carried and transmitted by the particle chains of the soil sample; (2 Porosity distribution during loading is not uniform due to non-homogeneous soil fabric (i.e. the initial particle arrangement and existence of particle chains; (3 Excess pore water pressure develops differently at different loading stages. At the early stage of loading, zones with a high initial porosity feature higher

  9. An investigation of fractal characteristics of mesoporous carbon electrodes with various pore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyun, Su-Il; Rhee, Chang-Kyu

    2004-01-01

    Fractal characteristics of mesoporous carbon electrodes were investigated with various pore structures using the N 2 gas adsorption method and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis method. The mesoporous carbons with various pore structures were prepared by imprinting mesophase pitch used as a carbonaceous precursor with different colloidal silica particles. All imprinted mesoporous carbons were composed of two groups of pores produced from the carbonisation of mesophase pitch and from the silica imprinting. The overall surface fractal dimensions of the carbon specimens were determined from the analyses of the N 2 gas adsorption isotherms. In order to distinguish the surface fractal dimension of the carbonisation-induced pore surface from that fractal dimension of the silica-imprinted pore surface, the individual surface fractal dimensions were determined from the image analyses of the TEM images. From the comparison of the overall surface fractal dimension with the individual surface fractal dimensions, it was recognised that the overall surface fractal dimension is crucially influenced by the individual surface fractal dimension of the silica-imprinted pore surface. Moreover, from the fact that the silica-imprinted pore surface with broad relative pore size distribution (PSD) gave lower value of the individual surface fractal dimension than that pore surface with narrow relative PSD, it is concluded that as the silica-imprinted pores comprising the carbon specimen agglomerate, the individual surface fractal dimension of that pore surface decreases

  10. Influence of the Location of Attractive Polymer-Pore Interactions on Translocation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bappa; Chaudhury, Srabanti

    2018-01-11

    We probe the influence of polymer-pore interactions on the translocation dynamics using Langevin dynamics simulations. We investigate the effect of the strength and location of the polymer-pore interaction using nanopores that are partially charged either at the entry or the exit or on both sides of the pore. We study the change in the translocation time as a function of the strength of the polymer-pore interaction for a given chain length and under the effect of an externally applied field. Under a moderate driving force and a chain length longer than the length of the pore, the translocation time shows a nonmonotonic increase with an increase in the attractive interaction. Also, an interaction on the cis side of the pore can increase the translocation probability. In the presence of an external field and a strong attractive force, the translocation time for shorter chains is independent of the polymer-pore interaction at the entry side of the pore, whereas an interaction on the trans side dominates the translocation process. Our simulation results are rationalized by a qualitative analysis of the free energy landscape for polymer translocation.

  11. Analysis of the effect of pore geometry in the physical properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pore geometry is one of the main factors influencing the flow of reservoir fluids under pressure. Pores with narrower formats are more easily compressed when subject to pressure. Pressure modifies pore geometry by opening or closing cracks, causing increase or decrease in the elastic modulus, porosity, permeability, and other parameters. Rock physical properties depend on the size and shape of pores. Thus, in order to analyze changes on the physical properties behavior according to the pores geometry, it is necessary to study and improve mathematical models of the porous media by taking into account the pore shape factor for estimating rock elastic properties. Differential effective medium model (DEM, Hertz-Mindlin theory and coherent potential approximation (CPA are some of the theoretical paradigms that take into account pore geometry in changes in elastic moduli. Given the importance of the pore structure effect on the behavior of physical parameters, this article proposes an analysis of some mathematical models that consider the influence of pore shapes in the physical properties of rocks.

  12. Pore pressure control on faulting behavior in a block-gouge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection/extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remain poorly understood; yet they are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on faulting behavior. The model couples pore network fluid flow and mechanics of the solid grains. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks; the block material is represented by a group of contact-bonded grains and the gouge is composed of unbonded grains. A pore network is extracted from the particulate pack of the block-gouge system with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on the geometry of the local pore space. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). The model updates the pore network regularly in response to deformation of the solid matrix. We study the fault stability in the presence of a pressure inhomogeneity (gradient) across the gouge layer, and compare it with the case of homogeneous pore pressure. We consider both normal and thrust faulting scenarios with a focus on the onset of shear failure along the block-gouge interfaces. Numerical simulations show that the slip behavior is characterized by intermittent dynamics, which is evident in the number of slipping contacts at the block-gouge interfaces and the total kinetic energy of the gouge particles. Numerical results also show that, for the case of pressure inhomogeneity, the onset of slip occurs earlier for the side with higher pressure, and that this onset appears to be controlled by the maximum pressure of both sides

  13. Variation of Pore Water Pressure in Tailing Sand under Dynamic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-xu Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense vibration affects the pore water pressure in a tailing dam, with the tendency to induce dam liquefaction. In this study, experiments were performed wherein model tailing dams were completely liquefied by sustained horizontal dynamic loading to determine the effects of the vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and tailing density on the pore water pressure. The results revealed four stages in the increase of the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading, namely, a slow increase, a rapid increase, inducement of structural failure, and inducement of complete liquefaction. A lower frequency and smaller amplitude of the vibration were found to increase the time required to achieve a given pore water pressure in dense tailings. Under the effect of these three factors—vibration frequency and amplitude and tailing density—the tailing liquefaction time varied nonlinearly with the height from the base of the tailing dam, with an initial decrease followed by an increase. The pore pressure that induced structural failure also gradually decreased with increasing height. The increase in the tailing pore pressure could be described by an S-shaped model. A complementary multivariate nonlinear equation was also derived for predicting the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading.

  14. Pore Pressure Response to Groundwater Fluctuations in Saturated Double-Layered Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed for one-dimensional consolidation of double-layered saturated soil subjected to groundwater fluctuations. The solutions are derived by an explicit mathematical procedure using Duhamel’s theorem in conjunction with a Fourier series, when groundwater fluctuation is described by a general time-dependent function and assumed to be the pore water pressure variations at the upper boundary. Taking as an example the harmonic groundwater fluctuation, the relevant response of the excess pore water pressure is discussed in detail, and the main influencing factors of the excess pore pressure distribution are analyzed. A dimensionless parameter θ has been introduced because it significantly affects the phase and the amplitude of excess pore pressures. The influences of the coefficients of permeability and compressibility of soil on the excess pore pressure distribution are different and cannot be incorporated into the coefficient of consolidation in double-layered soil. The relative permeability ratio of two clayey soils also plays an important role on the curves of the distributions of the excess pore pressures. The effects of the thickness of the soil layer on the excess pore pressure distribution should be considered together with the dimensionless parameter θ and the permeability and compressibility of the double-layered soil system.

  15. Analysis of the number of enlarged pores according to site, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ahn, J Y; Lee, J I; Bae, J Y; Kim, H L; Suh, H Y; Youn, J I; Park, M Y

    2018-02-02

    Increasing the number of enlarged pores causes cosmetic problems. The difference in the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex is unclear. To analyze the distribution of the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex. We analyzed the number of the enlarged pores and the percentage of wrinkles in the nose, forehead, and cheek from 434 polarized images. The measurement results were analyzed according to site, age, and sex. Relationship between enlarged pore counts and wrinkle severity was also analyzed. The study was conducted by using DermaVision,™ which can take cross-polarization, parallel polarization, and ultraviolet light images. The enlarged pores of the nose and forehead were more prominent than in the cheeks. Pore counts were increased with age, and the increment was significant between the 30's and 40's. There was no significant difference by gender. Enlarged pore counts were related to wrinkle severity. The number of enlarged pores differs depending on body site and increased with age. The enlarged pore counts correlate with wrinkle severity and the correlation varies depending on the body site. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Pore Structure of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter Brilner

    2005-01-01

    The pore structure and morphology of direct methanol fuel cell electrodes are characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pore size distributions of printed primer and catalyst layers are largely dictated by the powders used to make...

  17. Pore Structures in the Biomineralized Byssus of Anomia simplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon; Leemreize, Hanna; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2016-01-01

    that uses a biomineralized byssus to permanently anchor itself to substrates. The byssus has a highly complex hierarchical structure and contains over 90 wt% CaCO3. The byssus features a complex set of porosities, presumed to be highly important for the function of the attachment system. The pore space...... is the main focus of the present work. We characterize the three dimensional distribution of pore spaces in the byssus using micro-computed tomography (µCT) through a combination of in house CT and high-resolution synchrotron CT. The pore structures are observed to fall into distinct categories in various...

  18. Blocking of Single α-Hemolysin Pore by Rhodamine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Nazarov, Pavel A; Golovin, Andrey V; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2017-06-06

    Measurements of ion conductance through α-hemolysin pore in a bilayer lipid membrane revealed blocking of the ion channel by a series of rhodamine 19 and rhodamine B esters. The longest dwell closed time of the blocking was observed with rhodamine 19 butyl ester (C4R1), whereas the octyl ester (C8R1) was of poor effect. Voltage asymmetry in the binding kinetics indicated that rhodamine derivatives bound to the stem part of the aqueous pore lumen. The binding frequency was proportional to a quadratic function of rhodamine concentrations, thereby showing that the dominant binding species were rhodamine dimers. Two levels of the pore conductance and two dwell closed times of the pore were found. The dwell closed times lengthened as the voltage increased, suggesting impermeability of the channel for the ligands. Molecular docking analysis revealed two distinct binding sites within the lumen of the stem of the α-hemolysin pore for the C4R1 dimer, but only one binding site for the C8R1 dimer. The blocking of the α-hemolysin nanopore by rhodamines could be utilized in DNA sequencing as additional optical sensing owing to bright fluorescence of rhodamines if used for DNA labeling. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can pore-clogging by ash explain post-fire runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Gevaert, Anouk I.; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica L.; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Giri, Shree K.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-01-01

    Ash plays an important role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire and has frequently been hypothesised to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Yet evidence for clogging is incomplete, as research has focussed on identifying the presence of ash in soil; the actual flow processes remain unknown. We conducted laboratory infiltration experiments coupled with microscope observations in pure sands, saturated hydraulic conductivity analysis, and interaction energy calculations, to test whether ash can clog pores (i.e. block pores such that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs). Although results confirmed previous observations of ash washing into pores, clogging was not observed in the pure sands tested, nor were conditions found for which this does occur. Clogging by means of strong attachment of ash to sand was deemed unlikely given the negative surface charge of the two materials. Ponding due to washing in of ash was also considered improbable given the high saturated conductivity of pure ash and ash–sand mixtures. This first mechanistic step towards analysing ash transport and attachment processes in field soils therefore suggests that pore clogging by ash is unlikely to occur in sands. Discussion is provided on other mechanisms by which ash can affect post-fire hydrology.

  20. MODERN ROUTES TO EXPLORE CONCRETE’S COMPLEX PORE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on discrete element computer-simulation of concrete. It is argued on the basis of stochastic heterogeneity theory that modern concurrent-algorithm-based systems should be employed for the assessment of pore characteristics underlying durability performance of cementitious materials. The SPACE system was developed at Delft University of Technology for producing realistic schematizations of realcrete for a wide range of other particle packing problems, involving aggregate and fresh cement, and for the purpose of exploring characteristics in the hardened state of concrete, including of the pore network structure because of obvious durability problems. Since structure-sensitive properties are involved, schematization of reality should explicitly deal with the configuration of the cement particles in the fresh state. The paper concentrates on the stereological and mathematical morphology operations executed to acquire information on particle size, global porosity, and on distribution of porosity and of the connected pore fraction as a result of the near neighbourhood of aggregate grains. Goal is to provide information obtained along different exploration routes of concrete's pore space for setting up a pore network modelling approach. This type of methodological papers is scarce in concrete technology, if not missing at all. Technical publications that report on obtained results in our investigations are systematically referred to.

  1. Simulation with Phast of the pore water chemistry experiment results (Mont Terri Url, Switzerland), including transport, thermodynamics, kinetics, and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.; Pearson, F.J.; Mettler, S.; Wersin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Pore water Chemistry (PC-)experiment was initially designed to determine the processes that control the redox properties of pore water in the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri URL. However, changes in isotopic data and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, dissolved methane, acetate and sulphate concentrations indicated unexpected microbial activity. The origin of the bacteria is not clear. In the light of published data, an indigenous origin cannot be ruled out. A combined biological and reactive transport model has been developed with the parallel PHAST software to simulate the processes that determine pore water chemistry. The influence of bacterial activity on the system is successfully modelled by considering different reaction pathways scenarios including aceto-genesis, methano-genesis, and methane/acetate oxidation coupled to sulphate reduction. Several conclusions can be clearly stated in the light of the simulation results: - The measured redox potentials (redox electrode) are in line with the S(-II)/S(+VI) redox system. - In the undisturbed pore water, S(-II) and S(+VI) activities are controlled by a mineral assemblage containing pyrite and a Fe carbonate (siderite or ankerite). pH is buffered by mineral phases and SO 4 2- concentration is inherited from the marine sedimentary rock. - Some local redox potentials in the sedimentary rock do not correspond to the measured redox potential; for instance, organic matter/HCO 3 - and CH 4 /HCO 3 - systems are not at equilibrium with the measured redox potential. - Redox disequilibrium can be exploited by micro-organisms as a source of energy for their metabolism. In this experiment CH 4 , acetate and other organic acids were produced and SO 4 2- was reduced to HS - . The redox properties of the system are then governed by kinetics rather than by thermodynamic equilibrium. The unexpected persistence of acetate in the borehole water is one of the consequences of these

  2. An investigation into the effects of pore connectivity on T2 NMR relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomeshi, Shahin; Kryuchkov, Sergey; Kantzas, Apostolos

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique used to characterize fluids and flow in porous media. The NMR relaxation curves are closely related to pore geometry, and the inversion of the NMR relaxometry data is known to give useful information with regards to pore size distribution (PSD) through the relative amplitudes of the fluids stored in the small and large pores. While this information is crucial, the main challenge for the successful use of the NMR measurements is the proper interpretation of the measured signals. Natural porous media patterns consist of complex pore structures with many interconnected or "coupled" regions, as well as isolated pores. This connectivity along the throats changes the relaxation distribution and in order to properly interpret this data, a thorough understanding of the effects of pore connectivity on the NMR relaxation distribution is warranted. In this paper we address two main points. The first pertains to the fact that there is a discrepancy between the relaxation distribution obtained from experiments, and the ones obtained from solving the mathematical models of diffusion process in the digitized images of the pore space. There are several reasons that may attribute to this such as the lack of a proper incorporation of surface roughness into the model. However, here we are more interested in the effects of pore connectivity and to understand why the typical NMR relaxation distribution obtained from experiments are wider, while the numerical simulations predict that a wider NMR relaxation distribution may indicate poor connectivity. Secondly, by not taking into account the pore coupling effects, from our experience in interpreting the data, we tend to underestimate the pore volume of small pores and overestimate the amplitudes in the large pores. The role of pore coupling becomes even more prominent in rocks with small pore sizes such as for example in shales, clay in sandstones, and in the microstructures of

  3. Swelling and gas release of grain-boundary pores in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrire, D.I.

    1983-12-01

    The swelling and gas release of overpressured grain boundary pores is sintered unirradiated uranium dioxide were investigated under isothermal conditions. The pores became overpressured when the ambient pressure was reduced, and the excess pressure driving force caused growth and interconnection of the pores, leading to eventual gas release. Swelling was measured continuously by a linear variable differential transformer, and open and closed porosity fractions were determined after the tests by immersion density and quantitative microscopy measurements. The sinter porosity consisted of pores situated on grain faces, grain edges, and grain corners. Isolated pores maintained their equilibrium shape while growing, without any measurable change in dihedral angle. Interconnection occurred predominantly along grain edges, without any evidence of pore sharpening or crack propagation at low driving forces. Extensive open porosity occurred at a threshold density of about 85% TD. There was an almost linear dependence of the initial swelling rate on the driving force, with an activation energy of 200+- 8 kJ/mole, in good agreement with published values of the activation energy for grain boundary diffusion

  4. On-Going Bentonite Pore Water Studies by NMR and SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Torbjoern; Muurinen, Arto; Root, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Compacted water-saturated MX-80 bentonite is presently being studied by SAXS and NMR in order to quantify the major pore water phases in the bentonite. The SAXS and NMR measurements gave very similar results indicating that the pore water is mainly distributed between two major phases (interlayer and non-interlayer water) and also indicate how these phases depend on the bentonite dry density. The results from the SAXS and NMR studies at VTT indicate the same thing: - The pore water in water-saturated compacted (?dry = 0.7-1.6 g/cm 3 ) bentonite is divided into two main phases: interlayer water and non-interlayer water. - The amounts of these pore water phases can be determined quantitatively with the above methods. (authors)

  5. Why liquid displacement methods are sometimes wrong in estimating the pore-size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertsen-Abrahamse, A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Padt, van der A.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid displacement method is a commonly used method to determine the pore size distribution of micro- and ultrafiltration membranes. One of the assumptions for the calculation of the pore sizes is that the pores are parallel and thus are not interconnected. To show that the estimated pore size

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hydrophilic Pores in Lipid Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontiadou, Hari; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    Hydrophilic pores are formed in peptide free lipid bilayers under mechanical stress. It has been proposed that the transport of ionic species across such membranes is largely determined by the existence of such meta-stable hydrophilic pores. To study the properties of these structures and understand

  7. A model of lipid rearrangements during pore formation in the DPPC lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Artur; Kubica, Krystian

    2017-07-10

    The molecular bases of pore formation in the lipid bilayer remain unclear, as do the exact characteristics of their sizes and distributions. To understand this process, numerous studies have been performed on model lipid membranes including cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). The effect of an electric field on DPPC GUV depends on the lipid membrane state: in the liquid crystalline phase the created pores have a cylinder-like shape, whereas in the gel phase a crack has been observed. The aim of the study was to investigate the geometry of pores created in a lipid bilayer in gel and liquid crystalline phases in reference to literature experimental data. A mathematical model of the pore in a DPPC lipid bilayer developed based on the law of conservation of mass and the assumption of constant volume of lipid molecules, independent of their conformation, allows for analysis of pore shape and accompanying molecular rearrangements. The membrane area occupied by the pore of a cylinder-like shape is greater than the membrane area occupied by lipid molecules creating the pore structure (before pore appearance). Creation of such pores requires more space, which can be achieved by conformational changes of lipid chains toward a more compact state. This process is impossible for a membrane in the most compact, gel phase. We show that the geometry of the pores formed in the lipid bilayer in the gel phase must be different from the cylinder shape formed in the lipid bilayer in a liquid crystalline state, confirming experimental studies. Furthermore, we characterize the occurrence of the 'buffer' zone surrounding pores in the liquid crystalline phase as a mechanism of separation of neighbouring pores.

  8. Polarization-induced local pore-wall functionalization for biosensing: from micropore to nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Pham, Pascale; Haguet, Vincent; Sauter-Starace, Fabien; Leroy, Loïc; Roget, André; Descamps, Emeline; Bouchet, Aurélie; Buhot, Arnaud; Mailley, Pascal; Livache, Thierry

    2012-04-03

    The use of biological-probe-modified solid-state pores in biosensing is currently hindered by difficulties in pore-wall functionalization. The surface to be functionalized is small and difficult to target and is usually chemically similar to the bulk membrane. Herein, we demonstrate the contactless electrofunctionalization (CLEF) approach and its mechanism. This technique enables the one-step local functionalization of the single pore wall fabricated in a silica-covered silicon membrane. CLEF is induced by polarization of the pore membrane in an electric field and requires a sandwich-like composition and a conducting or semiconducting core for the pore membrane. The defects in the silica layer of the micropore wall enable the creation of an electric pathway through the silica layer, which allows electrochemical reactions to take place locally on the pore wall. The pore diameter is not a limiting factor for local wall modification using CLEF. Nanopores with a diameter of 200 nm fabricated in a silicon membrane and covered with native silica layer have been successfully functionalized with this method, and localized pore-wall modification was obtained. Furthermore, through proof-of-concept experiments using ODN-modified nanopores, we show that functionalized nanopores are suitable for translocation-based biosensing.

  9. Porous media fluid transport and pore structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dullien, F A L

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the relationship between transport properties and pore structure of porous material. Models of pore structure are presented with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict the transport properties of porous media. Portions of the book are devoted to interpretations of experimental results in this area and directions for future research. Practical applications are given where applicable, and are expected to be useful for a large number of different fields, including reservoir engineering, geology, hydrogeology, soil science, chemical process engineering, biomedica

  10. Development of image analysis for graphite pore-structure determination using fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, W.J.; Bowden, E.A.T.; Wickham, A.J.

    1983-03-01

    The use of image analysis to assess the pore structure of graphite has been developed to the point at which it may be considered available for routine use. A definitive pore structure in terms of the geometry-independent ''characteristic pore dimension'' is derived from the computer analysis of polished specimens whose open-pore structure has been impregnated with bismuth or a fluorescent epoxy resin, with the very small pores identified separately by mercury porosimetry as in the past. The pore-size distributions obtained from these combined techniques have been used successfully to predict the corrosion rates of nine graphites, of widely differing pore structure, in a variety of gas compositions and, indirectly, to confirm appropriate mean ranges and rate constants for the reaction of the oxidising species in these gas mixtures. The development of the fluorescent-impregnant technique is discussed in detail and its use is justified in preference to ''traditional'' methods. Further possible refinements are discussed, including the eventual aim of obtaining a computer prediction of the future oxidation behaviour of the graphite directly from the image analyser. (author)

  11. Determination of pore diameter from rejection measurements with a mixture of oligosaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Gomez, Heriberto; Rogel-Hernandez, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California-Tijuana, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas e Ingenieria, Tijuana, BC (Mexico); Lin, Shui Wai [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion del Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Apdo. Postal 1166, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    This paper present a method to determine pore diameters and effective transport through membranes using a mixture of oligosaccharides. The results are compared with the Maxwell-Stefan equations. The partition coefficients of the solutes are a function of the pore diameter according to the Ferry equation. Thus, with the pore diameter as the only unknown parameter, rejection is described and the pore diameter is obtained by a Marquardt-Levenberg optimization procedure. (orig.)

  12. A random-walk model for pore pressure accumulation in marine soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Cheng, Niang-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    A numerical random-walk model has been developed for the pore-water pressure. The model is based on the analogy between the variation of the pore pressure and the diffusion process of any passive quantity such as concentration. The pore pressure in the former process is analogous...... to the concentration in the latter. In the simulation, particles are released in the soil, and followed as they travel through the statistical field variables. The model has been validated (1) against the Terzaghi consolidation process, and (2) against the process where the pore pressure builds up under progressive...... waves. The model will apparently enable the researcher to handle complex geometries (such as a pipeline buried in a soil) relatively easily. Early results with regard to the latter example, namely the buildup of pore pressure around a buried pipeline subject to a progressive wave, are encouraging....

  13. Transport of water molecules through noncylindrical pores in multilayer nanoporous graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbabaei, Majid; Kim, Daejoong

    2017-08-09

    In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to examine the water transport properties through asymmetric hourglass-shaped pores in multilayer nanoporous graphene with a constant interlayer separation of 6 Å. The properties of the tested asymmetric hourglass-shaped pores [with the models having long cone (l 1 , -P) and short cone (l 2 , +P) entrances] are compared to a symmetric pore model. The study findings indicate that the water occupancy increases across the asymmetric pore (l 1 , -P) compared to (l 2 , +P), because of the length effect. The asymmetric pore, (l 1 , -P), yields higher flux compared to (l 2 , +P) and even the symmetric model, which can be attributed to the increase in the hydrogen bonds. In addition, the single-file water molecules across the narrowest pore diameter inside the (l 2 , +P) pore exhibit higher viscosity compared to those in the (l 1 , -P) pore because of the increase in the water layering effect. Moreover, it is found that the permeability inside the multilayer hourglass-shaped pore depends on the length of the flow path of the water molecules before approaching the layer with the smallest pore diameter. The probability of dipole orientation exhibits wider distribution inside the (l 1 , -P) system compared to (l 2 , +P), implying an enhanced formation of hydrogen bonding of water molecules. This results in the fast flow of water molecules. The MD trajectory shows that the dipole orientation across the single-layer graphene has frequently flipped compared to the dipole orientation across the pores in multilayer graphene, which is maintained during the whole simulation time (although the dipole orientation has flipped for a few picoseconds at the beginning of the simulation). This can be attributed to the energy barrier induced by the individual layer. The diffusion coefficient of water molecules inside the (l 2 , +P) system increases with pressure difference, however, it decreases inside the (l 1 , -P) system because

  14. Analysis of the skin surface and inner structure around pores on the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2014-02-01

    Facial pores do not appear to close again in old skin. Therefore, the tissue structure around the pore has been speculated to keep the pore open. To elucidate the reason for pore enlargement, we examined the relationship between the skin surface and inner skin structural characteristics in the same regions especially around the pore. Samples of the skin surface were obtained from the cheek and examined using a laser image processor to obtain three-dimensional (3D) data. The inner structure of the skin was analyzed using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The conspicuous pore not only had a concave structure but also a discontinuous convex structure on the skin surface surrounding the pore. Furthermore, CLSM image indicated that the skin inner structure developed a discontinuous dermal papilla structure and isotropic dermal fiber structure. There were structural changes in the skin surface around conspicuous pores, including not only a concave structure but also a convex structure with skin inner structure changing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mesoporous Akaganeite of Adjustable Pore Size Synthesized using Mixed Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Ge, D. L.; Ren, H. P.; Fan, Y. J.; Wu, L. M.; Sun, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    Mesoporous akaganeite with large and adjustable pore size was synthesized through a co-template method, which was achieved by the combined interaction between PEG2000 and alkyl amines with different lengths of the straight carbon chain. The characterized results indicate that the synthesized samples show comparatively narrow BJH pore size distributions and centered at 14.3 nm when PEG and HEPA was used, and it could be enlarged to 16.8 and 19.4 nm respectively through changing the alkyl amines to DDA and HDA. Meanwhile, all the synthesized akaganeite possess relativity high specific surface area ranging from 183 to 281 m2/g and high total pore volume of 0.98 to 1.5 cm3/g. A possible mechanism leading to the pore size changing was also proposed.

  16. Fouling layer characterization and pore-blocking mechanisms in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fouling layer characterization and pore-blocking mechanisms in an UF membrane externally coupled to a UASB reactor. ... Regarding pore-blocking mechanisms, standard blocking was the predominant mechanism at the beginning of filtration, coexisting at the end of it with cake filtration. In the first filtration cycle (1 h), after ...

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling regulates the expansion of A6-expressing hepatocytes in association with AKT-dependent β-catenin activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utley, Sarah; James, David; Mavila, Nirmala; Nguyen, Marie V.; Vendryes, Christopher; Salisbury, S. Michael; Phan, Jennifer; Wang, Kasper S.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) promote the proliferation and survival of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) via AKT-dependent β-catenin activation. Moreover, the emergence of hepatocytes expressing the HPC marker A6 during 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-induced liver injury is mediated partly by FGF and β-catenin signaling. Herein, we investigate the role of FGF signaling and AKT-mediated β-catenin activation in acute DDC liver injury. Methods Transgenic mice were fed DDC chow for 14 days concurrent with either Fgf10 over-expression or inhibition of FGF signaling via expression of soluble dominant-negative FGF Receptor (R)-2IIIb. Results After 14 days of DDC treatment, there was an increase in periportal cells expressing FGFR1, FGFR2, and AKT-activated phospho-Serine 552 (pSer552) β-CATENIN in association with up-regulation of genes encoding FGFR2IIIb ligands, Fgf7, Fgf10, and Fgf22. In response to Fgf10 over-expression, there was an increase in the number of pSer552-β-CATENIN(positive)+ive periportal cells as well as cells co-positive for A6 and hepatocyte marker, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF4α). A similar expansion of A6+ive cells was observed after Fgf10 over-expression with regular chow and after partial hepatectomy during ethanol toxicity. Inhibition of FGF signaling increased the periportal A6+iveHNF4α+ive cell population while reducing centrolobular A6+ive HNF4α+ive cells. AKT inhibition with Wortmannin attenuated FGF10-mediated A6+iveHNF4α+ive cell expansion. In vitro analyses using FGF10 treated HepG2 cells demonstrated AKT-mediated β-CATENIN activation but not enhanced cell migration. Conclusion During acute DDC treatment, FGF signaling promotes the expansion of A6-expressing liver cells partly via AKT-dependent activation of β-CATENIN expansion of A6+ive periportal cells and possibly by reprogramming of centrolobular hepatocytes. PMID:24365171

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with large and tunable pore sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Meihua; Li, Yang; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and small particle sizes may have excellent potential in drug/gene delivery.Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and

  19. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  20. Pore and surface diffusion in multicomponent adsorption and liquid chromatography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Whitley, R.D.; Wang, N.H.L.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized parallel pore and surface diffusion model for multicomponent adsorption and liquid chromatography is formulated and solved numerically. Analytical solution for first- and second-order central moments for a pulse on a plateau input is used as benchmarks for the numerical solutions. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data for two systems: ion-exchange of strontium, sodium, and calcium in a zeolite and competitive adsorption of two organics on activated carbon. In a linear isotherm region of single-component systems, both surface and pore diffusion cause symmetric spreading in breakthrough curves. In a highly nonlinear isotherm region, however, surface diffusion causes pronounced tailing in breakthrough curves; the larger the step change in concentration, the more pronounced tailing, in contrast to relatively symmetric breakthroughs due to pore diffusion. If only a single diffusion mechanism is assumed in analyzing the data of parallel diffusion systems, a concentration-dependent apparent surface diffusivity or pore diffusivity results; for a convex isotherm, the apparent surface diffusivity increases, whereas the apparent pore diffusivity decreases with increasing concentration. For a multicomponent nonlinear system, elution order can change if pore diffusion dominates for a low-affinity solute, whereas surface diffusion dominates for a high-affinity solute

  1. Pore size distribution effect on rarefied gas transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takuma; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Takagi, Shu; Kinefuchi, Ikuya

    2017-11-01

    Gas transport phenomena in porous media are known to strongly influence the performance of devices such as gas separation membranes and fuel cells. Knudsen diffusion is a dominant flow regime in these devices since they have nanoscale pores. Many experiments have shown that these porous media have complex structures and pore size distributions; thus, the diffusion coefficient in these media cannot be easily assessed. Previous studies have reported that the characteristic pore diameter of porous media can be defined in light of the pore size distribution; however, tortuosity factor, which is necessary for the evaluation of diffusion coefficient, is still unknown without gas transport measurements or simulations. Thus, the relation between pore size distributions and tortuosity factors is required to obtain the gas transport properties. We perform numerical simulations to prove the relation between them. Porous media are numerically constructed while satisfying given pore size distributions. Then, the mean-square displacement simulation is performed to obtain the tortuosity factors of the constructed porous media.. This paper is based on results obtained from a project commissioned by the New Energy and Industrial Development Organization (NEDO).

  2. Light extinction by pores in AlON ceramics: the transmission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuezhong; Lu Tiecheng; Gong Li; Qi Jianqi; Wen Jinsong; Yu Jian; Pan Lei; Yu Yin; Wei Nian, E-mail: Lutiecheng@scu.edu.c [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2010-07-14

    The transmission properties of aluminium oxynitride (AlON) ceramics were studied. AlON samples with different transmittances were prepared. SEM detected two types of pores with a different range of diameters in the samples; the porosity was obtained by counting the number of pores in a certain area. Mie theory was applied to illuminate the effects of pores on the transmittances. The calculated transmittances were compared with the experiments. The existence of pores with sizes in the 1.1-1.6 {mu}m range and porosities above 10{sup -4} accounted for the degradation of the transmittance spectra at 2.5 {mu}m. Discrepancies of the spectra between the samples were caused mainly by different densities of the A-type pores with sizes above 1 {mu}m. The concepts of critical size and critical concentration were proposed and were quantitatively characterized by critical curves, which divided the regions of translucency and transparency into three parts: R{sub 1}, R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} depending on porosity. New approaches on how to control the pore sizes and porosities quantitatively for transparent ceramics design were presented.

  3. A pore water study of plutonium in a seasonally anoxic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Benoit, G.; Sholkovitz, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the distribution of sup(239,240)Pu in the pore waters of two cores taken from a seasonally anoxic lake. The pore water sup(239,240)Pu profile exhibits a subsurface activity maximum of 230 +- 30 μBq kg -1 in the 3-6 cm interval in June, as compared to an activity of 5 +- 3 μBq kg -1 in the overlying water. The pore water sup(239,240)Pu profile in June follows the solid phase distribution pattern of sup(239,240)Pu and also the pore water distributions of Fe and Mn. Under more reducing conditions in August, pore water sup(239,240)Pu activities drop off to undetectable levels at all depths. This rapid change in the pore water sup(239,240)Pu activity reflects the dynamic nature of Pu diagenesis in these sediments. Potential diffusional fluxes of sup(239,240)Pu into the lake's hypolimnion in June are calculated to be on the order of 2.5 μBq cm -2 y -1 . This flux would not be significant in altering the solid phase sup(239,240)Pu inventory (2.8 x 10 4 μBq cm -2 ). (author)

  4. Conductometric determination of single pores in polyethyleneterephthalate irradiated by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, V.R.; Trofimov, V.V.; Doerschel, B.; Hermsdorf, D.; Vetter, J.; Danziger, M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7·10 3 ions/cm 2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20μm was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation, we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed model. Thus, the developed 'track-by-track' method can be used effectively for description of the sequential appearance of individual pores in an electrolytic etching process

  5. Highly ordered porous alumina with tailor-made pore structures fabricated by pulse anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo; Kim, Jae-Cheon

    2010-01-01

    A new anodization method for the preparation of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with pattern-addressed pore structure was developed. The approach is based on pulse anodization of aluminum employing a series of potential waves that consist of two or more different pulses with designated periods and amplitudes, and provides unique tailoring capability of the internal pore structure of anodic alumina. Pores of the resulting AAOs exhibit a high degree of directional coherency along the pore axes without branching, and thus are suitable for fabricating novel nanowires or nanotubes, whose diameter modulation patterns are predefined by the internal pore geometry of AAO. It is found from microscopic analysis on pulse anodized AAOs that the effective electric field strength at the pore base is a key controlling parameter, governing not only the size of pores, but also the detailed geometry of the barrier oxide layer.

  6. Effects of anisotropy on the equilibrium shape of nanoscale pores at grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynblatt, Paul; Chatain, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the interaction between a faceted pore and an anisotropic grain boundary (GB). Nickel was chosen as a convenient model system. In order to establish the equilibrium crystal shape (ECS) of the pore, studies were also conducted on isolated pores. Isolated pores were found to be subject to the nucleation inhibition of equilibration that has been predicted by Rohrer et al. (J Am Ceram Soc 2000;83:214, 2001;84: 2099). This work shows that configurations close to the ECS can be obtained if supersaturation within a pore is artificially increased by adding mobile adatoms to the internal surfaces of the pores. In the case of pores located at GBs, the nucleation energy barriers to facet displacement are not present for facets in contact with the GB at the triple line, but may still persist for facets that have no contact with the GB. This problem can be overcome by approaching the equilibrium shape from different initial configurations. The configuration of the GB in the vicinity of the pore has been found to be essentially planar, indicating that GB puckering in the vicinity of anisotropic pores is not generally necessary. The present calculations show that incompatibilities between misoriented pore facets that meet at the triple line with the GB are easily accommodated by local atomic rearrangements at the disordered region of intersection with the GB

  7. Combined use of rheometry and microscopy to understand pore structure development during coal carbonisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; Miguel Castro Diaz; Colin E. Snape; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2007-07-01

    The viscoelastic behaviour of coal during carbonisation plays a role in the formation, growth and coalescence of pores. While viscosity is considered to govern pore formation and growth, the coalescence of pores or stabilisation of pores is considered to be governed by elasticity, and these two factors need to be considered in tandem when investigating pore network formation. The properties of the pore network, such as the connectivity of the pores, is hypothesised to be a factor controlling the degree of pressure that the carbonising mass exerts on its surrounding walls, called oven wall pressure (OWP). When volatiles are unable to pass out through the newly formed semi-coke due to low permeability, they travel instead to the centre of the charge, possibly condense as it is cooler, and build-up to high levels, causing high OWPs. Possible causes for low permeability on the semi-coke side could include poor connectivity between pores in the resolidifying material due to lack of connections, tortuous flow paths or narrow necks between pores. Low OWPs are thought to be largely due to a reduction in the elasticity of the fluid phase which allows a greater degree of pore coalescence and ultimately pore connectivity. This paper presents viscoelastic measurements for coals exhibiting different OWPs and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the coal, quenched at various temperatures during carbonisation to show the development of their pore networks. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-02-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over -30 ppm K -1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  9. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  10. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K −1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade. (topical review)

  11. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  12. A facile and efficient approach for pore-opening detection of anodic aluminum oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiewu; Wu, Yucheng; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Xu, Guangqing; Zhang, Xinyi

    2012-05-01

    The well aligned porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane is fabricated by a two-step anodization method. The oxide barrier layer of AAO membrane must be removed to get through-hole membrane for synthesizing nanowires and nanotubes of metals, semiconductors and conducting polymers. Removal of the barrier layer of oxide and pore-extending is of significant importance for the preparation of AAO membrane with through-hole pore morphology and desired pore diameter. The conventional method for pore opening is that AAO membrane after removing of aluminum substrate is immersed in chemical etching solution, which is completely empirical and results in catastrophic damage for AAO membrane frequently. A very simple and efficient approach based on capillary action for detecting pore opening of AAO membrane is introduced in this paper, this method can achieve the detection for pore opening visually and control the pore diameter precisely to get desired morphology and the pore diameter of AAO membrane. Two kinds of AAO membranes with different pore shape were obtained by different pore opening methods. In addition, one-dimensional gradient gold nanowires are also fabricated by electrodeposition based on AAO membranes.

  13. The Mediator complex and transcription regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Zachary C.; Ebmeier, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-subunit assembly that appears to be required for regulating expression of most RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcripts, which include protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes. Mediator and pol II function within the pre-initiation complex (PIC), which consists of Mediator, pol II, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH and is approximately 4.0 MDa in size. Mediator serves as a central scaffold within the PIC and helps regulate pol II activity in ways that remain poorly understood. Mediator is also generally targeted by sequence-specific, DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) that work to control gene expression programs in response to developmental or environmental cues. At a basic level, Mediator functions by relaying signals from TFs directly to the pol II enzyme, thereby facilitating TF-dependent regulation of gene expression. Thus, Mediator is essential for converting biological inputs (communicated by TFs) to physiological responses (via changes in gene expression). In this review, we summarize an expansive body of research on the Mediator complex, with an emphasis on yeast and mammalian complexes. We focus on the basics that underlie Mediator function, such as its structure and subunit composition, and describe its broad regulatory influence on gene expression, ranging from chromatin architecture to transcription initiation and elongation, to mRNA processing. We also describe factors that influence Mediator structure and activity, including TFs, non-coding RNAs and the CDK8 module. PMID:24088064

  14. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Water Vapor and Determination of Diffusion Characteristics in the Pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Eduard G.; Pavluš, Miron; Popovičová, Mária

    2018-02-01

    One of the varieties of pores, often found in natural or artificial building materials, are the so-called blind pores of dead-end or saccate type. Three-dimensional model of such kind of pore has been developed in this work. This model has been used for simulation of water vapor interaction with individual pore by molecular dynamics in combination with the diffusion equation method. Special investigations have been done to find dependencies between thermostats implementations and conservation of thermodynamic and statistical values of water vapor - pore system. The two types of evolution of water - pore system have been investigated: drying and wetting of the pore. Full research of diffusion coefficient, diffusion velocity and other diffusion parameters has been made.

  15. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Ghislain Francois,1 Huixia Qiu,2 Chengda Ye,2 Tomoo Hanaya,3 Dominique Batisse,3 Suzy Cointereau-Chardon,1 Mirela Donato Gianeti Seixas,4 Susi Elaine Dal Belo,4 Roland Bazin5 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5RB Consult, Bievres, France Abstract: Skin pores (SP, as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2 and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1 were recorded in all studied subjects; 2 varied greatly with ethnicity; 3 plateaued with age in most cases; and 4 globally reflected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly

  16. Influence of pore structure on carbon retention/loss in soil macro-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Michelle; Kravchenko, Alexandra; Rivers, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Carbon protection within soil macro-aggregates is an important component of soil carbon sequestration. Pores, as the transportation network for microorganisms, water, air and nutrients within macro-aggregates, are among the factors controlling carbon protection through restricting physical accessibility of carbon to microorganisms. The understanding of how the intra-aggregate pore structure relates to the degree of carbon physical protection, however, is currently lacking. This knowledge gap can lead to potentially inaccurate models and predictions of soil carbon's fate and storage in future changing climates. This study utilized the natural isotopic difference between C3 and C4 plants to trace the location of newly added carbon within macro-aggregates before and after decomposition and explored how location of this carbon relates to characteristics of intra-aggregate pores. To mimic the effect of decomposition, aggregates were incubated at 23˚ C for 28 days. Computed micro-tomographic images were used to determine pore characteristics at 6 μm resolution before and after incubation. Soil (0-10 cm depth) from a 20 year continuous corn (C4 plant) experiment was used. Two soil treatments were considered: 1) "destroyed-structure", where 1 mm sieved soil was used and 2) "intact-structure", where intact blocks of soil were used. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) (C3 plant) was grown in the planting boxes (2 intact, 3 destroyed, and one control) for three months in a greenhouse. From each box, ˜5 macro-aggregates of ˜5 mm size were collected for a total of 27 macro-aggregates. Half of the aggregates were cut into 5-11 sections, with relative positions of the sections within the aggregate recorded, and analyzed for δ13C. The remaining aggregates were incubated and then subjected to cutting and δ13C analysis. While there were no significant differences between the aggregate pore size distributions of the two treatments, the roles that specific pores sizes played in

  17. Difficulties of supercurrents in narrow pores of 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuneberg, E.V.; Kurkijaervi, J.

    1980-01-01

    We consider resistanceless supercurrents through narrow pores and find such currents to vanish in most cases because of end effects at the entries and exists of the pores. Under pressure dc-supercurrents are found to arise. (author)

  18. Preliminary Investigation on the Behavior of Pore Air Pressure During Rainfall Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Min, Ng Soon; Hasliza Hamzah, Nur; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Madun, Aziman; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    This paper focused on the preliminary investigation of pore air pressure behaviour during rainfall infiltration in order to substantiate the mechanism of rainfall induced slope failure. The actual behaviour or pore air pressure during infiltration is yet to be clearly understood as it is regularly assumed as atmospheric. Numerical modelling of one dimensional (1D) soil column was utilized in this study to provide a preliminary insight of this highlighted uncertainty. Parametric study was performed by using rainfall intensities of 1.85 x 10-3m/s and 1.16 x 10-4m/s applied on glass beads to simulate intense and modest rainfall conditions. Analysis results show that the high rainfall intensity causes more development of pore air pressure compared to low rainfall intensity. This is because at high rainfall intensity, the rainwater cannot replace the pore air smoothly thus confining the pore air. Therefore, the effect of pore air pressure has to be taken into consideration particularly during heavy rainfall.

  19. Mechanical, Thermal and Acoustic Properties of Open-pore Phenolic Multi-structured Cryogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rui; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhou, Jintang; Liu, Peijiang; Lei, Yiming

    2017-09-01

    Open-pore phenolic cryogel acoustic multi-structured plates (OCMPs) were prepared via modified sol gel polymerization and freeze-dried methods. The pore morphology, mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties of the cryogels were investigated. From the experimental results, the cryogels exhibited a porous sandwich microstructure: A nano-micron double-pore structure was observed in the core layer of the plates, and nanosized pores were observed in the inner part of the micron pores. In addtion, compared with cryogel plates with uniform-pore (OCPs), the OCMPs had lower thermal conductivities. What’s more, the compressive and tensile strength of the OCMPs were much higher than those of OCPs. Finally, the OCMPs exhibited superior acoustic performances (20% solid content OCMPs performed the best) as compared with those of OCPs. Moreover, the sound insulation value and sound absorption bandwidth of OCMPs exhibited an improvement of approximately 3 and 2 times as compared with those of OCPs, respectively.

  20. Synthesis of Novel Mesoporous Silica Materials with Hierarchical Pore Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Choi, Wang Kyu; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Porous materials with various pore sizes in the range of micropore (< 2 nm), mesopore (2-50 nm), and macropore (> 50 nm) are attractive due to their many emerging applications such as catalysts, separation systems, and low dielectric constant materials. The discovery of new M41S mesoporous silica families with pore sizes larger than 2 nm in diameter in 1992 extended the applications into much wider pore ranges, bringing in a new prosperous era in porous material research. The synthesis of these silica materials has been mainly accomplished through a self-assembly between surfactant molecules and inorganic species under various pH conditions. Recently, core-shell nanoparticles with a silica core and mesoporous shell under basic conditions were synthesized using the silica nanoparticles as a core, and a silica precursor (TEOS) and cationic surfactant (CTABr) as a material for the formation of the mesoporous shell. The resultant materials were very monodispersive in size and showed a narrow pore size distribution in the range of ca 2-3 nm in diameter, depending on the alkyl-chain length of the surfactants used. In this work, the mesoporous shell coated-fumed silicas (denoted as MS M-5s) were synthesized by using fumed silica instead of the silica nanoparticle as a core based on previous reports. Also, the structural properties of the MS M-5s such as the specific surface area and pore volume were easily controlled by varying the amount of the silica precursor and surfactant. The resultant materials exhibited a BET surface area of ca 279-446 m{sup 2}/g and total pore volume of ca 0.64-0.74 cm{sup 3}/g and showed a narrow pore size distribution (PSD) due to the removal of the organic surfactant molecules

  1. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  2. Polymer in a pore: Effect of confinement on the free energy barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the transfer of a polymer chain from cis- side to trans- side through two types of pores: cone-shaped channel and flat-channel. Using the exact enumeration technique, we obtain the free energy landscapes of a polymer chain for such systems. We have also calculated the free-energy barrier of a polymer chain attached to the edge of the pore. The model system allows us to calculate the force required to pull polymer from the pore and stall-force to confine polymer within the pore.

  3. Effect of Multimodal Pore Channels on Cargo Release from Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushilkumar A. Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs with multimodal pore channels were fully characterized by TEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and DLS analyses. MSNs with average diameter of 200 nm with dual pore channel zones with pore diameters of 1.3–2.6 and 4 nm were tested for their use in drug delivery application. Important role of the multimodal pore systems present on MSNs on the quantitative release of model drug ibuprofen was investigated. The results obtained revealed that the release profile for ibuprofen clearly shows distinct zones which can be attributed to the respective porous channel zones present on the particles. The fluctuations in the concentration of ibuprofen during the prolonged release from MSNs were caused by the multimodal pore channel systems.

  4. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Tetraethylenepentamine Impregnated PMMA Sorbents with Different Pore Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Park, Cheonggi; Jung, Hyunchul; Kim, Sung Hyun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) supports and amine additives were investigated to adsorb CO{sub 2}. PMMA supports were fabricated by using different ratio of pore forming agents (porogen) to control the BET specific surface area, pore volume and distribution. Toluene and xylene are used for porogens. Supported amine sorbents were prepared by wet impregnation of tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) on PMMA supports. So we could identify the effect of the pore structure of supports and the quantity of impregnated TEPA on the adsorption capacity. The increased amount of toluene as pore foaming agent resulted in the decreased average pore diameter and the increased BET surface area. Polymer supports with huge different pore distribution could be fabricated by controlling the ratio of porogen. After impregnation, the support with micropore structure is supposed the pore blocking and filling effect so that it has low CO{sub 2} capacity and kinetics due to the difficulty of diffusing. Macropore structure indicates fast adsorption capacity and low influence of amine loading. In case of support with mesopore, it has high performance of adsorption capacity and kinetics. So high surface area and meso-/macro- pore structure is suitable for CO{sub 2} capture.

  5. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  6. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn; Sai, Hiroaki; Cohen, Roy; Wang, Suntao; Bradbury, Michelle; Baird, Barbara; Gruner, Sol M.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  7. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn

    2011-01-19

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  8. Pore-scale and Continuum Simulations of Solute Transport Micromodel Benchmark Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Mehmani, Yashar; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Tang, Y.; Liu, H.; Yoon, Hongkyu; Kang, Qinjun; Joekar Niasar, Vahid; Balhoff, Matthew; Dewers, T.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Leist, Emily AE; Hess, Nancy J.; Perkins, William A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Werth, Charles J.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong

    2016-08-01

    Four sets of micromodel nonreactive solute transport experiments were conducted with flow velocity, grain diameter, pore-aspect ratio, and flow focusing heterogeneity as the variables. The data sets were offered to pore-scale modeling groups to test their simulators. Each set consisted of two learning experiments, for which all results was made available, and a challenge experiment, for which only the experimental description and base input parameters were provided. The experimental results showed a nonlinear dependence of the dispersion coefficient on the Peclet number, a negligible effect of the pore-aspect ratio on transverse mixing, and considerably enhanced mixing due to flow focusing. Five pore-scale models and one continuum-scale model were used to simulate the experiments. Of the pore-scale models, two used a pore-network (PN) method, two others are based on a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) approach, and one employed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The learning experiments were used by the PN models to modify the standard perfect mixing approach in pore bodies into approaches to simulate the observed incomplete mixing. The LB and CFD models used these experiments to appropriately discretize the grid representations. The continuum model use published non-linear relations between transverse dispersion coefficients and Peclet numbers to compute the required dispersivity input values. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results for the four challenge experiments show that all pore-scale models were all able to satisfactorily simulate the experiments. The continuum model underestimated the required dispersivity values and, resulting in less dispersion. The PN models were able to complete the simulations in a few minutes, whereas the direct models needed up to several days on supercomputers to resolve the more complex problems.

  9. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  10. Quantitative research on skin pore widening using a stereoimage optical topometer and Sebutape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ho Youn; Yu, Dong Soo; Oh, Chil Hwan

    2007-05-01

    The treatment of skin pore widening is concerned with cosmetics sciences, but an objective and quantitative measurement method of the severity of skin pore widening has not been developed. In this study, bioengineering methods were applied to evaluate skin pore widening. The results from bioengineering measurements were compared with clinical visual assessment. In order to quantify skin pore widening, three-dimensional data of skin pore were produced by a stereoimage optical topometer (SOT). The sizes of follicular infundibulum were measured quantitatively, with reserved sebum by Sebutape. 50 female volunteers were divided into two groups. Group A was tested by the cosmetics including active ingredient and group B by placebo. The constricting effect of skin pores by cosmetics was measured for immediate effect and long-term effect. In the immediate effect, there was no statistical difference between groups A and B in visual scoring. In SOT, the size of the skin pores of group A had changed after application of cosmetics but there were no changes in group B. In the long-term effect, there was no statistical difference between groups A and B in visual scoring. TA, TV, SA, and SV of skin pores of groups A and B were decreased in 3 and 6 months by SOT. In Sebutape measurement, there was decreased volume of reserved sebum in groups A and B. The result of the Sebutape study was similar to that of SOT. Evaluation of skin pore change by visual assessment is difficult, but bioengineering tools are more reliable and useful methods for the assessment of skin pore change.

  11. Current concepts in nuclear pore electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, José Omar

    2006-01-01

    Over 4 decades ago, microelectrode studies of in situ nuclei showed that, under certain conditions, the nuclear envelope (NE) behaves as a barrier opposing the nucleocytoplasmic flow of physiological ions. As the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of the NE are the only pathways for direct nucleocytoplasmic flow, those experiments implied that the NPCs are capable of restricting ion flow. These early studies validated electrophysiology as a useful approach to quantify some of the mechanisms by which NPCs mediate gene activity and expression. Since electron microscopy (EM) and other non-electrophysiological investigations, showed that the NPC lumen is a nanochannel, the opinion prevailed that the NPC could not oppose the flow of ions and, therefore, that electrophysiological observations resulted from technical artifacts. Consequently, the initial enthusiasm with nuclear electrophysiology faded out in less than a decade. In 1990, nuclear electrophysiology was revisited with patch-clamp, the most powerful electrophysiological technique to date. Patch-clamp has consistently demonstrated that the NE has intrinsic ion channel activity. Direct demonstrations of the NPC on-off ion channel gating behavior were published for artificial conditions in 1995 and for intact living nuclei in 2002. This on-off switching/gating behavior can be interpreted in terms of a metastable energy barrier. In the hope of advancing nuclear electrophysiology, and to complement the other papers contained in this special issue of the journal, here I review some of the main technical, experimental, and theoretical issues of the field, with special focus on NPCs.

  12. Effect of pore geometry on the compressibility of a confined simple fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzanski, Christopher D.; Maximov, Max A.; Gor, Gennady Y.

    2018-02-01

    Fluids confined in nanopores exhibit properties different from the properties of the same fluids in bulk; among these properties is the isothermal compressibility or elastic modulus. The modulus of a fluid in nanopores can be extracted from ultrasonic experiments or calculated from molecular simulations. Using Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble, we calculated the modulus for liquid argon at its normal boiling point (87.3 K) adsorbed in model silica pores of two different morphologies and various sizes. For spherical pores, for all the pore sizes (diameters) exceeding 2 nm, we obtained a logarithmic dependence of fluid modulus on the vapor pressure. Calculation of the modulus at saturation showed that the modulus of the fluid in spherical pores is a linear function of the reciprocal pore size. The calculation of the modulus of the fluid in cylindrical pores appeared too scattered to make quantitative conclusions. We performed additional simulations at higher temperature (119.6 K), at which Monte Carlo insertions and removals become more efficient. The results of the simulations at higher temperature confirmed both regularities for cylindrical pores and showed quantitative difference between the fluid moduli in pores of different geometries. Both of the observed regularities for the modulus stem from the Tait-Murnaghan equation applied to the confined fluid. Our results, along with the development of the effective medium theories for nanoporous media, set the groundwork for analysis of the experimentally measured elastic properties of fluid-saturated nanoporous materials.

  13. The study of the relationship between pore structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The pore structure was determined by the N2 adsorption/desorption method below. 73 K and calculated using the BJH model. TEM characterizations show that the pores are ... Mesoporous TiO2 was obtained by calcination of the gel at 500°C for 6 h in air to remove the surfactant species. The samples were designated as ...

  14. Pore sub-features reproducibility in direct microscopic and Livescan images--their reliability in personal identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek; Sutton, Raul

    2010-07-01

    Third level features have been reported to have equal discriminatory power as second level details in establishing personal identification. Pore area, as an extended set third level sub-feature, has been studied by minimizing possible factors that could affect pore size. The reproducibility of pore surface area has been studied using direct microscopic and 500 ppi Livescan images. Direct microscopic pore area measurements indicated that the day on which the pore area was measured had a significant impact on the measured pore area. Pore area measurement was shown to be difficult to estimate in 500 ppi Livescan measurements owing to lack of resolution. It is not possible to reliably use pore area as an identifying feature in fingerprint examination.

  15. Effect of pore structure on capillary condensation in a porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinert, M R; Parlange, J-Y

    2009-02-01

    The Kelvin equation relates the equilibrium vapor pressure of a fluid to the curvature of the fluid-vapor interface and predicts that vapor condensation will occur in pores or irregularities that are sufficiently small. Past analyses of capillary condensation in porous systems with fractal structure have related the phenomenon to the fractal dimension of the pore volume distribution. Recent work, however, suggests that porous systems can exhibit distinct fractal dimensions that are characteristic of both their pore volume and the surfaces of the pores themselves. We show that both fractal dimensions have an effect on the thermodynamics that governs capillary condensation and that previous analyses can be obtained as limiting cases of a more general formulation.

  16. Fabrication of porous aluminium with directional pores through thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H; Kim, S Y; Park, J S

    2009-01-01

    Lotus-type porous metals were fabricated by unidirectional solidification in pressurized gas atmosphere. The elongated pres are evolved by insoluble gas resulted from the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt is solidified. Recently we developed a novel fabrication technique, in which gas compounds are used as a source of dissolving gas instead of the high pressure. In the present work this gas compound method was applied to fabrication of lotus aluminium. Hydrogen decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate and titanium hydride evolves cylindrical pores in aluminium. The porosity is about 20%. The pore size decreases and the pore number density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by increase in pore nucleation sites.

  17. Image-based numerical simulation of the local cyclic deformation behavior around cast pore in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Lihe, E-mail: dlhqian@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Cui, Xiaona; Liu, Shuai [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Chen, Minan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); Ma, Penghui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Xie, Honglan [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (China); Zhang, Fucheng [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Meng, Jiangying [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China)

    2016-12-15

    The local cyclic stress/strain responses around an actual, irregular pore in cast Hadfield steel under fatigue loading are investigated numerically, and compared with those around a spherical and an ellipsoidal pore. The actual pore-containing model takes into account the real shape of the pore imaged via high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and combines both isotropic hardening and Bauschinger effects by using the Chaboche's material model, which enables to realistically simulate the cyclic deformation behaviors around actual pore. The results show that the stress and strain energy density concentration factors (K{sub σ} and K{sub E}) around either an actual irregular pore or an idealized pore increase while the strain concentration factor (K{sub ε}) decreases slightly with increasing the number of fatigue cycles. However, all the three parameters, K{sub σ}, K{sub ε} and K{sub E}, around an actual pore are always several times larger than those around an idealized pore, whatever the number of fatigue cycles. It is suggested that the fatigue properties of cast pore-containing materials cannot be realistically evaluated with any idealized pore models. The feasibility of the methodology presented highlights the potential of its application in the micromechanical understanding of fatigue damage phenomena in cast pore-containing materials.

  18. Origin and Evolution of Reactive and Noble Gases Dissolved in Matrix Pore Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Waber, H. N. [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Smellie, J. A.T. [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    Reactive and noble gases dissolved in matrix pore water of low permeable crystalline bedrock were successfully extracted and characterized for the first time based on drillcore samples from the Olkiluoto investigation site (SW Finland). Interaction between matrix pore water and fracture groundwater occurs predominately by diffusion. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of gases dissolved in fracture groundwater are transmitted and preserved in the pore water. Absolute concentrations, their ratios and the stable carbon isotope signature of hydrocarbon gases dissolved in pore water give valuable indications about the evolution of these gases in the nearby flowing fracture groundwaters. Inert noble gases dissolved in matrix pore water and their isotopes combined with their in situ production and accumulation rates deliver information about the residence time of pore water. (author)

  19. Pore structure, mechanical properties and polymer characteristics of porous materials impregnated with methylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastrup, K.

    1976-05-01

    The pore structure of porous materials plays a decisive role with regard to many properties of the materials. One therefore expects property improvement due to impregnation to be mostly brought about as a result of pore structure modification. This supposition formed the basis for the project here presented, which had the main aim of investigating polymer impregnation in relation to pore structure. Objectives were: 1) to examine the pore structure of hardened cement paste, beech wood and porous glass before and after gas-phase impregnation with methyl-methacrylate monomer and in situ polymerization, 2) to investigate the influence of the pore structure on the molecular weight of the polymer, 3) to investigate the influence of the degree of pore filling on the elastic modulus, damping coefficient and bending strength. (author)

  20. Pore connectivity effects on solute transport in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.5 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuff; and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  1. Pore Connectivity Effects on Solute Transport in Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oinhong Hu

    2001-01-01

    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.05 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuft and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  2. Ebullition, Plant-Mediated Transport, and Subsurface Horizontal Water Flow Dominate Methane Transport in an Arctic Sphagnum Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R. A.; McCalley, C. K.; Logan, T. A.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.; Rich, V. I.; Saleska, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas methane from wetlands is of prime concern in the prediction of climate change - especially emission associated with thawing permafrost, which may drive a positive feedback loop of emission and warming. In addition to the biochemistry of methane production and consumption, wetland methane emission depends critically on the transport mechanisms by which methane moves through and out of the ecosystem. We therefore developed a model of methane biochemistry and transport for a sphagnum bog representing an intermediate permafrost thaw stage in Stordalen Mire, Sweden. In order to simultaneously reproduce measured profiles of both the concentrations and isotopic compositions of both methane and carbon dioxide in the peat pore water (Fig. 1) - as well as the surface methane emission - it was necessary for the model to include ebullition, plant-mediated transport via aerenchyma, and subsurface horizontal water flow. Diffusion of gas through the pore water was relatively unimportant. As a result, 90% of the produced methane escaped the wetland rather than being consumed by methanotrophic organisms in the near-surface pore water. Our model provides a comprehensive picture of methane emission from this bog site by quantifying the vertical profiles of: acetoclastic methanogenesis, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, methane oxidation, aerobic respiration, ebullition, plant-mediated transport, subsurface horizontal water flow, and diffusion.

  3. Inactivation of Mechanically Activated Piezo1 Ion Channels Is Determined by the C-Terminal Extracellular Domain and the Inner Pore Helix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Piezo proteins form mechanically activated ion channels that are responsible for our sense of light touch, proprioception, and vascular blood flow. Upon activation by mechanical stimuli, Piezo channels rapidly inactivate in a voltage-dependent manner through an unknown mechanism. Inactivation of Piezo channels is physiologically important, as it modulates overall mechanical sensitivity, gives rise to frequency filtering of repetitive mechanical stimuli, and is itself the target of numerous human disease-related channelopathies that are not well understood mechanistically. Here, we identify the globular C-terminal extracellular domain as a structure that is sufficient to confer the time course of inactivation and a single positively charged lysine residue at the adjacent inner pore helix as being required for its voltage dependence. Our results are consistent with a mechanism for inactivation that is mediated through voltage-dependent conformations of the inner pore helix and allosteric coupling with the C-terminal extracellular domain.

  4. A computational geometry approach to pore network construction for granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Joost H.; Sufian, Adnan; Narsilio, Guillermo A.; Russell, Adrian R.; Tordesillas, Antoinette

    2018-03-01

    Pore network construction provides the ability to characterize and study the pore space of inhomogeneous and geometrically complex granular media in a range of scientific and engineering applications. Various approaches to the construction have been proposed, however subtle implementational details are frequently omitted, open access to source code is limited, and few studies compare multiple algorithms in the context of a specific application. This study presents, in detail, a new pore network construction algorithm, and provides a comprehensive comparison with two other, well-established Delaunay triangulation-based pore network construction methods. Source code is provided to encourage further development. The proposed algorithm avoids the expensive non-linear optimization procedure in existing Delaunay approaches, and is robust in the presence of polydispersity. Algorithms are compared in terms of structural, geometrical and advanced connectivity parameters, focusing on the application of fluid flow characteristics. Sensitivity of the various networks to permeability is assessed through network (Stokes) simulations and finite-element (Navier-Stokes) simulations. Results highlight strong dependencies of pore volume, pore connectivity, throat geometry and fluid conductance on the degree of tetrahedra merging and the specific characteristics of the throats targeted by the merging algorithm. The paper concludes with practical recommendations on the applicability of the three investigated algorithms.

  5. Vitamin A transport and the transmembrane pore in the cell-surface receptor for plasma retinol binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhong

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids play diverse and crucial functions from embryogenesis to adulthood and are used as therapeutic agents in human medicine for eye and skin diseases, infections and cancer. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP is the principal and specific vitamin A carrier in the blood and binds vitamin A at 1:1 ratio. STRA6 is the high-affinity membrane receptor for RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. STRA6 null mice have severely depleted vitamin A reserves for vision and consequently have vision loss, even under vitamin A sufficient conditions. STRA6 null humans have a wide range of severe pathological phenotypes in many organs including the eye, brain, heart and lung. Known membrane transport mechanisms involve transmembrane pores that regulate the transport of the substrate (e.g., the gating of ion channels. STRA6 represents a new type of membrane receptor. How this receptor interacts with its transport substrate vitamin A and the functions of its nine transmembrane domains are still completely unknown. These questions are critical to understanding the molecular basis of STRA6's activities and its regulation. We employ acute chemical modification to introduce chemical side chains to STRA6 in a site-specific manner. We found that modifications with specific chemicals at specific positions in or near the transmembrane domains of this receptor can almost completely suppress its vitamin A transport activity. These experiments provide the first evidence for the existence of a transmembrane pore, analogous to the pore of ion channels, for this new type of cell-surface receptor.

  6. Computer-Mediated Collaborative Projects: Processes for Enhancing Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin-Bryant, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    Groups are a fundamental part of the business world. Yet, as companies continue to expand internationally, a major challenge lies in promoting effective communication among employees who work in varying time zones. Global expansion often requires group collaboration through computer systems. Computer-mediated groups lead to different communicative…

  7. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei-Ran; Kuang, Hao; Hu, Feng-Xia; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qing-Zhen; Liang, Fei-Xiang; Qiao, Kai-Ming; Li, Jia; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Lei; He, Min; Zhang, Ying; Zuo, Wen-Liang; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2017-10-01

    Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE) or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn-Co-Ge-In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE owing to a martensitic magnetostructural transition. The major finding is that the thermal expansion behavior can be totally controlled by modulating the crystallinity degree and phase transition from atomic scale. Self-compensation effect leads to ultra-low thermal expansion with a linear expansion coefficient as small as +0.68 × 10-6/K over a wide temperature range around room temperature. The present study opens an avenue to reach ZTE particularly from the large class of giant NTE materials based on phase transition.

  8. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Ran Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn–Co–Ge–In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE owing to a martensitic magnetostructural transition. The major finding is that the thermal expansion behavior can be totally controlled by modulating the crystallinity degree and phase transition from atomic scale. Self-compensation effect leads to ultra-low thermal expansion with a linear expansion coefficient as small as +0.68 × 10−6/K over a wide temperature range around room temperature. The present study opens an avenue to reach ZTE particularly from the large class of giant NTE materials based on phase transition.

  9. Pore size determination using normalized J-function for different hydraulic flow units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore size determination of hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the main challenging areas in reservoir studies. Precise estimation of this parameter leads to enhance the reservoir simulation, process evaluation, and further forecasting of reservoir behavior. Hence, it is of great importance to estimate the pore size of reservoir rocks with an appropriate accuracy. In the present study, a modified J-function was developed and applied to determine the pore radius in one of the hydrocarbon reservoir rocks located in the Middle East. The capillary pressure data vs. water saturation (Pc–Sw as well as routine reservoir core analysis include porosity (φ and permeability (k were used to develop the J-function. First, the normalized porosity (φz, the rock quality index (RQI, and the flow zone indicator (FZI concepts were used to categorize all data into discrete hydraulic flow units (HFU containing unique pore geometry and bedding characteristics. Thereafter, the modified J-function was used to normalize all capillary pressure curves corresponding to each of predetermined HFU. The results showed that the reservoir rock was classified into five separate rock types with the definite HFU and reservoir pore geometry. Eventually, the pore radius for each of these HFUs was determined using a developed equation obtained by normalized J-function corresponding to each HFU. The proposed equation is a function of reservoir rock characteristics including φz, FZI, lithology index (J*, and pore size distribution index (ɛ. This methodology used, the reservoir under study was classified into five discrete HFU with unique equations for permeability, normalized J-function and pore size. The proposed technique is able to apply on any reservoir to determine the pore size of the reservoir rock, specially the one with high range of heterogeneity in the reservoir rock properties.

  10. Pore-scale investigation of biomass plug development and propagation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Terri L; Scott Fogler, H

    2002-03-05

    Biomass plugging of porous media finds application in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. An understanding of biomass plugging of porous media was sought by using a porous glass micromodel through which biomass and nutrient were passed. This study describes the pore-scale physics of biomass plug propagation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under nutrient-rich conditions. It was found that, as the nutrient flowed through the micromodel, the initial biomass plug occurred at the nutrient-inoculum interface due to growth in the larger pore throats. As growth proceeded, biomass filled and closed these larger pore throats, until only isolated groupings of pore throats with smaller radii remained empty. As nutrient flow continued, a maximum pressure drop was reached. At the maximum pressure drop, the biomass yielded in a manner similar to a Bingham plastic to form a breakthrough channel consisting of a path of interconnected pore throats. The channel incorporated the isolated groupings of empty pore throats that had been present before breakthrough. As the nutrient flow continued, subsequent plugs developed as breakthrough channels refilled with biomass and in situ growth was stimulated in the region just downstream of the previous plug. The downstream plugs had a higher fraction of isolated groupings of empty pore throats, which can be attributed to depletion of nutrient downstream. When the next breakthrough channel formed, it incorporated these isolated groupings, causing the breakthrough channels to be branched. It was observed that the newly formed plug could be less stable with this higher fraction of empty pore throats and that the location of breakthrough channels changed in subsequent plugs. This change in breakthrough channel location could be attributed to the redistribution of nutrient flow and the changes in flowrate in the pore throats. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 77: 577-588, 2002; DOI 10.1002/bit.10044

  11. Multiscale pore structure and constitutive models of fine-grained rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Shields, E. A.; Yoon, H.; Milliken, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    A foundational concept of continuum poromechanics is the representative elementary volume or REV: an amount of material large enough that pore- or grain-scale fluctuations in relevant properties are dissipated to a definable mean, but smaller than length scales of heterogeneity. We determine 2D-equivalent representative elementary areas (REAs) of pore areal fraction of three major types of mudrocks by applying multi-beam scanning electron microscopy (mSEM) to obtain terapixel image mosaics. Image analysis obtains pore areal fraction and pore size and shape as a function of progressively larger measurement areas. Using backscattering imaging and mSEM data, pores are identified by the components within which they occur, such as in organics or the clastic matrix. We correlate pore areal fraction with nano-indentation, micropillar compression, and axysimmetic testing at multiple length scales on a terrigenous-argillaceous mudrock sample. The combined data set is used to: investigate representative elementary volumes (and areas for the 2D images); determine if scale separation occurs; and determine if transport and mechanical properties at a given length scale can be statistically defined. Clear scale separation occurs between REAs and observable heterogeneity in two of the samples. A highly-laminated sample exhibits fine-scale heterogeneity and an overlapping in scales, in which case typical continuum assumptions on statistical variability may break down. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  12. Fabrication of three-dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with hierarchical pore structures for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingchun [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Luo, Houyong [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhou, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ye, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zhaoyangye@ecust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Tan, Wensong [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lang, Meidong, E-mail: mdlang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The physical properties of tissue engineering scaffolds such as microstructures play important roles in controlling cellular behaviors and neotissue formation. Among them, the pore size stands out as a key determinant factor. In the present study, we aimed to fabricate porous scaffolds with pre-defined hierarchical pore sizes, followed by examining cell growth in these scaffolds. This hierarchical porous microstructure was implemented via integrating different pore-generating methodologies, including salt leaching and thermal induced phase separation (TIPS). Specifically, large (L, 200–300 μm), medium (M, 40–50 μm) and small (S, < 10 μm) pores were able to be generated. As such, three kinds of porous scaffolds with a similar porosity of ∼ 90% creating pores of either two (LS or MS) or three (LMS) different sizes were successfully prepared. The number fractions of different pores in these scaffolds were determined to confirm the hierarchical organization of pores. It was found that the interconnectivity varied due to the different pore structures. Besides, these scaffolds demonstrated similar compressive moduli under dry and hydrated states. The adhesion, proliferation, and spatial distribution of human fibroblasts within the scaffolds during a 14-day culture were evaluated with MTT assay and fluorescence microscopy. While all three scaffolds well supported the cell attachment and proliferation, the best cell spatial distribution inside scaffolds was achieved with LMS, implicating that such a controlled hierarchical microstructure would be advantageous in tissue engineering applications. Highlights: ► The scaffolds with dual-pore and triple-pore structures were fabricated. ► Triple-pore structure had better interconnectivity than dual-pore structures. ► Better cell migration and distribution were found on the triple-pore structures. ► The medium pore size (45–50 μm) was appropriate for cell migration. ► Scaffolds with triple-pore structure

  13. Coordinate expansion of murine hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments by SHIPi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Iyer, S; Akada, H; Neelam, S; Russo, C M; Chisholm, J D; Kerr, W G

    2015-03-01

    Promoting the expansion of adult stem cell populations offers the potential to ameliorate radiation or chemotherapy-induced bone marrow failure and allows for expedited recovery for patients undergoing these therapies. Previous genetic studies suggested a pivotal role for SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) in limiting the size of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. The aim of this study was to determine whether our recent development of small molecule SHIP1 inhibitors offers the potential for pharmacological expansion of the HSC compartment in vivo. We show here that treatment of mice with aminosteroid inhibitors of SHIP1 (SHIPi) more than doubles the size of the adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) compartment while simultaneously expanding the HSC pool sixfold. Consistent with its ability to target SHIP1 function in vivo, SHIPi also significantly increases plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, a growth factor that supports proliferation of HSC. Here, we show that SHIPi-induced G-CSF production mediates HSC and MSC expansion, as in vivo neutralization of G-CSF abrogates the SHIPi-induced expansion of both the HSC and MSC compartments. Due to its expansionary effect on adult stem cell compartments, SHIPi represents a potential novel strategy to improve declining stem cell function in both therapy induced and genetically derived bone marrow failure syndromes. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Origin of melting point depression for rare gas solids confined in carbon pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Kataoka, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    To obtain insights into the mechanism of the melting-point depression of rare gas solids confined in crystalline carbon pores, we examined the freezing and melting behavior of Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline pores of ordered mesoporous carbons as well as compressed exfoliated graphite compared to the amorphous pores of ordered mesoporous silicas, by means of X-ray diffraction. For the Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline carbon pores, there was no appreciable thermal hysteresis between freezing and melting. Furthermore, the position of the main diffraction peak did not change appreciably on freezing and melting. This strongly suggests that the liquids confined in the carbon pores form a multilayered structure parallel to the smooth walls. For the Xe and Ar confined to the amorphous silica pores, on the other hand, the position of the main diffraction peak shifted into higher scattering angle on freezing suggested that the density of the confined solid is distinctly larger than for the confined liquid. Using compressed exfoliated graphite with carbon walls of higher crystallinity, we observed that three-dimensional (3D) microcrystals of Xe confined in the slit-shaped pores melted to leave the unmelted bilayers on the pore walls below the bulk triple point. The lattice spacing of the 3D microcrystals confined is larger by ∼0.7% than that of the bilayer next to the pore walls in the vicinity of the melting point

  15. Origin of melting point depression for rare gas solids confined in carbon pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu, E-mail: morishi@chem.ous.ac.jp; Kataoka, Takaaki [Department of Chemistry, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan)

    2015-07-21

    To obtain insights into the mechanism of the melting-point depression of rare gas solids confined in crystalline carbon pores, we examined the freezing and melting behavior of Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline pores of ordered mesoporous carbons as well as compressed exfoliated graphite compared to the amorphous pores of ordered mesoporous silicas, by means of X-ray diffraction. For the Xe and Ar confined to the crystalline carbon pores, there was no appreciable thermal hysteresis between freezing and melting. Furthermore, the position of the main diffraction peak did not change appreciably on freezing and melting. This strongly suggests that the liquids confined in the carbon pores form a multilayered structure parallel to the smooth walls. For the Xe and Ar confined to the amorphous silica pores, on the other hand, the position of the main diffraction peak shifted into higher scattering angle on freezing suggested that the density of the confined solid is distinctly larger than for the confined liquid. Using compressed exfoliated graphite with carbon walls of higher crystallinity, we observed that three-dimensional (3D) microcrystals of Xe confined in the slit-shaped pores melted to leave the unmelted bilayers on the pore walls below the bulk triple point. The lattice spacing of the 3D microcrystals confined is larger by ∼0.7% than that of the bilayer next to the pore walls in the vicinity of the melting point.

  16. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Ran Shen; Hao Kuang; Feng-Xia Hu; Hui Wu; Qing-Zhen Huang; Fei-Xiang Liang; Kai-Ming Qiao; Jia Li; Jing Wang; Yao Liu; Lei Zhang; Min He; Ying Zhang; Wen-Liang Zuo; Ji-Rong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE) or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn–Co–Ge–In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE o...

  17. Condensation pressures in small pores: An analytical model based on density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, R.H.; Griffiths, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    Integral methods are used to derive an analytical expression describing fluid condensation pressures in slit pores bounded by parallel plane walls. To obtain this result, the governing equations of density functional theory (DFT) are integrated across the pore width assuming that fluid densities within adsorbed layers are spatially uniform. The thickness, density, and free energy of these layers are expressed as composite functions constructed from asymptotic limits applicable to small and large pores. By equating the total free energy of the adsorbed layers to that of a liquid-full pore, we arrive at a closed-form expression for the condensation pressure in terms of the pore size, surface tension, and Lennard-Jones parameters of the adsorbent and adsorbate molecules. The resulting equation reduces to the Kelvin equation in the large-pore limit. It further reproduces the condensation pressures computed by means of the full DFT equations for all pore sizes in which phase transitions are abrupt. Finally, in the limit of extremely small pores, for which phase transitions may be smooth and continuous, this simple analytical expression provides a good approximation to the apparent condensation pressure indicated by the steepest portion of the adsorption isotherm computed via DFT. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. Alumina ceramics prepared with new pore-forming agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Živcová

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous ceramics have a wide range of applications at all length scales, ranging from fi ltration membranes and catalyst supports to biomaterials (scaffolds for bone ingrowths and thermally or acoustically insulating bulk materials or coating layers. Organic pore-forming agents (PFAs of biological origin can be used to control porosity, pore size and pore shape. This work concerns the characterization and testing of several less common pore-forming agents (lycopodium, coffee, fl our and semolina, poppy seed, which are of potential interest from the viewpoint of size, shape or availability. The performance of these new PFAs is compared to that of starch, which has become a rather popular PFA for ceramics during the last decade. The PFAs investigated in this work are in the size range from 5 μm (rice starch to approximately 1 mm (poppy seed, all with more or less isometric shape. The burnout behavior of PFAs is studied by thermal analysis, i.e. thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. For the preparation of porous alumina ceramics from alumina suspensions containing PFAs traditional slip casting (into plaster molds and starch consolidation casting (using metal molds are used in this work. The resulting microstructures are investigated using optical microscopy, combined with image analysis, as well as other methods (Archimedes method of double-weighing in water, mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  19. Multiphysics pore-scale model for the rehydration of porous foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Dalen, van G.; Voda, A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a pore-scale model describing the multiphysics occurring during the rehydration of freeze-dried vegetables. This pore-scale model is part of a multiscale simulation model, which should explain the effect of microstructure and pre-treatments on the rehydration rate.

  20. Pore size distribution in tablets measured with a morphological sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2007-01-01

    Porosity and pore structure are important characteristics of tablets, since they influence mechanical strength and many other proper-ties. This paper proposes an alternative method for the characterization of pore structure based on image analysis of SEM micrographs. SEM images were made of sodium

  1. The effect of pozzolans and slag on the expansion of mortars cured at elevated temperature Part II: Microstructural and microchemical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M.D.A.; Hooton, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The microstructural and microchemical development of heat-cured Portland cement mortars containing silica fume, metakaolin, blast-furnace slag, and fly ash were analysed using pore solution analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Incorporation of these materials into the mixture modifies the composition of the C-S-H gel, the quantities of the hydration products, and the microstructure. Ettringite was formed during moist storage in all specimens, but was not accompanied by expansion where a sufficient amount of metakaolin, blast-furnace slag, or a suitable fly ash replaced a proportion of the Portland cement; replacement with silica fume was not as effective at eliminating expansion. The different behaviour of silica fume from the other supplementary cementing materials is believed to reflect a difference in the way ettringite is formed in the presence of Al 2 O 3 -bearing mineral admixtures

  2. Self-assembled isoporous block copolymer membranes with tuned pore sizes

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Haizhou

    2014-07-23

    The combination of nonsolvent-induced phase separation and the self-assembly of block copolymers can lead to asymmetric membranes with a thin highly ordered isoporous skin layer. The effective pore size of such membranes is usually larger than 15 nm. We reduced the pore size of these membranes by electroless gold deposition. We demonstrate that the pore sizes can be controlled precisely between 3 and 20 nm leading to a tunable sharp size discrimination in filtration processes. Besides fractionation of nanoparticles and biomaterials, controlled drug delivery is an attractive potential application. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Self-assembled isoporous block copolymer membranes with tuned pore sizes

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Haizhou; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Nunes, Suzanapereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The combination of nonsolvent-induced phase separation and the self-assembly of block copolymers can lead to asymmetric membranes with a thin highly ordered isoporous skin layer. The effective pore size of such membranes is usually larger than 15 nm. We reduced the pore size of these membranes by electroless gold deposition. We demonstrate that the pore sizes can be controlled precisely between 3 and 20 nm leading to a tunable sharp size discrimination in filtration processes. Besides fractionation of nanoparticles and biomaterials, controlled drug delivery is an attractive potential application. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pore size distribution and supercritical hydrogen adsorption in activated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, J. J.; Kabbour, H.; Vajo, J. J.; Ahn, C. C.; Fultz, B.

    2009-05-01

    Pore size distributions (PSD) and supercritical H2 isotherms have been measured for two activated carbon fiber (ACF) samples. The surface area and the PSD both depend on the degree of activation to which the ACF has been exposed. The low-surface-area ACF has a narrow PSD centered at 0.5 nm, while the high-surface-area ACF has a broad distribution of pore widths between 0.5 and 2 nm. The H2 adsorption enthalpy in the zero-coverage limit depends on the relative abundance of the smallest pores relative to the larger pores. Measurements of the H2 isosteric adsorption enthalpy indicate the presence of energy heterogeneity in both ACF samples. Additional measurements on a microporous, coconut-derived activated carbon are presented for reference.

  5. Pore size distribution and supercritical hydrogen adsorption in activated carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purewal, J J; Kabbour, H; Ahn, C C; Fultz, B; Vajo, J J

    2009-01-01

    Pore size distributions (PSD) and supercritical H 2 isotherms have been measured for two activated carbon fiber (ACF) samples. The surface area and the PSD both depend on the degree of activation to which the ACF has been exposed. The low-surface-area ACF has a narrow PSD centered at 0.5 nm, while the high-surface-area ACF has a broad distribution of pore widths between 0.5 and 2 nm. The H 2 adsorption enthalpy in the zero-coverage limit depends on the relative abundance of the smallest pores relative to the larger pores. Measurements of the H 2 isosteric adsorption enthalpy indicate the presence of energy heterogeneity in both ACF samples. Additional measurements on a microporous, coconut-derived activated carbon are presented for reference.

  6. Microporous silica prepared by organic templating: relationship between the molecular template and pore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Cao, Guozhong; Kale, Rahul P.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Lu, Yunfeng; Prabakar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Microporous silica materials with a controlled pore size and a narrow pore size distribution have been prepared by sol-gel processing using an organic-templating approach. Microporous networks were formed by pyrolytic removal of organic ligands (methacryloxypropyl groups) from organic/inorganic hybrid materials synthesized by copolymerization of 3-methacryloxypropylsilane (MPS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Molecular simulations and experimental measurements were conducted to examine the relationship between the microstructural characteristics of the porous silica (e.g., pore size, total pore volume, and pore connectivity) and the size and amount of organic template ligands added. Adsorption measurements suggest that the final porosity of the microporous silica is due to both primary pores (those present in the hybrid materials prior to pyrolysis) and secondary pores (those created by pyrolytic removal of organic templates). Primary pores were inaccessible to N(sub 2) at 77 K but accessible to CO(sub 2) at 195 K; secondary pores were accessible to both N(sub 2) (at 77 K) and CO(sub 2) (at 195 K) in adsorption measurements. Primary porosity decreases with the amount of organic ligands added because of the enhanced densification of MPS/TEOS hybrid materials as the mole fraction of trifunctional MPS moieties increases. pore volumes measured by nitrogen adsorption experiments at 77 K suggest that the secondary (template-derived) porosity exhibits a percolation behavior as the template concentration is increased. Gas permeation experiments indicate that the secondary pores are approximately 5(angstrom) in diameter, consistent with predictions based on molecular simulations

  7. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  8. Pore-size Distributions from Nitrogen Adsorption Revisited: Models Comparison with Controlled-pore Glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Matějová, Lenka; Schneider, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 2 (2006), s. 167-176 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/2116; GA ČR GD203/03/H140; GA AV ČR IAA4072404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pore size distribution * physical adsorption * standard nitrogen isotherm Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2006

  9. Significant Effect of Pore Sizes on Energy Storage in Nanoporous Carbon Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christine; Lin, Jianjian; Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Hossain, Shahriar A; Khan, Junayet Hossain; Ide, Yusuke; Kim, Jeonghun; Henzie, Joel; Wu, Kevin C-W; Kobayashi, Naoya; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2018-04-20

    Mesoporous carbon can be synthesized with good control of surface area, pore-size distribution, and porous architecture. Although the relationship between porosity and supercapacitor performance is well known, there are no thorough reports that compare the performance of numerous types of carbon samples side by side. In this manuscript, we describe the performance of 13 porous carbon samples in supercapacitor devices. We suggest that there is a "critical pore size" at which guest molecules can pass through the pores effectively. In this context, the specific surface area (SSA) and pore-size distribution (PSD) are used to show the point at which the pore size crosses the threshold of critical size. These measurements provide a guide for the development of new kinds of carbon materials for supercapacitor devices. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Conductometric Determination of Single Pores in Polyethyleneterephthalate Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Dörschel, B; Vetter, J E; Danziger, M; Hermsdorf, D

    2002-01-01

    Most of previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7\\cdot 10^{3} ions/cm^2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20 m was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed model. Thus, the de...

  11. Conductometric determination of single pores in polyethyleneterephthalate irradiated by heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Dörschel, B; Hermsdorf, D; Trofimov, V V; Vetter, J

    2002-01-01

    Most of the previous works devoted to the problem of track formation processes did not pay enough attention to direct measurement of the appearance of every individual pore in an array of many pores induced by the irradiation of polymer films with ions. Such measurements are not easy to carry out due to the extremely high electric resistance in the moment of pore opening. In this work the analysis of films irradiated with low particle fluences up to 3.7 centre dot 10 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 is described. Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Hostaphan with a thickness of 20 mu m was used. The samples were irradiated with Bi ions of 11.4 MeV/amu energy. Using optimized etching conditions and computer aided data evaluation, we obtained results, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and model calculations. The measured increase of conductivity beginning from the breakthrough of a single track up to the next pore opening in dependence on the etching time and the number of opened pores confirm the assumed...

  12. Application of resonant backscattering spectrometry for determination of pore structure changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paszti, F. E-mail: paszti@rmki.kfki.hu; Szilagyi, E.; Manuaba, A.; Battistig, G

    2000-03-01

    In the present work slightly oxidised porous silicon samples of columnar type were investigated by resonant elastic scattering using the 3045 keV resonance in the {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O reaction. If the incident energy is slightly above the resonance energy, a characteristic peak appears in the energy spectra of the backscattered particles. In porous material the individual ions travel fluctuating distance in pores, hence, the peak width depends on the structure of the sample. When changing the direction of the analysing beam to the sample, the width of the resonance peak changes in a special way characterising the angular distribution of the pore walls. This resonance method was applied to columnar type porous Si samples implanted by 4 MeV N ions at various tilt angles and fluences. It was shown that the beam tilts the pore walls by an angle proportional to the fluence and the sine of the angle between the beam and the pore walls. Meantime, the angular divergence of the pore walls also increases. The underlying mechanism is briefly discussed.

  13. Size Control of Porous Silicon-Based Nanoparticles via Pore-Wall Thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Emilie; Leonard, Camille; Kelly, Stefan J; Uhl, Amanda; Cozzan, Clayton; Andrew, Jennifer S

    2016-02-02

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals are very attractive for biomedical and electronic applications. Here a new process is presented to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with diameters smaller than 6 nm from a porous silicon template. These nanoparticles are formed using a pore-wall thinning approach, where the as-etched porous silicon layer is partially oxidized to silica, which is dissolved by a hydrofluoric acid solution, decreasing the pore-wall thickness. This decrease in pore-wall thickness leads to a corresponding decrease in the size of the nanocrystals that make up the pore walls, resulting in the formation of smaller nanoparticles during sonication of the porous silicon. Particle diameters were measured using dynamic light scattering, and these values were compared with the nanocrystallite size within the pore wall as determined from X-ray diffraction. Additionally, an increase in the quantum confinement effect is observed for these particles through an increase in the photoluminescence intensity of the nanoparticles compared with the as-etched nanoparticles, without the need for a further activation step by oxidation after synthesis.

  14. Microstructural characterization and pore structure analysis of nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.; Karthik, C.; Butt, D.P.; Windes, W.E.; Ubic, R.

    2011-01-01

    Graphite will be used as a structural and moderator material in next-generation nuclear reactors. While the overall nature of the production of nuclear graphite is well understood, the historic nuclear grades of graphite are no longer available. This paper reports the virgin microstructural characteristics of filler particles and macro-scale porosity in virgin nuclear graphite grades of interest to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. Optical microscopy was used to characterize filler particle size and shape as well as the arrangement of shrinkage cracks. Computer aided image analysis was applied to optical images to quantitatively determine the variation of pore structure, area, eccentricity, and orientation within and between grades. The overall porosity ranged between ∼14% and 21%. A few large pores constitute the majority of the overall porosity. The distribution of pore area in all grades was roughly logarithmic in nature. The average pore was best fit by an ellipse with aspect ratio of ∼2. An estimated 0.6-0.9% of observed porosity was attributed to shrinkage cracks in the filler particles. Finally, a preferred orientation of the porosity was observed in all grades.

  15. Influence of Pore Characteristics on the Fate and Distribution of Newly Added Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Y. Quigley

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pores create a transportation network within a soil matrix, which controls the flow of air, water, and movement of microorganisms. The flow of air, water, and movement of microbes, in turn, control soil carbon dynamics. Computed microtomography (μCT allows for the visualization of pore structure at micron scale, but quantitative information on contribution of pores to the fate and protection of soil carbon, essential for modeling, is still lacking. This study uses the natural difference between carbon isotopes of C3 and C4 plants to determine how the presence of pores of different sizes affects spatial distribution patterns of newly added carbon immediately after plant termination and then after 1-month incubation. We considered two contrasting soil structure scenarios: soil with the structure kept intact and soil for which the structure was destroyed via sieving. For the experiment, soil was collected from 0–15 cm depth at a 20-year continuous maize (Zea mays L., C4 plant experiment into which cereal rye (Secale cereale L., C3 plant was planted. Intact soil fragments (5–6 mm were procured after 3 months rye growth in a greenhouse. Pore characteristics of the fragments were determined through μCT imaging. Each fragment was sectioned and total carbon, total nitrogen, δ13C, and δ15N were measured. The results indicate that, prior to incubation, greater presence of 40–90 μm pores was associated with higher levels of C3 carbon, pointing to the positive role of these pores in transport of new C inputs. Nevertheless, after incubation, the association became negative, indicating greater losses of newly added C in such pores. These trends were statistically significant in destroyed-structure soil and numerical in intact-structure soil. In soils of intact-structures, after incubation, higher levels of total carbon were associated with greater abundance of 6.5–15 and 15–40 μm pores, indicating a lower carbon loss associated with these

  16. Radial symmetry in a chimeric glutamate receptor pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Timothy J.; Lopez, Melany N.; Huettner, James E.

    2014-02-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors comprise two conformationally different A/C and B/D subunit pairs. Closed channels exhibit fourfold radial symmetry in the transmembrane domain (TMD) but transition to twofold dimer-of-dimers symmetry for extracellular ligand binding and N-terminal domains. Here, to evaluate symmetry in open pores we analysed interaction between the Q/R editing site near the pore loop apex and the transmembrane M3 helix of kainate receptor subunit GluK2. Chimeric subunits that combined the GluK2 TMD with extracellular segments from NMDA receptors, which are obligate heteromers, yielded channels made up of A/C and B/D subunit pairs with distinct substitutions along M3 and/or Q/R site editing status, in an otherwise identical homotetrameric TMD. Our results indicate that Q/R site interaction with M3 occurs within individual subunits and is essentially the same for both A/C and B/D subunit conformations, suggesting that fourfold pore symmetry persists in the open state.

  17. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 (micro)m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 (micro)m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 (micro)m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 (micro)m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  18. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zelenak; M. Badanicova; D. Halamova; J. Cejka; A. Zukal; N. Murafa; G. Goerigk [P.J. Safarik University, Kosice (Slovak Republic)

    2008-10-15

    Three mesoporous silica materials with different pore sizes and pore connectivity were prepared and functionalized with aminopropyl (AP) ligands by post-synthesis treatment. The materials were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments. The carbon dioxide sorption on modified mesoporous molecular sieves was investigated by using of microbalances at 25{sup o}C, and the influence of pore size and pore architecture on CO{sub 2} sorption was discussed. The large pore silica, SBA-15, showed the largest carbon dioxide sorption capacity (1.5 mmol/g), relating to highest amine surface density in this material. On the other hand, three-dimensional accessibility of amine sites inside the pores of SBA-12 silica resulted in a faster response to CO{sub 2} uptake in comparison with MCM-41 and SBA-15 molecular sieves

  19. A simple semi-quantitative approach studying the in vivo degradation of regenerated silk fibroin scaffolds with different pore sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongwei; Chen, Zhongchun; Wen, Jianchuan; Jia, Minghui; Shao, Zhengzhong; Zhao, Xia

    2017-10-01

    The biocompatibility and in vivo degradation rate of biomaterials represent critical control points in the long-term success of scaffolds for tissue restoration. In this study, new three-dimensional (3D) regenerated silk fibroin scaffolds (RSFs) were prepared by the freezing-defrosting procedure, and then were implanted beneath the dorsal skin of rats. This study aims to develop a kinetic semi-quantitative approach to assess in vivo degradation rate and biocompatibility of this kind of RSFs with different pore sizes for the first time, and to evaluate the relationship between the biodegradation and tissue responses by measuring the thickness of residual scaffolds, fibrous capsules and infiltrated tissues through integrated techniques of histology, optical imaging and image analysis. Our results showed that scaffolds with both pore sizes (74.35±10.84μm and 139.23±44.93μm, respectively) were well tolerated by host animals and pore size was found to be the rate limiting factor to the biodegradation in the subcutaneous implantation model. In addition, the biodegradation of RSFs was inflammation-mediated to a certain degree and fibroblasts may play a critical role in this process. Overall, such semi-quantitative approach was demonstrated to be a simple and effective method to assess the in vivo degradation rate, and the prepared RSFs were presented to have promising potential in tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of pore fluid and frequency on elastic properties of greensand as interpreted using NMR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zakir; Mukerj, Tapan; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    dispersion. However, Biot’s theory does not fully explain the frequency dispersion of sedimentary rocks. Greensands are composed of a mixture of quartz and micro-porous glauconite grains. In greensand, it is possible that the contrast between flow in macro-pores and micro-pores within glauconites gives rise....... Biot’s critical frequency and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) T2 spectrum were combined to describe the differences in fluid flow within macro-pores and within micro-pores. NMR data show that Biot’s flow should occur only in large pores in the greensand while, Biot’s flow should not occur in micro-pores....... Differences of fluid flow in macro-pores and micro-pores pores are described as high frequency squirt flow in greensand....

  1. Fractal Characteristics of Pores in Taiyuan Formation Shale from Hedong Coal Field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunjie; Zeng, Fangui; Cai, Jianchao; Sheng, Guanglong; Xia, Peng; Zhang, Kun

    For the purpose of investigating the fractal characteristics of pores in Taiyuan formation shale, a series of qualitative and quantitative experiments were conducted on 17 shale samples from well HD-1 in Hedong coal field of North China. The results of geochemical experiments show that Total organic carbon (TOC) varies from 0.67% to 5.32% and the organic matters are in the high mature or over mature stage. The shale samples consist mainly of clay minerals and quartz with minor pyrite and carbonates. The FE-SEM images indicate that three types of pores, organic-related pores, inorganic-related pores and micro-fractures related pores, are developed well, and a certain number of intragranular pores are found inside quartz and carbonates formed by acid liquid corrosion. The pore size distributions (PSDs) broadly range from several to hundreds nanometers, but most pores are smaller than 10nm. As the result of different adsorption features at relative pressure (0-0.5) and (0.5-1) on the N2 adsorption isotherm, two fractal dimensions D1 and D2 were obtained with the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model. D1 and D2 vary from 2.4227 to 2.6219 and from 2.6049 to 2.7877, respectively. Both TOC and brittle minerals have positive effect on D1 and D2, whereas clay minerals, have a negative influence on them. The fractal dimensions are also influenced by the pore structure parameters, such as the specific surface area, BJH pore volume, etc. Shale samples with higher D1 could provide more adsorption sites leading to a greater methane adsorption capacity, whereas shale samples with higher D2 have little influence on methane adsorption capacity.

  2. Cdk1 and okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatases control assembly of nuclear pore complexes in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, Evgeny A; Gubanova, Natalia V; Kiseleva, Elena V; Hallberg, Einar

    2005-11-01

    Disassembly and reassembly of the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is one of the major events during open mitosis in higher eukaryotes. However, how this process is controlled by the mitotic machinery is not clear. To investigate this we developed a novel in vivo model system based on syncytial Drosophila embryos. We microinjected different mitotic effectors into the embryonic cytoplasm and monitored the dynamics of disassembly/reassembly of NPCs in live embryos using fluorescently labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) or in fixed embryos using electron microscopy and immunostaining techniques. We found that in live embryos Cdk1 activity was necessary and sufficient to induce disassembly of NPCs as well as their cytoplasmic mimics: annulate lamellae pore complexes (ALPCs). Cdk1 activity was also required for keeping NPCs and ALPCs disassembled during mitosis. In agreement recombinant Cdk1/cyclin B was able to induce phosphorylation and dissociation of nucleoporins from the NPCs in vitro. Conversely, reassembly of NPCs and ALPCs was dependent on the activity of protein phosphatases, sensitive to okadaic acid (OA). Our findings suggest a model where mitotic disassembly/reassembly of the NPCs is regulated by a dynamic equilibrium of Cdk1 and OA-sensitive phosphatase activities and provide evidence that mitotic phosphorylation mediates disassembly of the NPC.

  3. Influence of pore structure on solute transport in degraded and undegraded fen peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kleimeier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In peat soils, decomposition and degradation reduce the proportion of large pores by breaking down plant debris into smaller fragments and infilling inter-particle pore spaces. This affects water flow and solute migration which, in turn, influence reactive transport processes and biogeochemical functions. In this study we conducted flow-through reactor experiments to investigate the interplay between pore structure and solute transport in samples of undegraded and degraded peat collected in Canada and Germany, respectively. The pore size distributions and transport parameters were characterised using the breakthrough curve and two-region non-equilibrium transport model analyses for a non-reactive solute. The results of transport characterisation showed a higher fraction of immobile pores in the degraded peat with higher diffusive exchanges of solutes between the mobile and immobile pores associated with the dual-porosity structure. The rates of steady-state potential nitrate reduction were compared with pore fractions and exchange coefficients to investigate the influence of pore structure on the rates of nitrate reduction. The results indicated that the degraded peat has potential to provide the necessary boundary conditions to support nitrate removal and serves as a favourable substrate for denitrification, due to the nature of its pore structure and its lower organic carbon content compared to undegraded peat.

  4. Formation and decay of rudimentary penumbra around a pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroko [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan); Kitai, Reizaburo [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan); Otsuji, Kenichi, E-mail: watanabe@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Solar Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the evolution of a pore in the active region NOAA 10940 using the data obtained by the Hinode satellite on 2007 February 3. The pore we analyzed showed the formation of a rudimentary penumbra structure, succeeded by an abrupt disappearance after about 5 hr. The pore had an approximate radius of 3.5 Mm and a total magnetic flux of 3.0 × 10{sup 19} Mx, which is a little smaller than the necessary magnetic flux for penumbral formation supposed by Rucklidge et al. (1-1.5 × 10{sup 20} Mx). Our observation describes a rare phenomenon which was in the unstable phase between a pore and a sunspot. The area of the dark umbra gradually decreased when the rudimentary penumbral filaments formed the penumbral structure, meaning that the penumbra develops at the expense of the umbral magnetic flux. This statement was confirmed by a rough estimation of the magnetic flux variation observed by the Hinode Fe I magnetogram. Five hours after the formation phase, the decay phase began. In this decaying phase, multiple opposite polarity patches are found to appear in the exterior of the pore (a different location from the penumbra formation site). We interpret these opposite polarities as signatures of the horizontal magnetic field, which preferably appears in the course of the unstable reconfiguration of the magnetic field structure. During the course of the disappearance of the penumbra, the horizontal penumbral field seems to become vertical because of the dark umbral area that recovered by about 10%.

  5. Acoustic characteristics of sand sediment with circular cylindrical pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol; Lee, Kang-Il; Yoon, Suk-Wang

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic pressure transmission coefficient and the phase velocity are experimentally measured as functions of the frequency and the porosity in sand sediment slabs with circular cylindrical pores filled with water and air. They are also theoretically estimated with the modified Biot-Attenborough (MBA) model, which uses a separate treatment of the viscous and the thermal effects in a non-rigid porous medium with water- and air-filled cylindrical pores. In this study, the fast (first kind) wave and the slow (second kind) wave are not separated in the transmitted signals through a sediment slab without the circular cylindrical pores, but they are separated in the transmitted signals through a sediment slab with pores. Both the phase velocities and the transmission coefficients of the fast wave and the slow wave in the sediment slabs with water- and air-filled cylindrical pores are sensitive to the air and the water porosities. It is proposed that the fast and the slow waves have opposite behaviors for several acoustic characteristics. The generalized tortuosity factor and the dynamic shape factor are introduced from the acoustic characteristics of the fast wave. The experimental results show reasonable agreement with the theoretical results estimated with the MBA model. These results suggest the possibility of predicting the acoustic characteristics of a sediment as functions of arbitrary water and air porosities. This study may also be applicable to understanding acoustic wave propagations in a bubbly liquid sediment for underwater applications and in cancellous bone for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  6. Staphylococcal Bicomponent Pore-Forming Toxins: Targets for Prophylaxis and Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javad Aman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococccus aureus represents one of the most challenging human pathogens as well as a common colonizer of human skin and mucosal surfaces. S. aureus causes a wide range of diseases from skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI to debilitating and life-threatening conditions such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and necrotizing pneumonia. The range of diseases reflects the remarkable diversity of the virulence factors produced by this pathogen, including surface antigens involved in the establishment of infection and a large number of toxins that mediate a vast array of cellular responses. The staphylococcal toxins are generally believed to have evolved to disarm the innate immune system, the first line of defense against this pathogen. This review focuses on recent advances on elucidating the biological functions of S. aureus bicomponent pore-forming toxins (BCPFTs and their utility as targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention. These toxins are cytolytic to a variety of immune cells, primarily neutrophils, as well as cells with a critical barrier function. The lytic activity of BCPFTs towards immune cells implies a critical role in immune evasion, and a number of epidemiological studies and animal experiments relate these toxins to clinical disease, particularly SSTI and necrotizing pneumonia. Antibody-mediated neutralization of this lytic activity may provide a strategy for development of toxoid-based vaccines or immunotherapeutics for prevention or mitigation of clinical diseases. However, certain BCPFTs have been proposed to act as danger signals that may alert the immune system through an inflammatory response. The utility of a neutralizing vaccination strategy must be weighed against such immune-activating potential.

  7. Staphylococcal bicomponent pore-forming toxins: targets for prophylaxis and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, M Javad; Adhikari, Rajan P

    2014-03-04

    Staphylococccus aureus represents one of the most challenging human pathogens as well as a common colonizer of human skin and mucosal surfaces. S. aureus causes a wide range of diseases from skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) to debilitating and life-threatening conditions such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and necrotizing pneumonia. The range of diseases reflects the remarkable diversity of the virulence factors produced by this pathogen, including surface antigens involved in the establishment of infection and a large number of toxins that mediate a vast array of cellular responses. The staphylococcal toxins are generally believed to have evolved to disarm the innate immune system, the first line of defense against this pathogen. This review focuses on recent advances on elucidating the biological functions of S. aureus bicomponent pore-forming toxins (BCPFTs) and their utility as targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention. These toxins are cytolytic to a variety of immune cells, primarily neutrophils, as well as cells with a critical barrier function. The lytic activity of BCPFTs towards immune cells implies a critical role in immune evasion, and a number of epidemiological studies and animal experiments relate these toxins to clinical disease, particularly SSTI and necrotizing pneumonia. Antibody-mediated neutralization of this lytic activity may provide a strategy for development of toxoid-based vaccines or immunotherapeutics for prevention or mitigation of clinical diseases. However, certain BCPFTs have been proposed to act as danger signals that may alert the immune system through an inflammatory response. The utility of a neutralizing vaccination strategy must be weighed against such immune-activating potential.

  8. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikado, Hideto; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity

  9. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikado, Hideto [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko [Laboratory of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, BioMedical Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takai, Toshiro, E-mail: t-takai@juntendo.ac.jp [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity.

  10. Pore network quantification of sandstones under experimental CO2 injection using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrezueta, Edgar; González-Menéndez, Luís; Ordóñez-Casado, Berta; Olaya, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Automated-image identification and quantification of minerals, pores and textures together with petrographic analysis can be applied to improve pore system characterization in sedimentary rocks. Our case study is focused on the application of these techniques to study the evolution of rock pore network subjected to super critical CO2-injection. We have proposed a Digital Image Analysis (DIA) protocol that guarantees measurement reproducibility and reliability. This can be summarized in the following stages: (i) detailed description of mineralogy and texture (before and after CO2-injection) by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques using thin sections; (ii) adjustment and calibration of DIA tools; (iii) data acquisition protocol based on image capture with different polarization conditions (synchronized movement of polarizers); (iv) study and quantification by DIA that allow (a) identification and isolation of pixels that belong to the same category: minerals vs. pores in each sample and (b) measurement of changes in pore network, after the samples have been exposed to new conditions (in our case: SC-CO2-injection). Finally, interpretation of the petrography and the measured data by an automated approach were done. In our applied study, the DIA results highlight the changes observed by SEM and microscopic techniques, which consisted in a porosity increase when CO2 treatment occurs. Other additional changes were minor: variations in the roughness and roundness of pore edges, and pore aspect ratio, shown in the bigger pore population. Additionally, statistic tests of pore parameters measured were applied to verify that the differences observed between samples before and after CO2-injection were significant.

  11. Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultreys, Tom; Lin, Qingyang; Gao, Ying; Raeini, Ali Q.; AlRatrout, Ahmed; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2018-05-01

    Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock's relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography. First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-imbibition experiments on a single sample. In these experiments, the exact fluid distributions were not fully repeatable on a pore-by-pore basis, while the global properties of the fluid distribution were. Then two fractional flow experiments were used to validate a quasistatic pore network model. The model correctly predicted the fluid present in more than 75% of pores and throats in drainage and imbibition. To quantify what this means for the relevant global properties of the fluid distribution, we compare the main flow paths and the connectivity across the different pore sizes in the modeled and experimental fluid distributions. These essential topology characteristics matched well for drainage simulations, but not for imbibition. This suggests that the pore-filling rules in the network model we used need to be improved to make reliable predictions of imbibition. The presented analysis illustrates the potential of our methodology to systematically and robustly test two-phase flow models to aid in model development and calibration.

  12. Condensation pressures in small pores: An analytical model based on density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. H. Nilson; S. K. Griffiths

    1999-02-01

    Adsorption and condensation are critical to many applications of porous materials including filtration, separation, and the storage of gases. Integral methods are used to derive an analytical expression describing fluid condensation pressures in slit pores bounded by parallel plane walls. To obtain this result, the governing equations of Density Functional Theory (DFT) are integrated across the pore width assuming that fluid densities within adsorbed layers are spatially uniform. The thickness, density, and energy of these layers are expressed as composite functions constructed from asymptotic limits applicable to small and large pores. By equating the total energy of the adsorbed layers to that of a liquid-full pore, the authors arrive at a closed-form expression for the condensation pressure in terms of the pore size, surface tension, and Lennard-Jones parameters of the adsorbent and adsorbate molecules. The resulting equation reduces to the Kelvin equation in the large-pore limit. It further reproduces the condensation pressures computed by means of the full DFT equations for all pore sizes in which phase transitions are abrupt. Finally, in the limit of extremely small pores, for which phase transitions may be smooth and continuous, this simple analytical expression provides a good approximation to the apparent condensation pressure indicated by the steepest portion of the adsorption isotherm computed via DFT.

  13. Geometry-driven cell organization determines tissue growths in scaffold pores: consequences for fibronectin organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Joly

    Full Text Available To heal tissue defects, cells have to bridge gaps and generate new extracellular matrix (ECM. Macroporous scaffolds are frequently used to support the process of defect filling and thus foster tissue regeneration. Such biomaterials contain micro-voids (pores that the cells fill with their own ECM over time. There is only limited knowledge on how pore geometry influences cell organization and matrix production, even though it is highly relevant for scaffold design. This study hypothesized that 1 a simple geometric description predicts cellular organization during pore filling at the cell level and that 2 pore closure results in a reorganization of ECM. Scaffolds with a broad distribution of pore sizes (macroporous starPEG-heparin cryogel were used as a model system and seeded with primary fibroblasts. The strategies of cells to fill pores could be explained by a simple geometrical model considering cells as tensioned chords. The model matched qualitatively as well as quantitatively by means of cell number vs. open cross-sectional area for all pore sizes. The correlation between ECM location and cell position was higher when the pores were not filled with tissue (Pearson's coefficient ρ = 0.45±0.01 and reduced once the pores were closed (ρ = 0.26±0.04 indicating a reorganization of the cell/ECM network. Scaffold pore size directed the time required for pore closure and furthermore impacted the organization of the fibronectin matrix. Understanding how cells fill micro-voids will help to design biomaterial scaffolds that support the endogenous healing process and thus allow a fast filling of tissue defects.

  14. Impact of spatially correlated pore-scale heterogeneity on drying porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Oshri; Fantinel, Paolo; Lühder, Wieland; Goehring, Lucas; Holtzman, Ran

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of spatially-correlated heterogeneity on isothermal drying of porous media. We combine a minimal pore-scale model with microfluidic experiments with the same pore geometry. Our simulated drying behavior compares favorably with experiments, considering the large sensitivity of the emergent behavior to the uncertainty associated with even small manufacturing errors. We show that increasing the correlation length in particle sizes promotes preferential drying of clusters of large pores, prolonging liquid connectivity and surface wetness and thus higher drying rates for longer periods. Our findings improve our quantitative understanding of how pore-scale heterogeneity impacts drying, which plays a role in a wide range of processes ranging from fuel cells to curing of paints and cements to global budgets of energy, water and solutes in soils.

  15. Pore Network Modeling: Alternative Methods to Account for Trapping and Spatial Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    De La Garza Martinez, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Pore network models have served as a predictive tool for soil and rock properties with a broad range of applications, particularly in oil recovery, geothermal energy from underground reservoirs, and pollutant transport in soils and aquifers [39]. They rely on the representation of the void space within porous materials as a network of interconnected pores with idealised geometries. Typically, a two-phase flow simulation of a drainage (or imbibition) process is employed, and by averaging the physical properties at the pore scale, macroscopic parameters such as capillary pressure and relative permeability can be estimated. One of the most demanding tasks in these models is to include the possibility of fluids to remain trapped inside the pore space. In this work I proposed a trapping rule which uses the information of neighboring pores instead of a search algorithm. This approximation reduces the simulation time significantly and does not perturb the accuracy of results. Additionally, I included spatial correlation to generate the pore sizes using a matrix decomposition method. Results show higher relative permeabilities and smaller values for irreducible saturation, which emphasizes the effects of ignoring the intrinsic correlation seen in pore sizes from actual porous media. Finally, I implemented the algorithm from Raoof et al. (2010) [38] to generate the topology of a Fontainebleau sandstone by solving an optimization problem using the steepest descent algorithm with a stochastic approximation for the gradient. A drainage simulation is performed on this representative network and relative permeability is compared with published results. The limitations of this algorithm are discussed and other methods are suggested to create a more faithful representation of the pore space.

  16. Pore Network Modeling: Alternative Methods to Account for Trapping and Spatial Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    De La Garza Martinez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Pore network models have served as a predictive tool for soil and rock properties with a broad range of applications, particularly in oil recovery, geothermal energy from underground reservoirs, and pollutant transport in soils and aquifers [39]. They rely on the representation of the void space within porous materials as a network of interconnected pores with idealised geometries. Typically, a two-phase flow simulation of a drainage (or imbibition) process is employed, and by averaging the physical properties at the pore scale, macroscopic parameters such as capillary pressure and relative permeability can be estimated. One of the most demanding tasks in these models is to include the possibility of fluids to remain trapped inside the pore space. In this work I proposed a trapping rule which uses the information of neighboring pores instead of a search algorithm. This approximation reduces the simulation time significantly and does not perturb the accuracy of results. Additionally, I included spatial correlation to generate the pore sizes using a matrix decomposition method. Results show higher relative permeabilities and smaller values for irreducible saturation, which emphasizes the effects of ignoring the intrinsic correlation seen in pore sizes from actual porous media. Finally, I implemented the algorithm from Raoof et al. (2010) [38] to generate the topology of a Fontainebleau sandstone by solving an optimization problem using the steepest descent algorithm with a stochastic approximation for the gradient. A drainage simulation is performed on this representative network and relative permeability is compared with published results. The limitations of this algorithm are discussed and other methods are suggested to create a more faithful representation of the pore space.

  17. Structural and Quantitative Investigation of Perovskite Pore Filling in Mesoporous Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shany Gamliel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite light absorbers have attracted much attention in the field of solar cells due to their optoelectronic characteristics that enable high power conversion efficiencies. Perovskite-based solar cells’ efficiency has increased dramatically from 3.8% to more than 20% in just a few years, making them a promising low-cost alternative for photovoltaic applications. The deposition of perovskite into a mesoporous metal oxide is an influential factor affecting solar cell performance. Full coverage and pore filling into the porous metal oxide are important issues in the fabrication of highly-efficient mesoporous perovskite solar cells. In this work, we carry out a structural and quantitative investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 pore filling deposited via sequential two-step deposition into two different mesoporous metal oxides—TiO2 and Al2O3. We avoid using a hole conductor in the perovskite solar cells studied in this work to eliminate undesirable end results. Filling oxide pores with perovskite was characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM on cross-sectional focused ion beam (FIB lamellae. Complete pore filling of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite into the metal oxide pores was observed down to X-depth, showing the presence of Pb and I inside the pores. The observations reported in this work are particularly important for mesoporous Al2O3 perovskite solar cells, as pore filling is essential for the operation of this solar cell structure. This work presents structural and quantitative proof of complete pore filling into mesoporous perovskite-based solar cells, substantiating their high power conversion efficiency.

  18. Signature and Pathophysiology of Non-canonical Pores in Voltage-Dependent Cation Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Katharina; Voets, Thomas; Vriens, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Opening and closing of voltage-gated cation channels allows the regulated flow of cations such as Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) across cell membranes, which steers essential physiological processes including shaping of action potentials and triggering Ca(2+)-dependent processes. Classical textbooks describe the voltage-gated cation channels as membrane proteins with a single, central aqueous pore. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated for the existence of additional ion permeation pathways in this group of cation channels, distinct from the central pore, which here we collectively name non-canonical pores. Whereas the first non-canonical pores were unveiled only after making specific point mutations in the voltage-sensor region of voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels, recent evidence indicates that they may also be functional in non-mutated channels. Moreover, several channelopathies have been linked to mutations that cause the appearance of a non-canonical ion permeation pathway as a new pathological mechanism. This review provides an integrated overview of the biophysical properties of non-canonical pores described in voltage-dependent cation channels (KV, NaV, Cav, Hv1, and TRPM3) and of the (patho)physiological impact of opening of such pores.

  19. Free energies of stable and metastable pores in lipid membranes under tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Otter, Wouter K

    2009-11-28

    The free energy profile of pore formation in a lipid membrane, covering the entire range from a density fluctuation in an intact bilayer to a large tension-stabilized pore, has been calculated by molecular dynamics simulations with a coarse-grained lipid model. Several fixed elongations are used to obtain the Helmholtz free energy as a function of pore size for thermodynamically stable, metastable, and unstable pores, and the system-size dependence of these elongations is discussed. A link to the Gibbs free energy at constant tension, commonly known as the Litster model, is established by a Legendre transformation. The change of genus upon pore formation is exploited to estimate the saddle-splay modulus or Gaussian curvature modulus of the membrane leaflets. Details are provided of the simulation approach, which combines the potential of mean constraint force method with a reaction coordinate based on the local lipid density.

  20. Pore-size distribution and compressibility of coarse sandy subsoil with added biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, E.; Larsen, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural production on coarse sandy soil is constrained by the restricted growth of roots, and poor water and nutrient retention. Amending the soil with biochar can reduce these problems, but the processes involved are not known in detail. We investigated in the laboratory...... the effects of two fine-grained gasification biochars made of straw (LTST) and other materials (LTSN) and of one fast pyrolysis straw biochar (FPST) on pore-size distribution and soil compressibility when added to coarse sandy subsoil. Water retention and therefore pore-size distribution were affected...... systematically. All biochars converted drainable pore space with pore diameters in the range 60–300 µm into water-retaining pores of size 0.2–60 µm, which was taken as an estimate of available water capacity (AWC). Effects were linear over the whole range of biochar (0–4% by mass). The effect of LTST and LTSN...

  1. Self-assembled isoporous block copolymer membranes with tuned pore sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haizhou; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Nunes, Suzana P; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-09-15

    The combination of nonsolvent-induced phase separation and the self-assembly of block copolymers can lead to asymmetric membranes with a thin highly ordered isoporous skin layer. The effective pore size of such membranes is usually larger than 15 nm. We reduced the pore size of these membranes by electroless gold deposition. We demonstrate that the pore sizes can be controlled precisely between 3 and 20 nm leading to a tunable sharp size discrimination in filtration processes. Besides fractionation of nanoparticles and biomaterials, controlled drug delivery is an attractive potential application. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Pore system characteristics of the Permian transitional shale reservoir in the Lower Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Cao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Permian shale, a set of transitional shale reservoir, is considered to be an important shale gas exploration target in the Lower Yangtze region. Due to little research conducted on the pore system characteristic and its controlling factors of the shale gas reservoir, SEM, FE-SEM, low-pressure N2 adsorption, and mercury intrusion tests were carried out on the Permian shales from the outcrop and HC well in the southern Anhui. The results show that the Permian shales mainly consist of organic matter, quartz, illite, calcite, and pyrite, of which pyrite occurs as framboids coexisting with organic matter and the organic matter is distributed in shales in stripped, interstitial, thin film and shell shapes. The basic pore types are inorganic mineral pore (intercrystalline pore, intergranular edge pore, intergranular pore, and interlayer pore in clay minerals and the organic pore and microfracture, of which organic pore and microfracture are the dominating pore types. In shale, organic pores are not developed at all in some organic grains but are well developed in others, which may be related to the types of and maceral compositions of kerogen. Under tectonic stress, shale rocks could develop mylonitization phenomenon exhibiting organic grains well blend with clay minerals, and produce a mass of microfractures and nanopores between organic matter grains and clay minerals. Mercury intrusion tests show that the shale is mainly composed of micropore and transition pore with high porosity, good pore connectivity and high efficiency of mercury withdraw, while the shale that mainly dominated by mesopore and macropore has a low porosity, poor pore connectivity, and low efficiency of the mercury withdraw. The volume percentage of mesopore and marcopore is increasing with the increase of quartz, and that of micropore and transition pore has a decreased tendency along with the increase of soluble organic matter (S1. Organic matter is the main contributor to

  3. Optimization of hybrid laser arc welding of 42CrMo steel to suppress pore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Hunan University, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Changsha (China); Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, College of Mechanical Engineering, Yueyang (China); Chen, Genyu; Mao, Shuai; Zhou, Cong; Chen, Fei [Hunan University, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Changsha (China)

    2017-06-15

    The hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) of 42CrMo quenched and tempered steel was conducted. The effect of the processing parameters, such as the relative positions of the laser and the arc, the shielding gas flow rate, the defocusing distance, the laser power, the wire feed rate and the welding speed, on the pore formation was analyzed, the morphological characteristics of the pores were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the majority of the pores were invasive. The pores formed at the leading a laser (LA) welding process were fewer than those at the leading a arc (AL) welding process. Increasing the shielding gas flow rate could also facilitate the reduction of pores. The laser power and the welding speed were two key process parameters to reduce the pores. The flow of the molten pool, the weld cooling rate and the pore escaping rate as a result of different parameters could all affect pore formation. An ideal pore-free weld was obtained for the optimal welding process parameters. (orig.)

  4. Pore characteristics of shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data was acquired from both the drillings and core samples of the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations' marine shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin by means of numerous specific experimental methods such as organic geochemistry, organic petrology, and pore analyses. Findings helped determine the characteristics of organic matter, total porosity, microscopic pore, and pore structure. The results show that the Lower Paleozoic marine shale in the south of the Sichuan Basin are characterized by high total organic carbon content (most TOC>2.0%, high thermal maturity level (RO = 2.3%–3.8%, and low total porosity (1.16%–6.87%. The total organic carbon content and thermal maturity level of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale are higher than those of the Longmaxi Formation shale, while the total porosity of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale is lower than that of the Longmaxi Formation shale. There exists intergranular pore, dissolved pore, crystal particle pore, particle edge pore, and organic matter pore in the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi Formation and Longmaxi Formation shale. There are more micro-nano pores developed in the Longmaxi Formation shales than those in the Qiongzhusi Formation shales. Intergranular pores, dissolved pores, as well as organic matter pores, are the most abundant, these are primary storage spaces for shale gas. The microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shales are mainly composed of micropores, mesopores, and a small amount of macropores. The micropore and mesopore in the Qiongzhusi Formation shale account for 83.92% of the total pore volume. The micropore and mesopore in the Longmaxi Formation shale accounts for 78.17% of the total pore volume. Thus, the micropores and mesopores are the chief components of microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin.

  5. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  6. Lennard-Jones fluids in two-dimensional nano-pores. Multi-phase coexistence and fluid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    We present a number of fundamental findings on the wetting behaviour of nano-pores. A popular model for fluid confinement is a one-dimensional (1D) slit pore formed by two parallel planar walls and it exhibits capillary condensation (CC): a first-order phase transition from vapour to capillary-liquid (Kelvin shift). Capping such a pore at one end by a third orthogonal wall forms a prototypical two-dimensional (2D) pore. We show that 2D pores possess a wetting temperature such that below this temperature CC remains of first order, above it becomes a continuous phase transition manifested by a slab of capillary-liquid filling the pore from the capping wall. Continuous CC exhibits hysteresis and can be preceded by a first-order capillary prewetting transition. Additionally, liquid drops can form in the corners of the 2D pore (remnant of 2D wedge prewetting). The three fluid phases, vapour, capillary-liquid slab and corner drops, can coexist at the pore triple point. Our model is based on the statistical mechanics of fluids in the density functional formulation. The fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions are dispersive. We analyze in detail the microscopic fluid structure, isotherms and full phase diagrams. Our findings also suggest novel ways to control wetting of nano-pores. We are grateful to the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 for support.

  7. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS INCLUDING A ROLLER WITH PORES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

  8. Silicon pore optics for future x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wallace, Kotska

    2017-01-01

    arcsec or better. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is being developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor...... industry. We present the recent upgrades made to the manufacturing processes and equipment, ranging from the manufacture of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration, and results from first vibration tests. The performance of the mirror modules is tested...

  9. Catalytic conversion reactions mediated by single-file diffusion in linear nanopores: hydrodynamic versus stochastic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, David M; Wang, Jing; Wendel, Joseph H; Liu, Da-Jiang; Pruski, Marek; Evans, James W

    2011-03-21

    We analyze the spatiotemporal behavior of species concentrations in a diffusion-mediated conversion reaction which occurs at catalytic sites within linear pores of nanometer diameter. Diffusion within the pores is subject to a strict single-file (no passing) constraint. Both transient and steady-state behavior is precisely characterized by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a spatially discrete lattice-gas model for this reaction-diffusion process considering various distributions of catalytic sites. Exact hierarchical master equations can also be developed for this model. Their analysis, after application of mean-field type truncation approximations, produces discrete reaction-diffusion type equations (mf-RDE). For slowly varying concentrations, we further develop coarse-grained continuum hydrodynamic reaction-diffusion equations (h-RDE) incorporating a precise treatment of single-file diffusion in this multispecies system. The h-RDE successfully describe nontrivial aspects of transient behavior, in contrast to the mf-RDE, and also correctly capture unreactive steady-state behavior in the pore interior. However, steady-state reactivity, which is localized near the pore ends when those regions are catalytic, is controlled by fluctuations not incorporated into the hydrodynamic treatment. The mf-RDE partly capture these fluctuation effects, but cannot describe scaling behavior of the reactivity.

  10. Pore structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified porous aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarchuk Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous aluminum alloys produced by the metal-gas eutectic method or GASAR process need to be performed under a certain pressure of hydrogen, and to carry over melt to a tailor-made apparatus that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of the melt, and then the quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front are usually formed. In the research, the effects of processing parameters (saturation pressure, solidification pressure, temperature, and holding time on the pore structure and porosity of porous aluminum alloys were analyzed. The mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys were studied by the compressive tests, and the advantages of the porous structure were indicated. By using the GASAR method, pure aluminum, Al-3wt.%Mg, Al-6wt.%Mg and Al-35wt.%Mg alloys with oriented pores have been successfully produced under processing conditions of varying gas pressure, and the relationship between the final pore structure and the solidification pressure, as well as the influences of Mg quantity on the pore size, porosity and mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy were investigated. The results show that a higher pressure of solidification tends to yield smaller pores in aluminum and its alloys. In the case of Al-Mg alloys, it was proved that with the increasing of Mg amount, the mechanical properties of the alloys sharply deteriorate. However, since Al-3%Mg and Al-6wt.%Mg alloys are ductile metals, their porous samples have greater compressive strength than that of the dense samples due to the existence of pores. It gives the opportunity to use them in industry at the same conditions as dense alloys with savings in weight and material consumption.

  11. Electronic thermal conductivity of 2-dimensional circular-pore metallic nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Cong-Liang; Lin, Zi-Zhen; Luo, Dan-Chen; Huang, Zun

    2016-01-01

    The electronic thermal conductivity (ETC) of 2-dimensional circular-pore metallic nanoporous material (MNM) was studied here for its possible applications in thermal cloaks. A simulation method based on the free-electron-gas model was applied here without considering the quantum effects. For the MNM with circular nanopores, there is an appropriate nanopore size for thermal conductivity tuning, while a linear relationship exists for this size between the ETC and the porosity. The appropriate nanopore diameter size will be about one times that of the electron mean free path. The ETC difference along different directions would be less than 10%, which is valuable when estimating possible errors, because the nanoscale-material direction could not be controlled during its application. Like nanoparticles, the ETC increases with increasing pore size (diameter for nanoparticles) while the porosity was fixed, until the pore size reaches about four times that of electron mean free path, at which point the ETC plateaus. The specular coefficient on the surface will significantly impact the ETC, especially for a high-porosity MNM. The ETC can be decreased by 30% with a tuning specular coefficient. - Highlights: • For metallic nanoporous materials, there is an appropriate pore size for thermal conductivity tuning. • ETC increases with increasing pore size until pore size reaches about four times EMFP. • The ETC difference between different directions will be less than 10%. • The ETC can be decreased by 30% with tuning specular coefficient.

  12. LINEAR KERNEL SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MODELING PORE-WATER PRESSURE RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAMARUZAMAN W. YUSOF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pore-water pressure responses are vital in many aspects of slope management, design and monitoring. Its measurement however, is difficult, expensive and time consuming. Studies on its predictions are lacking. Support vector machines with linear kernel was used here to predict the responses of pore-water pressure to rainfall. Pore-water pressure response data was collected from slope instrumentation program. Support vector machine meta-parameter calibration and model development was carried out using grid search and k-fold cross validation. The mean square error for the model on scaled test data is 0.0015 and the coefficient of determination is 0.9321. Although pore-water pressure response to rainfall is a complex nonlinear process, the use of linear kernel support vector machine can be employed where high accuracy can be sacrificed for computational ease and time.

  13. A simple shape-free model for pore-size estimation with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ken; Hyodo, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is one of the methods for estimating pore size in insulating materials. We present a shape-free model to be used conveniently for such analysis. A basic model in classical picture is modified by introducing a parameter corresponding to an effective size of the positronium (Ps). This parameter is adjusted so that its Ps-lifetime to pore-size relation merges smoothly with that of the well-established Tao-Eldrup model (with modification involving the intrinsic Ps annihilation rate) applicable to very small pores. The combined model, i.e., modified Tao-Eldrup model for smaller pores and the modified classical model for larger pores, agrees surprisingly well with the quantum-mechanics based extended Tao-Eldrup model, which deals with Ps trapped in and thermally equilibrium with a rectangular pore.

  14. A simple shape-free model for pore-size estimation with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ken; Hyodo, Toshio

    2013-06-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is one of the methods for estimating pore size in insulating materials. We present a shape-free model to be used conveniently for such analysis. A basic model in classical picture is modified by introducing a parameter corresponding to an effective size of the positronium (Ps). This parameter is adjusted so that its Ps-lifetime to pore-size relation merges smoothly with that of the well-established Tao-Eldrup model (with modification involving the intrinsic Ps annihilation rate) applicable to very small pores. The combined model, i.e., modified Tao-Eldrup model for smaller pores and the modified classical model for larger pores, agrees surprisingly well with the quantum-mechanics based extended Tao-Eldrup model, which deals with Ps trapped in and thermally equilibrium with a rectangular pore.

  15. Effects of the soil pore network architecture on the soil's physical functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Sarah; Beckers, Eléonore; Léonard, Angélique; Degré, Aurore

    2017-04-01

    The soil fluid movement's prediction is of major interest within an agricultural or environmental scope because many processes depend ultimately on the soil fluids dynamic. It is common knowledge that the soil microscopic pore network structure governs the inner-soil convective fluids flow. There isn't, however, a general methodthat consider the pore network structure as a variable in the prediction of thecore scale soil's physical functionalities. There are various possible representations of the microscopic pore network: sample scale averaged structural parameters, extrapolation of theoretic pore network, or use of all the information available by modeling within the observed pore network. Different representations implydifferent analyzing methodologies. To our knowledge, few studies have compared the micro-and macroscopic soil's characteristics for the same soil core sample. The objective of our study is to explore the relationship between macroscopic physical properties and microscopic pore network structure. The saturated hydraulic conductivity, the air permeability, the retention curve, and others classical physical parameters were measured for ten soil samples from an agricultural field. The pore network characteristics were quantified through the analyses of X-ray micro-computed tomographic images(micro-CT system Skyscan-1172) with a voxel size of 22 µm3. Some of the first results confirmed what others studies had reported. Then, the comparison between macroscopic properties and microscopic parameters suggested that the air movements depended mostly on the pore connectivity and tortuosity than on the total porosity volume. We have also found that the fractal dimension calculated from the X-ray images and the fractal dimension calculated from the retention curve were significantly different. Our communication will detailthose results and discuss the methodology: would the results be similar with a different voxel size? What are the calculated and measured

  16. The hydraulic conductivity of sediments: A pore size perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, X.W.

    2017-12-06

    This article presents an analysis of previously published hydraulic conductivity data for a wide range of sediments. All soils exhibit a prevalent power trend between the hydraulic conductivity and void ratio. Data trends span 12 orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity and collapse onto a single narrow trend when the hydraulic conductivity data are plotted versus the mean pore size, estimated using void ratio and specific surface area measurements. The sensitivity of hydraulic conductivity to changes in the void ratio is higher than the theoretical value due to two concurrent phenomena: 1) percolating large pores are responsible for most of the flow, and 2) the larger pores close first during compaction. The prediction of hydraulic conductivity based on macroscale index parameters in this and similar previous studies has reached an asymptote in the range of kmeas/5≤kpredict≤5kmeas. The remaining uncertainty underscores the important role of underlying sediment characteristics such as pore size distribution, shape, and connectivity that are not measured with index properties. Furthermore, the anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity cannot be recovered from scalar parameters such as index properties. Overall, results highlight the robustness of the physics inspired data scrutiny based Hagen–Poiseuille and Kozeny-Carman analyses.

  17. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  18. Dispersion upscaling from a pore scale characterization of Lagrangian velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuban, Régis; de Anna, Pietro; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2013-04-01

    Mixing and reactive transport are primarily controlled by the interplay between diffusion, advection and reaction at pore scale. Yet, how the distribution and spatial correlation of the velocity field at pore scale impact these processes is still an open question. Here we present an experimental investigation of the distribution and correlation of pore scale velocities and its relation with upscaled dispersion. We use a quasi two-dimensional (2D) horizontal set up, consisting of two glass plates filled with cylinders representing the grains of the porous medium : the cell is built by soft lithography technique, wich allows for full control of the system geometry. The local velocity field is quantified from particle tracking velocimetry using microspheres that are advected with the pore scale flow. Their displacement is purely advective, as the particle size is chosen large enough to avoid diffusion. We thus obtain particle trajectories as well as lagrangian velocities in the entire system. The measured velocity field shows the existence of a network of preferential flow paths in channels with high velocities, as well as very low velocity in stagnation zones, with a non Gaussian distribution. Lagrangian velocities are long range correlated in time, which implies a non-fickian scaling of the longitudinal variance of particle positions. To upscale this process we develop an effective transport model, based on correlated continous time random walk, which is entirely parametrized by the pore scale velocity distribution and correlation. The model predictions are compared with conservative tracer test data for different Peclet numbers. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of different pore geometries on the distribution and correlation of Lagrangian velocities and we discuss the link between these properties and the effective dispersion behavior.

  19. Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. María Gabriela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerella cingulata (Stonem. Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the septal pores, appeared as globose structures which were more electron dense than the occlusions plugging the septal pore.

  20. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong

    2015-12-28

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil "electrical sensitivity." Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems. © ASCE.

  1. Fines classification based on sensitivity to pore-fluid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil “electrical sensitivity.” Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems.

  2. Membrane separation using nano-pores; Nano poa wo riyoshita makubunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, S. [Fukuoka Women`s Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    The membrane constituted by nano-pore only (NF membrane) is sold on the market recently as the membranes used for the matter separations in addition to the reverse osmosis membrane for changing seawater into fresh water, dialysis membrane used for artificial kidney, ultrafiltration membrane used for the separation and condensation of protein and the micro-filter used for removing microbe. It is possible for the membrane constituted by nano-pore to remove the virus with the size being from 20 to 300 nm. In this paper, the pore structure of NF membrane is explained, and then its application as the membrane for removing virus is described. Especially, it is possible for NF membrane to remove the virus with smallest size (parvovirus, etc.), prion albumen (bovine serum pathogen, etc.) and the special gene such as cancer, and it is further applied to the condensation and refining of virus and genes. The broader application of nano-pore to the control of the transportation of micro-particles in the future is expected. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Distinction between Pore Assembly by Staphylococcal α-Toxin versus Leukotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Joubert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The staphylococcal bipartite leukotoxins and the homoheptameric α-toxin belong to the same family of β-barrel pore-forming toxins despite slight differences. In the α-toxin pore, the N-terminal extremity of each protomer interacts as a deployed latch with two consecutive protomers in the vicinity of the pore lumen. N-terminal extremities of leukotoxins as seen in their three-dimensional structures are heterogeneous in length and take part in the β-sandwich core of soluble monomers. Hence, the interaction of these N-terminal extremities within structures of adjacent monomers is questionable. We show here that modifications of their N-termini by two different processes, using fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST and bridging of the N-terminal extremity to the adjacent β-sheet via disulphide bridges, are not deleterious for biological activity. Therefore, bipartite leukotoxins do not need a large extension of their N-terminal extremities to form functional pores, thus illustrating a microheterogeneity of the structural organizations between bipartite leukotoxins and α-toxin.

  4. Separating attoliter-sized compartments using fluid pore-spanning lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Thomas D; Carnarius, Christian; Kocun, Marta; Janshoff, Andreas; Steinem, Claudia

    2011-09-27

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is a porous material having aligned cylindrical compartments with 55-60 nm diameter pores, and being several micrometers deep. A protocol was developed to generate pore-spanning fluid lipid bilayers separating the attoliter-sized compartments of the nanoporous material from the bulk solution, while preserving the optical transparency of the AAO. The AAO was selectively functionalized by silane chemistry to spread giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) resulting in large continuous membrane patches covering the pores. Formation of fluid single lipid bilayers through GUV rupture could be readily observed by fluorescence microscopy and further supported by conservation of membrane surface area, before and after GUV rupture. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching gave low immobile fractions (5-15%) and lipid diffusion coefficients similar to those found for bilayers on silica. The entrapment of molecules within the porous underlying cylindrical compartments, as well as the exclusion of macromolecules from the nanopores, demonstrate the barrier function of the pore-spanning membranes and could be investigated in three-dimensions using confocal laser scanning fluorescence imaging. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Does query expansion limit our learning? A comparison of social-based expansion to content-based expansion for medical queries on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentoney, Christopher; Harwell, Jeff; Leroy, Gondy

    2014-01-01

    Searching for medical information online is a common activity. While it has been shown that forming good queries is difficult, Google's query suggestion tool, a type of query expansion, aims to facilitate query formation. However, it is unknown how this expansion, which is based on what others searched for, affects the information gathering of the online community. To measure the impact of social-based query expansion, this study compared it with content-based expansion, i.e., what is really in the text. We used 138,906 medical queries from the AOL User Session Collection and expanded them using Google's Autocomplete method (social-based) and the content of the Google Web Corpus (content-based). We evaluated the specificity and ambiguity of the expansion terms for trigram queries. We also looked at the impact on the actual results using domain diversity and expansion edit distance. Results showed that the social-based method provided more precise expansion terms as well as terms that were less ambiguous. Expanded queries do not differ significantly in diversity when expanded using the social-based method (6.72 different domains returned in the first ten results, on average) vs. content-based method (6.73 different domains, on average).

  6. Giant thermal expansion and α-precipitation pathways in Ti-alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönisch, Matthias; Panigrahi, Ajit; Stoica, Mihai; Calin, Mariana; Ahrens, Eike; Zehetbauer, Michael; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-11-10

    Ti-alloys represent the principal structural materials in both aerospace development and metallic biomaterials. Key to optimizing their mechanical and functional behaviour is in-depth know-how of their phases and the complex interplay of diffusive vs. displacive phase transformations to permit the tailoring of intricate microstructures across a wide spectrum of configurations. Here, we report on structural changes and phase transformations of Ti-Nb alloys during heating by in situ synchrotron diffraction. These materials exhibit anisotropic thermal expansion yielding some of the largest linear expansion coefficients (+ 163.9×10 -6 to -95.1×10 -6  °C -1 ) ever reported. Moreover, we describe two pathways leading to the precipitation of the α-phase mediated by diffusion-based orthorhombic structures, α″ lean and α″ iso . Via coupling the lattice parameters to composition both phases evolve into α through rejection of Nb. These findings have the potential to promote new microstructural design approaches for Ti-Nb alloys and β-stabilized Ti-alloys in general.

  7. Triaxial-compression extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, I.C.; Turner, A.K.; Sayre, T.M.; Montazer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to design and validate methods for extracting uncontaminated pore water from nonwelded parts of this tuff. Pore water is needed for chemical analysis to help characterize the local hydrologic system. A standard Hoek-Franklin triaxial cell was modified to create a chemically inert pore-water-extraction system. Experimentation was designed to determine the optimum stress and duration of triaxial compression for efficient extraction of uncontaminated pore water. Experimental stress paths consisted of a series of increasing stress levels. Trial axial stress levels ranged from 41 to 190 megapascals with lateral confining stresses of 34 to 69 megapascals. The duration of compression at any given stress level lasted from 10 minutes to 15 hours. A total of 40 experimental extraction trials were made. Tuff samples used in these tests were collected from drill-hole core from the Paintbrush nonwelded unit at Yucca Mountain. Pore water was extracted from tuff samples that had a water content greater than 13 percent by weight. Two stress paths have been determined to be applicable for future pore-water extraction from nonwelded tuff at Yucca Mountain. The initial water content of a sample affects the selection of an appropriate period of compression. 39 refs., 55 figs

  8. Evaluation of capillary pore size characteristics in high-strength concrete at early ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Akio; Kawamura, Mitsunori

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative scanning electron microscope-backscattered electron (SEM-BSE) image analysis was used to evaluate capillary porosity and pore size distributions in high-strength concretes at early ages. The Powers model for the hydration of cement was applied to the interpretation of the results of image analysis. The image analysis revealed that pore size distributions in concretes with an extremely low water/binder ratio of 0.25 at early ages were discontinuous in the range of finer capillary pores. However, silica-fume-containing concretes with a water/binder ratio of 0.25 had larger amounts of fine pores than did concretes without silica fume. The presence of larger amounts of fine capillary pores in the concretes with silica fume may be responsible for greater autogenous shrinkage in the silica-fume-containing concretes at early ages

  9. Effect of support structure on CO2 adsorption properties of pore-expanded hyperbranched aminosilicas

    KAUST Repository

    Drese, Jeffrey H.; Choi, Sunho; Didas, Stephanie A.; Bollini, Praveen; Gray, McMahan L.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) CO 2 adsorbents are prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of aziridine from SBA-15 mesoporous silica, as in the original synthesis of HAS materials, as well as over an array of new support materials with substantially larger average pore diameters to elucidate the effect of support porosity on final adsorbent properties. Pore-expanded hyperbranched aminosilica (PEHAS) CO 2 adsorbents are prepared from several different pore-expanded, ordered mesoporous silicas including pore-expanded SBA-15, mesocellular foam, and a large-pore commercial silica. The effect of the nature of the silica support is determined by examining the degree of aziridine polymerization and the CO 2 adsorption kinetics and capacities of the resulting organic/inorganic hybrid materials. Comparisons are made to non-pore-expanded SBA-15 based HAS adsorbents, reported previously, where pores become blocked at higher amine loadings. The PEHAS materials unexpectedly possess lower amine loadings than the previously reported HAS materials and do not exhibit pore blocking. The use of acetic acid as a catalyst during PEHAS synthesis only marginally increases amine loading. The adsorption kinetics of PEHAS adsorbents are similar to HAS adsorbents with low amine loadings and do not show the detrimental effects of pore-blocking. However, the inability to synthesize PEHAS adsorbents with high amine loadings via this approach limits the total amount of CO 2 captured per gram of material, compared to HAS adsorbents with high amine loadings. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of support structure on CO2 adsorption properties of pore-expanded hyperbranched aminosilicas

    KAUST Repository

    Drese, Jeffrey H.

    2012-03-01

    Hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) CO 2 adsorbents are prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of aziridine from SBA-15 mesoporous silica, as in the original synthesis of HAS materials, as well as over an array of new support materials with substantially larger average pore diameters to elucidate the effect of support porosity on final adsorbent properties. Pore-expanded hyperbranched aminosilica (PEHAS) CO 2 adsorbents are prepared from several different pore-expanded, ordered mesoporous silicas including pore-expanded SBA-15, mesocellular foam, and a large-pore commercial silica. The effect of the nature of the silica support is determined by examining the degree of aziridine polymerization and the CO 2 adsorption kinetics and capacities of the resulting organic/inorganic hybrid materials. Comparisons are made to non-pore-expanded SBA-15 based HAS adsorbents, reported previously, where pores become blocked at higher amine loadings. The PEHAS materials unexpectedly possess lower amine loadings than the previously reported HAS materials and do not exhibit pore blocking. The use of acetic acid as a catalyst during PEHAS synthesis only marginally increases amine loading. The adsorption kinetics of PEHAS adsorbents are similar to HAS adsorbents with low amine loadings and do not show the detrimental effects of pore-blocking. However, the inability to synthesize PEHAS adsorbents with high amine loadings via this approach limits the total amount of CO 2 captured per gram of material, compared to HAS adsorbents with high amine loadings. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pore fluids from the argillaceous rocks of the Harwell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.; Bath, A.H.; Cave, M.R.; Darling, W.G.

    1985-06-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain samples of pore water from argillaceous formations in the Harwell area for chemical analysis to provide a background for radionuclide migration studies and regional groundwater flow pattern. This report describes the samples, development of a pore-water squeezing cell and its operation. Chemical and analytical studies are summarized. (UK)

  12. Buoyancy-driven chaotic regimes during solute dispersion in pore networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakiroglou, C.D.; Theodoropoulou, M.A.; Karoutsos, V.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate gravity effects on solute dispersion at the scale of a pore network, single source-solute transport visualization experiments are performed on glass-etched pore networks of varying morphology and degree of pore-scale heterogeneities. The (lighter) low solute concentration aqueous solution flows steadily through the porous medium and the (heavier) high solute concentration solution is injected at a very low and constant flow rate through an inner port. The transient evolution of the solute concentration distribution over various regions of the pore network is determined at different scales by capturing and video-recording snapshots of the dispersion on PC, measuring automatically the spatial variation of the color intensity of the solution, and transforming the color intensities to solute concentrations. Without the action of gravity, the steady-state dispersion regime changes with Peclet (Pe) number, and the longitudinal and transverse dispersivities are estimated by fitting the experimental datasets to approximate analytic solutions of the advection-dispersion equation. Under the action of gravity, multiple of steady-state solute dispersion regimes is developed at each Pe value, and lobe-shaped instabilities of the solute concentration are observed across the pore network, as the downward flow of the denser (higher solute concentration) fluid is counterbalanced by the upward flow of the less dense (lower solute concentration) fluid. The steady-state dispersion regimes may be periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic depending on the system parameters. The nature of the transient fluctuations of the average solute concentration is analyzed by identifying the periodicity of the fluctuations, determining the autocorrelation function and the statistical moments of the time series, and inspecting the FFT (fast Fourier transform) power spectra. It is found that the mixing zone tends to be stabilized at higher values of the Peclet (Pe) number

  13. Charge effects on hindrance factors for diffusion and convection of solute in pores I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O-tani, Hideyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Akinaga, Takeshi; Sugihara-Seki, Masako, E-mail: ga8d002@kansai-u.ac.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Kansai University, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    The transport of a spherical solute through a long circular cylindrical pore filled with an electrolyte solution is studied numerically, in the presence of constant surface charge on the solute and the pore wall. Fluid dynamic analyses were carried out to calculate the flow field around the solute in the pore to evaluate the drag coefficients exerted on the solute. Electrical potentials around the solute in the electrolyte solution were computed based on a mean-field theory to provide the interaction energy between the charged solute and the pore wall. Combining the results of the fluid dynamic and electrostatic analyses, we estimated the rate of the diffusive and convective transport of the solute across the pore. Although the present estimates of the drag coefficients on the solute suggest more than 10% difference from existing studies, depending on the radius ratio of the solute relative to the pore and the radial position of the solute center in the pore, this difference leads to a minor effect on the hindrance factors. It was found that even at rather large ion concentrations, the repulsive electrostatic interaction between the charged solute and the pore wall of like charge could significantly reduce the transport rate of the solute.

  14. Numerical Simulation on Hydromechanical Coupling in Porous Media Adopting Three-Dimensional Pore-Scale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Song, Rui; Cui, Mengmeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach of simulating hydromechanical coupling in pore-scale models of porous media is presented in this paper. Parameters of the sandstone samples, such as the stress-strain curve, Poisson's ratio, and permeability under different pore pressure and confining pressure, are tested in laboratory scale. The micro-CT scanner is employed to scan the samples for three-dimensional images, as input to construct the model. Accordingly, four physical models possessing the same pore and rock matrix characteristics as the natural sandstones are developed. Based on the micro-CT images, the three-dimensional finite element models of both rock matrix and pore space are established by MIMICS and ICEM software platform. Navier-Stokes equation and elastic constitutive equation are used as the mathematical model for simulation. A hydromechanical coupling analysis in pore-scale finite element model of porous media is simulated by ANSYS and CFX software. Hereby, permeability of sandstone samples under different pore pressure and confining pressure has been predicted. The simulation results agree well with the benchmark data. Through reproducing its stress state underground, the prediction accuracy of the porous rock permeability in pore-scale simulation is promoted. Consequently, the effects of pore pressure and confining pressure on permeability are revealed from the microscopic view. PMID:24955384

  15. Semi-empirical formula for large pore-size estimation from o-Ps annihilation lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Thanh; Tran Quoc Dung; Luu Anh Tuyen; Khuong Thanh Tuan

    2007-01-01

    The o-Ps annihilation rate in large pore was investigated by the semi-classical approach. The semi-empirical formula that simply correlates between the pore size and the o-Ps lifetime was proposed. The calculated results agree well with experiment in the range from some angstroms to several ten nanometers size of pore. (author)

  16. Nucleation in mesoscopic systems under transient conditions: Peptide-induced pore formation in vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.; Höök, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    Attachment of lytic peptides to the lipid membrane of virions or bacteria is often accompanied by their aggregation and pore formation, resulting eventually in membrane rupture and pathogen neutralization. The membrane rupture may occur gradually via formation of many pores or abruptly after the formation of the first pore. In academic studies, this process is observed during interaction of peptides with lipid vesicles. We present an analytical model and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations focused on the pore formation in such situations. Specifically, we calculate the time of the first nucleation-limited pore-formation event and show the distribution of this time in the regime when the fluctuations of the number of peptides attached to a vesicle are appreciable. The results obtained are used to clarify the mechanism of the pore formation and membrane destabilization observed recently during interaction of highly active α-helical peptide with sub-100-nm lipid vesicles that mimic enveloped viruses with nanoscale membrane curvature. The model proposed and the analysis presented are generic and may be applicable to other meso- and nanosystems.

  17. Killing machines: three pore-forming proteins of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ryan; de Armas, Lesley; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of early multicellular eukaryotes 400–500 million years ago required a defensive strategy against microbial invasion. Pore-forming proteins containing the membrane-attack-complex-perforin (MACPF) domain were selected as the most efficient means to destroy bacteria or virally infected cells. The mechanism of pore formation by the MACPF domain is distinctive in that pore formation is purely physical and unspecific. The MACPF domain polymerizes, refolds, and inserts itself into bilayer membranes or bacterial outer cell walls. The displacement of surface lipid/carbohydrate molecules by the polymerizing MACPF domain creates clusters of large, water-filled holes that destabilize the barrier function and provide access for additional anti-bacterial or anti-viral effectors to sensitive sites that complete the destruction of the invader via enzymatic or chemical attack. The highly efficient mechanism of anti-microbial defense by a combined physical and chemical strategy using pore-forming MACPF-proteins has been retargeted during evolution of vertebrates and mammals for three purposes: (1) to kill extracellular bacteria C9/polyC9 evolved in conjunction with complement, (2) to kill virus infected and cancer cells perforin-1/polyperforin-1 CTL evolved targeted by NK and CTL, and (3) to kill intracellular bacteria transmembrane perforin-2/putative polyperforin-2 evolved targeted by phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. Our laboratory has been involved in the discovery and description of each of the three pore-formers that will be reviewed here. PMID:24293008

  18. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  19. Fluids in micropores. II. Self-diffusion in a simple classical fluid in a slit pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, M.; Cushman, J.H.; Diestler, D.J.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Self-diffusion coefficients D are computed for a model slit pore consisting of a rare-gas fluid confined between two parallel face-centered cubic (100) planes (walls) of rigidly fixed rare-gas atoms. By means of an optimally vectorized molecular-dynamics program for the CYBER 205, the dependence of D on the thermodynamic state (specified by the chemical potential μ, temperature T, and the pore width h) of the pore fluid has been explored. Diffusion is governed by Fick's law, even in pores as narrow as 2 or 3 atomic diameters. The diffusion coefficient oscillates as a function of h with fixed μ and T, vanishing at critical values of h, where fluid--solid phase transitions occur. A shift of the pore walls relative to one another in directions parallel with the walls can radically alter the structure of the pore fluid and consequently the magnitude of D. Since the pore fluid forms distinct layers parallel to the walls, a local diffusion coefficient D/sup (//sup i//sup )//sub parallel/ associated with a given layer i can be defined. D/sup (//sup i//sup )//sub parallel/ is least for the contact layer, even for pores as wide as 30 atomic diameters (∼100 A). Moreover, D/sup (//sup i//sup )//sub parallel/ increases with increasing distance of the fluid layer from the wall and, for pore widths between 16 and 30 atomic diameters, D/sup (//sup i//sup )//sub parallel/ is larger in the center of the pore than in the bulk fluid that is in equilibrium with the pore fluid. The opposite behavior is observed in corresponding smooth-wall pores, in which the discrete fluid--wall interactions have been averaged by smearing the wall atoms over the plane of the wall

  20. Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-02-01

    Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Phase-field simulations of pore migration and morphology change in thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Ian W.; Millett, Paul C., E-mail: pmillett@uark.edu

    2017-07-15

    Here we present a phase-field simulation model that captures the thermal-gradient-driven migration of pores in oxide fuel associated with fuel restructuring. The model utilizes a Cahn-Hilliard equation supplemented with an advection term to describe the vapor transport of fuel material through the pore interior due to gradients in vapor pressure. Simulations demonstrate that the model not only predicts pore migration towards the centerline of the fuel, but also a concurrent change in pore shape during migration from an initially isotropic morphology to either a lenticular morphology or a prolate morphology depending on the vapor transport conditions. This model is a necessary first step to conducting accurate simulations of the microscopic changes that occur during the complicated process of oxide fuel restructuring.

  2. Molecular mechanism of pore creation in bacterial membranes by amyloid proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigelny, I F; Sharikov, Y; Miller, M A; Masliah, E

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the mechanism of pore creation in cellular membranes by MccE92 bacterial proteins. The results of this study are then compared with the mechanism of alpha-synuclein (aS)-based pore formation in mammalian cells, and its role in Parkinson's disease.

  3. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its range to the New Zealand mainland only in the last few hundred years. This range expansion was apparently facilitated by the extinction of M. antipodes' previously unrecognized sister species following Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Based on combined genetic and morphological data, we describe this new penguin species, the first known to have suffered human-mediated extinction. The range expansion of M. antipodes so soon after the extinction of its sister species supports a historic paradigmatic shift in New Zealand Polynesian culture. Additionally, such a dynamic biological response to human predation reveals a surprising and less recognized potential for species to have benefited from the extinction of their ecologically similar sister taxa and highlights the complexity of large-scale extinction events. PMID:19019791

  4. Micro-CT Pore Scale Study Of Flow In Porous Media: Effect Of Voxel Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Gray, F.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, pore scale studies have become the key to understanding the complex fluid flow processes in the fields of groundwater remediation, hydrocarbon recovery and environmental issues related to carbon storage and capture. A pore scale study is often comprised of two key procedures: 3D pore scale imaging and numerical modelling techniques. The essence of a pore scale study is to test the physics implemented in a model of complicated fluid flow processes at one scale (microscopic) and then apply the model to solve the problems associated with water resources and oil recovery at other scales (macroscopic and field). However, the process of up-scaling from the pore scale to the macroscopic scale has encountered many challenges due to both pore scale imaging and modelling techniques. Due to the technical limitations in the imaging method, there is always a compromise between the spatial (voxel) resolution and the physical volume of the sample (field of view, FOV) to be scanned by the imaging methods, specifically X-ray micro-CT (XMT) in our case In this study, a careful analysis was done to understand the effect of voxel size, using XMT to image the 3D pore space of a variety of porous media from sandstones to carbonates scanned at different voxel resolution (4.5 μm, 6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm) but keeping the scanned FOV constant for all the samples. We systematically segment the micro-CT images into three phases, the macro-pore phase, an intermediate phase (unresolved micro-pores + grains) and the grain phase and then study the effect of voxel size on the structure of the macro-pore and the intermediate phases and the fluid flow properties using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) and pore network (PN) modelling methods. We have also applied a numerical coarsening algorithm (up-scale method) to reduce the computational power and time required to accurately predict the flow properties using the LB and PN method.

  5. Mesoporous templated silicas: stability, pore size engineering and catalytic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vansant, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis has focused its research activities on the synthesis and activation of new porous materials. In the past few years, we have succeeded in developing easy and reproducible pathways to synthesize a huge variety of mesoporous crystalline materials. Points of interest in the synthesis of Mesoporous Templated Silicas are (i) stabilization of the structure, to withstand hydrothermal, thermal and mechanical pressure, (ii) pore size engineering to systematically control the pore size, pore volume and the ratio micro/mesopores and (iii) ease and reproducibility of the synthesis procedure, applying green principles, such as template recuperation. By carefully adapting the synthesis conditions and composition of the synthesis gel, using surfactants (long chain quaternary ammonium ions) and co-templates (long chain amines, alcohols or alkanes), the pore size of the obtained materials can be controlled from 1.5 to 7.0 nm, retaining the very narrow pore size distribution. Alternatively, materials with combined micro- and mesoporosity can be synthesized, using neutral surfactants (triblock copolymers). Hereby, the optimization of the SBA-15 and SBA-16 synthesis is being done in order to create mesoporous materials with microporous walls. The second research line is the controlled activation of MTS materials, by grafting or incorporation of catalytic active centers. We have developed for this purpose the Molecular Designed Dispersion method, which uses metal diketonate complexes as precursors. It is shown that in all cases the dispersion of the metal oxides on the surface is much better compared to the conventional grafting techniques. We have studied and published activation with V, Ti, Mo, Fe, Al and Cr species on different MTS materials. The structure and location of the active metal ion is the subject of an extensive spectroscopic investigation, using FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis DR coupled with selective chemisorption experiments and

  6. Langevin dynamics simulation on the translocation of polymer through α-hemolysin pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Zhen; Luo, Meng-Bo

    2014-01-01

    The forced translocation of a polymer through an α-hemolysin pore under an electrical field is studied using a Langevin dynamics simulation. The α-hemolysin pore is modelled as a connection of a spherical vestibule and a cylindrical β-barrel and polymer-pore attraction is taken into account. The results show that polymer-pore attraction can help the polymer enter the vestibule and the β-barrel as well; however, a strong attraction will slow down the translocation of the polymer through the β-barrel. The mean translocation time for the polymer to thread through the β-barrel increases linearly with the polymer length. By comparing our results with that of a simple pore without a vestibule, we find that the vestibule helps the polymer enter and thread through the β-barrel. Moreover, we find that it is easier for the polymer to thread through the β-barrel if the polymer is located closer to the surface of the vestibule. Some simulation results are explained qualitatively by theoretically analyzing the free-energy landscape of polymer translocation. (paper)

  7. Compressive behavior of pervious concretes and a quantification of the influence of random pore structure features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, Omkar; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Identified the relevant pore structure features of pervious concretes, provided methodologies to extract those, and quantified the influence of these features on compressive response. → A model for stress-strain relationship of pervious concretes, and relationship between model parameters and parameters of the stress-strain relationship developed. → Statistical model for compressive strength as a function of pore structure features; and a stochastic model for the sensitivity of pore structure features in strength prediction. - Abstract: Properties of a random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependent on its pore structure features, porosity being an important one among them. This study deals with developing an understanding of the material structure-compressive response relationships in pervious concretes. Several pervious concrete mixtures with different pore structure features are proportioned and subjected to static compression tests. The pore structure features such as pore area fractions, pore sizes, mean free spacing of the pores, specific surface area, and the three-dimensional pore distribution density are extracted using image analysis methods. The compressive stress-strain response of pervious concretes, a model to predict the stress-strain response, and its relationship to several of the pore structure features are outlined. Larger aggregate sizes and increase in paste volume fractions are observed to result in increased compressive strengths. The compressive response is found to be influenced by the pore sizes, their distributions and spacing. A statistical model is used to relate the compressive strength to the relevant pore structure features, which is then used as a base model in a Monte-Carlo simulation to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted compressive strength to the model terms.

  8. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...

  9. Stat6 Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Adenomatous Polyposis by Expansion of MDSCs and Inhibition of Cytotoxic CD8 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jayakumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ model is initiated by aberrant activation of Wnt pathway. Increased IL-4 expression in human colorectal cancer tissue and growth of colon cancer cell lines implied that IL-4–induced Stat6-mediated tumorigenic signaling likely contributes to intestinal tumor progression in ApcMin/+ mice. Stat6 also appears to promote expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs cells. MDSCs promote polyp formation in the ApcMin/+ model. Hence, Stat6 could have a broad role in coordinating both polyp cell proliferation and MDSC expansion. We found that IL-4–induced Stat6-mediated proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells is augmented by platelet-derived growth factor–BB, a tumor-promoting growth factor. To determine whether polyp progression in ApcMin/+ mice is dependent on Stat6 signaling, we disrupted Stat6 in this model. Total polyps in the small intestine were fewer in ApcMin/+ mice lacking Stat6. Furthermore, proliferation of polyp epithelial cells was reduced, indicating that Stat6 in part controlled polyp formation. Stat6 also promoted expansion of MDSCs in the spleen and lamina propria of ApcMin/+ mice, implying regulation of antitumor T-cell response. More CD8 cells and reduced PD-1 expression on CD4 cells correlated with reduced polyps. In addition, a strong CD8-mediated cytotoxic response led to killing of tumor cells in Stat6-deficient ApcMin/+ mice. Therefore, these findings show that Stat6 has an oncogenic role in intestinal tumorigenesis by promoting polyp cell proliferation and immunosuppressive mediators, and preventing an active cytotoxic process.

  10. Stat6 Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Adenomatous Polyposis by Expansion of MDSCs and Inhibition of Cytotoxic CD8 Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Asha; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2017-08-01

    Intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ model is initiated by aberrant activation of Wnt pathway. Increased IL-4 expression in human colorectal cancer tissue and growth of colon cancer cell lines implied that IL-4-induced Stat6-mediated tumorigenic signaling likely contributes to intestinal tumor progression in ApcMin/+ mice. Stat6 also appears to promote expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) cells. MDSCs promote polyp formation in the ApcMin/+ model. Hence, Stat6 could have a broad role in coordinating both polyp cell proliferation and MDSC expansion. We found that IL-4-induced Stat6-mediated proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells is augmented by platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a tumor-promoting growth factor. To determine whether polyp progression in ApcMin/+ mice is dependent on Stat6 signaling, we disrupted Stat6 in this model. Total polyps in the small intestine were fewer in ApcMin/+ mice lacking Stat6. Furthermore, proliferation of polyp epithelial cells was reduced, indicating that Stat6 in part controlled polyp formation. Stat6 also promoted expansion of MDSCs in the spleen and lamina propria of ApcMin/+ mice, implying regulation of antitumor T-cell response. More CD8 cells and reduced PD-1 expression on CD4 cells correlated with reduced polyps. In addition, a strong CD8-mediated cytotoxic response led to killing of tumor cells in Stat6-deficient ApcMin/+ mice. Therefore, these findings show that Stat6 has an oncogenic role in intestinal tumorigenesis by promoting polyp cell proliferation and immunosuppressive mediators, and preventing an active cytotoxic process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Mechanism and Prediction of Gas Permeation through Sub-Nanometer Graphene Pores: Comparison of Theory and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhe; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Misra, Rahul Prasanna; Drahushuk, Lee W; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Strano, Michael S; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2017-08-22

    Due to its atomic thickness, porous graphene with sub-nanometer pore sizes constitutes a promising candidate for gas separation membranes that exhibit ultrahigh permeances. While graphene pores can greatly facilitate gas mixture separation, there is currently no validated analytical framework with which one can predict gas permeation through a given graphene pore. In this work, we simulate the permeation of adsorptive gases, such as CO 2 and CH 4 , through sub-nanometer graphene pores using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that gas permeation can typically be decoupled into two steps: (1) adsorption of gas molecules to the pore mouth and (2) translocation of gas molecules from the pore mouth on one side of the graphene membrane to the pore mouth on the other side. We find that the translocation rate coefficient can be expressed using an Arrhenius-type equation, where the energy barrier and the pre-exponential factor can be theoretically predicted using the transition state theory for classical barrier crossing events. We propose a relation between the pre-exponential factor and the entropy penalty of a gas molecule crossing the pore. Furthermore, on the basis of the theory, we propose an efficient algorithm to calculate CO 2 and CH 4 permeances per pore for sub-nanometer graphene pores of any shape. For the CO 2 /CH 4 mixture, the graphene nanopores exhibit a trade-off between the CO 2 permeance and the CO 2 /CH 4 separation factor. This upper bound on a Robeson plot of selectivity versus permeance for a given pore density is predicted and described by the theory. Pores with CO 2 /CH 4 separation factors higher than 10 2 have CO 2 permeances per pore lower than 10 -22 mol s -1 Pa -1 , and pores with separation factors of ∼10 have CO 2 permeances per pore between 10 -22 and 10 -21 mol s -1 Pa -1 . Finally, we show that a pore density of 10 14 m -2 is required for a porous graphene membrane to exceed the permeance-selectivity upper bound of polymeric

  13. A stochastic model for filtration of particulate suspensions with incomplete pore plugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Santos, A; Bedrikovetsky, P. G.

    2007-01-01

    . A closed system of governing stochastic equations determines the evolution of size distributions for suspended particles and pores. Its averaging results in the closed system of hydrodynamic equations accounting for permeability and porosity reduction due to plugging. The problem of deep bed filtration...... of a single particle size suspension through a single pore size medium where a pore can be completely plugged by two particles allows for an exact analytical solution. The phenomenological deep bed filtration model follows from the analytical solution....

  14. Plastic strain caused by contraction of pores in polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Yoda, Shinichi; Konishi, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of porosity on mechanical properties and deformation behavior of four isotropic polycrystalline graphites were studied. The pore size distributions of the graphites were measured using a conventional mercury penetration technique. The average pore radius of ISO-88 graphite was about one-tenth of that of ISEM-1, IG-11 or IG-15 graphites. Young's modulus of the graphites decreased with increasing porosity. The stress-strain curve of each graphite was measured in its lateral and axial directions. Young's modulus of graphite decreased with increasing load. The plastic strain at a given compressive load was calculated from the stress-strain curve and the initial gradient of the unloading curve at the load. The ratio of lateral plastic strain to axial plastic strain for the graphites was less than 0.5, indicating that the volume of the graphites decreased during compressive loading. By assuming that the volume change was caused by contraction of pores, plastic strain associated with contraction of pores was calculated from the axial plastic strain and lateral plastic strain by slips along the basal planes. The plastic strain increased with increasing axial plastic strain and porosity of graphite. (author)

  15. Methods for controlling pore morphology in aerogels using electric fields and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Olson, Tammy Y.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Rose, Klint A.

    2017-12-16

    In one embodiment, an aerogel or xerogel includes column structures of a material having minor pores therein and major pores devoid of the material positioned between the column structures, where longitudinal axes of the major pores are substantially parallel to one another. In another embodiment, a method includes heating a sol including aerogel or xerogel precursor materials to cause gelation thereof to form an aerogel or xerogel and exposing the heated sol to an electric field, wherein the electric field causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation, which is retained by the aerogel or xerogel. In one approach, an aerogel has elongated pores extending between a material arranged in column structures having structural characteristics of being formed from a sol exposed to an electric field that causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation which is retained by the elongated pores of the aerogel.

  16. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Pore-scale studies of multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Wang, M.; Lichtner, P. C.

    2008-12-01

    In geologic CO2 sequestration, pore-scale interfacial phenomena ultimately govern the key processes of fluid mobility, chemical transport, adsorption, and reaction. However, spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale cannot be resolved at the continuum scale, where averaging occurs over length scales much larger than typical pore sizes. Natural porous media, such as sedimentary rocks and other geological media encountered in subsurface formations, are inherently heterogeneous. This pore-scale heterogeneity can produce variabilities in flow, transport, and reaction processes that take place within a porous medium, and can result in spatial variations in fluid velocity, aqueous concentrations, and reaction rates. Consequently, the unresolved spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale may be important for reactive transport modeling at the larger scale. In addition, current continuum models of surface complexation reactions ignore a fundamental property of physical systems, namely conservation of charge. Therefore, to better understand multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate the influence of the pore-scale heterogeneity on the emergent behavior at the field scale. We have applied the lattice Boltzmann method to simulating the injection of CO2 saturated brine or supercritical CO2 into geological formations at the pore scale. Multiple pore-scale processes, including advection, diffusion, homogeneous reactions among multiple aqueous species, heterogeneous reactions between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange and surface complexation, as well as changes in solid and pore geometry are all taken into account. The rich pore scale information will provide a basis for upscaling to the continuum scale.

  18. Pore Topology Effects in Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Mitchell, Sharon; Gerchow, Lars; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-03

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful method to study the size and connectivity of pores in zeolites. The lifetime of positronium within the host material is commonly described by the Tao-Eldrup model. However, one of its largest limitations arises from the simple geometries considered for the shape of the pores, which cannot describe accurately the complex topologies in zeolites. Here, an atomic model that combines the Tao potential with the crystallographic structure is introduced to calculate the distribution and lifetime of Ps intrinsic to a given framework. A parametrization of the model is undertaken for a set of widely applied zeolite framework types (*BEA, FAU, FER, MFI, MOR, UTL), before extending the model to all known structures. The results are compared to structural and topological descriptors, and to the Tao-Eldrup model adapted for zeolites, demonstrating the intricate dependence of the lifetime on the pore architecture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Evaluation of Optimal Pore Size of (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane Grafted MCM-41 for Improved CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An array of new MCM-41 with substantially larger average pore diameters was synthesized through adding 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB as the swelling agent to explore the effect of pore size on final adsorbent properties. The pore expanded MCM-41 was also grafted with (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES to determine the optimal pore size for CO2 adsorption. The pore-expanded mesoporous MCM-41s showed relatively less structural regularity but significant increments of pore diameter (4.64 to 7.50 nm; the fraction of mesopore volume also illustrated an increase. The adsorption heat values were correlated with the order of the adsorption capacities for pore expanded MCM-41s. After amine functionalization, the adsorption capacities and heat values showed a significant increase. APTES-grafted pore-expanded MCM-41s depicted a high potential for CO2 capture regardless of the major drawback of the high energy required for regeneration.

  20. Pore water colloid properties in argillaceous sedimentary rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degueldre, Claude, E-mail: c.degueldre@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, University of Lancaster, LA1 4YW Lancaster (United Kingdom); ChiAM & Institute of Environment, University of Geneva, 1211 Genève 4, Swizerland (Switzerland); Earlier, NES, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Cloet, Veerle [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate the colloid nature, concentration and size distribution in the pore water of Opalinus Clay and other sedimentary host rocks identified for a potential radioactive waste repository in Switzerland. Because colloids could not be measured in representative undisturbed porewater of these host rocks, predictive modelling based on data from field and laboratory studies is applied. This approach allowed estimating the nature, concentration and size distributions of the colloids in the pore water of these host rocks. As a result of field campaigns, groundwater colloid concentrations are investigated on the basis of their size distribution quantified experimentally using single particle counting techniques. The colloid properties are estimated considering data gained from analogue hydrogeochemical systems ranging from mylonite features in crystalline fissures to sedimentary formations. The colloid concentrations were analysed as a function of the alkaline and alkaline earth element concentrations. Laboratory batch results on clay colloid generation from compacted pellets in quasi-stagnant water are also reported. Experiments with colloids in batch containers indicate that the size distribution of a colloidal suspension evolves toward a common particle size distribution independently of initial conditions. The final suspension size distribution was found to be a function of the attachment factor of the colloids. Finally, calculations were performed using a novel colloid distribution model based on colloid generation, aggregation and sedimentation rates to predict under in-situ conditions what makes colloid concentrations and size distributions batch- or fracture-size dependent. The data presented so far are compared with the field and laboratory data. The colloid occurrence, stability and mobility have been evaluated for the water of the considered potential host rocks. In the pore water of the considered sedimentary host rocks, the clay

  1. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  2. Experimental Investigation of Evolution of Pore Structure in Longmaxi Marine Shale Using an Anhydrous Pyrolysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodong Xi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understanding the evolutionary characteristics of pore structure in marine shale with high thermal maturity, a natural Longmaxi marine shale sample from south China with a high equivalent vitrinite reflectance value (Ro = 2.03% was selected to conduct an anhydrous pyrolysis experiment (500–750 °C, and six artificial shale samples (pyrolysis products spanning a maturity range from Ro = 2.47% to 4.87% were obtained. Experimental procedures included mercury intrusion, nitrogen adsorption, and carbon dioxide adsorption, and were used to characterize the pore structure. In addition, fractal theory was applied to analyze the heterogeneous pore structure. The results showed that this sample suite had large differences in macropore, mesopore, and micropore volume (PV, as well as specific surface area (SSA and pore size distributions (PSD, at different temperatures. Micropore, mesopore, and macropore content increased, from being unheated to 600 °C, which caused the pore structure to become more complex. The content of small diameter pores (micropores and fine mesopores, <10 nm decreased and pores with large diameters (large mesopores and macropores, >10 nm slightly increased from 600 to 750 °C. Fractal analysis showed that larger pore sizes had more complicated pore structure in this stage. The variance in pore structure for samples during pyrolysis was related to the further transformation of organic matter and PSD rearrangement. According to the data in this study, two stages were proposed for the pore evolution for marine shale with high thermal maturity.

  3. Mechanisms of ER Stress-Mediated Mitochondrial Membrane Permeabilization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    During apoptosis, the process of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) represents a point-of-no-return as it commits the cell to death. Here we have assessed the role of caspases, Bcl-2 family members and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore on ER stress-induced MOMP and subsequent cell death. Induction of ER stress leads to upregulation of several genes such as Grp78, Edem1, Erp72, Atf4, Wars, Herp, p58ipk, and ERdj4 and leads to caspase activation, release of mitochondrial intermembrane proteins and dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from caspase-9, -2 and, -3 knock-out mice were resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis which correlated with decreased processing of pro-caspase-3 and -9. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with caspase inhibitors (Boc-D.fmk and DEVD.fmk) attenuated ER stress-induced loss of DeltaPsim. However, only deficiency of caspase-9 and -2 could prevent ER stress-mediated loss of DeltaPsim. Bcl-2 overexpression or pretreatment of cells with the cell permeable BH4 domain (BH4-Tat) or the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors, bongkrekic acid or cyclosporine A, attenuated the ER stress-induced loss of DeltaPsim. These data suggest a role for caspase-9 and -2, Bcl-2 family members and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential during ER stress-induced apoptosis.

  4. Energy expansion planning by considering electrical and thermal expansion simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ali Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems. • Employing two form of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies. • The main objective is to minimize the costs. • A new Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is applied. - Abstract: This study focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems employing two forms of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies simultaneously. The main objective of this investigation is confirming network adequacy by adding new equipment to the network, over a given planning horizon. The main objective of the energy expansion planning (EEP) is to minimize the real energy loss, voltage deviation and the total cost of installation equipments. Since the objectives are different and incommensurable, it is difficult to solve the problem by the conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. So, the meta-heuristic algorithm is applied to this problem. Here, Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm (HBMO) as a new evolutionary optimization algorithm is utilized. In order to improve the total ability of HBMO for the global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such a way that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated energy systems, in this paper for the first time, the EEP problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two modified test systems are used as case studies

  5. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....

  6. Instrumental Genesis in Technology-Mediated Learning: From Double Stimulation to Expansive Knowledge Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritella, Giuseppe; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the socio-cultural foundations of technology-mediated collaborative learning. Toward that end, we discuss the role of artifacts in knowledge-creating inquiry, relying on the theoretical ideas of Carl Bereiter, Merlin Donald, Pierre Rabardel, Keith Sawyer and L. S. Vygotsky. We argue that epistemic…

  7. The pore wall structure of porous semi-crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man-Ho; Doh, Jeong-Mann; Han, Seong Chul; Chae, Keun Hwa; Yu, Byung-Yong; Hong, Kyung Tae [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jackson, Andrew [NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Center for Neutron Research; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Anovitz, Lawrence M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    2011-12-15

    The structure of porous TiO{sub 2} prepared by electrochemical anodization in a fluoride-containing ethylene glycol electrolyte solution was quantitatively studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS). The cylindrical pores along the coaxial direction were somewhat irregular in shape, were widely distributed in diameter, and seemed to have a broadly pseudo-hexagonal arrangement. The scattering from the pore wall showed a negative deviation from Porod scattering, indicating that the interface between TiO2 and the pore was not sharp. A density gradient of around 40-60 A at the pore wall (i.e. the interface between the pore and the TiO{sub 2} matrix) was estimated using both constant and semi-sigmoidal interface models. This gradient may be due to the presence of fluorine and carbon partially absorbed by the pore wall from the fluoride-containing electrolyte or to sorbed water molecules on the wall. The neutron contrast-matching point between the TiO{sub 2} matrix and the pores filled with liquid H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O mixtures was 51/49%(v/v) H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O, yielding an estimated mass density of 3.32 g cm{sup -3}. The specific surface area of the sample derived from the (U)SANS data was around 939-1003 m{sup 2} cm{sup -3} (283-302 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). (orig.)

  8. Glu¹⁰⁶ in the Orai1 pore contributes to fast Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation and pH dependence of Ca²⁺ release-activated Ca²⁺ (CRAC) current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Nathan R; Wilson, David P; Rychkov, Grigori Y

    2012-01-15

    FCDI (fast Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation) is a mechanism that limits Ca²⁺ entry through Ca²⁺ channels, including CRAC (Ca²⁺ release-activated Ca²⁺) channels. This phenomenon occurs when the Ca²⁺ concentration rises beyond a certain level in the vicinity of the intracellular mouth of the channel pore. In CRAC channels, several regions of the pore-forming protein Orai1, and STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1), the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ sensor that communicates the Ca²⁺ load of the intracellular stores to Orai1, have been shown to regulate fast Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation. Although significant advances in unravelling the mechanisms of CRAC channel gating have occurred, the mechanisms regulating fast Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation in this channel are not well understood. We have identified that a pore mutation, E106D Orai1, changes the kinetics and voltage dependence of the ICRAC (CRAC current), and the selectivity of the Ca²⁺-binding site that regulates fast Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation, whereas the V102I and E190Q mutants when expressed at appropriate ratios with STIM1 have fast Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation similar to that of WT (wild-type) Orai1. Unexpectedly, the E106D mutation also changes the pH dependence of ICRAC. Unlike WT ICRAC, E106D-mediated current is not inhibited at low pH, but instead the block of Na⁺ permeation through the E106D Orai1 pore by Ca²⁺ is diminished. These results suggest that Glu¹⁰⁶ inside the CRAC channel pore is involved in co-ordinating the Ca²⁺-binding site that mediates fast Ca²⁺-dependent inactivation.

  9. Porous Carbon with Willow-Leaf-Shaped Pores for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Linlin; Schon, Tyler B; Li, Huanhuan; Fan, Chaoying; Li, Xiaoying; Wang, Haifeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Haizhu; Seferos, Dwight S; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-12-13

    A novel kind of biomass-derived, high-oxygen-containing carbon material doped with nitrogen that has willow-leaf-shaped pores was synthesized. The obtained carbon material has an exotic hierarchical pore structure composed of bowl-shaped macropores, willow-leaf-shaped pores, and an abundance of micropores. This unique hierarchical porous structure provides an effective combination of high current densities and high capacitance because of a pseudocapacitive component that is afforded by the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen dopants. Our synthetic optimization allows further improvements in the performance of this hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) material by providing a high degree of control over the graphitization degree, specific surface area, and pore volume. As a result, a large specific surface area (1093 m 2 g -1 ) and pore volume (0.8379 cm 3 g -1 ) are obtained for HPC-650, which affords fast ion transport because of its short ion-diffusion pathways. HPC-650 exhibits a high specific capacitance of 312 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , retaining 76.5% of its capacitance at 20 A g -1 . Moreover, it delivers an energy density of 50.2 W h kg -1 at a power density of 1.19 kW kg -1 , which is sufficient to power a yellow-light-emitting diode and operate a commercial scientific calculator.

  10. Capillary pressure across a pore throat in the presence of surfactants

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong

    2016-11-22

    Capillarity controls the distribution and transport of multiphase and immiscible fluids in soils and fractured rocks; therefore, capillarity affects the migration of nonaqueous contaminants and remediation strategies for both LNAPLs and DNAPLs, constrains gas and oil recovery, and regulates CO2 injection and geological storage. Surfactants alter interfacial tension and modify the invasion of pores by immiscible fluids. Experiments are conducted to explore the propagation of fluid interfaces along cylindrical capillary tubes and across pore constrictions in the presence of surfactants. Measured pressure signatures reflect the interaction between surface tension, contact angle, and the pore geometry. Various instabilities occur as the interface traverses the pore constriction, consequently, measured pressure signatures differ from theoretical trends predicted from geometry, lower capillary pressures are generated in advancing wetting fronts, and jumps are prone to under-sampling. Contact angle and instabilities are responsible for pronounced differences between pressure signatures recorded during advancing and receding tests. Pressure signatures gathered with surfactant solutions suggest changes in interfacial tension at the constriction; the transient surface tension is significantly lower than the value measured in quasi-static conditions. Interface stiffening is observed during receding fronts for solutions near the critical micelle concentration. Wetting liquids tend to form plugs at pore constrictions after the invasion of a nonwetting fluid; plugs split the nonwetting fluid into isolated globules and add resistance against fluid flow.

  11. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  12. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus’ theory. PMID:22984299

  13. Hydrodynamic thickness of petroleum oil adsorbed layers in the pores of reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafeef, Saad F; Algharaib, Meshal K; Alajmi, Abdullah F

    2006-06-01

    The hydrodynamic thickness delta of adsorbed petroleum (crude) oil layers into the pores of sandstone rocks, through which the liquid flows, has been studied by Poiseuille's flow law and the evolution of (electrical) streaming current. The adsorption of petroleum oil is accompanied by a numerical reduction in the (negative) surface potential of the pore walls, eventually stabilizing at a small positive potential, attributed to the oil macromolecules themselves. After increasing to around 30% of the pore radius, the adsorbed layer thickness delta stopped growing either with time or with concentrations of asphaltene in the flowing liquid. The adsorption thickness is confirmed with the blockage value of the rock pores' area determined by the combination of streaming current and streaming potential measurements. This behavior is attributed to the effect on the disjoining pressure across the adsorbed layer, as described by Derjaguin and Churaev, of which the polymolecular adsorption films lose their stability long before their thickness has approached the radius of the rock pore.

  14. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  15. Modeling of carbonate reservoir variable secondary pore space based on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, X.; Nie, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Digital core technology has brought convenience to us, and X-ray CT scanning is one of the most common way to obtain 3D digital cores. However, it can only provide the original information of the only samples being scanned, and we can't modify the porosity of the scanned cores. For numerical rock physical simulations, a series of cores with variable porosities are needed to determine the relationship between the physical properties and porosity. In carbonate rocks, the secondary pore space including dissolution pores, caves and natural fractures is the key reservoir space, which makes the study of carbonate secondary porosity very important. To achieve the variation of porosities in one rock sample, based on CT scanned digital cores, according to the physical and chemical properties of carbonate rocks, several mathematical methods are chosen to simulate the variation of secondary pore space. We use the erosion and dilation operations of mathematical morphology method to simulate the pore space changes of dissolution pores and caves. We also use the Fractional Brownian Motion model to generate natural fractures with different widths and angles in digital cores to simulate fractured carbonate rocks. The morphological opening-and-closing operations in mathematical morphology method are used to simulate distribution of fluid in the pore space. The established 3D digital core models with different secondary porosities and water saturation status can be used in the study of the physical property numerical simulations of carbonate reservoir rocks.

  16. Impact of pore-pressure cycling on bentonite in constant volume experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, C.C.; Harrington, J.F.; Cuss, R.J.; Sellin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The SKB safety case for a KBS-3 repository highlights the potential importance of future successive glaciation events on repository functions. One particular uncertainty is the likely affect of elevated pore-water pressures on barrier safety functions. Over the repository lifetime such changes in pore-water pressure are likely to be cyclic in nature, as successive glacial episodes lead to loading and unloading of the engineered barrier. For a clay-water system with the pore-water in thermodynamic equilibrium with an external reservoir of water at pressure, p w , the total stress acting on the surrounding vessel can be expressed as: (1) σ = Π + αp w where Π is the swelling pressure and α is a proportionality constant. We present results from a series of laboratory experiments designed to investigate this relationship, in the context of glacial loading. Blocks of pre-compacted Mx80 bentonite were manufactured by Clay Technology AB (Lund, Sweden), by rapidly compacting bentonite granules in a mould under a one dimensionally applied stress (Johannesson et al., 1995). The blocks were then sub-sampled and cylindrical specimens prepared for testing (120 mm in length and 60 mm in diameter). The experiments were conducted using a specially designed constant volume cell, which allows the evolution of the total stresses acting on the surrounding vessel to be monitored during clay swelling (at three radial and two axial locations). A high precision syringe pump was used to maintain a constant applied pore pressure within the bentonite, while the rate of hydraulic inflow, and consequent stress development, were monitored to determine the point at which hydraulic equilibrium was reached. During the tests each sample was subjected to an incremental series of constant pore-pressure steps, with all samples experiencing at least one loading and unloading cycle. The resulting average total stress data yield alpha values in the

  17. Simulations of skin barrier function: free energies of hydrophobic and hydrophilic transmembrane pores in ceramide bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W J; Noro, Massimo G; den Otter, Wouter K

    2008-11-15

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel phase and in the DMSO-induced fluidized state. Our simulations show that the fluid phase bilayers form archetypal water-filled hydrophilic pores similar to those observed in phospholipid bilayers. In contrast, the rigid gel-phase bilayers develop hydrophobic pores. At the relatively small pore diameters studied here, the hydrophobic pores are empty rather than filled with bulk water, suggesting that they do not compromise the barrier function of ceramide membranes. A phenomenological analysis suggests that these vapor pores are stable, below a critical radius, because the penalty of creating water-vapor and tail-vapor interfaces is lower than that of directly exposing the strongly hydrophobic tails to water. The PMCF free energy profile of the vapor pore supports this analysis. The simulations indicate that high DMSO concentrations drastically impair the barrier function of the skin by strongly reducing the free energy required for pore opening.

  18. Hierarchically templated beads with tailored pore structure for phosphopeptide capture and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicka, Celina; Torsetnes, Silje B.; Jensen, Ole N.

    2017-01-01

    Two templating approaches to produce imprinted phosphotyrosine capture beads with a controllable pore structure are reported and compared with respect to their ability to enrich phosphopeptides from a tryptic peptide mixture. The beads were prepared by the polymerization of urea-based host monomers...... and crosslinkers inside the pores of macroporous silica beads with both free and immobilized template. In the final step the silica was removed by fluoride etching resulting in mesoporous polymer replicas with narrow pore size distributions, pore diameters ≈ 10 nm and surface area > 260 m2 g-1. The beads displayed...... pronounced phosphotyrosine affinity and selectivity in binding tests using model peptides in acetonitrile rich solutions with a performance surpassing solution polymerized bulk imprinted materials. Tests of the beads for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of twelve proteins revealed both...

  19. Study on pore structure and diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in hardened low-alkaline cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Morihiro; Torii, Kazuyuki

    2009-03-01

    Low-alkaline cement using pozzolans is under consideration as a possible filling and structural material in geological disposal for long-lived radioactive waste. Silica fume and fly ash are used to develop the low-alkaline cement which is named HFSC, High-volume Fly ash Silica fume Cement. In this study, pore structure and diffusivity of chloride ion in HFSC pastes were investigated in order to understand the fundamental transport properties of ions. HFSC which included different contents of fly ash (40%, 50% and 60%) with silica fume (20%) and ordinary Portland (OPC) cement were prepared. Hardened cement pastes were supplied to pore structure analysis and in-diffusion experiment with NaCl and CaCl 2 solution. Mercury intrusion method (MIP) commonly used and image analysis of backscattered electron microscopy (BSE) for pore in hardened cement paste were performed to investigate the pore structure. The porosity of HFSC was larger than that of OPC measured by MIP. However, pore diameter increasing pore volume of HFSC was smaller than that of OPC. It was observed that lager pores were in HFSC than in OPC from BSE. These large pores in HFSC were originated from cenosphere of FA. The apparent diffusivity of chloride in HFSC with fly ash of 40% showed smallest value in the cement pastes. It was concluded that the smallest diffusion coefficient was caused by a pore of HFSC which had a bended structure and ion exclusion/filtration effect. (author)

  20. A USANS/SANS study of the accessibility of pores in the Barnett Shale to methane and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Sakurovs, Richard; Blach, Tomasz P.; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Mildner, David F.; Alcantar-Lopez, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Shale is an increasingly important source of natural gas in the United States. The gas is held in fine pores that need to be accessed by horizontal drilling and hydrofracturing techniques. Understanding the nature of the pores may provide clues to making gas extraction more efficient. We have investigated two Mississippian Barnett Shale samples, combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) to determine the pore size distribution of the shale over the size range 10 nm to 10 μm. By adding deuterated methane (CD4) and, separately, deuterated water (D2O) to the shale, we have identified the fraction of pores that are accessible to these compounds over this size range. The total pore size distribution is essentially identical for the two samples. At pore sizes >250 nm, >85% of the pores in both samples are accessible to both CD4 and D2O. However, differences in accessibility to CD4 are observed in the smaller pore sizes (~25 nm). In one sample, CD4 penetrated the smallest pores as effectively as it did the larger ones. In the other sample, less than 70% of the smallest pores (4, but they were still largely penetrable by water, suggesting that small-scale heterogeneities in methane accessibility occur in the shale samples even though the total porosity does not differ. An additional study investigating the dependence of scattered intensity with pressure of CD4 allows for an accurate estimation of the pressure at which the scattered intensity is at a minimum. This study provides information about the composition of the material immediately surrounding the pores. Most of the accessible (open) pores in the 25 nm size range can be associated with either mineral matter or high reflectance organic material. However, a complementary scanning electron microscopy investigation shows that most of the pores in these shale samples are contained in the organic components. The neutron scattering results indicate that the pores are

  1. Diffusion and electromigration in clay bricks influenced by differences in the pore system resulting from firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport in porous materials has been subject of study for several decades. However, the interaction between the pores and the overall pore system make it complicated to obtain a clear picture and predict diffusion and electromigration (transport induced by an applied electric field). Specific...... to the distance to the surface.The influence of the pore system on ion transport through the water saturated pore system of the bricks was supported by measurements for calculation of the electrical resistance and an increasing resistance was found for increasing brick firing temperatures. The effective diffusion...... the pore system to contribute to an overall understanding of ion transport in porous materials.The pore system in bricks are influenced by the firing degree, clay mixture composition and ion content. The present paper focuses on the pore system and effects from clay mixture composition and ion content were...

  2. Novel male-biased expression in paralogs of the aphid slimfast nutrient amino acid transporter expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanson Lubov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal of molecular evolutionary biology is to understand the fate and consequences of duplicated genes. In this context, aphids are intriguing because the newly sequenced pea aphid genome harbors an extraordinary number of lineage-specific gene duplications relative to other insect genomes. Though many of their duplicated genes may be involved in their complex life cycle, duplications in nutrient amino acid transporters appear to be associated rather with their essential amino acid poor diet and the intracellular symbiosis aphids rely on to compensate for dietary deficits. Past work has shown that some duplicated amino acid transporters are highly expressed in the specialized cells housing the symbionts, including a paralog of an aphid-specific expansion homologous to the Drosophila gene slimfast. Previous data provide evidence that these bacteriocyte-expressed transporters mediate amino acid exchange between aphids and their symbionts. Results We report that some nutrient amino acid transporters show male-biased expression. Male-biased expression characterizes three paralogs in the aphid-specific slimfast expansion, and the male-biased expression is conserved across two aphid species for at least two paralogs. One of the male-biased paralogs has additionally experienced an accelerated rate of non-synonymous substitutions. Conclusions This is the first study to document male-biased slimfast expression. Our data suggest that the male-biased aphid slimfast paralogs diverged from their ancestral function to fill a functional role in males. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that members of the slimfast expansion are maintained in the aphid genome not only for the previously hypothesized role in mediating amino acid exchange between the symbiotic partners, but also for sex-specific roles.

  3. Pore former induced porosity in LSM/CGO cathodes for electrochemical cells for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of the characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) pore formers on the porosity, pore size distribution and the air flow through the prepared lanthanum strontium manganate/gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (LSM/CGO) cathodes was investigated. Porous cathodes were obtained...... and the highest porosity measured was 46.4% with an average pore diameter of 0.98 μm. The air flow through this cathode was measured to 5.8 ml/(min mm2). Also the effect of exposure time to the solvent was tested for the most promising PMMA pore former and it was found that the average pore diameter decreases...

  4. Effect of pore size on performance of monolithic tube chromatography of large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Ales; Hamachi, Masataka; Isakari, Yu; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pore size on the performance of ion-exchange monolith tube chromatography of large biomolecules was investigated. Radial flow 1 mL polymer based monolith tubes of different pore sizes (1.5, 2, and 6 μm) were tested with model samples such as 20 mer poly T-DNA, basic proteins, and acidic proteins (molecular weight 14 000-670 000). Pressure drop, pH transient, the number of binding site, dynamic binding capacity, and peak width were examined. Pressure drop-flow rate curves and dynamic binding capacity values were well correlated with the nominal pore size. While duration of the pH transient curves depends on the pore size, it was found that pH duration normalized on estimated surface area was constant, indicating that the ligand density is the same. This was also confirmed by the constant number of binding site values being independent of pore size. The peak width values were similar to those for axial flow monolith chromatography. These results showed that it is easy to scale up axial flow monolith chromatography to radial flow monolith tube chromatography by choosing the right pore size in terms of the pressure drop and capacity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Improved capacitance characteristics of electrospun ACFs by pore size control and vanadium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ji Sun; Woo, Sang-Wook; Jung, Min-Jung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2008-11-01

    Nano-sized carbon fibers were prepared by using electrospinning, and their electrochemical properties were investigated as a possible electrode material for use as an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). To improve the electrode capacitance of EDLC, we implemented a three-step optimization. First, metal catalyst was introduced into the carbon fibers due to the excellent conductivity of metal. Vanadium pentoxide was used because it could be converted to vanadium for improved conductivity as the pore structure develops during the carbonization step. Vanadium catalyst was well dispersed in the carbon fibers, improving the capacitance of the electrode. Second, pore-size development was manipulated to obtain small mesopore sizes ranging from 2 to 5 nm. Through chemical activation, carbon fibers with controlled pore sizes were prepared with a high specific surface and pore volume, and their pore structure was investigated by using a BET apparatus. Finally, polyacrylonitrile was used as a carbon precursor to enrich for nitrogen content in the final product because nitrogen is known to improve electrode capacitance. Ultimately, the electrospun activated carbon fibers containing vanadium show improved functionality in charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and specific capacitance compared with other samples because of an optimal combination of vanadium, nitrogen, and fixed pore structures.

  6. Valve seat pores sealed with thermosetting monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmore, A. B.

    1966-01-01

    Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.

  7. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  8. Characterization of large-pore polymeric supports for use in perfusion biochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D; McCoy, M; Gordon, N; Afeyan, N

    1998-05-22

    Perfusion chromatography is uniquely characterized by the flow of a portion of the column eluent directly through the resin in the packed bed. The benefits of this phenomenon and some of the properties of perfusive resins have been described before, and can be summarized as enhanced mass transport to interior binding sites. Here we extend the understanding of this phenomenon by comparing resins with different pore size distributions. Resins are chosen to give approximately the same specific pore volumes (as shown in the characterization section) but the varying contribution of large pores is used to control the amount of liquid flowing through the beads. POROS R1 has the largest contribution of throughpores, and therefore the greatest intraparticle flow. POROS R2 has a lower contribution of throughpores, and a higher surface area coming from a greater population of diffusive pores, but still shows significant mass transport enhancements relative to a purely diffusive control. Oligo R3 is dominated by a high population of diffusive pores, and is used comparatively as a non-perfusive resin. Although the pore size distribution can be engineered to control mass transport rates, the resulting surface area is not the only means by which binding capacity can be controlled. Surface coatings are employed to increase binding capacity without fundamentally altering the mass transport properties. Models are used to describe the amount of flow transecting the beads, and comparisons of coated resins to uncoated (polystyrene) resins leads to the conclusion that these coatings do not obstruct the throughpore structures. This is an important conclusion since the binding capacity of the coated product, in some cases, is shown to be over 10-fold higher than the precursor polystyrene scaffold (i.e., POROS R1 or POROS R2).

  9. Pore water chemistry in the beach sands of central Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandrasekar, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Moscow, S.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Sudha, V.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.

    As the pore water chemistry- has been considered as one of the prominent base parameters to infer the impact of coastal mining in introducing environmental deterioration, a study in pore water chemistry is planned here along the beaches for a length...

  10. Capillary condensation in porous materials. Hysteresis and interaction mechanism without pore blocking/percolation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman, Annie; Ortega, Camille

    2008-04-15

    We have performed measurements of boundary hysteresis loops, reversal curves, and subloops in p+-type porous silicon, a porous material composed of straight non-interconnected pores. These data show that a strong interaction mechanism exists between the pores. The pores of porous silicon are non-independent, whereas they are not interconnected. This hysteretic behavior is very similar to that observed in porous glass, which consists of cavities connected to each other by constrictions. This questions the so-called pore blocking/percolation model developed to explain the behavior of fluid in porous glass. More generally, if we disregard the shape of the boundary hysteresis loops which depends on the porous material (H1 for MCM-41 and SBA-15, H2 for porous glass and p+-type porous silicon), the hysteretic features inside the main loop are qualitatively the same for all these porous systems. This shows that none of these systems are composed of independent pores. A coupling between the pores is always present whether they are interconnected or not and whatever the shape of the main loop is.

  11. The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation during anodization of aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, M.W.; Chung, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al films of varying residual stress were prepared by sputtering. •Variation of the residual stress in the Al films influences pore growth during anodization. •The change in average pore size with residual stress is fairly small. •Interaction of residual stress with oxide growth stress leads to change in structure. •Residual tensile stress increases the pore density of porous alumina. -- Abstract: The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) have been investigated into anodizing the various-residual-stresses aluminium films. The plane stresses were characterised by X-ray diffraction with sin 2 ψ method. The pore density roughly linearly increased with residual stress from 64.6 (−132.5 MPa) to 90.5 pores/μm 2 (135.9 MPa). However, the average pore size around 40 nm was not changed significantly except for the rougher film. The tensile residual stress lessened the compressive oxide growth stress to reduce AAO plastic deformation for higher pore density. The findings provide new foundations for realizing AAO films on silicon

  12. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable large-pore mesoporous nanocrystallineanatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermokhina, Natalia I.; Nevinskiy, Vitaly A.; Manorik, Piotr A.; Ilyin, Vladimir G. [L.V. Pisarzhevskiy Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Prospekt Nauki, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Novichenko, Viktor N.; Shcherbatiuk, Mykola M.; Klymchuk, Dmitro O. [M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2Tereshchenkivska St., 01601, Kyiv (Ukraine); Tsyba, Mykola M. [Institute for Sorption and Problems of Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 Naumov St., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Puziy, Alexander M., E-mail: alexander.puziy@ispe.kiev.ua [Institute for Sorption and Problems of Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 Naumov St., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    Thermally stable mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with a pure anatase structure was obtained by sol–gel synthesis (in combination with hydrothermal treatment) using titanium tetrabutoxide and dibenzo-18-crown-6 as a structure-directing agent in presence of surfactant and/or La{sup 3+} ions additives. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} demonstrates various textures with a well-defined spherical morphology (micro- and nanospheres), a crystallite size of no greater than 10 nm (XRD), and a narrow pore size distribution. Spherical particles of micrometer scale in the presence of La{sup 3+} ions do not form. TiO{sub 2} calcined (at 500 °C) after hydrothermal treatment (at 1