Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. Protection against reproductive failure caused by acute PPV infection has commonly been related to the presence of specific antibodies in the dam. However, the role of cell-mediated immunity during chronic PPV...
Fujisaki, Y; Murakami, Y
Swine were inoculated once with the attenuated HT- strain of porcine parvovirus. Several months later they were challenged by oral inoculation with a field strain of the virus to examine an ability to prevent infection. After challenge inoculation unimmunized control swine exhibited an increase in antibody titer, viremia, and virus discharge. The virus was recovered from many organs. The swine preinoculated with the attenuated HT- strain, however, manifested none of these symptoms and were negative for virus recovery from any organ.
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) can cause reproductive failure in swine resulting in economic losses to the industry. Antiviral effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) have been reported on several animal viruses; however, to date it has yet to be tested on PPV. In this study, the antiviral activity of ...
Schirtzinger, Erin E; Suddith, Andrew W; Hause, Benjamin M; Hesse, Richard A
Currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. These include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, PPV), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (PPV3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes PPV2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine PARV4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes PPV4 and PPV5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine bocavirus 5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 4 (porcine bocavirus 7) and ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 (porcine bocavirus 3, 4-1 and 4-2). PPV6, the most recently described porcine parvovirus, was first identified in China in late 2014 in aborted pig fetuses. Prevalence of PPV6 in China was found to be similar in finishing age pigs from farms with and without evidence of swine reproductive failure. Porcine parvovirus 6 (PPV6) was detected by sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and confirmed by overlapping and real-time PCR in the serum of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSv) positive samples. Seven nearly complete genomes of PPV6 were identified in PRRSv genotype 2 positive serum samples submitted to state veterinary diagnostic laboratories in 2014. Further testing using overlapping and real-time PCR determined PPV6 to be present in 13.2 % of the serums tested. Additionally, PPV6 was present in samples from all of the geographic locations sampled encompassing nine states in the United States and one state in Mexico. The presence of PPV6 in serum indicates that the PPV6 infection is disseminated and not localized to a specific tissue type. Alignments of the near full length genomes, NS1, and capsid genes identified one of the five PPV6 isolates from China (98.6-99.5 % identity with the North American strains) to be the North American strains nearest relative. These results are the first to report the presence of PPV6 in North America and demonstrate that the virus is
István Mészáros; Ferenc Olasz; Attila Cságola; Peter Tijssen; Zoltán Zádori
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on t...
Full Text Available Porcine parvovirus (PPV is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology.
Mészáros, István; Olasz, Ferenc; Cságola, Attila; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology. PMID:29261104
Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen
Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection
Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.
Madsen, Eva Smedegaard; Madsen, Knud Gert; Nielsen, Jens
The humoral antibody response against the nonstructural protein NS1 and the structural protein VP2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was evaluated by immuno-peroxidase test (IPT) and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant PPV antigens. The coding sequence for NS1 and VP2...... was inserted into the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) genome resulting in two recombinant baculoviruses AcNPV-NS1 and AcNPV-VP2, respectively. Sf9 cells (Spodoptora frugidiperda) inoculated with AcNPV-NS1 producing recombinant nonstructural protein (rNS1) and AcNPV-VP2...... producing recombinant virion protein (rVP2) were used in IPT and ELISA to analyse serum antibodies. Pigs vaccinated with an inactivated whole virus vaccine and experimentally infected pigs were studied. Significant titers against rVP2 were obtained in both vaccinated and infected pigs. Specific antibodies...
Maranga, L.; Rueda, P.; Antonis, A.F.G.; Vela, C.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Casal, J.I.; Carrondo, M.J.T.
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute a potential vaccine for prevention of parvovirus-induced reproductive failure in gilts. Here we report the development of a large scale (25 l) production process for PPV-VLPs with baculovirus-infected insect cells. A low multiplicity of
On the basis of the given results, we conclude that colostral immunity to parvovirus infection in swine lasts for about one month and that antibodies found in the blood serum of piglets after the first month of life are a result of the activation of the immune system. Keywords: Porcine parvovirus, colostral immunity, reproductive ...
Jóźwik, A; Manteufel, J; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U
The demonstration of field isolates of porcine parvovirus (PPV) that differ genetically and antigenically from vaccine strains of PPV raises the question of whether the broadly used inactivated vaccines can still protect sows against the novel viruses. Ten specific-pathogen-free primiparous sows were assigned to three groups and were vaccinated with one of two vaccines based on the old vaccine strains, or served as non-vaccinated controls. After insemination, all sows were challenged with the prototype genotype 2 virus, PPV-27a, on gestation day 41; fetuses were delivered on gestation day 90 and examined for virus infection. The fetuses of the vaccinated sows were protected against disease, but both the vaccinated and the non-vaccinated sows showed a marked increase in antibody titres after challenge infection, indicating replication of the challenge virus. All sows (vaccinated and non-vaccinated) shed the challenge virus for at least 10 days after infection, with no difference in the pattern or duration of virus shedding.
Oh, Woo-Taek; Kim, Ri-Yeon; Nguyen, Van-Giap; Chung, Hee-Chun; Park, Bong-Kyun
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is one of the main causes of porcine reproductive failure. It is important for swine industries to understand the recent trends in PPV evolution. Previous data show that PPV has two genetic lineages originating in Germany. In this study, two more genetic lineages were defined, one of which was distinctly Asian. Additionally, amino acid substitutions in European strains and Asian strains showed distinct differences in several regions of the VP2 gene. The VP1 gene of the recent PPV isolate (T142_South Korea) was identical to that of Kresse strain isolated in the USA in 1985, indicating that modern PPV strains now resemble the original strains (Kresse and NADL-2). In this study, we compared strains isolated in the 20th century to recent isolates and confirmed the trend that modern strains are becoming more similar to previous strains.
Xing, Xiulin; Zhou, Han; Tong, Ling; Chen, Yao; Sun, Yankuo; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) are small, non-enveloped and single-stranded DNA viruses, taxonomically classifiable within the family Parvoviridae. Seven PPV genotypes (PPV1 to PPV7) have been identified to date. PPV7, the most recently discovered PPV genotype, was first reported in US pigs in 2016. To explore PPV7 status in Chinese pig populations a total of 64 serum samples collected from two commercial farms in Guangdong province in 2014 were analyzed. PPV7 DNA was detected in 32.8% (21/64) of tested samples. On the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) positive farm, the prevalence rate of PPV7 was 65.5% (19/29) which was significantly higher than that on the PCV2 negative farm (2/35, 5.7%), indicating a possible association between PCV2 and PPV7 infections. The sequences of three PPV7 strains were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified PPV7 strains circulating in China shared 98.7%-99.7% nucleotide homology with the US strain. Further sequence comparison analysis indicated that GD-2014-2 and GD-2014-3 possess a consecutive 9-nt deletion in the VP gene. This is the first report of the existence of PPV7 in China and this finding will strengthen understanding of the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus in Chinese pigs.
Ni, Jianqiang; Qiao, Caixia; Han, Xue; Han, Tao; Kang, Wenhua; Zi, Zhanchao; Cao, Zhen; Zhai, Xinyan; Cai, Xuepeng
Parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the Densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. In recent years, a number of novel parvoviruses belonging to the subfamily Parvovirinae have been identified from various animal species and humans, including human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), porcine hokovirus, ovine partetravirus, porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4), and porcine parvovirus 5 (PPV5). Using sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA), a novel parvovirus within the subfamily Parvovirinae that was distinct from any known parvoviruses was identified and five full-length genome sequences were determined and analyzed. A novel porcine parvovirus, provisionally named PPV6, was initially identified from aborted pig fetuses in China. Retrospective studies revealed the prevalence of PPV6 in aborted pig fetuses and piglets(50% and 75%, respectively) was apparently higher than that in finishing pigs and sows (15.6% and 3.8% respectively). Furthermore, the prevalence of PPV6 in finishing pig was similar in affected and unaffected farms (i.e. 16.7% vs. 13.6%-21.7%). This finding indicates that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the level of PPV6 viremia. Complete genome sequencing and multiple alignments have shown that the nearly full-length genome sequences were approximately 6,100 nucleotides in length and shared 20.5%-42.6% DNA sequence identity with other members of the Parvovirinae subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PPV6 was significantly distinct from other known parvoviruses and was most closely related to PPV4. Our findings and review of published parvovirus sequences suggested that a novel porcine parvovirus is currently circulating in China and might be classified into the novel genus Copiparvovirus within the subfamily Parvovirinae. However, the clinical manifestations of PPV6 are still unknown in that the
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to come closer to the knowledge of piglets protection during intrauterine life, as well as formation of colostrum immunity against Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV, on the basis of detailed antibody titer analysis from the blood serum of pigs 7 days before previous weaning, 30 days before mating and their piglets during first 3 days of life. The research included 60 fertile pigs and 300 of their offspring. For that purpose we have examined antibody titer specific for PPV in blood serum of vaccinated fertile pigs on 70th and 113th day of gestation, and in the blood serum of piglets originated from itemized fertile pigs during first day of life, before colostrums consummation and also during 3rd day of life. On the 70th day of gestation, in the fertile pigs blood serum, average antibody titer specific for PPV, value of 12.60 was determined, what represents adequate level for solid protection against PPV infection. This was confirmed undoubtedly by examination results of antibodies in the blood serum of piglets before colostrum consummation, which was 100% negative. Titer drop in the blood serum of fertile pigs, on 113th day of gestation (on the level of 8.7 came as a result of specific antibodies transfer from the mother’s blood flow to the colostrum. The above-mentioned is supported by the fact that on the 3rd day of life there was confirmed high average body titer level (13.37 in newborn piglets body serum has been confirmed. The principle of fertile pigs vaccination 7 days before weaning and one month before gilts insemination is an efficient measure which prevents intrauterine infection occurrence during the entire gestation process. The level of antibodies specific for PPV which is determined in gilts blood serum after vaccination can be a result of both primary and secondary immune response (animal infected before first vaccination, as well as absence of gilts revaccination, what is usually recommended by
Palinski, Rachel M; Mitra, Namita; Hause, Ben M
Parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. Metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. BLASTP analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (EhPV2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (TuPV) TP1-2012/HUN NS1 proteins. The 469-aa protein had no significant similarity to known proteins. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that PPV7, EhPV2, and TuPV represent a novel genus in the family Parvoviridae. Quantitative PCR screening of 182 porcine diagnostic samples found a total of 16 positives (8.6 %). Together, these data suggest that PPV7 is a highly divergent novel parvovirus prevalent within the US swine.
Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...
Zeeuw, E J L; Leinecker, N; Herwig, V; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U
The pathogenicity of two recent German field isolates of Porcine parvovirus (PPV-27a and PPV-143a) and two vaccine viruses [PPV-NADL-2 and PPV-IDT (MSV)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. Post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned PPV isolates and with the virulent strain PPV-Challenge (Engl.) were tested for their homologous and heterologous neutralization activities. All antisera had high neutralization activity against the vaccine viruses, the PPV-Challenge (Engl.) virus and PPV-143a, but much lower activity against PPV-27a. These results suggest that PPV-27a represents a new antigenic variant or type of PPV and vaccines based on the established vaccine viruses may not be fully protective against this field isolate. PPV-27a has been characterized based on the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein as a member of a new and distinct PPV cluster (Zimmermann et al., 2006). Interestingly, the homologous neutralizing antibody titres of the sera of all three pigs and both rabbits inoculated or immunized with PPV-27a were 100- to 1000-fold lower than the heterologous titres against any of the other viruses. The low homologous neutralizing antibody titres suggest a possible, yet undefined, immune escape mechanism of this PPV isolate.
To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...
Cui, Jin; Wang, Xin; Ren, Yudong; Cui, Shangjin; Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate PPV2010 has recently emerged in China. Herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of PPV2010. Our results indicate that the genome of PPV2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent PPV and vaccine strains. Importantly, PPV2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain.
Cui, Jin; Wang, Xin; Ren, Yudong; Cui, Shangjin; Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate PPV2010 has recently emerged in China. Herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of PPV2010. Our results indicate that the genome of PPV2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent PPV and vaccine strains. Importantly, PPV2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain.
Grant S. Schulert
Full Text Available Fetal parvovirus B19 infection causes anemia, hydrops, and pregnancy loss but is generally not considered teratogenic. Nevertheless, disturbances of neuronal migration have been described with congenital parvovirus infection. We evaluated a term infant with congenital parvovirus disease and polymicrogyria. We compared this case with four other reports of central nervous system disease after birth to parvovirus-infected mothers. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation, this infant was found to have congenital parvovirus disease with severe anemia and nonimmune hydrops as well as extensive polymicrogyria. Although rare, this report and literature review suggest that parvovirus B19 has the potential to disrupt normal neurodevelopment. We suggest that infants with severe congenital parvovirus infection have close developmental surveillance and if symptomatic undergo neuroimaging to assess for disorders of neuromigration.
A viral metagenomic approach on a non-metagenomic experiment: Mining next generation sequencing datasets from pig DNA identified several porcine parvoviruses for a retrospective evaluation of viral infections.
Full Text Available Shot-gun next generation sequencing (NGS on whole DNA extracted from specimens collected from mammals often produces reads that are not mapped (i.e. unmapped reads on the host reference genome and that are usually discarded as by-products of the experiments. In this study, we mined Ion Torrent reads obtained by sequencing DNA isolated from archived blood samples collected from 100 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Two reduced representation libraries were prepared from two DNA pools constructed each from 50 equimolar DNA samples. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to mine unmapped reads on the reference pig genome that were obtained from the two NGS datasets. In silico analyses included read mapping and sequence assembly approaches for a viral metagenomic analysis using the NCBI Viral Genome Resource. Our approach identified sequences matching several viruses of the Parvoviridae family: porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2, PPV4, PPV5 and PPV6 and porcine bocavirus 1-H18 isolate (PBoV1-H18. The presence of these viruses was confirmed by PCR and Sanger sequencing of individual DNA samples. PPV2, PPV4, PPV5, PPV6 and PBoV1-H18 were all identified in samples collected in 1998-2007, 1998-2000, 1997-2000, 1998-2004 and 2003, respectively. For most of these viruses (PPV4, PPV5, PPV6 and PBoV1-H18 previous studies reported their first occurrence much later (from 5 to more than 10 years than our identification period and in different geographic areas. Our study provided a retrospective evaluation of apparently asymptomatic parvovirus infected pigs providing information that could be important to define occurrence and prevalence of different parvoviruses in South Europe. This study demonstrated the potential of mining NGS datasets non-originally derived by metagenomics experiments for viral metagenomics analyses in a livestock species.
Cui, Jin; Fan, Jinghui; Gerber, Priscilla F; Biernacka, Kinga; Stadejek, Tomasz; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Opriessnig, Tanja
Porcine parvovirus type 1 is a major causative agent of swine reproductive failure. During the past decade, several new parvoviruses have been discovered in pigs. Porcine parvovirus type 6 (PPV6), recently identified, has been reported in pigs in China and in the USA while the PPV6 status in the European pig population remains undetermined. In the present study, PPV6 DNA was identified in serum samples collected from domestic pigs in Poland. In investigated herds, the prevalence of PPV6 was 14.9 % (15/101 samples). Sequencing was conducted, and 11 nearly complete PPV6 genomes were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PPV6 sequences cluster into four distinct groups, and the Polish PPV6 strains from three individual farms were present in three of these four groups. In addition, the Polish PPV6 strain P15-1 was identified as a putative recombination of an ORF1 from US stains and an ORF2 from Chinese strains. This is the first identification of PPV6 in Europe, and this finding will encourage future epidemiological studies on parvoviruses in European pigs.
Phylogenetically, porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is most related to bovine parvovirus 2 that has two open reading frames (ORFs), but its genome organization resembles that of members of the Bocavirus genus that has three ORFs. Although PPV4 transcribes its genome from a single promoter and the transcri...
A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV challenge model.
Opriessnig, T; Shen, H G; Pal, N; Ramamoorthy, S; Huang, Y W; Lager, K M; Beach, N M; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J
The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure.
A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿
Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.
The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure. PMID:21653745
Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming
Parvoviruses are a group of small DNA viruses with ssDNA genomes flanked by two inverted terminal structures. Due to a limited genetic resource they require host cellular factors and sometimes a helper virus for efficient viral replication. Recent studies have shown that parvoviruses interact with the DNA damage machinery, which has a significant impact on the life cycle of the virus as well as the fate of infected cells. In addition, due to special DNA structures of the viral genomes, parvoviruses are useful tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection-induced DNA damage response (DDR). This review aims to summarize recent advances in parvovirus-induced DDR, with a focus on the diverse DDR pathways triggered by different parvoviruses and the consequences of DDR on the viral life cycle as well as the fate of infected cells. PMID:25429305
de Jong, Eveline P.; de Haan, Timo R.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J.
Parvovirus B19 is a small single-stranded DNA virus and a potent inhibitor of erythropoiesis, due to its cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells. Infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can cause several serious complications in the fetus, such as fetal anemia, neurological anomalies,
Brodin-Sartorius, Albane; Mekki, Yahia; Bloquel, Bénédicte; Rabant, Marion; Legendre, Christophe
Prevalence for human parvovirus B19 infection is estimated to be between 2% and 30% in renal transplant recipients. In post-transplant settings, parvovirus B19 infection may occur either as a primary infection or a reactivation. Parvovirus transmission most commonly occurs through respiratory tract but may also result from graft or blood packs contamination. Co-infections with HHV-6 and CMV viruses are frequent. The hallmark symptom is anemia, more rarely pancytopenia and hemophagocytic syndrome. In respect to renal involvement, parvovirus B19 infection has been associated with graft dysfunction in 10% of cases. Both thrombotic microangiopathies and collapsing glomerulopathies have been reported concomitantly with parvovirus B19 infection but the causal link remains unclear. Other complications are seldomly reported, including hepatitis, encephalitis, and myocarditis. Diagnosis is based on pre and post-transplant serological status. In addition, the management of parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompromised patients requires quantitative assessment of blood viral load by PCR. The treatment relies primarily on reduction of immunosuppression combined with intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. Relapses occur in 30% of cases. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Crane, Joan; Mundle, William; Boucoiran, Isabelle
This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the effects of parvovirus B19 on the pregnant woman and fetus, and discusses the management of women who are exposed to, who are at risk of developing, or who develop parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. The outcomes evaluated were maternal outcomes including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemia, and myocarditis, and fetal outcomes including spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, hydrops fetalis, stillbirth, and long-term effects. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on July 8, 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (MeSH terms "parvovirus" and "pregnancy") and key words (parvovirus, infection, pregnancy, hydrops). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions but results were limited to English or French language materials. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recommendations 1. Investigation for parvovirus B19 infection is recommended apart of the standard workup for fetal hydrops or intrauterine fetal death. (II-2A) 2. Routine screening for parvovirus immunity in low-risk pregnancies is not recommended. (II-2E) 3. Pregnant women who are exposed to, or who develop symptoms of, parvovirus B19 infection should be assessed to determine whether they are susceptible to infection (non-immune) or have a current infection by determining their parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M status. (II-2A) 4. If parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G is present and immunoglobulin M
Fujisaki, Y; Murakami, Y; Suzuki, H
To prepare a live virus vaccine strain for the prevention of porcine parvovirus infection, the 90HS strain, isolated from the brain of a stillborn porcine fetus, was subjected to the first 45 serial passages in swine kidney established (ESK) cells of porcine kidney origin at 30-35 degrees C and to the 46th and later serial passages in the same cells as these at 32 degrees C. When swine were inoculated with the strain at the 38th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37+ and rct/40-, they presented viremia, virus discharge, and the transmission of virus to other swine. When swine were inoculated with the strain at the 54th and 55th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37- and rct/40-, they failed to exhibit viremia, virus discharge, and the transmission of virus to other swine, but retained for a long time hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody which had been produced after inoculation. A low virulent variant strain was obtained after 54 serial passages at low temperature. It was called the HT- strain.
Gencoglu, Maria F; Pearson, Eric; Heldt, Caryn L
Viruses can be modified into viral vaccines or gene therapy vectors in order to treat acquired or genetic diseases. To satisfy the current market demand, an improvement in current vaccine manufacturing is needed. Chromatography and nanofiltration are not suitable for all types of viruses. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation with osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as a potential virus purification process. We hypothesize that osmolytes strongly bind to water, thus leading to the formation of a hydration layer around the virus particles and stimulation of aggregation. We have discovered that osmolytes, including sugars, sugar alcohols and amino acids, preferentially flocculate porcine parvovirus (PPV), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm filter while leaving model proteins in solution. This large pore size filter increases the flux and decreases the transmembrane pressure of typical virus filters. The best flocculants were tested for their ability to aggregate PPV at different concentrations, shear stress, pH and ionic strength. We were able to remove 96% of PPV in 3.0M glycine at a pH of 5. Glycine is also an excipient, and therefore may not require removal later in the process. Virus flocculation using osmolytes, followed by microfiltration could be used as an integrated process for virus purification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda
Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.
Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia
We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety.
A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿
Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.
The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine p...
Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre
Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.
Gerlach, M; Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K
This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study aimed to evaluate efficacy of commercially available feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in dogs with canine parvovirus infection. First, cross-protection of feline panleukopenia virus antibodies against canine parvovirus was evaluated in vitro. In the subsequent prospective clinical trial, 31 dogs with clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection and a positive faecal canine parvovirus polymerase chain reaction were randomly assigned to a group receiving feline panleukopenia virus antibodies (n=15) or placebo (n=16). All dogs received additional routine treatment. Clinical signs, blood parameters, time to clinical recovery and mortality were compared between the groups. Serum antibody titres and quantitative faecal polymerase chain reaction were compared on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. In vitro, canine parvovirus was fully neutralised by feline panleukopenia virus antibodies. There were no detected significant differences in clinical signs, time to clinical recovery, blood parameters, mortality, faecal virus load, or viral shedding between groups. Dogs in the placebo group showed a significant increase of serum antibody titres and a significant decrease of faecal virus load between day 14 and day 0, which was not detectable in dogs treated with feline panleukopenia virus antibodies. No significant beneficial effect of passively transferred feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in the used dosage regimen on the treatment of canine parvovirus infection was demonstrated. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Mengeling, W L; Pejsak, Z; Paul, P S
Attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of PPV in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. Both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain NADL-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. The strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (HA), median cell culture infective dose (CCID50), median fetal infective dose (FID50), and median fetal lethal dose (FLD50). The FID50 and FLD50 were determined by injecting virus directly into the amniotic fluid of fetuses in utero at 44 +/- 2 days of gestation and collecting the fetuses 15 +/- 1 days later. Both strains had an HA titer of 64, suggesting that there is a similar number of virions in stock preparations. However, other measurements differed markedly. The CCID50, FID50, and FLD50 were 10(5.5), 10(3.5), and 10(0.5), respectively, for strain NADL-2, and 10(4.5), 10(7.7), and 10(6.3), respectively, for strain NADL-8. Collectively, the values indicate that more than 10,000 times as much strain NADL-2 would need to reach the conceptus transplacentally to establish infection. These observations may help to explain the different consequences of oronasal exposure of pregnant swine to these strains of PPV.
Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infection’s most common dermatological manifestation is erythema infectiosum as also known the fifth disease. Rare clinical presentations of parvovirus B 19 like papulopurpuric gloves and socks syndrome and acropetechial syndrome has also been described recently. This study presents report of a case with atypical feature and distribution of rash due to parvovirus B19 infection. We want to emphasize that pediatricians should consider parvovirus B19 infection of any patient who has leukopenia presenting with petechial/purpuric eruption of an unclear origin.
Mészáros, István; Tóth, Renáta; Olasz, Ferenc; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán
The SAT protein (SATp) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and SAT deletion induces the slow-spreading phenotype. The in vitro comparison of the wild-type Kresse strain and its SAT knockout (SAT - ) mutant revealed that prolonged cell integrity and late viral release are responsible for the slower spreading of the SAT - virus. During PPV infection, regardless of the presence or absence of SATp, the expression of downstream ER stress response proteins (Xbp1 and CHOP) was induced. However, in the absence of SATp, significant differences in the quantity and the localization of CHOP were detected, suggesting a role of SATp in the induction of irreversible ER stress in infected cells. The involvement of the induction of irreversible ER stress in porcine testis (PT) cell necrosis and viral egress was confirmed by treatment of infected cells by ER stress-inducing chemicals (MG132, dithiothreitol, and thapsigargin), which accelerated the egress and spreading of both the wild-type and the SAT - viruses. UV stress induction had no beneficial effect on PPV infection, underscoring the specificity of ER stress pathways in the process. However, induction of CHOP and its nuclear translocation cannot alone be responsible for the biological effect of SAT, since nuclear CHOP could not complement the lack of SAT in a coexpression experiment. IMPORTANCE SATp is encoded by an alternative open reading frame of the PPV genome. Earlier we showed that SATp of the attenuated PPV NADL-2 strain accumulates in the ER and accelerates virus release and spreading. Our present work revealed that slow spreading is a general feature of SAT - PPVs and is the consequence of prolonged cell integrity. PPV infection induced ER stress in infected cells regardless of the presence of SATp, as demonstrated by the morphological changes of the ER and expression of the stress response proteins Xbp1 and CHOP. However, the presence of SATp made the ER stress more severe and
Kamstrup, Søren; Langeveld, Jan; Bøtner, Anette
The antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was investigated. A total of nine linear epitopes were identified by Pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-PPV antisera. No sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All epitopes were...... located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein VP2. Based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and used to immunise rabbits. Most antisera were able to bind viral protein....... It is concluded that in PPV, the VP2 N-terminus is involved in virus neutralisation (VN) and peptides from this region are therefore primary targets for developing peptide-based vaccines against this virus....
Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia
We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety. Copyright © 2015 Su et al.
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.
Ma, Xia; Guo, Zhenhuan; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jinliang; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun
Two experiments were carried out. In immune response test, the immune enhancement of propolis, oilemulsion and aluminium salt were compared in guinea pig vaccinated with inactivated porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccine. The result showed that three adjuvants could enhance antibody titer, T lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 and IL-4 secretion of splenic lymphocyte. The action of propolis was similar to that of oilemulsion and superior to that of aluminium salt, especially in early period of vaccination propolis could accelerate antibody production. In immune protection test, the effects of three adjuvants on PPV infection were compared in guinea pig vaccinated with PPV vaccine then challenged with PPV. The result showed that propolis and oilemulsion could enhance the antibody titer, IL-2 and IL-4 content in serum and decrease the PPV content in blood and viscera. In the effect of improving cellular immune response, the propolis was the best. These results indicated that propolis possessed better immune enhancement and would be exploited into a effective adjuvant of inactivated vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...
Mogensen Trine H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual
Kawabe, Ayaka; Takai, Yasushi; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Samejima, Kouki; Seki, Hiroyuki
There is concern about the development of anemia-associated fetal hydrops associated with maternal parvovirus B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 infection occurs via the globoside (P antigen) receptor, the main glycolipid of erythroid cells, which induces apoptosis. Similar findings have been reported for the P antigen of globoside-containing placental trophoblast cells. A 32-year-old woman was infected with human parvovirus B19 at week 32 of pregnancy, and had severe anemia at week 34. At week 37, an emergency cesarean section was performed because of sudden abdominal pain and fetal bradycardia; placental abruption was found. A live male infant was delivered with no sign of fetal hydrops or fetal infection. Placental tissue was positive for parvovirus B19 according to polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-related M30 CytoDEATH monoclonal antibody revealed M30 staining of the placental villous trophoblasts. Placental trophoblasts and erythroid precursor cells have been reported to express globoside (P antigen), which is necessary for parvovirus B19 infectivity, and to show apoptotic activity as a result of infection. Placentas from three other pregnancies with documented abruption showed no M30 staining. The present case strongly suggests an association between placental abruption and apoptosis resulting from parvovirus B19 infection.
Pieter J. Vlaar
Full Text Available Generalized edema is a rare presentation of human parvovirus B19 infection. The etiology of this edema is unclear, particularly because signs of heart or renal failure are often not present. We report the case of a young adult presenting with generalized edema with serological and PCR evidence of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the potential mechanisms of edema based on the previous literature.
Soares-Fernandes João P.
Full Text Available A case of isolated velopalatine paralysis in an 8-year-old boy is presented. The symptoms were sudden-onset of nasal speech, regurgitation of liquids into the nose and dysphagia. Brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examination were normal. Infectious serologies disclosed an antibody arrangement towards parvovirus B19 that was typical of recent infection. In the absence of other positive data, the possibility of a correlation between the tenth nerve palsy and parvovirus infection is discussed.
Mihály, Ilona; Trethon, András; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Lukács, Adrienne; Kolozsi, Tímea; Prinz, Gyula; Marosi, Anikó; Lovas, Nóra; Dobner, Ilona Sarolta; Prinz, Géza; Szalai, Zsuzsanna; Pék, Tamás
The incidence of human parvovirus B19 infection is unknown. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings was carried out in patients diagnosed with human parvovirus B19 infection in 2011 in a virologic laboratory of a single centre in Hungary. Clinical and laboratory data of patients with proven human parvovirus B19 infection were analysed using in- and out-patient files. In 2011, 72 patients proved to have human parvovirus B19 infection with the use of enzyme immunoassay. The clinical diagnoses of these patients were as follows: human parvovirus B19 infection (30.6%), transient aplastic crisis (16.7%), arthritis (8.3%) and acute hepatitis (4.1%). Symptoms of each of the four phases of the infection occurred in various combinations with the exception of the monophase of cheek exanthema. This occurred without the presence of other symptoms in some cases. Leading symptoms and signs were exanthema (in 74.6% of cases), haematological disorders (in 69% of cases), fever (in 54.9% of cases) and arthritis (in 33.8% of cases). Several atypical dermatological symptoms were also observed. Acute arthritis without exanthema was noted in 8 patients. Of the 72 patients with proven human parvovirus B19 infection there were 7 pregnant women, and one of them had hydrops foetalis resulting spontaneous abortion. In 16 patients (22.5%) human parvovirus B19 IgG was undetectable despite an optimal time for testing. The observations of this study may contribute to a better recognition of clinical symptoms of human parvovirus B19 infection.
Antonis, Adriaan F G; Bruschke, Christianne J M; Rueda, Paloma; Maranga, Luis; Casal, J Ignacio; Vela, Carmen; Hilgers, Luuk A Th; Belt, Peter B G M; Weerdmeester, Klaas; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Langeveld, Jan P M
A novel vaccine against porcine parvovirus (PPV), composed of recombinant virus-like particles (PPV-VLPs) produced with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) at industrial scale, was tested for its immunogenicity and protective potency. A formulation of submicrogram amounts of PPV-VLPs in a water-in-mineral oil adjuvant evoked high serum antibody titres in both guinea pigs, used as reference model, and target species, pigs. A single immunisation with 0.7microg of this antigen yielded complete foetal protection against PPV infection after challenge with a virulent strain of this virus. Furthermore, also in the presence of mild adjuvants the protective action of these PPV-VLPs is excellent. This recombinant subunit vaccine overcomes some of the drawbacks of classical PPV vaccines.
Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik
Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR.
Foerster, Tessa; Streck, André Felipe; Speck, Stephanie; Selbitz, Hans-Joachim; Lindner, Thomas; Truyen, Uwe
Inactivated whole-virus vaccines against porcine parvovirus (PPV) can prevent disease but not infection and virus shedding after heterologous virus challenge. Here, we showed that the same is true for a homologous challenge. Pregnant sows were vaccinated with an experimental inactivated vaccine based on PPV strain 27a. They were challenged on day 40 of gestation with the virulent porcine parvovirus PPV-27a from which the vaccine was prepared (homologous challenge). On day 90 of gestation, the fetuses from vaccinated sows were protected against disease, while the fetuses of the non-vaccinated sows (control group) exhibited signs of parvovirus disease. All gilts, whether vaccinated or not vaccinated, showed a boost of PPV-specific antibodies indicative of virus infection and replication. Low DNA copy numbers, but not infectious virus, could be demonstrated in nasal or rectal swabs of immunized sows, but high copy numbers of challenge virus DNA as well as infectious virus could both be demonstrated in non-vaccinated sows.
Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K
Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.
Antonis, A.F.G.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rueda, P.; Maranga, L.; Casal, J.; Vela, C.; Hilgers, L.A.T.; Belt, P.B.G.M.; Weerdmeester, K.; Carrondo, M.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.
A novel vaccine against porcine parvovirus (PPV), composed of recombinant virus-like particles (PPV-VLPs) produced with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) at industrial scale, was tested for its immunogenicity and protective potency. A formulation of submicrogram amounts of PPV-VLPs in
Tharwat Abou El-Khier, Noha; Darwish, Ahmad; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa
Background: Parvovirus B19 is a common viral infection in children. Nearby evidences are present about its association with acute leukemia, especially acute lymphoblast leukemia. Nevertheless, scanty reports have discussed any role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Purpose: To evaluate the frequency of virological markers of B19 infection including its DNA along with specific immunoglobulins G (IgG) and M (IgM) among children with newly diagnosed AML. Besides, describing the clinical importance of Parvovirus B19 infection in those patients. Patients and methods: A case-control retrospective study was conducted on 48 children recently diagnosed with AML before and during chemotherapy induction and 60 healthy control. Specific serum IgM and IgG levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Parvovirus DNA was detected in 20 patients with AML. IgM was found in sera of four patients and one case had positive DNA and IgG (5%). Patients with recent parvovirus B19 infection had a significantly reduced hemoglobin levels, RBCs counts, platelet counts, neutrophil counts and absolute lymphocytosis (p=0.01, p=0.0001, p=0.01, p=0.02, p=0.0003, respectively). There were no clinical findings with statistically significant association to recent infection. Half of the patients with AML had positive PCR and/or IgM for parvovirus B19. Among children with AML under chemotherapy, there were reduced hemoglobin levels (P=0.03), reduced platelet counts (P=0.0001) and absolute neutropenia (mean±SD, 1.200 ±1.00) in those with parvovirus B19 infection. More than half of patients with parvovirus B19 (72.2%) had positive PCR and/or IgM and 36.4% of them had positive IgG. Conclusion: This study highlights that parvovirus B19 is common in children with AML either at diagnosis or under chemotherapy. There are no clinical manifestations that can be used as markers for its presence, but hematological laboratory
Fullerton, Heather J; Luna, Jorge M; Wintermark, Max; Hills, Nancy K; Tokarz, Rafal; Li, Ying; Glaser, Carol; DeVeber, Gabrielle A; Lipkin, W Ian; Elkind, Mitchell S V
Case-control studies suggest that acute infection transiently increases the risk of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that an unbiased pathogen discovery approach utilizing MassTag-polymerase chain reaction would identify pathogens in the blood of childhood arterial ischemic stroke cases. The multicenter international VIPS study (Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke) enrolled arterial ischemic stroke cases, and stroke-free controls, aged 29 days through 18 years. Parental interview included questions on recent infections. In this pilot study, we used MassTag-polymerase chain reaction to test the plasma of the first 161 cases and 34 controls enrolled for a panel of 28 common bacterial and viral pathogens. Pathogen DNA was detected in no controls and 14 cases (8.7%): parvovirus B19 (n=10), herpesvirus 6 (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and rhinovirus 6C (n=1). Parvovirus B19 infection was confirmed by serologies in all 10; infection was subclinical in 8. Four cases with parvovirus B19 had underlying congenital heart disease, whereas another 5 had a distinct arteriopathy involving a long-segment stenosis of the distal internal carotid and proximal middle cerebral arteries. Using MassTag-polymerase chain reaction, we detected parvovirus B19-a virus known to infect erythrocytes and endothelial cells-in some cases of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. This approach can generate new, testable hypotheses about childhood stroke pathogenesis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zhang, Xuehua; Zheng, Qisheng; Chen, Jin; Xue, Gang; Hou, Hongyan; Hou, Jibo
In order to obtain a virus-like particle vaccine both for porcine parvovirus (PPV) prevention and growth-promotion, VP2 gene of PPV NJ-a strain was amplified with PCR, and four copies of synthetic somatostatin gene were fused to the N-terminal of VP2 gene. The fused gene was cloned into pFast-HT A to construct the recombinant plasmid pFast-SS4-VP2, then the pFast-SS4-VP2 was transformed into DH10Bac competent cells and recombined with shuttle vector Bacmid, followed by identification with blue-white screening and PCR analysis for three cycles, and the positive recombinant was named as rBacmid-SS4-VP2. The positive Sf-9 cells were transfected with rBacmid-SS4-VP2 by Lipofectamine to produce recombinant baculovirus. When the cytopathic effect (CPE) was obvious, the transfected Sf-9 cell was harvested, and the positive recombinant virus was named as rBac-SS4-VP2. The insertion for the target gene into baculovirus genome was confirmed with PCR. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting revealed that the calculated protein of approximately 68 kDa was in the expressed in the insect cells. The Sf-9 cells infected with rBac-SS4-VP2 were stained positive against PPV antibody using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Moreover, the virus particle self-assembly was observed under electron microscopy. 90 four-week-old mice were immunized by the recombinant protein coupled with different adjuvants alhydrogel, IMS and oil. VP2-specific ELISA antibodies, PPV-specific neutralizing antibody, somatostatin antibody and growth hormone levels were examined to evaluate the immunogenicity of this virus like particle. Results indicated that mice groups immunized rSS4-VP2 protein with alhydrogel and IMS developed similar humoral immune response comparing with inactived PPV vaccine. Mice group immunized with rSS4-VP2 generated higher level of SS antibody and growth hormone comparing with negative control, mice receiving rSS4-VP2 with alhydrogel developed the highest antibody titre than all
Streck, André Felipe; Homeier, Timo; Foerster, Tessa; Truyen, Uwe
To estimate the impact of porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccines on the emergence of new phenotypes, the population dynamic history of the virus was calculated using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method with a Bayesian skyline coalescent model. Additionally, an in vitro model was performed with consecutive passages of the 'Challenge' strain (a virulent field strain) and NADL2 strain (a vaccine strain) in a PK-15 cell line supplemented with polyclonal antibodies raised against the vaccine strain. A decrease in genetic diversity was observed in the presence of antibodies in vitro or after vaccination (as estimated by the in silico model). We hypothesized that the antibodies induced a selective pressure that may reduce the incidence of neutral selection, which should play a major role in the emergence of new mutations. In this scenario, vaccine failures and non-vaccinated populations (e.g. wild boars) may have an important impact in the emergence of new phenotypes.
Katz, J.B.; Van Deusen, R.A.
A quantitative and simple indirect radioimmunoassay (IRIA) was developed for porcine parvovirus (PPV), employing a monoclonal antibody directed against PPV adsorbed to nitrocellulose membrane. The IRIA was equally sensitive to live or inactivated PPV. There was a linear relationship between membrane-bound radioactivity and PPV quantity within a range of 10-80 hemagglutinating (HA) units of virus. Two commercially used adjuvants, aluminum hydroxide (AH) and carboxyvinyl polymer (CP), reduced bound radioactivity in a concentration-dependent manner. At fixed adjuvant concentrations, there were, nevertheless, linear relationships between bound radioactivity and HA units of PPV. Known amounts of PPV were prepared in adjuvants according to commercial vaccine formulations. Using these standards, the PPV content of 16 commercial PPV vaccines was estimated by IRIA. The IRIA may be one practical method of in vitro estimation of antigenic mass in adjuvanted vaccines. (Auth.)
Co-infection by porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets in southern Brazil Co-infecção por circovírus suíno tipo 2 e parvo-vírus suíno em fetos abortados e natimortos suínos no Sul do Brasil
Caroline A. Pescador
Full Text Available Porcine circovirus types 1 and 2 (PCV1, PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV are widespread in pig populations around the world. Nevertheless, only PCV2 has been associated with different clinical syndromes, thus representing a major problem to the pig industry. The association of cases of swine abortions and stillborns with PCV1 and PCV2 and PPV was studied retrospectively (2005-2007. Additional pathogens were also investigated in lesioned fetuses. The studied litters included stillborn piglets and several mummified fetuses of varied sizes. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial pale areas, and mesocolic edema were the gross lesions. Escherichia coli was detected as co-infecting with PCV2 the cases in which mesocolic edema was seen. Microscopic lesions included non-suppurative myocarditis, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, mineralization foci and intranuclear inclusion bodies in cardiomyocytes, and interstitial mononuclear pneumonia. Samples from 7 (5.78 per cent of 121 aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets had lesions consistent with a viral cause and showed both positive anti-PCV2 immunostaining as well as PCV2-PCR. In samples from 3 (2.47 per cent of these 7 fetuses, co-infection with PPV was confirmed by Nested-PCR. Both viruses were detected in fetuses at different stages of gestation. Viral antigens of PCV2 were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in macrophages and myocytes. PCV1 individually was not detected in any of these affected fetuses, but it was associated with PCV2 and/or PPV in some of them. These findings indicate that PCV2 alone or in association with PPV should be kept in mind when investigating causes of infectious abortion in pigs in Brazil.Estudou-se retrospectivamente (2005-2007 a associação de casos de abortos e natimortos suínos com infecções por circovírus suíno (PCV tipos 1 e 2 e parvovírus suíno (PPV. Outros agentes patogênicos foram pesquisados em amostras de fetos com lesões. O estudo incluiu natimortos e
McNall, R Y; Head, D R; Pui, C H; Razzouk, B I
Immunocompromised children, including those undergoing chemotherapy treatment of malignant disease, are at particular risk for infection with parvovirus B19. However, these patients' attenuated immune responses may obscure the serologic and clinical manifestations of the infection. The authors describe a patient undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose parvovirus B19 infection was identified by the incidental detection of giant pronormoblasts and absence of normal mature erythroid precursors, characteristic of parvovirus infection, on a routine bone marrow examination. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered and the patient's aplastic anemia resolved completely within 3 weeks. This highlights the importance of alertness to the possibility of parvovirus infection in children with cancer.
Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Hong, Liang; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena
Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been detected in blood and diverse tissues samples from HIV/AIDS patients who are injecting drug users. Although B19 virus, the best characterized human parvovirus, has been shown to co-infect patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV, HCV) infection, the association of PARV4 with HBV or HCV infections is still unknown.The aim of this study was to characterise the association of viruses belonging to PARV4 genotype 1 and 2 with chronic HBV and HCV infection in Shanghai.Serum samples of healthy controls, HCV infected subjects and HBV infected subjects were retrieved from Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) Sample Bank. Parvovirus-specific nested-PCR was performed and results confirmed by sequencing. Sequences were compared with reference sequences obtained from Genbank to derive phylogeny trees.The frequency of parvovirus molecular detection was 16-22%, 33% and 41% in healthy controls, HCV infected and HBV infected subjects respectively, with PARV4 being the only parvovirus detected. HCV infected and HBV infected subjects had a significantly higher PARV4 prevalence than the healthy population. No statistical difference was found in PARV4 prevalence between HBV or HCV infected subjects. PARV4 sequence divergence within study groups was similar in healthy subjects, HBV or HCV infected subjects.Our data clearly demonstrate that PARV4 infection is strongly associated with HCV and HBV infection in Shanghai but may not cause increased disease severity.
Sterpu, R; Ichou, H; Mahé, I; Mortier, E
Infection by human parvovirus B19 (erythrovirus B19) is common and usually asymptomatic during childhood conferring lasting protection against a new infection. Parvovirus B19 infection may cause erythema infectiosum (5th disease) and aplastic crisis. Secondary symptomatic parvovirus B19 infection in the same patient is rare and its physiopathology is not always clear. A 48-year-old HIV-infected female patient presented within 5 years two acute episodes of parvovirus B19 infection although her CD4 cells count was above 500/mm(3). Absence of specific antibodies production after the first episode and persisting parvovirus viremia suggested viral reactivation rather than re-infection. During the second episode, specific antibodies were produced. Similarly to most DNA viruses, parvovirus B19 reactivation is possible in HIV-infected patients while effectively treated by antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV. These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.
Paulius Lukas Tamošiūnas
Full Text Available Porcine parvovirus (PPV is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious reproductive diseases of swine and death of piglets. The gene coding for the major capsid protein VP2 of PPV was amplified using viral nucleic acid extract from swine serum and inserted into yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression plasmid. Recombinant PPV VP2 protein was efficiently expressed in yeast and purified using density gradient centrifugation. Electron microscopy analysis of purified PPV VP2 protein revealed the self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs. Nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against the recombinant PPV VP2 protein were generated. The specificity of the newly generated MAbs was proven by immunofluorescence analysis of PPV-infected cells. Indirect IgG ELISA based on the recombinant VLPs for detection of PPV-specific antibodies in swine sera was developed and evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of the new assay were found to be 93.4% and 97.4%, respectively. In conclusion, yeast S. cerevisiae represents a promising expression system for generating recombinant PPV VP2 protein VLPs of diagnostic relevance.
Fu, Pengfei; Pan, Xinlong; Han, Qiao; Yang, Xingwu; Zhu, Qianlei; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Hongying
In order to develop a combined live vaccine that will be used to prevent against porcine parvovirus (PPV) and Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection, the VP2 gene of PPV was inserted into the transfer vector plasmid pG to produce the recombinant plasmid pGVP2. The plasmid pGVP2 and the genome of PRV HB98 attenuated vaccine were transfected by using lipofectamine into swine testis cells for the homologous recombination. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was purified by selection of green fluorescence plaques for five cycles. 6-week-old female Kunming mice were immunized intramuscularly with attenuated PRV parent HB98 strain, commercial inactivated vaccine against PPV, recombinant virus, DMEM culture solution. The injections were repeated with an equivalent dose after 2 weeks in all of the groups, and then challenged with the virulent PRV NY strain at 7 weeks after the first immunization. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was successfully generated, and the recombinant virus could effectively elicite anti-PPV and PRV antibody and significant cellular immune response as indicated by anti-PPV ELISA and HI, PRV-neutralizing assay and flow cytometry. The challenge assay indicated that recombinant virus could protect the mice against the virulent PRV challenge. These results demonstrated that the recombinant virus can be a candidate recombinant vaccine strain for the prevention of PRV and PPV.
Paul, P S; Mengeling, W L
An attenuated strain NADL-2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) has been used at the 54th cell culture passage as a modified live-virus (MLV) vaccine. The present study was conducted to determine the minimum immunizing dose of MLV, the extent of MLV multiplication in swine tissues, and its transmission from swine administered MLV oronasally or intramuscularly. Immune response to MLV was dose dependent and swine responded to as little as 10(2) median cell-culture infective doses (CCID50). A 10(5) CCID50 of MLV, the largest dose given, induced the best immune response and was used in subsequent experiments. Route of MLV administration also was found to be important. The MLV replicated in tissues of swine after IM inoculation; however, viral antigen in tissues was less, as measured by immunofluorescence, and serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers for PPV were lower in MLV-inoculated swine than we have previously observed in virulent PPV-inoculated swine. In contrast, oronasal inoculation with MLV did not consistently result in infection of pigs; only 5 of 23 swine had virologic and/or serologic evidence of infection. Virus transmission studies indicated that MLV is shed in feces, but shedding occurs later than that in virulent-PPV-inoculated swine and is inconsistent. Delayed transmission of MLV was observed in contact pigs, which were seronegative at 2 weeks, but became seropositive at 4 weeks--indicating that perhaps a virus population capable of infecting pigs by oronasal route was selected by passage through the pig.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Dowell, S F; Török, T J; Thorp, J A; Hedrick, J; Erdman, D D; Zaki, S R; Hinkle, C J; Bayer, W L; Anderson, L J
A suspected nosocomial outbreak of parvovirus B19 infection in a maternity ward was investigated in February 1994. Questionnaires were administered and sera collected from maternity ward staff (n = 91), other ward staff in the same hospital (n = 101), and maternity ward staff at a nearby hospital (n = 81). Blood donors (n = 265) were used as community controls. Recent infection (parvovirus B19 IgM positivity) in susceptible persons (parvovirus B19 IgG-negative or IgM-positive) was common among all 4 groups (23%-30%). This high rate of recent infection occurred during a large community outbreak of fifth disease. Environmental samples collected from a room where a stillborn parvovirus B19-infected fetus was delivered were positive for parvovirus B19 DNA. Thus, this suspected nosocomial outbreak actually reflected transmission outside the hospital, but contaminated environmental surfaces were identified as one potential source for transmission of parvovirus B19.
Wang, Rui-ning; Wang, Ya-bin; Geng, Jing-wei; Guo, Dong-hui; Liu, Fang; Chen, Hong-ying; Zhang, Hong-ying; Cui, Bao-an; Wei, Zhan-yong
Inactivated porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccines are available commercially and widely used in the breeding herds. However, inactivated PPV vaccines have deficiencies in induction of specific cellular immune response. Transfer factor (TF) is a material that obtained from the leukocytes, and is a novel immune-stimulatory reagent that as a modulator of the immune system. In this study, the immunogenicity of PPV oil emulsion vaccine and the immuno-regulatory activities of TF were investigated. The inactivated PPV oil emulsion vaccines with or without TF were inoculated into BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection. Then humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses (FACS). The results showed that the PPV specific immune responses could be evoked in mice by inoculating with PPV oil emulsion vaccine alone or by co-inoculation with TF. The cellular immune response levels in the co-inoculation groups were higher than those groups receiving the PPV oil emulsion vaccine alone, with the phenomena of higher level of IFN-γ, a little IL-6 and a trace of IL-4 in serum, and a vigorous T-cell response. However, there was no significant difference in antibody titers between TF synergy inactivated vaccine and the inactivated vaccine group (P>0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that TF possess better cellular immune-enhancing capability and would be exploited into an effective immune-adjuvant for inactivated vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vijayaragavan, K Saagar; Zahid, Amna; Young, Jonathan W; Heldt, Caryn L
Vaccine production faces a challenge in adopting conventional downstream processing steps that can efficiently purify large viral particles. Some major issues that plague vaccine purification are purity, potency, and quality. The industry currently considers 30% as an acceptable virus recovery for a vaccine purification process, including all downstream processes, whereas antibody recovery from CHO cell culture is generally around 80-85%. A platform technology with an improved virus recovery would revolutionize vaccine production. In a quest to fulfill this goal, we have been exploring aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) as an optional mechanism to purify virus. ATPS has been unable to gain wide implementation mainly due to loss of virus infectivity, co-purification of proteins, and difficulty of polymer recycling. Non-enveloped viruses are chemically resistant enough to withstand the high polymer and salt concentrations that are required for effective ATPS separations. We used infectious porcine parvovirus (PPV), a non-enveloped, DNA virus as a model virus to test and develop an ATPS separation method. We successfully tackled two of the three main disadvantages of ATPS previously stated; we achieved a high infectious yield of 64% in a PEG-citrate ATPS process while separating out the main contaminate protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The most dominant forces in the separation were biomolecule charge, virus surface hydrophobicity, and the ATPS surface tension. Highly hydrophobic viruses are likely to benefit from the discovered ATPS for high-purity vaccine production and ease of implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Duffy, A; Dow, S; Ogilvie, G; Rao, S; Hackett, T
Previously, dogs with canine parvovirus-induced neutropenia have not responded to treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). However, recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) has not been previously evaluated for treatment of parvovirus-induced neutropenia in dogs. We assessed the effectiveness of rcG-CSF in dogs with parvovirus-induced neutropenia with a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized clinical trial. Endpoints of our study were time to recovery of WBC and neutrophil counts, and duration of hospitalization. 28 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia were treated with rcG-CSF and outcomes were compared to those of 34 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia not treated with rcG-CSF. We found that mean WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (P parvovirus infection, but indicate the need for additional studies to evaluate overall safety of the treatment.
Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...
Nagel, Hélène T. C.; de Haan, Timo R.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J.
To evaluate neurodevelopmental status of children treated with intrauterine red blood cell and platelet transfusion for fetal hydrops caused by parvovirus B19. Maternal and neonatal records of all intrauterine transfusions for congenital parvovirus B19 infection in our center between 1997 and 2005
Porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is a DNA virus, and a member of the Parvoviridae family within the Bocavirus genera. It was recently detected in swine, but its epidemiology and pathology remain unclear. A TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting a conserved region of the O...
Results: The overall prevalence of CPV-2 was 32.14% (n=54/168. A total number of 54 young dogs, aging 1 to 7 months, of American Staffordshire terrier, German shepherd, Rottweiler and Spaniel breeds were affected. There was no sex predisposition and German shepherd was the over-represented breed (n=33/54; 61.11%. The prevalence of clinical cases below the three months old was 70.37% (n=38/54 with autumn (n=27/54; 50% as the most common season of infection. Furthermore, the study showed that 87.04% (n=47/54 of CPV-2 unvaccinated young dogs were positive. Conclusion: This work was a new descriptive study concerning canine parvovirus infection in the Grand Tunis; further studies are required to better characterize the epidemiology of CPV-2 infection in Tunisia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 93-97
Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV).
Shen, H G; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T
The efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines and a live PCV1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, PCV2-positive piglets using a PCV2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-porcine parvovirus (PPV) coinfection challenge model. Seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. Pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) of age. All vaccine regimens tested were effective in reducing naturally occurring PCV2 viremia at 16 weeks of age and after PCV2 challenge, demonstrating the capability of the products to induce a lasting protective immunity despite the presence of PCV2 viremia at the time of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun
Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.
Ariadna Flores Ortega
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.
Ortega, Ariadna Flores; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Muñoz, Raúl Fajardo; Hernández, Israel Quijano
This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
L P Ananjeva
Full Text Available Objective. To study contamination with parvovirus B19 of a group of patients with rheumatic diseases (RD. Methods. 77 pts with RD (mean age 42,5 years, 79% female admitted to Institute of Rheumatology of RAMS were examined. 34 of them had rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 11 - systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjogren's disease (SD, 15 with osteoarthritis (OA and seronegative spondyloarthritides (SS and 17 with early (before a year undifferentiated arthritis (EUA. Quantitative determination of IgM and IgG serum antibodies to parvovirus BI9 was performed by I FA with IBL kits (Hamburg, Germany. Results. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies were found in 52% of pts, IgM antibodies - only in one case. Mean antibodies values in pts with RD of disease duration less then 6 months were significantly higher then in pts with longer disease duration (21,5+36 U/ml and 8,4+14.7 U/ml respectively, p<0,05. Anti-B 19 antibodies were present in 62% of pts with RA, 53% of pts with EUA, 45% of pts with SD, 33% of pts with OA and SS. High levels of antibodies (4-10 times higher positivity threshold were revealed in 13 pts with different RD with short duration of joint syndrome (6,3±7,6 months and fever at presentation. A case of B19 parvovirus infection in a boy of 3 years age accompanied by symptoms of Still's disease is described.
Penkert, Rhiannon R; Lavoie, Paul; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Hurwitz, Julia L
Parvovirus B19 infection causes transient aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD) due to a temporary interruption in the red blood cell production. Toxicity from hydroxyurea includes anemia and reticulocytopenia, both of which also occur during a transient aplastic crisis event. Hydroxyurea inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic cells and may be immunosuppressive. We postulated that hydroxyurea could exacerbate parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis and inhibit the development of specific immune responses in children with SCD. We conducted a retrospective review of parvovirus B19 infection in 330 children with SCD. Altogether there were 120 known cases of aplastic crisis attributed to parvovirus B19 infection, and 12% of children were on hydroxyurea treatment during the episode. We evaluated hematological and immune responses. Children with HbSS or HbSβ0-thalassemia treated with hydroxyurea, when compared with untreated children, required fewer transfusions and had higher Hb concentration nadir during transient aplastic crisis. Duration of hospital stays was no different between hydroxyurea-treated and untreated groups. Children tested within a week following aplastic crisis were positive for parvovirus-specific IgG. Immune responses lasted for the duration of the observation period, up to 13 years after transient aplastic crisis, and there were no repeat aplastic crisis episodes. The frequencies of parvovirus-specific antibodies in all children with SCD increased with age, as expected due to the increased likelihood of a parvovirus exposure, and were comparable to frequencies reported for healthy children. Approximately one-third of children had a positive parvovirus B19-specific IgG test without a documented history of transient aplastic crisis, and 64% of them were treated with hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea may reduce requirements for blood transfusions and may attenuate symptoms during transient aplastic crisis episodes caused by parvovirus B19 infections
Hankins, Jane S; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Lavoie, Paul; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Hurwitz, Julia L
Parvovirus B19 infection causes transient aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD) due to a temporary interruption in the red blood cell production. Toxicity from hydroxyurea includes anemia and reticulocytopenia, both of which also occur during a transient aplastic crisis event. Hydroxyurea inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic cells and may be immunosuppressive. We postulated that hydroxyurea could exacerbate parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis and inhibit the development of specific immune responses in children with SCD. We conducted a retrospective review of parvovirus B19 infection in 330 children with SCD. Altogether there were 120 known cases of aplastic crisis attributed to parvovirus B19 infection, and 12% of children were on hydroxyurea treatment during the episode. We evaluated hematological and immune responses. Children with HbSS or HbSβ(0)-thalassemia treated with hydroxyurea, when compared with untreated children, required fewer transfusions and had higher Hb concentration nadir during transient aplastic crisis. Duration of hospital stays was no different between hydroxyurea-treated and untreated groups. Children tested within a week following aplastic crisis were positive for parvovirus-specific IgG. Immune responses lasted for the duration of the observation period, up to 13 years after transient aplastic crisis, and there were no repeat aplastic crisis episodes. The frequencies of parvovirus-specific antibodies in all children with SCD increased with age, as expected due to the increased likelihood of a parvovirus exposure, and were comparable to frequencies reported for healthy children. Approximately one-third of children had a positive parvovirus B19-specific IgG test without a documented history of transient aplastic crisis, and 64% of them were treated with hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea may reduce requirements for blood transfusions and may attenuate symptoms during transient aplastic crisis episodes caused by parvovirus B19 infections
... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...
Full Text Available Background: Anemia at the time of birth may cause some problem like asphyxia, heart failure shock or even death in a neonate. Different etiologies can be considered for this problem. Parvovirus B19, as a viral organism, can cause hydrops fetalis and neonatal anemia and consequent complications. We present here a case of newborn infant with severe anemia who had human parvovirus B19 infection.Case Presentation: A male newborn with gestational age of 36 week was born from a mother with poor prenatal care and history of contact with domestic animal. The neonate was very pale with Apgar score 2 at 1 min and received resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and repeated blood transfusion The hemoglobin level was significantly low. Analysis was made based on the clinical presentations. According to the case history, physical and laboratory findings, neonatal severe anemia induced by parvovirus B19 infection was suggested and Laboratory work up documented his infection with parovirus B19.Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus is the smallest single strand linear DNA virus in animal viruses, which is the only strain of parvovirus that is pathogenic in humans. Human parvovirus B19 may cross the placenta and result in fetal infection, morbidity and death. Parvovirus is an uncommon cause of neonatal anemia and hydrops fetalis so this etiology must be considered in differential diagnosis of anemia at birth.
Cakirca, Mustafa; Karatoprak, Cumali; Ugurlu, Serdal; Zorlu, Mehmet; Kıskaç, Muharrem; Çetin, Güven
Parvovirus B19 infection is often asymptomatic, but clinical expressions may include transient aplastic crisis, erythema infectiosum, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and chronic red cell aplasia. This virus has also been associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune connective tissue diseases; however, we could not identify any acute adult myositis case developed after a Parvovirus B19 infection in the literature. For this reason, we would like to present a rare case of acute myositis developed after Parvovirus B19 infection. In patients presenting with symptoms of fever, rash on the legs and myositis, viral infections such as Parvovirus B19 should be kept in mind. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Nina Osvald Avguštin
Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V causes a mild disease called erythema infectiosum, also known as the fifh disease that aﬀects mostly children and young adults. The virus can be transferred to the fetus during pregnancy in 31 to 51 % of the cases and can cause severe anaemia, non-immune hydrops fetalis or fetal death due to inhibition of erythropoiesis. It also aﬀects the heart muscle, central nervous system, bones, and most likely can cause a subsequent arrest in children’s neurological development. It is estimated that 25–45 % of pregnant women are seronegative with a high risk of infection during pregnancy. A B19V infection in pregnant women is determined by detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and in case of doubt, by using PCR method to detect viral DNA. Fetal infection with B19V is confirmed by detecting viral DNA in the amniotic fluid. In the case of either a suspected or confirmed fetal infection we monitor the fetus by ultrasound screening in a tertiary centre. We treat the fetus with an intrauterine transfusion at the first signs of anaemia or hydrops. To prevent fresh infections with B19V during pregnancy we should raise awareness amongst women and healthcare workers about the risks it poses for the fetus. The recommendations for management of women who are exposed to, are at risk of developing, or have developed B19V infection in pregnancy are published in this article.
Full Text Available With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs carrying the CD8(+ T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI of the circumsporozoite (CS protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS, and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+ T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV vectors from the Western Reserve (WR and modified virus Ankara (MVA strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.
Rodríguez, Dolores; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Rodríguez, Juan R; Vijayan, Aneesh; Gherardi, Magdalena; Rueda, Paloma; Casal, J Ignacio; Esteban, Mariano
With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs) carrying the CD8(+) T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI) of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS), and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+) T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) vectors from the Western Reserve (WR) and modified virus Ankara (MVA) strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.
Nikoozad, Razieh; Mahzounieh, Mohammad Reza; Ghorani, Mohammad Reza
Parvovirus B19, a member of the Erythrovirus genus of Parvoviridae family, causes various clinical illnesses including infectious erythema, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis or congenital anemia, and transient aplastic crises. The B19 virus can be transmitted through respiratory secretions, blood products, and blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to detect the B19 virus in thalassemia patients in Isfahan, Iran. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection was compared between thalassemia major patients and healthy subjects. Plasma samples were collected from 30 thalassemia patients from Isfahan, Iran. Thirty patients without any blood complications were considered as the control group. After DNA extraction from the plasma samples, polymerase chain reaction was performed for parvovirus B19 detection. The parvovirus B19-specific nucleotide sequence was detected in 6 patients (20%). None of the samples obtained from the 30 control subjects tested positive for B19. In this study B19-Parvovirus infection were detected in patients with hematologic disorders in comparison with control subjects. Screening of patients with a high risk of parvovirus B19 infection can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection.
Kilian, Elena; Suchodolski, Jan S; Hartmann, Katrin; Mueller, Ralf S; Wess, Gerhard; Unterer, Stefan
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease. Dogs that had been treated at the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, LMU Munich, for CPV infection for which a follow-up of at least 12 months was available, were included in the study. Owners completed a questionnaire on the presence of chronic gastrointestinal and cutaneous signs, cardiac disease, and other potential disorders. An identical questionnaire was sent to owners of matched control dogs during the same time period. Seventy-one questionnaires of dogs with CPV infection and 67 of control dogs were analyzed. Significantly more CPV-infected dogs (30/71) compared to control dogs (8/67) had developed chronic gastrointestinal signs later in their lives (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed regarding skin diseases (P = 1), cardiac problems (P = 0.160), or any other diseases (P = 0.173) later in life. Results of this study suggest that dogs that survive CPV infection have a significantly higher risk (odds ratio = 5.33) for developing a chronic gastrointestinal disease. Further prospective studies to identify the trigger for the development of chronic diarrhoea and possible targeted treatment strategies are needed.
N. P. Bondarenko
Full Text Available Parvovirus infection in pregnant women caused the development of immunopathological reactions.129 infected pregnant women and 16 women with physiological pregnancy in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters were examined. The functional state of neutrophils (Nph and monocytes (Mc of peripheral blood was investigated, parameters of cellular and humoral immunity and cytokine profile of serum of pregnant women were studied. In infected pregnant women in different periods of gestation as compared with pregnant women of control groups there were observed 1 an increase of index of phagocytosis Nph and Mc against the background of reducе of their absorption capacity and increasing NBT-activity with a decrease of reserve capacities of phagocytes; 2 an activation of the cellular immunity with an increase of helper mechanisms of the immune response; 3 a reliable increase of IgM level in serum in different periods of pregnancy; 4 a reliable increase of the content of IFN-γ, FNP-α, IL-2, IL-8 inserum against the background of a slight decrease in the level of anti-inflammatory IL-10. The largest deviations from the control indicators were recorded in the 1st trimester of pregnancy.
Tong, Rui; Zhou, Wei-Min; Liu, Xi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Lou, Yong-Liang; Tan, Wen-Jie
To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in blood samples among patients with liver disease in Nanjing by molecular detection. Nested PCR assays were designed and validated to detect B19, HBoV and PARV4, respectively. The assays were used to screen three parvoviruses in blood samples from 95 patients with different liver disease in Nanjing. The parvovirus infection was analyzed statistically. The detection limits were 10 copies of genomic DNA equivalents per reaction for each assays and the good specificity were observed. The frequency of B19 and HBoV were 2/95 (2.1%) and 9/95 (9.5%) in blood samples respectively. No PARV4 was detected. HBoV was detected in 3/5 patients with drug-induced hepatitis. Both B19 and HBoV infection were detected in blood from patients with liver disease.
de Haan, Timo R.; van Wezel-Meijler, Gerda; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Von Lindern, Jeanette S.; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Walther, Frans J.
Parvovirus B19 infection in gestation has been associated with severe fetal complications such as anaemia, hydrops and fetal demise. Fetal infection in the first trimester poses the greatest risk for these complications, but infection during the third trimester is more common than previously
Bondarenko, N P; Lakatosh, V P; Lakatosh, P V; Malanchuk, O B; Poladich, I V
The combined method of diagnosis parvovirus infection during pregnancy by maternal serum enzyme immunoassay and deoxyribonucleic acid isolation parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction in amnniotic fluid and fetal cord blood newborns, can diagnose vertical transmission and anticipate a negative effect on the fetus parvovirus. Lack of maternal IgM antibodies in serum due to parvovirus seroconversion during pregnancy does not exclude the persistence of the virus in the fetus. To analyze the diagnostic value of the method for determining the LHP parvovirus B19 DNA in the amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood of newborns to determine vertical transmission of parvovirus infection when infected mothers B19 during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing skin disease, characterized by the formation of typical scaly papules or plaques. The three factors well-recognized as triggering the onset, causing new lesions or inducing a flare in the disease are: stress, skin injury and infection. Various microorganisms are associated with provocation and/or exacerbation of psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parvovirus B19 (PVB19 and psoriasis/psoriasis area severity index (PASI. Material and Method: Sixty patients with psoriasis (36 men, 24 women and 40 healthy volunteers (22 men, 18 women were included in our study. PVB19 DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: PVB19 DNA was detected in 27 of 60 subjects in the patient group (45% and in 9 of 40 controls (22.5% (p0.05. The relationship between the viral load and the subtypes of psoriasis was not statistically significant (p>0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it was concluded that a relationship may be present between psoriasis and PVB 19 infection.
Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Hyosang; Yang, Won Seok; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Su-Kil
Parvovirus B19 is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus with a special affinity for the erythroid progenitor cells of the bone marrow. The first case of parvovirus B19 infection in a kidney transplant recipient (KTR) was reported in 1986. Data on the risk factors and specific clinical characteristics of parvovirus B19 infection remain insufficient. We screened 602 KTRs for parvovirus B19 infection using parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from January 1990 to April 2016, and the clinical characteristics of patients with positive results were compared to those of age- and gender-matched patients with negative PCR results. A total of 39 KTRs tested positive for parvovirus B19, and they were compared to 78 age- and gender-matched patients among 563 KTRs who had negative PCR results. In all, 89.7% of positive cases were reported within the first year after kidney transplantation. In multivariate analyses, deceased-donor kidney transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 9.067, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.668-49.275, P = .011), use of tacrolimus (OR 3.607, 95% CI 1.024-12.706, P = .046), PCR test within 1 year of kidney transplantation (OR 12.456, 95% CI 2.674-58.036, P = .001), and hemoglobin levels (OR 0.559, 95% CI 0.351-0.889, P = .014) showed significant correlations with parvovirus B19 infection. Graft survival did not differ between the two groups during the follow-up period of 111.68 ± 54.54 months (P = .685 by log-rank test). The identification of factors related to positive parvovirus B19 PCR results may promote the early detection of parvovirus B19 infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the characteristics of parvovirus B19 infection in kidney transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ornoy, Asher; Ergaz, Zivanit
Parvovirus B19 infects 1 to 5% of pregnant women, generally with normal pregnancy outcomes. During epidemics, the rate of infection is higher. Major congenital anomalies among offspring of infected mothers are rare, as the virus does not appear to be a significant teratogen. However, parvovirus B19 infection may cause significant fetal damage, and in rare cases, brain anomalies and neurodevelopmental insults, especially if infection occurs in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Parvovirus B19 is also an important cause of fetal loss, especially in the second half of pregnancy when spontaneous fetal loss from other causes is relatively rare. Parvovirus B19 infection may affect many fetal organs and can cause severe anemia, following fetal erythroid progenitor cells infection and apoptosis, especially in fetuses, that have shortened half-life of erythrocytes. Severe anemia may cause high output cardiac failure and nonimmune hydrops fetalis. In addition, parvovirus B19 may directly infect myocardial cells and produce myocarditis that further aggravates the cardiac failure. Intrauterine fetal transfusion is commonly used for the treatment of severe fetal anemia with survival rates of 75 to 90% and significant reduction of fetal morbidity. Only 66 cases were evaluated neurodevelopmentally, of which 10 (16%) had slight or severe neurodevelopmental problems. Because parvovirus B19 infection can cause severe fetal morbidity and mortality, it should be part of the routine work-up of pregnant women who have been exposed to the virus or of pregnancies with suspected fetal hydrops. Assessment for maternal infection during pregnancy is especially important during epidemics, when sero-conversion rates are high. Birth Defects Research 109:311-323, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xu, Yigang; Cui, Lichun; Tian, Changyong; Zhang, Guocai; Huo, Guicheng; Tang, Lijie; Li, Yijing
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) are highly contagious pathogens, resulting in enormous economic losses in pig industries worldwide. Because vaccines play an important role in disease control, researchers are seeking improved vaccines that could induce antiviral immune responses against CSFV and PPV at the mucosal and systemic levels simultaneously. In this study, a genetically engineered Lactobacillus strain coexpressing the CSFV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope 290 and the VP2 antigen of PPV was developed, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral vaccine in pigs was analyzed. The data demonstrated that in the absence of any adjuvant, the recombinant Lactobacillus strain can efficiently stimulate mucosal and systemic CSFV-specific CD8+ CTL responses to protect pigs against CSFV challenge. Moreover, anti-PPV-VP2 serum IgG and mucosal IgA were induced in pigs immunized orally with the recombinant Lactobacillus strain, showing a neutralizing effect on PPV infection. The results suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent may be a valuable component of a strategy for development of a vaccine against CSFV and PPV. PMID:21940406
Ji, Pengchao; Liu, Yunchao; Chen, Yumei; Wang, Aiping; Jiang, Dawei; Zhao, Baolei; Wang, Jvcai; Chai, Shujun; Zhou, Enmin; Zhang, Gaiping
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a causative agent of reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Classical inactivated vaccine is extensively used to control PPV infection, but problems concerning safety, such as incomplete inactivation may occur. In this study, a novel subunit vaccine against PPV based on virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the complete PPV VP2 protein expressed in a prokaryotic system with co-expressed chaperones is reported. The VLPs have a similar size, shape, and hemagglutination property to the PPV. Immunization with these VLPs stimulated the neutralization antibody and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses in mice and guinea pigs. The lymphocyte proliferation response and cytokine secretion was also induced in immunized guinea pigs comparable to those immunized with PPV inactivated vaccine. In addition, immunization with VLPs also significantly reduced the PPV content in the spleen of guinea pigs 14 days after the challenge with intact virus. These studies suggest that PPV VLPs created as described here could be a potential candidate for vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mage, Valentia; Lipsker, Dan; Barbarot, Sébastien; Bessis, Didier; Chosidow, Olivier; Del Giudice, Pascal; Aractingi, Sélim; Avouac, Jérôme; Bernier, Claire; Descamps, Vincent; Dupin, Nicolas
Skin involvement is reported during primary parvovirus B19 infection in adults. We sought to describe the cutaneous presentations associated with parvovirus B19 primary infection in adults. We conducted a descriptive, retrospective, multicenter study. The patients included (>18 years old) had well-established primary infections with parvovirus B19. Twenty-nine patients were identified between 1992 and 2013 (17 women, 12 men). The elementary dermatologic lesions were mostly erythematous (86%) and often purpuric (69%). Pruritus was reported in 48% of cases. The rash predominated on the legs (93%), trunk (55%), and arms (45%), with a lower frequency of facial involvement (20%). Four different but sometimes overlapping patterns were identified (45%): exanthema, which was reticulated and annular in some cases (80%); the gloves-and-socks pattern (24%); the periflexural pattern (28%); and palpable purpura (24%). The limitations of this study were its retrospective design and possible recruitment bias in tertiary care centers. Our findings suggest that primary parvovirus B19 infection is associated with polymorphous skin manifestations with 4 predominant, sometimes overlapping, patterns. The acral or periflexural distribution of the rash and the presence of purpuric or annular/reticulate lesions are highly suggestive of parvovirus B19 infection. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Samanta, Debopam; Willis, Erin
The incidence of acute symptomatic (at the time of documented brain insult) seizures and single unprovoked seizures are 29-39 and 23-61 per 100 000 per year, respectively. After stabilization of the patient, finding the etiology of the seizure is of paramount importance. A careful history and physical examination may allow a diagnosis without need for further evaluation. In the literature, severe central nervous system involvement has been reported from human parvovirus B19 infection. We reported a previously healthy 7-year-old girl who presented after an episode of focal seizure. She was afebrile and didn't have any focal neurological abnormalities. She had erythematous malar rash along with reticulating pattern of rash over her both upper extremities. Parvovirus infection was suspected due to the characteristic erythematous malar rash. Serum human parvovirus B19 DNA polymerase chain reaction was positive which was consistent with acute parvovirus infection. Further confirmation of current infection was done with Sandwich enzyme immunoassays showing positive anti-B19 IgM Index (>1.1). IgG index was equivocal (0.9-1.1). We report an extremely rare presentation of non-febrile seizure from acute parvovirus infection in a child without encephalopathy who had an excellent recovery. Timely diagnosis can provide counselling regarding future seizure recurrence risk, curtail expenditure from expensive diagnostic work up and provide additional recommendations about potential risks to a pregnant caregiver.
Full Text Available Primate erythroparvovirus 1 (parvovirus B19 is a member of the Erythrovirus genus of the Parvoviridae family and it is one of the few members of the family known to be pathogenic in human. B19 infection is common and widespread with the virus being associated with numerous rheumatologic and haematologic manifestations. More specifically, maternal infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can cause severe anemia which may lead to nonimmune hydrops or fetal demise, as a result of fetal erythroid progenitor cells infection with shortened half-life of erythrocytes. We present a rare case reported in the Greek population, of subclinical transient reticulocytopenia due to B19 parvovirus infection, in an asymptomatic pregnant woman, without medical history of hemoglobinopathy, and with the presence of hydrops fetalis during the third trimester of her pregnancy.
Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph
Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...
Parvovirus B19 infection may be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not performed. As Europe is seeking to eliminate measles, an accurate diagnosis of fever\\/rash illnesses is needed. The main purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of parvovirus B19, a common cause of rash, in Ireland between January 1996 and June 2008, using times series analysis of laboratory diagnostic data from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Most diagnostic tests for presumptive parvovirus B19 infection were done in children under the age of five years and in women of child-bearing age (between 20-39 years-old). As a consequence, most of the acute diagnoses of B19 infection were made in these populations. The most commonly reported reasons for testing were: clinical presentation with rash, acute arthritis, influenza-like symptoms or pregnancy. The time series analysis identified seasonal trends in parvovirus B19 infection, with annual cycles peaking in late winter\\/spring and a six-year cycle for parvovirus B19 outbreaks in Ireland.
de Haan, Timo R.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Claas, Eric C. J.; Oepkes, Dick; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Walther, Frans J.
Facilitate risk assessment of vital complications in fetuses of pregnancies affected by acute parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection. Study of the natural course of maternal B19V infection in four cases, from early pregnancy on. University Medical Center in the Netherlands. Pregnant mothers attending
Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 ) preferentially infects erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, frequently causing anemia along with transient aplastic...infection. We devised a highly sensitive two-round, nested PCR procedure to detect PV B19 . Eight of 78 clinical specimens from individuals with
Vázquez-Osorio, I; Mallo-García, S; Rodríguez-Díaz, E; Gonzalvo-Rodríguez, P; Requena, L
Parvovirus B19 infection can cause a wide range of cutaneous manifestations, including papular-purpuric gloves-and-socks syndrome (PPGSS) and petechial bathing trunk eruption. We report a case of an immunocompetent woman with a primary parvovirus B19 infection presenting as concurrent PPGSS and petechial bathing trunk eruption. Parvovirus B19 seroconversion was confirmed several days after the onset of the clinical manifestations. The coexistence of these two cutaneous manifestations of primary parvovirus B19 infection has rarely been reported in the literature. It is important to recognize parvovirus B19 infection early, based on the cutaneous manifestations, to avoid potentially serious systemic complications in susceptible individuals. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.
Shabani, Zahra; Esghaei, Maryam; Keyvani, Hossein; Shabani, Fateme; Sarmadi, Fateme; Mollaie, Hamidreza; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza
Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method. In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction. Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death.
Hara, Satoshi; Hirata, Masayoshi; Ito, Kiyoaki; Mizushima, Ichiro; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Nagata, Michio; Kawano, Mitsuhiro
Human parvovirus B19 infection causes a variety of glomerular diseases such as post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. Although each of these appears independently, it has not been fully determined why parvovirus B19 provokes such a variety of different glomerular phenotypes. Here, we report a 68-year-old Japanese man who showed endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis admixed with podocytopathy in association with parvovirus B19 infection. The patient showed acute onset of heavy proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and kidney dysfunction with arthralgia and oliguria after close contact with a person suffering from erythema infectiosum. In the kidney biopsy specimen, glomeruli revealed diffuse and global endocapillary infiltration of inflammatory cells, with some also showing tuft collapse with aberrant vacuolation, swelling, and hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence revealed dense granular C3 deposition that resembled the "starry sky pattern". Intravenous glucocorticoid pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and cyclosporine combination therapy resulted in considerable amelioration of the kidney dysfunction and urinary abnormalities. The present case reveals that parvovirus B19 infection can induce different glomerular phenotypes even in the same kidney structure. This finding may provide hints useful for the further elucidation of the pathogenesis of parvovirus B19-induced glomerular lesions. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Rodríguez Bandera, A I; Mayor Arenal, M; Vorlicka, K; Ruiz Bravo-Burguilllos, E; Montero Vega, D; Vidaurrázaga Díaz-Arcaya, C
Our aim was to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of acute parvovirus B19 infection in adults. This study describes all cases of acute parvovirus B19 infection in patients older than 18 years of age who were treated at Hospital Universitario La Paz in Madrid, Spain, in 2012. Forty-nine adults were treated for acute parvovirus B19 infection. Most were young women who were infected in the spring or early summer. In over half the cases skin lesions were key diagnostic signs.We saw the full range of types of rash of purplish exanthems that were fairly generalized; vasculitis was relatively common (in >18%). Mild or moderate abnormalities in blood counts and indicators of liver dysfunction resolved spontaneously in all but 2 immunocompromised patients, who developed chronic anemia. This is the largest case series of acute parvovirus B19 infection published to date. This infection should be suspected on observing signs of purplish skin rashes, no matter the location or pattern of distribution, or vasculitis, especially if accompanied by fever and joint pain in young women in the spring. Measures to avoid infection should be recommended to individuals at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF-1 patients have an increased risk of developing malignancies most commonly rhabdomyosarcomas, optic gliomas, brain tumors and non-lymphocytic leukemias. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has been infrequently reported in association with NF-1. We describe a rare association of NF-1, T-lineage ALL and parvovirus infection in a 12-year-old child. In addition, it is also to emphasize that a high index of suspicion should be kept for parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of bicytopenia/pancytopenia in ALL patients following induction chemotherapy.
Oramas, Diana M; Setty, Suman; Yeldandi, Vijay; Cabrera, Julio; Patel, Tushar
Parvovirus B19 infection is undiagnosed in recipients undergoing solid organ transplantation. It is usually responsible for unexplained acute and chronic red blood cell aplasia that does not respond to erythropoietin therapy. Cases of parvovirus B19 infection associated with pancytopenia, solid organ dysfunction, and allograft rejection have been described in the literature. The deterioration of the immune system as a result of severe immunotherapy favors the reactivation of a previous infection or the acquisition of a new one. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman with a 1-year history of renal allograft transplant and previous cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection who presented with chest pain, polyarthritis, pancytopenia, and renal dysfunction. A serum sample using polymerase chain reaction showed a parvovirus titer of 13.8 trillion IU/mL and a CMV titer of 800 IU/mL. The renal biopsy revealed nucleomegaly with focal viral inclusions, along with changes associated with immunotherapy toxicity. Electron microscopy demonstrated capillary and tubular epithelial cells with "viral factories," thereby confirming the diagnosis. Thus, screening for parvovirus B19 is advised in high-risk patients who present with refractory anemia to avoid the complications of a chronic infection associated with the fatal rejection of the transplanted organ.
Wiggers, H; Rasmussen, L H; Møller, A
A case of Parvovirus B19 infection (erythema infectiosum) in a 20 year old woman is presented. The patient presented with fever, arthritis in one knee, neutrophil granulocytosis and biochemical evidence of hepatitis. Serological evidence of Parvovirus B19 infection was found as the only explanation of the clinical picture. Hepatitis was due to Parvovirus B19 infection as there was no serological evidence of EBV or CMV reactivation. Neutrophil granulocytosis and thrombocytosis were found and were probably due to an active bone marrow in the recovery phase of bone marrow aplasia.
Timurkan, Mehmet; Oğuzoğlu, Tuba
This study provides data about canine parvovirus (CPV) types circulating among dogs in Turkey. Sixty-five samples from dogs with and without clinical signs of parvovirus infection were collected between April 2009 and February 2010. The samples were subsequently tested for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-five samples (38.4%) were positive; when positive samples were characterized by sequence analysis, results showed that both CPV-2a (17/25, 68%) and CPV-2b (8/25, 32%) strains are circulating among domestic dogs in Turkey. This is the first molecular characterization study of CPVs from dogs based on partial VP2 gene sequences in Turkey.
Lindblom, Anna; Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar
Parvovirus B19 is a common, clinically significant pathogen. Reassessment of the viral kinetics after acute infection showed that the virus is not rapidly cleared from healthy hosts, despite early resolution of symptoms. These findings challenge our current conception of the virus' pathogenesis...
Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da Costa
Full Text Available Reye's syndrome is an infrequently diagnosed medical condition affecting mainly children. The etiology, epidemiology and natural history of Reye's syndrome have been cloudily written in footnotes of medical books and exotic papers since the initial description in early 1950s. We report here a case of adult Reye's syndrome associated with serologic evidence of parvovirus B19 infection.
Pistorius, Lourens Rasmus; Smal, Jaime; de Haan, Timo Robert; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C. M. L.; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata; Oepkes, Dick; de Vries, Linda S.
We describe the clinical course of an infant who presented with severe fetal anemia and fetal hydrops following congenital parvovirus B19 infection before 16 gestational weeks. The fetus was treated by cordocentesis and intrauterine transfusion at 18 weeks. The infant demonstrated mild unilateral
Hasslung, F.; Wallgren, P.; Hansen, Anne-Sofie Ladekjær
An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). A Swed......An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS...
Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi
mild clinical signs in piglets despite the excretion of high numbers of oocysts. Concomitant infection with rotavirus, however, caused a dramatic aggravation of the clinical signs, and 5 of 6 experimentally infected piglets died. CPP-13 appeared to be adapted to porcine hosts as illustrated by the lack...
Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)
Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.
Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun; Lv, Xiaonan; Herrler, Georg; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhou, Xingdong; Qu, Bo; Meng, Fandan; Cong, Chengcheng; Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing
Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs
I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is a highly infectious virus. The virus causes death in dogs worldwide. The mortality rate due to infection of CPV in dog reaches 91%. Prevention of CPV infection in puppies has been done by vaccination which is effectively proven. Protective mechanisms of maternal antibodies contribute to the failure of vaccination. Highly stable characteristics of parvovirus enable the virus still exist in the environment. Various therapies are performed only to suppress the clinical symptoms but can not reduce puppy mortalities. This review discusses CPV alternative therapy and the advantages using immunoglobulin Y (IgY specific antibodies isolated from chicken egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y will neutralize the virus, so it can not infect host cells. Intravenous IgY therapy has shown to suppress the spread of CPV infection and prevent death.
Mohamed E. Al Ghwass
Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 infection is detected in high rates among children with beta thalassemia major. Measures to avoid iatrogenic and nosocomial transmission have to be implemented including screening of donated blood for B19 especially blood given to patients with hematological disorders. Also data from this study support the need for introduction of an approved B19 vaccine that primarily protects children with thalassemia major against that infection.
Takeuchi, Masato; Shiozawa, Ryosuke; Hangai, Mayumi; Takita, Junko; Kitanaka, Sachiko
Parvovirus B19 can cause petechial rashes in the acute phase of illness as well as erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) during convalescence. This petechial rash is often called "gloves and socks" syndrome because of the typical distribution of the eruption. However, involvement of other sites (e.g., intertriginous area) and generalized involvement have been recently recognized. We report here a patient with parvovirus-associated petechiae and cephalhematoma. The patient was a previously healthy 10-year-old boy. There was a family history of fatal bleeding; his sister died of intracranial bleeding with an uncertain cause at the age of 5 months. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of cephalhematoma associated with fever. He reported that he had no recent head trauma but that he massaged his scalp on the day before admission. On admission, his temperature was 38.8°C; otherwise, he was in a stable condition. Besides cephalhematoma, petechial rashes were present on his trunk and limbs. The initial laboratory tests were essentially normal, including platelet count and coagulation tests. Expanded laboratory tests were repeated to explore the etiology of his skin hemorrhage, all of which indicated that hematological disorders were unlikely. His symptoms subsided spontaneously over the next few days and he was discharged uneventfully. Anti-parvovirus IgM titer was elevated during hospitalization and typical erythema infectiosum was seen approximately 1 week after discharge. During 6 months follow-up, he remained stable without recurrence of a hemorrhagic episode. Finally, we concluded that his cephalhematoma was responsible for acute parvoviral infection. This is believed to be the first report describing a possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and cephalhematoma. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who present with unexplained hemorrhage such as cephalhematoma or petechiae.
Callaway, Heather M; Feng, Kurtis H; Lee, Donald W; Allison, Andrew B; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan; Parrish, Colin R
Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in infection or transduction
Callaway, Heather M.; Feng, Kurtis H.; Lee, Donald W.; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan
ABSTRACT Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. IMPORTANCE Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in
Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. Preclinical identification of PCV2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of PCV2-associated diseases. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (UNDP-PCR for PCV2 detection. Magnetic microparticles coated with PCV2 specific DNA probes were used to enrich PCV2 DNA from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with PCV2 specific oligonucleotides were added to form a sandwich nucleic acid-complex. After the complex was formed, the oligonucleotides were released and characterized by PCR. This assay exhibited about 500-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 2 copies of purified PCV2 genomic DNA and 10 viral copies of PCV2 in serum. The assay has a wide detection range for all of PCV2 genotypes with reliable reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses including porcine circovirus type 1, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and classical swine fever virus. The positive detection rate of PCV2 specific UNDP-PCR in 40 preclinical field samples was 27.5%, which appeared greater than that by conventional and real-time PCR and appeared application potency in evaluation of the viral loads levels of preclinical infection samples. The UNDP-PCR assay reported here can reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays, provide a nucleic acid extraction free, specific, ultrasensitive, economic and rapid diagnosis method for preclinical PCV2 infection in field, which may help prevent large-scale outbreaks.
Siqueira, Juliana D; Ng, Terry F; Miller, Melissa; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Dodd, Erin; Batac, Francesca; Delwart, Eric
Over the past century, the southern sea otter (SSO; Enhydra lutris nereis) population has been slowly recovering from near extinction due to overharvest. The SSO is a threatened subspecies under federal law and a fully protected species under California law, US. Through a multiagency collaborative program, stranded animals are rehabilitated and released, while deceased animals are necropsied and tissues are cryopreserved to facilitate scientific study. Here, we processed archival tissues to enrich particle-associated viral nucleic acids, which we randomly amplified and deeply sequenced to identify viral genomes through sequence similarities. Anelloviruses and endogenous retroviral sequences made up over 50% of observed viral sequences. Polyomavirus, parvovirus, and adenovirus sequences made up most of the remaining reads. We characterized and phylogenetically analyzed the full genome of sea otter polyomavirus 1 and the complete coding sequence of sea otter parvovirus 1 and found that the closest known viruses infect primates and domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus), respectively. We tested archived tissues from 69 stranded SSO necropsied over 14 yr (2000-13) by PCR. Polyomavirus, parvovirus, and adenovirus infections were detected in 51, 61, and 29% of examined animals, respectively, with no significant increase in frequency over time, suggesting endemic infection. We found that 80% of tested SSO were infected with at least one of the three DNA viruses, whose tissue distribution we determined in 261 tissue samples. Parvovirus DNA was most frequently detected in mesenteric lymph node, polyomavirus DNA in spleen, and adenovirus DNA in multiple tissues (spleen, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph node, lung, and liver). This study describes the virome in tissues of a threatened species and shows that stranded SSO are frequently infected with multiple viruses, warranting future research to investigate associations between these infections and observed lesions.
Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E
Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lara-Medrano, Reynaldo; Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; Garza-González, Elvira; Medina-Torres, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián
A human parvovirus B19 outbreak was detected in personnel assigned to a surgical area (anesthesiology fellows and an otorhinolaryngology fellow) in a university hospital. The attack rate between susceptible members was higher than previous reports. Diagnosis was determined by polymerase chain reaction for human parvovirus B19 in serum of 1 subject and immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G antibody titer in the remaining subjects. Medical personnel were put on leave of absence until resolution of symptoms and laboratory confirmation of health. No cases of infection were detected in hospitalized patients or other health care workers on follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides
Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...
Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N
Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons.
Ou, Shan-Hai; Xie, Jin-Zhen; Zhang, Ya-Li; Ni, Hong-Ying; Song, Xiu-Yu
To estimate the prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in Chinese Xiamen area blood donors. Blood samples from blood donors were tested for detection of parvovirus B19 DNA and antibody. The direct sequencing and genetype analysis of B19 DNA positive samples were performed. Six out of 10452 samples were B19 DNA positive. The viral loads of the 6 samples were between 3.59×10 2 -1.07×10 4 IU/ml; the positive rate of B19-IgM was 4.64%(50/1078) and B19-IgG was 16.79%(181/1078). The positive rate of B19-IgG increased with ages, and was not related with the sex. The overall prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors is lower in Chinese Xiamen area than that in other areas, however, there is still a certain percentage of viremia in donors and the attention should be paid to blood safety in the future work.
Full Text Available In this study we reported a case of co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV type 2a and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV in a 3-month-old male kitten, with the presence of a parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between CPV and FPV. The report of a viral variant which contained FPV- and CPV-specific epitopes stresses the importance of the mechanism of multistep mutation in the production of new variants and in the emergence of new viruses. This type of multistep adaptation has already been documented during the emergence of CPV and on the basis of our results, it was hypothesized that CPV had presumably started a new process of readaptation in the feline host, confirming the importance of viral host switching as a mechanism for the emergence of new viruses.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.
Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Norja, Päivi; Lindberg, Ellinor; Jensen, Lise; Hedman, Lea; Väisänen, Elina; Li, Xuemeng; Hedman, Klaus; von Linstow, Marie-Louise
Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been associated with HIV infection in adults. We examined plasma samples from 46 HIV-infected 0-year-old to 16-year-old children for the presence of PARV4. Four children (8.7%) had detectable PARV4 IgG and 1 had IgM. The result of PARV4 polymerase chain reaction was found to be negative in all patients. PARV4 seropositivity was associated with low CD4 count but not with HIV viral load.
Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Arthur Daniel Rocha; Garcia, Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Pinto, Marcelo Alves
B19V has been proposed as an etiologic agent for hepatitis, mainly in children, but this is a rare clinical occurrence. In this article, we report a case of non-A-E acute liver failure in an immunocompetent child with B19 infection. The clinical findings of severe anemia and pancytopenia combined with the detection of anti-B19 Immunoglobulin G (IgG), B19 DNA and B19 mRNA in liver indicate a persistent infection and suggest a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated acute liver failure.
Hong, Qi; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiang-Min; Yu, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Huan-Chun
Pseudorabies (PR), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. The gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (PRV) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. In this study, a recombinant PRV, which could co-express protein precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of PPV, was constructed using PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/LacZ(+) mutant as the vector. After homologous recombination and plaque purification, recombinant virus PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/P1-2A-VP2 was acquired and identified. Immunogenicity, safety of the recombinant PRV and its protection against PRV were confirmed in a mouse model by indirect ELISA and serum neutralization test. The results show that the recombinant PRV is a candidate vaccine strain to develop a novel trivalent vaccine against PRV, FMDV and PPV in swine.
Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.
Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...
Jensen, Louise Kruse; Johansen, Anne Sofie Boyum; Jensen, Henrik Elvang
, and reproducible animal models of the infections. In this review, the advantages of in vivo studies are compared to in vitro studies of biofilm formation in infectious diseases. The pig is the animal of choice when developing and applying large animal models of infectious diseases due to its similarity of anatomy......, physiology, and immune system to humans. Furthermore, conventional pigs spontaneously develop many of the same chronic bacterial infections as seen in humans. Therefore, in this review porcine models of five different infectious diseases all associated with biofilm formation and chronicity in humans...
Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo; Aina, Olugbenga Ayoola; Omilabu, Sunday
Microbial burden involving parvovirus B19 infection has been recognised as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. Given the recent reports of parvovirus B19 infection in Nigeria and the role of inflammation in sickle cell crisis, knowledge of the relationship between the two may be essential for deploying appropriate interventions in infected patients. This study determined the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as inflammatory markers in Nigerian SCA patients with and without parvovirus B19 infections. A total of 64 SCA patients aged 5-25 years and 41 age-matched apparently healthy volunteers with haemoglobin genotypes AA or AS were enrolled with consent into the study. Parvovirus B19 infection and serum levels of TNF-α and CRP were determined by the ELISA method. The overall prevalence rate of parvovirus B19 infection in the study subjects was 13.3%. This rate further showed gender variation and negative correlation with age. Significant (p Parvovirus B19 infection was found to elicit greater increases in these inflammatory markers than in infected non-SCA controls. We conclude that parvovirus B19 infection is common in this environment, and that serum TNF-α and CRP are predictors of clinical inflammatory episodes in infected SCA patients.
Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge
The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P
Slavov, Svetoslav Nanev; Otaguiri, Katia Kaori; Smid, Jerusa; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva; Casseb, Jorge; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria; Kashima, Simone
Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), a Tetraparvovirus, has been largely found in HIV, HBV, or HCV infected individuals. However, there is no data for the PARV4 occurrence in Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infected individuals, despite similar transmission routes. Here, PARV4 viremia was evaluated in 130 HTLV infected patients under care of a Brazilian HTLV outpatient clinic. PARV4 viremia was detected in 6.2% of the HTLV-1 infected patients. Most PARV4 positives showed no evidence for parenterally transmitted infections. It is suggested that in Brazil, transmission routes of PARV4 are more complex than in Europe and North America and resemble those in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 89:748-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Castro Alessandra MMG
Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.
Kranidiotis, Georgios; Efstratiadis, Efrosini; Kapsalakis, Georgios; Loizos, Georgios; Bilis, Apostolos; Melidonis, Andreas
Human parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus most known for causing erythema infectiosum in children, and polyarthropathy or transient aplastic crisis in adults. However, various unusual clinical manifestations have also been reported in association with it. We describe a young patient who presented with splenic infarcts as a rare complication of B19 infection. A 33-year old previously healthy man was admitted to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever and headache. Imaging studies revaled two splenic infarcts. Endocarditis was ruled out, whereas serologic testing for B19 was indicative of acute infection. To our knowledge, three cases of thromboembolism in the setting of B19 infection have been reported up to now, including one occurence of splenic infarction. These events were attributed to the development of a transient antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. In contrast, our patient did not have elevated titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. Splenic infarcts can be an atypical presentation of B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 may induce thromboembolic events, even in the absence of antiphospholipid antibodies.
Ihara, Takeshi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Hayashi, Takeo; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun
Human parvovirus B19 infection occurs by droplet nuclei through the respiratory tract and causes a wide range of diseases. It can be transmitted through blood transfusion from asymptomatic blood donors. This study was done to investigate the parvovirus B19 infection rate of a group of healthy Japanese residents. Of 2,081 blood samples tested, 15 (0.72 %) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM, 1,412 (67.9 %) for B19 virus IgG, and 4 (0.2 %) for parvovirus B19 DNA. About half of all women of childbearing age were susceptible to parvovirus B19 infection. No relationship was found between the frequency of symptoms and the prevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM, suggesting that there are asymptomatic carriers in the healthy Japanese population. There is a risk of parvovirus B19 infection by blood transfusion from asymptomatic donors and that pregnant women are at high risk for parvovirus B19 infection.
Agra, Isabela Karine Rodrigues; Amorim Filho, Antonio Gomes; Lin, Lawrence Hsu; Biancolin, Sckarlet Ernandes; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Brizot, Maria de Lourdes
Objective To investigate the clinical and sonographic parameters associated with adverse fetal outcomes in patients with congenital parvovirus B19 infection managed by intrauterine transfusion. Methods This was a single-center retrospective study conducted from January 2005 to December 2016 that assessed patients with singleton pregnancies with fetal parvovirus infection confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction of the amniotic fluid or fetal blood samples who underwent at least one intrauterine transfusion. The maternal characteristics, sonographic findings and parameters related to intrauterine transfusion were compared between the two groups (recovery/non-recovery), who were categorized based on fetal response after in-utero transfusions. Progression to fetal death or delivery without fetal recovery after the transfusions was considered non-recovery and categorized as an adverse outcome. Results The final analysis included ten singleton pregnancies: seven of which were categorized into the recovery group and three of which into the non-recovery group. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. All fetuses were hydropic at the time of diagnosis. No significant differences related to sonographic or intrauterine transfusion parameters were identified between the groups; however, the non-recovery group tended to have an increased number of sonographic markers and lower fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels before the transfusion. Conclusion We were unable to firmly establish the clinical or sonographic parameters associated with adverse fetal outcomes in patients with parvovirus infection managed with intrauterine transfusions; however, edema, placental thickening and oligohydramnios may indicate greater fetal compromise and, subsequently, adverse outcomes. However, further studies are necessary, mainly due to the small number of cases analyzed in the present study. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Lassen, Jonathan; Jensen, Anne K V; Bager, Peter
in 3 regions in Denmark from 1992 to 1994. Cases of women with fetal loss were identified in the National Patient Register (n = 2,918), and control women with live-born children were identified in the Medical Birth Register (n = 8,429) by matching on age and sampling week. First-trimester serum samples......Because parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of fetal loss in small or selected study populations, the authors evaluated the risk in a population-based study. A nested case-control study was conducted by using a population-based screening for syphilis...
Suzuki, Takashiro; Saito, Shinichiro; Hirabayashi, Yasuhiko; Harigae, Hideo; Ishii, Tomonori; Kodera, Takao; Fujii, Hiroshi; Munakata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Takeshi
A 42-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had an episode of fever, arthralgia and anemia. In order to treat the suspected activation of SLE, the daily dose of steroid was increased, however, the anemia progressed and pancytopenia developed. Both IgM anti-B19 antibodies to human parvovirus B19 (B19) and B19 DNA were positive, and bone marrow analysis revealed pure red cell aplasia with giant proerythroblasts. High dose gamma globulin was administered and the daily dose of steroid was tapered, resulting in the improvement of her condition. B19 infection should be ruled out in cases with reactivation of autoimmune diseases.
Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang
Infection of clinically susceptible ducks, including cherry valley and Muscovy ducks, with a novel goose parvovirus (GPV)-related virus (N-GPV) can result in beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). To obtain new insights into the host range and pathogenic potential of this novel waterfowl parvovirus, cherry valley ducklings (n=20) were experimentally infected with N-GPV strain SDLC01. An equal number of ducklings served as uninfected controls. The appearance of clinical signs, histopathological changes, viral shedding, and seroconversion was monitored for 20 days post-infection. Infection status of all ducks was monitored using indirect ELISA, virus neutralization test, nested PCR, clinical indicators, and microscopic examination. Three ducks developed the typical clinical, gross, and histological changes of BADS. By study day 6, the infected ducks had seroconverted to N-GPV. The antibodies raised were neutralizing against the SDLC01 strain in vitro. Here we successfully developed an experimental infection model for studying the pathogenicity and role of N-GPV in BADS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, K W; Chueh, L L; Wang, M H; Huang, Y T; Fang, B H; Chang, C Y; Fang, M C; Chou, J Y; Hsieh, S C; Wan, C H
Mouse parvoviruses are among the most prevalent infectious pathogens in contemporary mouse colonies. To improve the efficiency of routine screening for mouse parvovirus infections, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the VP gene was developed. The assay detected minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse parvovirus (MPV) and a mouse housekeeping gene (α-actin) and was able to specifically detect MVM and MPV at levels as low as 50 copies. Co-infection with the two viruses with up to 200-fold differences in viral concentrations can easily be detected. The multiplex PCR assay developed here could be a useful tool for monitoring mouse health and the viral contamination of biological materials.
Ishikawa, Aki; Yoto, Yuko; Ohya, Kazuhiro; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki
Patients with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy sometimes experience transient exacerbations of muscle weakness. We took care of a 9-year-old boy with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy who presented with acute respiratory failure and decreased exercise ability with marked elevation of serum creatine kinase indicating rhabdomyolysis. At that time, his younger sister suffered from erythema infectiosum. Although he had no particular symptoms, he was tested and proven to have acute human parvovirus B19 infection based on detection of anti-B19 IgM and parvovirus B19 DNA in his serum. His acute rhabdomyolysis was possibly triggered by human parvovirus B19 infection. © The Author(s) 2013.
Liu, Peng; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun
Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an approximately 5.0 kb, single-stranded DNA genome. Usually, the parvovirus capsid gene contains one or more nuclear localization signals (NLSs), which are required for guiding the virus particle into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. However, several classical NLSs (cNLSs) and non-classical NLSs (ncNLSs) have been identified in non-structural genes, and the ncNLSs can also target non-structural proteins into the nucleus. In this review, we have summarized recent research findings on parvovirus NLSs. The capsid protein of the adeno-associated virus has four potential nuclear localization sequences, named basic region 1 (BR), BR2, BR3 and BR4. BR3 was identified as an NLS by fusing it with green fluorescent protein. Moreover, BR3 and BR4 are required for infectivity and virion assembly. In Protoparvovirus, the canine parvovirus has a common cNLS located in the VP1 unique region, similar to parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) and porcine parvovirus. Moreover, an ncNLS is found in the C-terminal region of MVM VP1/2. Parvovirus B19 also contains an ncNLS in the C-terminal region of VP1/2, which is essential for the nuclear transport of VP1/VP2. Approximately 1 or 2 cNLSs and 1 ncNLS have been reported in the non-structural protein of bocaviruses. Understanding the role of the NLS in the process of parvovirus infection and its mechanism of nuclear transport will contribute to the development of therapeutic vaccines and novel antiviral medicines.
Liles, J E; Shalin, S C; White, B A; Trigg, L B; Kaley, J R
Parvovirus B19 infections in adults are usually associated with nonspecific and mild symptoms. However, cases presenting with a lupus-like syndrome have been described, leading to the hypothesis that parvovirus infection can induce connective tissue disease. Various histopathologic features of cutaneous manifestations of parvovirus have been reported, including features which overlap with those of connective tissue disease. Herein, we discuss an unusual case of Parvovirus B19 infection in a middle-aged woman. The biopsy results showed granulomatous vasculitis and were consistent with the previously described superantigen id reaction. This case demonstrates that infectious causes should be considered in the differential diagnosis for granulomatous vasculitis and clinicopathologic correlation is required for accurate diagnosis. We also provide a review of the literature highlighting the possible role of parvovirus in induction of a connective tissue disease-like presentation.
Shull, B.C.; Chen, K.C.; Lederman, M.; Stout, E.R.; Bates, R.C.
Genomic clones of the autonomous parvovirus bovine parvovirus (BPV) were constructed by blunt-end ligation of reannealed virion plus and minus DNA strands into the plasmid pUC8. These clones were stable during propagation in Escherichia coli JM107. All clones tested were found to be infectious by the criteria of plaque titer and progressive cytophathic effect after transfection into bovine fetal lung cells. Sequencing of the recombinant plasmids demonstrated that all of the BPV inserts had left-end (3')-terminal deletions of up to 34 bases. Defective genomes could also be detected in the progeny DNA even though the infection was initiated with homogeneous, cloned DNA. Full-length genomic clones with 3' flip and 3' flop conformations were constructed and were found to have equal infectivity. Expression of capsid proteins from tranfected genomes was demonstrated by hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cell lysates. Use of appropriate antiserum for immunoprecipitation showed the synthesis of BPV capsid and noncapsid proteins after transfection. Independently, a series of genomic clones with increasingly larger 3'-terminal deletions was prepared from separately subcloned 3'-terminal fragments. Transfection of these clones into bovine fetal lung cells revealed that deletions of up to 34 bases at the 3' end lowered but did not abolish infectivity, while deletions of greater than 52 bases were lethal. End-label analysis showed that the 34-base deletion was repaired to wild-type length in the progeny virus
Habibagahi, Mojtaba; Habibagahi, Zahra; Saidmardani, Said-Mostafa; Sadeghian, Faezeh
The etiology of the Behçet disease (BD) has remained obscured. There have been studies to show the association of BD to infections like herpes simplex, hepatitis, and parvovirus B19 however, the findings are rather controversial. We selected 55 patients with the best matched symptoms of BD and measured the loads of B19 DNA in their plasma by quantitative real time PCR and verified their seropositivity by ELISA. All findings were compared to the results from 42 healthy persons. Patients showed a wide spectrum of BD symptoms. Serologic studies showed high prevalence of B19 IgG among the tested patients which was not statistically different with the healthy population (72.7% vs. 85.7%, respectively). Similarly, the prevalence of B19 IgM between patients and controls was not different (18% vs. 11.9%, respectively). No correlation was found between the presence of anti-B19 antibodies and the clinical observations. Only one person from the patient and control groups had detectable levels of B19 DNA without any difference or correlation with the disease symptoms. Our data could not establish an association between B19 parvovirus infection and Behçet disease, although there have been reports of such correlation. Nevertheless, there might be indirect relation in genetically susceptible individuals after viral infections. More studies on designed animal models and surveys on patients should be done to resolve this controversy.
Full Text Available Background: The etiology of the Behçet disease (BD has remained obscured. There have been studies to show the association of BD to infections like herpes simplex, hepatitis, and parvovirus B19 however, the findings are rather controversial. Materials and Methods: We selected 55 patients with the best matched symptoms of BD and measured the loads of B19 DNA in their plasma by quantitative real time PCR and verified their seropositivity by ELISA. All findings were compared to the results from 42 healthy persons. Results: Patients showed a wide spectrum of BD symptoms. Serologic studies showed high prevalence of B19 IgG among the tested patients which was not statistically different with the healthy population (72.7% vs. 85.7%, respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of B19 IgM between patients and controls was not different (18% vs. 11.9%, respectively. No correlation was found between the presence of anti-B19 antibodies and the clinical observations. Only one person from the patient and control groups had detectable levels of B19 DNA without any difference or correlation with the disease symptoms. Conclusion: Our data could not establish an association between B19 parvovirus infection and Behçet disease, although there have been reports of such correlation. Nevertheless, there might be indirect relation in genetically susceptible individuals after viral infections. More studies on designed animal models and surveys on patients should be done to resolve this controversy.
Habibzadeh, Shahram; Peeri-Doghaheh, Hadi; Mohammad-Shahi, Jafar; Mobini, Elham; Shahbazzadegan, Samira
Trans-placental transmission of parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can causes adverse outcomes. Regarding its importance in prenatal care, we decided to study prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant woman in Ardabil, Iran. In a community based study with a cluster sampling, 350 pregnant women that attended in health care centers in Ardabil were selected. Serum samples were collected and Anti-B19 specific IgG was detected using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Euroimmune Elisa kit, Germany). Furthermore, a questionnaire filled for all participants during samples collection. 64.6% (226/350) of participants were Ardabil citizen and the rest were from rural area (124/350). Anti-B19-specific IgG antibody was detected in 69.1% of pregnant women (242/350). Participants' ages ranged from 15 to 34 years with average of 23 years. According to our study, seroprevalence of IgG antibodies had positive significant correlation with the participants' age (r=0.268) but there were no significant relations between B19 seropositivity and living area, family member, number of commensals, number of living children, and the amount of hemoglobin (p>0.05). Approximately, one-third of the participants were at risk of primary B19 infection. Therefore, health education of pregnant women and screening of infected pregnant women is recommended to prevent fetal complications.
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and
Tönjes, Ralf R.
Summary: Xenotransplantation may be a solution to overcome the shortage of organs for the treatment of patients with organ failure, but it may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms and the development of xenozoonoses. Whereas most microorganisms may be eliminated by pathogen-free breeding of the donor animals, porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) cannot be eliminated, since these are integrated into the genomes of all pigs. Human-tropic PERV-A and -B are present in all pigs and are able to infect human cells. Infection of ecotropic PERV-C is limited to pig cells. PERVs may adapt to host cells by varying the number of LTR-binding transcription factor binding sites. Like all retroviruses, they may induce tumors and/or immunodeficiencies. To date, all experimental, preclinical, and clinical xenotransplantations using pig cells, tissues, and organs have not shown transmission of PERV. Highly sensitive and specific methods have been developed to analyze the PERV status of donor pigs and to monitor recipients for PERV infection. Strategies have been developed to prevent PERV transmission, including selection of PERV-C-negative, low-producer pigs, generation of an effective vaccine, selection of effective antiretrovirals, and generation of animals transgenic for a PERV-specific short hairpin RNA inhibiting PERV expression by RNA interference. PMID:22491774
Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J
To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parvovirus B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum in children. It is also associated with other clinical manifestations in different target groups. Patients with chronic hemolytic anemia are at high risk of developing acute erythroblastopenia following infection by the virus. They usually become highly viremic and pose an increased risk of virus transmission. Close monitoring of such high risk groups is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease prevention activities. Here we report a molecular epidemiological study on B19 virus infection in Tunisian patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Methods This study was conducted on 92 young chronic hemolytic anemia patients who attended the same ward at the National Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of Tunis and 46 controls from a different hospital. Screening for IgM and IgG anti-B19 antibodies was performed using commercially available enzyme immunoassays and B19 DNA was detected by nested PCR in the overlapping VP1/VP2 region. DNA was sequenced using dideoxy-terminator cycle sequencing technology. Results Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies were detected in 26 of 46 sickle-cell anemia patients, 18 of 46 β-thalassemia and 7 of 46 controls. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies were detected only in 4 of the sickle-cell anemia patients: two siblings and two unrelated who presented with acute erythroblastopenia at the time of blood collection for this study and had no history of past transfusion. B19 DNA was detected only in sera of these four patients and the corresponding 288 bp nested DNA amplicons were sequenced. The sequences obtained were all identical and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to a new B19 virus strain of Genotype1. Conclusion A new parvovirus B19 strain of genotype1 was detected in four Tunisian patients with sickle-cell anemia. Virus transmission appeared to be nosocomial and resulted in acute erythroblastopenia in the four
Full Text Available Aim: An epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in dogs in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha was conducted between December 2012 to March 2013 and prevalence rate was studied on the basis of age, breed, and sex. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 fecal samples from suspected diarrheic dogs were collected in sterile phosphate buffer saline (10% W/V and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of canine parvo virus infection, followed by epidemiological study in relation to age, breed, and sex. Results: Of 71 samples analyzed, 29 (40.85% were found to be positive by PCR assay. The infection was higher in Deshi/local breeds (34.48%, followed by German shepherd (17.24%, equal incidences in mixed and Labrador retriever (10.34%, Rottweiler and German spitz showed 6.90% each and finally lower incidences in four breeds (3.45% such as Dalmatians, Nea politan mastiff, Pug and Great Dane. Age-wise prevalence study revealed the infection being more in the age group of 3-6 months (41.37%, followed by equal incidences of 27.59% in 1-3 months and 6-12 months age group, and a low incidence in age groups above 12 months (3.45%. The incidence was predominantly higher in males (86.21% than females (13.79%. Conclusions: The epidemiological analysis revealed that the breed wise prevalence was found to be more in Deshi breeds as compared to others, age groups below 6 months were found to be more prone to parvovirus infection and males were mostly infected.
Headley,Selwyn Arlington; Saito,Taís Berelli
Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...
Choi, Byung-Kook; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Joon-Hyung; Shin, Hyo-Sook; Son, Seong-Wan; Yeo, Young-Keun; Kang, Hwan-Goo
Mice were exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) via drinking water at a concentration of 2 mg/L for 36 days. On day 8 of treatment, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (PPV) was injected intraperitoneally. The relative and absolute weight of the spleen was significantly decreased in the DON-treated group (DON). Antibody titers to parvovirus in serum were 47.9 ± 2.4 in the vaccination group (Vac), but 15.2 ± 6.5 in the group treated with DON and vaccine (DON + Vac). The IgA and IgG was not different in the DON, Vac an,d DON + Vac groups. IgM was significantly lower only in the DON + Vac group. However IgE was significantly increased in the Vac and DON + Vac group, but no change was observed between the Vac and DON + Vac groups. The concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and Rantes in serum, and IL-1α in mesenteric lymph node and MIP-1β in spleen were significantly increased by DON treatment compared to control. The concentrations of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and Rantes in thymus, of IL-2 in spleen, and of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1 in mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly decreased in mice compared to those in the Vac group, while concentrations of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-9, IL-13,G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, MIP-1α and TNF-α were significantly increased in serum compared to the Vac group. In conclusion, the results presented here indicate that exposure to DON at 2.0 mg/L via drinking water can disrupt the immune response in vaccinated mice by modulating cytokines and chemokines involved in their immune response to infectious disease.
Antoaneta A. Markova
Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 (PVB19 has been frequently identified as a cause of anemia in immunocompromised transplanted patients. Rarely the infection correlates with deterioration of the graft function. Immunomodulatory therapy in PVB19 cases, still not standardised in dose and duration, has been proven to achieve good clinical results. The clinical presentation depends mainly on the immunological status of the patient. Here we report an atypical presentation of an acute PVB19 infection in the immediate postoperative phase after transplantation and aim to raise the recognition of PVB19 as a significant human pathogen in the early post-transplantation period. Additionally, we provide a literature review of clinical presentation and management of recently published cases.
Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Mari, Viviana; Lavazza, Antonio; Nardi, Manuela; Buonavoglia, Canio
An outbreak of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in vaccinated adult dogs is reported. The disease occurred in a breeding kennel in Italy and affected 11 dogs aged between 6 months and 2.5 years, that had been repeatedly administered vaccines containing a type 2 (old type) CPV strain. CPV infection was demonstrated in all diseased dogs by an immunochromatographic test. A CPV strain was isolated from the intestinal content of a 20-month-old pregnant Bernese mountain bitch that underwent a fatal outcome. The strain was characterised as CPV-2c by means of real-time PCR assays using minor groove binder probes. The present report provides further concerns about the real efficacy of type 2-based vaccines against the antigenic variants of CPV and stresses the need for developing new vaccines prepared with the variants currently circulating in the dog population.
Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar; Hirbod, Taha
A subset of parvovirus B19 (B19) infected patients retains the infection for years, as defined by detection of B19 DNA in bone marrow. Thus far, analysis of B19-specific humoral immune responses and viral genome variations has not revealed a mechanism for the absent viral clearance. In this study......, ex-vivo cellular immune responses were assessed by enzyme linked immunospot assay mounted against the majority of the translated viral genome. Compared to seropositive healthy individuals, individuals with B19 persistence (2-8 years) showed larger number of responses to the structural proteins (P = 0.......0022), whereas responses to the non-structural protein were of lower magnitude (P = 0.012). These observations provide the first findings of immunological discrepancies between individuals with B19 persistence and healthy individuals, findings that may reflect both failed immunity and antigenic exhaustion....
Zakrzewska, K.; Corcioli, F.; Carlsen, Karen Marie
BACKGROUND: Our previous reports suggested a possible association between parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection and systemic sclerosis (SSc), based on higher prevalence of B19V DNA in SSc patients in respect to controls. METHODS: In the present study, to further evaluate the differences in the pattern...... of B19 infection in SSc, skin biopsies and bone marrow samples from patients and controls were analysed for B19V DNA detection, genotyping and viral expression. RESULTS: B19V DNA was detected in skin biopsies from 39/49 SSc patients and from 20/28 controls. Bone marrow showed positive in 17/29 SSc...... in the skin of genotype 1-positive patients and not in control skins. CONCLUSION: The results outline some differences in the rate of persistence of B19V DNA, in the simultaneous persistence of 2 genotypes and in the pattern of viral expression among SSc patients and controls Udgivelsesdato: 2009...
Full Text Available Feline panleukopenia is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, feline parvovirus (FPV and canine parvovirus (CPV variants are the pathogens of feline panleukopenia. Many studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions. Nevertheless, miRNA expression profiling of FPV (original virus or CPV-2b (new virus in cats has not been reported. To investigate these profiles, three 10-week-old cats were orally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of the viruses (FPV and CPV-2b, and the jejunums of one cat in each group were sectioned for miRNA sequencing at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi. This study is the first attempt to use miRNA analysis to understand the molecular basis of FPV and CPV infection in cats. The miRNA expression profiles of the jejunums of cats infected with FPV and CPV were obtained, and a subset of miRNAs was validated by real-time qPCR. The results show that a variety of metabolism-related pathways, cytokine- and pathogen-host interaction-related pathways, and pathology- and cellar structure-related pathways, as well as others, were affected. Specifically, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which is critical for cytokines and growth factors, was enriched. This description of the miRNAs involved in regulating FPV and CPV infection in vivo provides further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection and adaptation and might provide an alternative antiviral strategy for disease control and prevention.
Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ho Young [Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Manbok [Department of Medical Science, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Department of Biological Sciences, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: email@example.com [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of)
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells.
Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok; Kang, Ho Young; Kim, Manbok; Koh, Sang Seok; Chung, Young-Hwa
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells
Minhas, Parminder S; K Virdi, Jaspreet; Patel, Rajeshkumar
Splenic dysfunction is a major feature of sickle cell disease (SCD) and can manifest as acute splenic sequestration crisis (ASSC), which is the earliest life-threatening complication seen in patients with SCD. Aplastic crisis is another potentially deadly complication of sickle cell disease that develops when erythrocyte production temporarily drops. Infection with parvovirus B-19 frequently causes aplastic crises. These two complications are known to be mutually exclusive due to their classic presentation signs and symptoms but there have been few cases where a patient can have concomitant presentation of both phenomena, which can result in a fatal outcome. These few cases force us to rethink the etiology and subsequent management guidelines of these complications. We present to you a case of an unfortunate 23-year-old female who had both complications occurring at the same time, resulting in death.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rapid tests currently used for canine parvovirus (CPV diagnosis: hemagglutination test (HA, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A total of 112 fecal samples collected from diarrheic puppies up to one year of age were tested. The EIA was able to detect CPV antigen in 44 samples. By HA, 32 samples tested highly positive with titers >128, eight tested weakly positive (titers 32 and 64 and 72 were negative (titers <16. Using PCR, 57 samples were found positive including 13 EIA-negative and 19 HA-negative samples. The best correlation was observed between EIA and PCR (88.4%. These tests were able to detect all types of CPV, including CPV-2c. Considering that 23%-33% of dogs presenting enteritis did not show infection by EIA nor HA, negative results from the antigen detection tests should be confirmed through molecular methods.
Daniela F. Gradia
Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de regressão espontânea de hidropisia fetal provavelmente causada por infecção materno-fetal pelo parvovírus B19. Além de hidropisia, observamos anemia e hipocontratilidade cardíaca no feto. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido pela soma dos achados ultra-sonográficos, detecção do vírus no soro materno, hemograma fetal e dosagem de enzimas hepáticas fetais.We report a case in which there was spontaneous regression of hydrops fetalis. Hydrops was probably caused by fetal infection with parvovirus B19. Anemia and hypokinesia of the heart were also observed. Diagnosis was accomplished by the ultrasound, virus detection in maternal serum, complete fetal blood count, and analysis of hepatic enzymes.
Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A
The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...... immunoassay in serum from B19-infected patients and controls. The cytokine responses were correlated with B19 serology, quantitative B19 DNA levels and clinical symptoms. In addition to a proinflammatory response, elevated levels of the Th1 type of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and IL-15 were evident...... at time of the initial peak of B19 viral load in a few patients during acute infection. This pattern was seen in the absence of an interferon (IFN)-gamma response. During follow-up (20-130 weeks post-acute infection) some of these patients had a sustained Th1 cytokine response. The Th1 cytokine response...
J. Van Heerden
Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.
van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E
Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.
Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.
The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically
IKW Sardjana D Kusumawati
Full Text Available Treatments of canine Parvovirus have already done to 22 dogs. There were 16 dogs, one month to one years of age and 6 dogs twoyears to seven years of age. The results of the theraphy, were ten dogs survived and twelve dogs died due to Parvovirus infection. Fluidtheraphy supported by antibiotic, antiemetic or antacids administrations were essential for Parvovirus infection in dogs. The recoveryrate of this dogs was 45%.
Helweg-Larsen, J; Tarp, B; Obel, N
conditions. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and PCR was used to amplify genes from Chlamydia pneumoniae, parvovirus B19 and each of the eight human herpes viruses: herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpes viruses HHV-6, -7 and -8......OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that infective agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae and parvovirus B19. We investigated temporal arteries from patients with GCA for these infections as well as human herpes viruses....... RESULTS: In all 30 biopsies, PCR was negative for DNAs of parvovirus B19, each of the eight human herpes viruses and C. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of DNA from parvovirus B19, human herpes virus or C. pneumoniae in any of the temporal arteries. These agents do not seem to play a unique...
Pablo S.B. de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c emerged in Europe in the early 2000’s and rapidly spread out worldwide. Clinical and molecular data have demonstrated its circulation in Brazilian dogs, yet detailed descriptions of cases are still lacking. This article describes the epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of 24 cases of CPV-2c-associated disease in dogs submitted to veterinary clinics and laboratory diagnosis in southern Brazil (2014-2016. Most affected dogs presented signs/lesions suggestive of parvovirus enteritis: diarrhea, vomiting, hyperemia and hemorrhage of the serous membrane of the small intestine, diffuse segmental granulation, atrophy of the villi, necrosis and fusion of crypts, squamous metaplasia and epithelial syncytia. A number of cases presented features divergent from the classical presentations, including a wide variation in the color of feces (reddish and/or yellowish, light-brownish, orange-brown and brownish, involvement of adults (4/24 and vaccinated dogs (12/24, extensive involvement of the small intestine (8/20 and the presence of pulmonary edema (7/24 and convulsions (3/24. Feces and intestinal fragments submitted to PCR for the CPV-2 VP2 gene and to virus isolation in cell culture yielded positive results in 100% and 58.3% (14/24 of the cases, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a high nucleotide identity in VP2 (99.4 to 100% and a consistent mutation at amino acid 426 (asparagine to glutamic acid, considered a signature of CPV-2c. These results confirm the involvement of CPV-2c in the described cases and demonstrate the importance of CPV-2c infection among Brazilian dogs, calling attention of veterinarians to correctly diagnose the disease, mainly considering the frequent atypical presentations.
Nueesch, Juerg P.F.; Lachmann, Sylvie; Rommelaere, Jean
During a productive infection, the prototype strain of parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) induces dramatic morphological alterations to the fibroblast host cell A9, resulting in cell lysis and progeny virus release. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes, we characterized the fate of various cytoskeletal filaments and investigated the nuclear/cytoplasmic compartmentalization of infected cells. While most pronounced effects could be seen on micro- and intermediate filaments, manifest in dramatic rearrangements and degradation of filamentous (F-)actin and vimentin structures, only little impact could be seen on microtubules or the nuclear envelope during the entire monitored time of infection. To further analyze the disruption of the cytoskeletal structures, we investigated the viral impact on selective regulatory pathways. Thereby, we found a correlation between microtubule stability and MVM-induced phosphorylation of α/β tubulin. In contrast, disassembly of actin filaments late in infection could be traced back to the disregulation of two F-actin associated proteins gelsolin and Wiscott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP). Thereby, an increase in the amount of gelsolin, an F-actin severing protein was observed during infection, accounting for the disruption of stress fibers upon infection. Concomitantly, the actin polymerization activity also diminished due to a loss of WASP, the activator protein of the actin polymerization machinery the Arp2/3 complex. No effects could be seen in amount and distribution of other F-actin regulatory factors such as cortactin, cofilin, and profilin. In summary, the selective attack of MVM towards distinct host cell cytoskeletal structures argues for a regulatory feature during infection, rather than a collapse of the host cell as a mere side effect of virus production
Zhang, Lahong; Cai, Chengsong; Pan, Feng; Hong, Liquan; Luo, Xian; Hu, Sha; Xu, Jiali; Chen, Zhaojun
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection causes a number of diseases in humans, and, in some circumstances, can be life threatening. To understand the epidemiology of B19V infection in the greater metropolitan area of Hangzhou, East China, we performed surveys of IgM and IgG antibodies against B19V and quantification of B19V DNA, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative PCR, respectively, in plasma samples from diverse groups. These groups included anemia patients, Mycoplasma pneumonia- and Treponema pallidum-infected patients, HIV-positive individuals, and healthy blood donor volunteers. Our results demonstrated a low level of B19V IgG antibody presence, ranging from 21.9% to 41.8% in all the groups tested, suggesting a low prevalence of B19V infection in the area. Of note, we found that two healthy blood donors and one Mycoplasma pneumonia-infected patient had B19V IgM antibody among 1,290 plasma samples tested. The Mycoplasma pneumonia-infected patient had viremia with viral genome copies of 2.86 × 10(6) per ml of plasma. We detected a high rate of B19V DNA (7.1%) in HIV-positive injection drug users. Importantly, an amino acid mutation of P558S in the large non-structural protein NS1 was identified to be conserved among 14 B19V isolates from the HIV-positive group but not in the B19V isolate of the Mycoplasma pneumonia-infected patient, representing a hallmark of B19V isolates that circulate in HIV1-positive patients in the greater metropolitan area of Hangzhou, East China. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Langeveld, J P; Casal, J I; Osterhaus, A D; Cortés, E; de Swart, R; Vela, C; Dalsgaard, K; Puijk, W C; Schaaper, W M; Meloen, R H
textabstractA synthetic peptide vaccine which protects dogs against challenge with virulent canine parvovirus is described. The amino acid sequence used was discovered in previous studies on the immunogenic properties of previously mapped antigenic sites and represents the amino-terminal region of viral protein VP2. As with marker vaccines, it is possible to discriminate between vaccinated dogs that have not been exposed to the virus and dogs that have been infected with the virus. The protec...
Parra, D; Mekki, Y; Durieu, I; Broussolle, C; Sève, P
Parvovirus B19 causes erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic anemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies, pur red cell aplasia in immunocompromised persons and hydrops fetalis in pregnancy. The spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations in immunocompetent adult continues to grow up. We report on a case series of 26 patients with primary parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompetent adults. This is a retrospective study over the period 2000 to 2010 in two departments of internal medecine. The diagnostic was clinical, serological or molecular. There was a female predominance (sex-ratio 3.33/1). Median patient age at diagnostic was 38.8 years (range: 18-68). The predominant symptoms were fever (65%), peripheral and symmetrical polyarthralgia (62%) and skin rash (58%). Two patients had neurological manifestations (sixth cranial nerve palsy, distal paresthesia) and one patient had myocarditis. Abnormal laboratory values included increased acute phase reactants (73%), thrombocytopenia (43%), lymphopenia (38%) and elevated liver enzymes (37%). Antinuclear (19%), anti-DNA (28%) and anti-phospholipids antibodies (14%), and hypocomplementemia (32%) were observed. False reaction with anti-CMV and anti-EBV IgM positivity was documented in 27% of cases. Two patients had persistent parvovirus B19 infection. The diversity of the clinical manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection may be misleading for the clinician. However, the diagnosis should be suspected in immunocompetent adults to limit the risk of transmission to the patients who could develop a severe infection such as pregnant women or immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei
Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089666
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.
Full Text Available Anemia after kidney transplant is not uncommon. This paper reports a case of unexplained anemia in a kidney transplant recipient that persisted for more than two months, and that did not respond to recombinant human erythropoietin treatment but was successfully treated after diagnosing Parvovirus B19 (ParvoV B19 infection. A middle-aged male underwent living-unrelated kidney transplantation from Pakistan in April 2015. He was on triple immuno-suppression therapy consisting of prednisolone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. He presented with anemia which persisted for more than two months that did not improve with Darbepoetin alpha and required blood transfusions. A bone marrow biopsy demonstrated pure erythroid hypoplasia and occasional giant pronormoblasts characteristic of a ParvoV B19 infection. The serum was highly positive for ParvoV B19 DNA polymerase chain reaction. The anemia resolved completely three weeks after the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. ParvoV B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of kidney transplant recipients who present with anemia associated with a low reticulocyte count.
Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogen that belongs to genus Erythroparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family, which is composed of a group of small DNA viruses with a linear single-stranded DNA genome. B19V mainly infects human erythroid progenitor cells and causes mild to severe hematological disorders in patients. However, recent clinical studies indicate that B19V also infects nonerythroid lineage cells, such as myocardial endothelial cells, and may be associated with other disease outcomes. Several cell culture systems, including permissive and semipermissive erythroid lineage cells, nonpermissive human embryonic kidney 293 cells and recently reported myocardial endothelial cells, have been used to study the mechanisms underlying B19V infection and B19V DNA replication. This review aims to summarize recent advances in B19V studies with a focus on the mechanisms of B19V tropism specific to different cell types and the cellular pathways involved in B19V DNA replication including cellular signaling transduction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:26097496
Full Text Available Jonna Nykky, Jenni E Tuusa, Sanna Kirjavainen, Matti Vuento, Leona GilbertNanoscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandAbstract: Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK cells and canine fibroma cells (A72 displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.Keywords: canine parvovirus, apoptosis, necrosis, nanoparticle, virotherapy
Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.
Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. For the last three decades, PEDV infection has resulted in significant economic losses in the European and Asian pig industries, but in 2013-2014 the disease was also reported in the US, Canada and Mexico. The PED epidemic in the US, from April 2013 to the present, has led to the loss of more than 10% of the US pig population. The disappearance and re-emergence of epidemic PED indicates that the virus is able to escape from current vaccination protocols, biosecurity and control systems. Endemic PED is a significant problem, which is exacerbated by the emergence (or potential importation) of multiple PEDV variants. Epidemic PEDV strains spread rapidly and cause a high number of pig deaths. These strains are highly enteropathogenic and acutely infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites. PEDV infections cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by viremia that leads to profound diarrhea and vomiting, followed by extensive dehydration, which is the major cause of death in nursing piglets. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic characteristics of epidemic or endemic PEDV strains is needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis as well as immunoprophylaxis against PEDV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Melamed, Nir; Whittle, Wendy; Kelly, Edmond N; Windrim, Rory; Seaward, P Gareth R; Keunen, Johannes; Keating, Sarah; Ryan, Greg
Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19 (hParvo-B19) has been associated mainly with fetal anemia, although data regarding other fetal hematologic effects are limited. Our aim was to assess the rate and consequences of severe fetal thrombocytopenia after fetal hParvo-B19 infection. We conducted a retrospective study of pregnancies that were complicated by fetal hParvo-B19 infection that underwent fetal blood sampling (FBS). The characteristics and outcomes of fetuses with severe thrombocytopenia (B19 infection. A total of 37 pregnancies that were affected by fetal hParvo-B19 infection were identified. Of the 29 cases that underwent FBS and had information regarding fetal platelets, 11 cases (38%) were complicated by severe fetal thrombocytopenia. Severely thrombocytopenic fetuses were characterized by a lower hemoglobin concentration (2.6 ± 0.9 g/dL vs 5.5 ± 3.6 g/dL; P = .01), lower reticulocyte count (9.1% ± 2.8% vs 17.3% ± 10.6%; P = .02), and lower gestational age at the time of diagnosis (21.4 ± 3.1 wk vs 23.6 ± 2.2 wk; P = .03). Both the fetal death rate within 48 hours of FBS (27.3% vs 0%; P = .02) and the risk of prematurity (100.0% vs 13.3%; P B19 infection, can be further worsened by IUT, and may be associated with an increased risk of procedure-related fetal loss after either FBS or IUT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Svetoslav Nanev Slavov
Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 is a well-known cause of severe conditions in patients with sickle cell disease, but the molecular mechanisms of the infection are insufficiently understood. The different clinical outcome of the acute parvovirus B19 infection in two pediatric patients with sickle cell disease has been examined. One of them developed life-threatening condition requiring emergency transfusions, while the other had asymptomatic infection, diagnosed occasionally. Both cases had high viral load and identical subgenotype, indicating that the viral molecular characteristics play a minimal role in the infection outcome.
Svetoslav Nanev Slavov
Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 is a well-known cause of severe conditions in patients with sickle cell disease, but the molecular mechanisms of the infection are insufficiently understood. The different clinical outcome of the acute parvovirus B19 infection in two pediatric patients with sickle cell disease has been examined. One of them developed life-threatening condition requiring emergency transfusions, while the other had asymptomatic infection, diagnosed occasionally. Both cases had high viral load and identical subgenotype, indicating that the viral molecular characteristics play a minimal role in the infection outcome.
Pan, Qunxing; He, Kongwang; Wang, Yongshan; Wang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Wei
An antigen-delivery system based on hybrid virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by the self-assembly of the capsid VP2 protein of porcine parvovirus (PPV) and expressing foreign peptides offers an alternative method for vaccination. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of the PPV capsid protein and surface loops deletion mutants were analyzed to define essential domains in PPV VP2 for the assembly of VLPs. Electron microscopic analysis and SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of abundant VLPs in a loop2 deletion mutant of expected size and appropriate morphology. Loop4 and loop2-loop4 deletion mutants, however, resulted in a lower number of particles and the morphology of the particles was not well preserved. Furthermore, the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was used as a model. GFP was observed at the same level in displacements mutants. However, GFP displacement mutants in loop2 construct allowed better adaptation for the fusion GFP to be further displayed on the surface of the capsid-like structure. Immunogenicity study showed that there is no obvious difference in mice inoculated with rAd-VP2(Δloop2), rAd-VP2(Δloop4), rAd-VP2(Δloop2-Δloop4), and PPV inactivated vaccine. The results suggested the possibility of inserting simultaneously B and T cell epitopes in the surface loop2 and the N-terminus. The combination of different types of epitopes (B, CD4+, and CD8+) in different positions of the PPV particles opens the way to the development of highly efficient vaccines, able to stimulate at the same time the different branches of the immune system.
Varo, Rosauro; Maculuve, Sonia; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Calderón, Enrique J.; Esteva, Cristina; Carrilho, Carla; Ismail, Mamudo; Vieites, Begoña; Friaza, Vicente; Lozano-Dominguez, María del Carmen; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique
Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers attending Manhiça District Hospital upon delivery. Information on maternal risk factors was ascertained. Dried umbilical cord (DUC) samples were collected in filter paper for CMV, B19V and EV detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) to test for CMV by RT-PCR. Maternal blood samples and placental biopsy samples were also obtained to investigate CMV maternal serology, HIV status and immunopathology. Results From September 2014 to January 2015, 118 mothers/newborn pairs were recruited. Prevalence of maternal HIV infection was 31.4% (37/118). CMV RT-PCR was positive in 3/115 (2.6%) of DUC samples and in 3/96 (6.3%) of NPA samples obtained from neonates. The concordance of the RT-PCR assay through DUC with their correspondent NPA sample was moderate (Kappa = 0.42 and pCMV IgG. RT-PCR of EV and B19V in DUC were both negative in all screened cases. No histological specific findings were found in placental tissues. No risk factors associated to vertical transmission of these viral infections were found. Conclusions This study indicates the significant occurrence of vertical transmission of CMV in southern Mozambique. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the true burden, clinical relevance and consequences of congenital infections with such pathogens in resource-constrained settings. PMID:29538464
Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Mohraz, Minoo; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Foroughi, Maryam; Banifazl, Mohammad; Eslamifar, Ali; Ramezani, Amitis
The human parvovirus B19 (B19) usually causes a subclinical infection in immunocompetent individuals. Whereas immunocompromised individuals such as patients infected with HIV are at risk of persistent anemia due to B19 infection. Only few studies have been carried out on distribution and molecular epidemiology of B19 in Iran. We aimed to determine the frequency and genotype of B19 among Iranian patients infected with HIV. We conducted a survey on 99 HIV patients and 64 healthy controls. IgG and IgM antibodies against B19 were detected by ELISA and B19 DNA was assessed by nested PCR. PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing and classified after phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of B19 immunoglobulin was 11.1% for IgG and 1% for IgM. B19 DNA was detected in 13.1% of cases. The prevalence of B19 IgG, IgM, and DNA in control group was 25%, 1.6%, and 9.4%, respectively. B19 IgG was significantly lower in HIV group than in normal controls. There was no significant difference regarding anemia between cases and controls. All sequenced B19 isolates belonged to genotype 1A with low genetic diversity. Our findings indicated that in the HAART era, the importance of B19 infections in HIV patients may be limited whereas persistent B19 viremia in the circulation of healthy controls raises a potential concern in blood donations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The aims of this study are to isolate canine parvovirus (CPV from the field case and to evaluate its histological aspects in CPV infected dogs. Samples were collected from intestine, intestine contained and mucose, as well as dogs feses from diarrhoea and blood diarrhoea. The suspension of those specimen was inoculated into Feline Kidney cells and observed for cythopathic effect (CPE. The presence of CPE indicated that there was viral isolate and continued to further identification using Haemaglutination (HA test with pig red blood cells. Samples with positif in HA test were further identification using Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI test against reference CPV antisera. Isolation result showed that from 81 samples processed, 10 samples indicated CPE in cell cultures, and had agglutinated in pig red blood cells and neutralised reference CPV antisera as the same titer of reference CPV antisera. Nine isolates were obtained from feces and 1 isolate was obtained from Mucose intestine from bloody diarrhoea dogs. Those isolates were also obtained from 1 to 2 days post blood diarrhea clinical signs. Two from 10 cadavers examined showed histological changes to CPV infection. Isolate of CPV, originally from feces, was also obtained from one of the two cadavers. Based on the results it was concluded that more CPV viral isolates can be obtained from bloody diarrhea feces.
Watanabe, Toru; Kawashima, Hideshi
Reports of neurologic manifestations of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection have been on the rise. Acute encephalitis and encephalopathy is the most common, accounting for 38.8% of total B19-associated neurological manifestations. To date, 34 children with B19 encephalitis and encephalopathy have been reported, which includes 21 encephalitis and 13 encephalopathy cases. Ten (29%) were immunocompromised and 17 (39%) had underlying diseases. Fever at the onset of disease and rash presented in 44.1% and 20.6% of patients, respectively. Neurological manifestations include alteration of consciousness occurred in all patients, seizures in 15 (44.1%) patients, and focal neurologic signs in 12 (35.3%) patients. Anemia and pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurred in 56.3% and 48.1% of patients, respectively. Serum Anti-B19 IgM (82.6%) and CSF B19 DNA (90%) were positive in the majority of cases. Some patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and/or steroids, although an accurate evaluation of the efficacy of these treatment modalities cannot be determined. Nineteen (57.6%) patients recovered completely, 11 (33.3%) patients had some neurological sequelae and 3 (8.8%) patients died. Although the precise pathogenesis underlying the development of B19 encephalitis and encephalopathy is unclear, direct B19 infection or NS1protein of B19 toxicity in the brain, and immune-mediated brain injuries have been proposed.
Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K
Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a common and severe disease particularly affecting young dogs. The paramunity inducer PIND-ORF is reported to stimulate the innate immune system and, if used as a supplementary medication, might lead to a more rapid improvement in clinical signs in dogs with CPV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PIND-ORF in dogs with CPV infection in a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial using 38 dogs randomly assigned to two groups. Inclusion criteria were clinical signs consistent with CPV infection and a positive faecal CPV PCR. Dogs received either PIND-ORF (n = 20) or placebo (n = 18) and additional symptomatic treatment. Time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between the two groups. Clinical signs, complete blood counts (CBC), and serum protein and albumin concentrations were evaluated daily during hospitalisation and on day 14. Viral shedding and antibody titres were measured by faecal CPV PCR and serum neutralisation assay. There was no significant difference in time to recovery, clinical signs, blood parameters, duration of virus shedding, and antibody titres between the two groups. The only significant difference was an increase in lymphocyte counts and antibody titres observed in the PIND-ORF group only. Three dogs receiving placebo did not survive, but the mortality rate was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.097). No significant effect of PIND-ORF on recovery and outcome could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Seon Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Hwi Yool; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Nak-Hyung
Purpose In spite of an extensive vaccination program, parvoviral infections still pose a major threat to the health of dogs. Materials and Methods We isolated a novel canine parvovirus (CPV) strain from a dog with enteritis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the isolate showed that it is a novel type 2b CPV with asparagine at the 426th position and valine at the 555th position in VP2. To develop a vaccine against CPV infection, we passaged the isolate 4 times in A72 cells. Result...
Filippone, Claudia; Zhi, Ning; Wong, Susan; Lu, Jun; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Gallinella, Giorgio; Kakkola, Laura; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.; Brown, Kevin E.
Three full-length genomic clones (pB19-M20, pB19-FL and pB19-HG1) of parvovirus B19 were produced in different laboratories. pB19-M20 was shown to produce infectious virus. To determine the differences in infectivity, all three plasmids were tested by transfection and infection assays. All three clones were similar in viral DNA replication, RNA transcription, and viral capsid protein production. However, only pB19-M20 and pB19-HG1 produced infectious virus. Comparison of viral sequences showe...
Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...
V, Pavana Jyothi; S, Akila; Selvan, Malini K; Naidu, Hariprasad; Raghunathan, Shwethaa; Kota, Sathish; Sundaram, R C Raja; Rana, Samir Kumar; Raj, G Dhinakar; Srinivasan, V A; Mohana Subramanian, B
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a non-enveloped single stranded DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid. Mini-sequencing based CPV typing was developed earlier to detect and differentiate all the CPV types and FPV in a single reaction. This technique was further evaluated in the present study by performing the mini-sequencing directly from fecal samples which avoided tedious virus isolation steps by cell culture system. Fecal swab samples were collected from 84 dogs with enteritis symptoms, suggestive of parvoviral infection from different locations across India. Seventy six of these samples were positive by PCR; the subsequent mini-sequencing reaction typed 74 of them as type 2a virus, and 2 samples as type 2b. Additionally, 25 of the positive samples were typed by cycle sequencing of PCR products. Direct CPV typing from fecal samples using mini-sequencing showed 100% correlation with CPV typing by cycle sequencing. Moreover, CPV typing was achieved by mini-sequencing even with faintly positive PCR amplicons which was not possible by cycle sequencing. Therefore, the mini-sequencing technique is recommended for regular epidemiological follow up of CPV types, since the technique is rapid, highly sensitive and high capacity method for CPV typing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Naciute, Milda; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Nikitenkiene, Rita; Jancoriene, Ligita; Mauricas, Mykolas; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra
The present study aims to clarify the possible involvement of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating the presence of B19V infection markers (genomic sequences and virus-specific antibodies) in association with the level of cytokines and RA clinical activity and aggressiveness. A total of 118 RA patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Nested PCR was used to detect B19V sequences in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA, ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies and cytokine levels in plasma and recomLine dot blot assay for antibodies to separate B19V antigens. The detection frequency of B19V DNA was higher in patients with RA (25.4 %) in comparison with healthy persons (18.4 %). B19V DNA in cell-free plasma (B19+p) was detected significantly often in RA patients in comparison with healthy controls (13.6 vs 2 %; P=0.0002). RA B19+p patients had higher disease activity and aggressiveness, decreased haemoglobin and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates. IL-6 plasma levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in controls. Within the RA patients’ group the IL-6 level was significantly increased in B19+p patients with disease activity scores of DAS28>5.2, high C-reactive protein and low haemoglobin. Contrary to the healthy controls, the majority of RA B19+p patients did not have antibodies to VP-1S (VP1u) and VP-N (N-terminal half of structural proteins VP1 and VP2), which correspond to the epitopes of neutralizing antibodies. These results indicate that B19V infection at least in some patients is involved in RA pathogenesis. PMID:27902343
Jansson, Désirée S; Feinstein, Ricardo; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás; Palya, Vilmos
An outbreak of goose parvovirus (GPV) infection on a Swedish goose farm in the spring of 2004 increased the mortality rates from 2% in the early unaffected hatches to 90% and 99% respectively in the two hatches following virus introduction and 40% in goslings hatched later in the same breeding season. In this paper we describe the clinical observations, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic investigation carried out to elucidate the source of the infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology, virus isolation, and sequence analysis of a 493-bp-long fragment of the VP1 gene. Phylogenetically the causative virus was closely related to pathogenic GPV strains isolated in 2003 and 2004 from Poland and the United Kingdom, respectively. The Swedish isolate exhibited less homology with pathogenic strains from Hungary and Asia and with attenuated vaccine strains. The epidemiologic investigation showed that the virus was first introduced to a contract farm (farm A) and then was transferred with newly hatched goslings to the farm that had submitted the birds for necropsy (index farm). The exact time and source of the virus introduction to farm A could not be determined with absolute certainty. Possible sources of the infection included backyard goose eggs that had been delivered to farm A for subcontract incubation and hatching, wild geese that frequented the flock of breeding geese on pasture on farm A, and a clutch of Canada goose eggs (Branta canadensis) that had been produced by wild geese and was hatched in the same machine as the eggs produced by farm A.
Naciute, Milda; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Maciunaite, Gabriele; Mauricas, Mykolas; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is associated with various autoimmune diseases. We investigated the levels of pro-inflammatory (IFNᵧ, TNFα, IL-2, IL-12) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in the plasma of B19V DNA positive (B19 + ) and negative (B19 - ) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in comparison with the control group (healthy persons). Blood samples were collected from 118 patients with RA and 49 healthy voluntaries. B19V sequence was determined in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA by nested PCR. The levels of cytokines in the plasma and cell culture medium from Concanavalin A (ConA) or B19V VP1 protein stimulated PBMC were determined by ELISA. The levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-2 and TNFα were higher in plasma of RA patients in comparison with control persons. B19 + controls and RA patients had lower levels of IFNᵧ in comparison with B19 - controls and RA patients. Within RA patients the plasma levels of IFNᵧ were lower in patients with low RA disease activity or remission. Plasma level of IL-4 was increased and IL-10 level was decreased in B19 + RA patients in comparison with B19 - RA patients and did not differ between B19 + and B19 - controls. B19V infection did not affect plasma levels of IL-12, IL-2, and TNFα. ConA and B19 VP1 protein stimulated PBMC from RA patients produced less IFNᵧ than stimulated PBMC from the healthy controls. B19V infection could differently modulate the amount of cytokines in the plasma of healthy persons and RA patients. Decreased production of IFNᵧ and raised level of plasma IL-4 in RA patients could lower antiviral clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naciute, Milda; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Nikitenkiene, Rita; Jancoriene, Ligita; Mauricas, Mykolas; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute
The present study aims to clarify the possible involvement of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating the presence of B19V infection markers (genomic sequences and virus-specific antibodies) in association with the level of cytokines and RA clinical activity and aggressiveness. A total of 118 RA patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Nested PCR was used to detect B19V sequences in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA, ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies and cytokine levels in plasma and recomLine dot blot assay for antibodies to separate B19V antigens. The detection frequency of B19V DNA was higher in patients with RA (25.4 %) in comparison with healthy persons (18.4 %). B19V DNA in cell-free plasma (B19+p) was detected significantly often in RA patients in comparison with healthy controls (13.6 vs 2 %; P=0.0002). RA B19+p patients had higher disease activity and aggressiveness, decreased haemoglobin and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates. IL-6 plasma levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in controls. Within the RA patients' group the IL-6 level was significantly increased in B19+p patients with disease activity scores of DAS28>5.2, high C-reactive protein and low haemoglobin. Contrary to the healthy controls, the majority of RA B19+p patients did not have antibodies to VP-1S (VP1u) and VP-N (N-terminal half of structural proteins VP1 and VP2), which correspond to the epitopes of neutralizing antibodies. These results indicate that B19V infection at least in some patients is involved in RA pathogenesis.
Park, Seon Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Hwi Yool; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Nak-Hyung
In spite of an extensive vaccination program, parvoviral infections still pose a major threat to the health of dogs. We isolated a novel canine parvovirus (CPV) strain from a dog with enteritis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the isolate showed that it is a novel type 2b CPV with asparagine at the 426th position and valine at the 555th position in VP2. To develop a vaccine against CPV infection, we passaged the isolate 4 times in A72 cells. The attenuated isolate conferred complete protection against lethal homologous CPV infection in dogs such that they did not develop any clinical symptoms, and their antibody titers against CPV were significantly high at 7-11 days post infection. These results suggest that the virus isolate obtained after passaging can be developed as a novel vaccine against paroviral infection.
Ford, Jordan; McEndaffer, Laura; Renshaw, Randall; Molesan, Alex; Kelly, Kathleen
Perinatal parvoviral infection causes necrotizing myocarditis in puppies, which results in acute high mortality or progressive cardiac injury. While widespread vaccination has dramatically curtailed the epidemic of canine parvoviral myocarditis, we hypothesized that canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) myocardial infection is an underrecognized cause of myocarditis, cardiac damage, and/or repair by fibrosis in young dogs. In this retrospective study, DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 40 cases and 41 control dogs under 2 years of age from 2007 to 2015. Cases had a diagnosis of myocardial necrosis, inflammation, or fibrosis, while age-matched controls lacked myocardial lesions. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing targeting the VP1 to VP2 region detected CPV-2 in 12 of 40 cases (30%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-45%) and 2 of 41 controls (5%; 95% CI, 0.1%-16%). Detection of CPV-2 DNA in the myocardium was significantly associated with myocardial lesions ( P = .003). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR amplifying VP2 identified viral messenger RNA in 12 of 12 PCR-positive cases and 2 of 2 controls. PCR results were confirmed by in situ hybridization, which identified parvoviral DNA in cardiomyocytes and occasionally macrophages of juvenile and young adult dogs (median age 61 days). Myocardial CPV-2 was identified in juveniles with minimal myocarditis and CPV-2 enteritis, which may indicate a longer window of cardiac susceptibility to myocarditis than previously reported. CPV-2 was also detected in dogs with severe myocardial fibrosis with in situ hybridization signal localized to cardiomyocytes, suggesting prior myocardial damage by CPV-2. Despite the frequency of vaccination, these findings suggest that CPV-2 remains an important cause of myocardial damage in dogs.
Clark, Nicholas J; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Al-Alawneh, John; Harper, Gavin; McDonagh, Phillip; Meers, Joanne
Tracing the temporal dynamics of pathogens is crucial for developing strategies to detect and limit disease emergence. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is an enteric virus causing morbidity and mortality in dogs around the globe. Previous work in Australia reported that the majority of cases were associated with the CPV-2a subtype, an unexpected finding since CPV-2a was rapidly replaced by another subtype (CPV-2b) in many countries. Using a nine-year dataset of CPV-2 infections from 396 dogs sampled across Australia, we assessed the population dynamics and molecular epidemiology of circulating CPV-2 subtypes. Bayesian phylogenetic Skygrid models and logistic regressions were used to trace the temporal dynamics of CPV-2 infections in dogs sampled from 2007 to 2016. Phylogenetic models indicated that CPV-2a likely emerged in Australia between 1973 and 1988, while CPV-2b likely emerged between 1985 and 1998. Sequences from both subtypes were found in dogs across continental Australia and Tasmania, with no apparent effect of climate variability on subtype occurrence. Both variant subtypes exhibited a classical disease emergence pattern of relatively high rates of evolution during early emergence followed by subsequent decreases in evolutionary rates over time. However, the CPV-2b subtype maintained higher mutation rates than CPV-2a and continued to expand, resulting in an increase in the probability that dogs will carry this subtype over time. Ongoing monitoring programs that provide molecular epidemiology surveillance will be necessary to detect emergence of new variants and make informed recommendations to develop reliable detection and vaccine methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Azzi, A; Ciappi, S; Zakvrzewska, K; Morfini, M; Mariani, G; Mannucci, P M
Human parvovirus B19 can be transmitted by coagulation factor concentrates and is highly resistant to virucidal methods. To evaluate whether the additional removal of virus by chromatographic methods during the manufacture of high-purity concentrates reduces the risk of B19 transmission, we have prospectively evaluated the rate of anti-B19 seroconversion in two groups of susceptible (anti-B19 negative) hemophiliacs infused with high-purity, heated (pasteurized) or solvent-detergent-treated factor VIII concentrates. Both products infected a relatively high proportion of patients (nine of 20).
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the first isolation of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 in late 70’s new virus types as CPV-2a and CPV-2b have been emerged and becoming prevalent in natural canine population and more recently, a third subtype was identified , CPV-2c. The main purpose of this study was to detect and characterize canine parvovirus currently present in Central-West region of São Paulo state, in Brazil. Fecal samples were collected of vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs, clinically suspected of having CPV infection brought to the Infectious Diseases Service, Veterinary Hospital of FMVZ-UNESP. All samples (n=30 were screening for canine parvovirus through hemagglutination test and those resulting as positive (n=20 were submitted to PCR and the products were subsequently sequenced for subtype characterization. Results were tested for association with age, hematological values, viral hemagglutination titers in the feces, vaccination status and survival. Leukopenia was found in all animals, death occurred in 30% of unvaccinated dogs and in 42% of vaccinated ones. In a total of 20 positive sequenced samples, 18 were classified as CPV-2b, one as CPV-2c, and one as CPV-2a, being CPV2a and CPV2c detected in unvaccinated puppies. Compared to the reference samples amino acid change at position 426 in those circling virus was identified. The study results demonstrate the predominance of CPV-2b and the presence of CPV-2a and CPV-2c in naturally infected, vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs in in São Paulo region.
Besse, Whitney; Mansour, Sherry; Jatwani, Karan; Nast, Cynthia C; Brewster, Ursula C
Collapsing Glomerulopathy (CG), also known as the collapsing variant of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), is distinct in both its clinical severity and its pathophysiologic characteristics from other forms of FSGS. This lesion occurs disproportionally in patients carrying two APOL1 risk alleles, and is the classic histologic lesion resulting from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection of podocytes. Other viral infections, including parvovirus B19, and drugs such as interferon that perturb the immune system, have also been associated with CG. Despite significant advances, explaining such genetic and immune/infectious associations with causative mechanisms and supporting evidence has proven challenging. We report the case of a healthy (HIV-negative) pregnant 36 year-old Caribbean-American woman who presented with nephrotic syndrome and fetal demise in the setting of acute parvovirus B19 infection. A series of three renal biopsies and rapid clinical course showed progression from significant podocyte injury with mild light microscopy findings to classic viral-associated CG to ESRD in less than 3 months. Genetic analysis revealed two APOL1 G1 risk alleles. This is the first published case report of CG in the setting of acute parvovirus infection in a patient with two APOL1 risk allelles, and parvoviral proteins identified in renal epithelium on kidney biopsy. These findings support the causative role of parvovirus B19 infection in the development of CG on the background of APOL1 genetic risk.
McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A
Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.
Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.
Kasprowicz, V; Isa, Adiba; Jeffery, K
Six of seven HLA-A*2402-positive individuals with acute parvovirus B19 infections made vigorous CD8-positive cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses to the viral epitope FYTPLADQF. All responders showed highly focused T-cell receptor (TCR) usage, using almost exclusively BV5.1. The BV5.1 TCR dominated...
de Haan, Timo R.; Beersma, Matthijs F. C.; Oepkes, Dick; de Jong, Eveline P.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Walther, Frans J.
To correlate quantitative maternal and fetal parvovirus B19 (B19V) viral loads and antibody levels at intrauterine transfusion (IUT) as a predictor of fetal morbidity. Prospectively collected clinical data and quantitative B19V viral load and specific IgM and IgG values in fetal and maternal blood
Fábio S. Aguiar
Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infects predominantly erythroid cells, leading to transient inhibition of erythropoiesis. Immunocompromised patients may be unable to produce neutralizing antibodies and may develop severe chronic anemia. Epidemiological studies done on Niterói population showed that B19 infection occurs periodically in late spring and summer. We report a study from 55 HIV infected patients attending an infectious diseases outpatient clinic in this city during a 5-month period in which B19 circulation was well documented. All patients were under anti-retroviral therapy. No anti-B19 IgM was found, but a high prevalence of IgG anti-B19 (91% was observed. In six patients, B19 DNA was found by dot-blot hybridization techniques, but this was not confirmed by PCR. None of these 6 patients manifested anemia and only one had CD4 cell count below 200 x 10(7/L. We conclude that persistent infection causing anemia is an infrequent finding in our HIV positive patients under drug therapy.O parvovírus B19 infecta predominantemente células eritróides, causando inibição transitória da eritropoiese. Pacientes imunocomprometidos podem ser incapazes de produzir anticorpos neutralizantes, evoluindo com grave anemia crônica. Estudos epidemiológicos da população de Niterói mostraram que a infecção ocorre periodicamente no final da primavera e no verão. Descrevem-se 55 pacientes infectados pelo HIV atendidos num ambulatório de doenças infecciosas nesta cidade num período de cinco meses, no qual a circulação do parvovírus B19 foi documentada. Todos os pacientes estavam sob terapia anti-retroviral. Não se encontrou IgM anti-B19, mas notou-se uma prevalência alta de IgG anti-B19 (91%. Em seis pacientes verificou-se a presença de DNA do B19 por hibridização em dot-blot, o que não se confirmou por PCR. Nenhum destes seis pacientes tinha anemia, e apenas um tinha células CD4 abaixo de 200 x 10(7/L. Conclui-se que infecção persistente causando
Lavoipierre, Virginie; Dellyes, Anna; Aubry, Camille; Zandotti, Christine; Lafforgue, Pierre; Parola, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe
Meningococcal infection is a multifaceted disease including acute polyarthritis. This presentation should be known by clinicians in order to prevent delay in treatment. We report what we believe to be the first case of an association of parvovirus B19 and meningococcal polyarthritis in a young adult. A 19-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with fever, intense leg pain, and a transient rash. A physical examination showed asymmetric polyarthritis and no neurological abnormalities. A parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction performed using a blood sample and knee fluid aspirate came back positive, but serology was negative for immunoglobulin M and positive for immunoglobulin G. A blood culture was positive for serotype C meningococcus; a polymerase chain reaction performed for Neisseria meningitidis was positive in joint fluid but negative in blood samples (performed after antibiotic treatment had begun). Our patient was treated with ceftriaxone for 15 days, associated with analgesic therapy. Hydroxychloroquine treatment was introduced 5 months after the onset of polyarthritis because of persisting inflammatory arthralgia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of polyarthritis caused by concomitant meningococcal and parvovirus B19 infections. This unusual presentation of meningococcal disease may have resulted from the persistent parvovirus B19 infection. Our experience with this case illustrates the need for a systematic approach to the diagnosis of febrile acute polyarthritis. Only long-term follow-up will reveal if this infectious polyarthritis will evolve towards an autoimmune rheumatism.
He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping
Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259
Ngoi, Carolyne N; Siqueira, Juliana; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mugo, Peter; Graham, Susan M; Price, Matt A; Sanders, Eduard J; Delwart, Eric
Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75 %), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67 %), alpha anellovirus (59 %), gamma anellovirus (55 %), beta anellovirus (41 %), dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16 %), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (6 %), human herpesvirus 6 (6 %), HBV (4 %), rotavirus (4 %), hepatitis B virus (4 %), rhinovirus C (2 %), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; 2 %) and Kadipiro virus (2 %). Ranking by overall percentage of viral reads yielded similar results. Characterization of viral nucleic acids in the plasma of a febrile East African population showed a high frequency of parvovirus B19 and DENV infections and detected a reovirus (Kadipiro virus) previously reported only in Asian Culex mosquitoes, providing a baseline to compare with future virome studies to detect emerging viruses in this region.
Full Text Available A case of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV infection/parvovirus B19 reactivation fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is presented. Despite two coinciding viral infections, massive splenomegaly, and fulminant hepatitis, the patient had a good clinical outcome, probably due to an early onset form of HLH with normal leukocyte count, normal natural killer (NK cell function, and a lack of hemophagocytosis.
Karrasch, Matthias; Felber, Jörg; Keller, Peter M; Kletta, Christine; Egerer, Renate; Bohnert, Jürgen; Hermann, Beate; Pfister, Wolfgang; Theis, Bernhard; Petersen, Iver; Stallmach, Andreas; Baier, Michael
A case of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection/parvovirus B19 reactivation fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is presented. Despite two coinciding viral infections, massive splenomegaly, and fulminant hepatitis, the patient had a good clinical outcome, probably due to an early onset form of HLH with normal leukocyte count, normal natural killer (NK) cell function, and a lack of hemophagocytosis.
Karrasch, Matthias; Felber, Jörg; Keller, Peter M.; Kletta, Christine; Egerer, Renate; Bohnert, Jürgen; Hermann, Beate; Pfister, Wolfgang; Theis, Bernhard; Petersen, Iver; Stallmach, Andreas; Baier, Michael
A case of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection/parvovirus B19 reactivation fulfilling five of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is presented. Despite two coinciding viral infections, massive splenomegaly, and fulminant hepatitis, the patient had a good clinical outcome, probably due to an early onset form of HLH with normal leukocyte count, normal natural killer (NK) cell function, and a lack of hemophagocytosis.
Nandi, S.; Kumar, Manoj
Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs—the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with...
Chen, Chi-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shan; Wang, Wei-Yao; Ma, Jui-Shan; Shu, Hwei-Fan; Fan, Frank S
Parvovirus B19 virus commonly causes subclinical infection, but it can prove fatal to the fetus during pregnancy and cause severe anemia in an adult with hemolytic diseases. We present the case of a woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia who was diagnosed with parvovirus B19-induced transient aplastic crisis during her second trimester of pregnancy and faced the high risk of both fetal and maternal complications related to this specific viral infection. To the best of our knowledge, the experience of successful intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for B19 virus infection during pregnancy, as in our case, is limited. A 28-year-old and 20-week pregnant Chinese woman with genetically confirmed alpha-thalassemia trait was diagnosed with cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia and suffered from transient aplastic crisis caused by B19 virus infection. She received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment to reduce the risk of hydrops fetalis. Her peripheral blood reticulocyte percentage recovered, but anemia persisted, so she underwent several courses of high dose intravenous dexamethasone for controlling her underlying hemolytic problem. Finally, her hemoglobin levels remained stable with no need of erythrocyte transfusion, and a healthy baby boy was naturally delivered. Parvovirus B19 virus infection should be considered when a sudden exacerbation of anemia occurs in a patient with hemolytic disease, and the possible fetal complications caused by maternal B19 virus infection during pregnancy should not be ignored. Close monitoring and adequate management can keep both mother and fetus safe.
Watanabe, Ken; Otabe, Koji; Shimizu, Norio; Komori, Keiichirou; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro
Latent microorganism infection is a safety concern for the clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study is to investigate the frequencies and sensitivities of the latent virus and mycoplasma infections in synovium, bone marrow, peripheral blood cells, and blood plasma and cultured synovial MSCs. Total DNA and RNA of the synovium (n = 124), bone marrow (n = 123), peripheral blood cells (n = 121), plasma (n = 121), and 14-day cultured synovial MSCs (n = 63) were collected from patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty or anterior ligament reconstruction after written informed consents were obtained. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to quantitatively measure the representative genomes of 13 DNA viruses, 6 RNA viruses, and 9 mycoplasmas. Multi-spliced mRNA detection and virus spike test were also performed to demonstrate the sensitivity of synovial MSCs to the candidate pathogens. In synovium and bone marrow, the positive rates of parvovirus B19 genome were significantly higher than in peripheral blood cells (18.7% and 22% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Multi-alignment analysis of amplified and sequenced viral target genes showed the proximity of the parvovirus B19 gene from different tissue in the same patients. Synovial MSCs cultured for 14 days were positive for virus infection only in two patients (2/62 = 3%). Parvovirus B19 multi-spliced mRNAs were not detected in these two samples. Virus spike test demonstrated the sensitivity of synovial MSCs to herpes simplex virus (HSV)1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV), but not to parvovirus B19. This study revealed a relatively high incidence of latent parvovirus B19 in synovium and bone marrow tissue.
Weseslindtner, Lukas; Aberle, Judith H; Hedman, Lea; Hedman, Klaus
Accurate diagnosis of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection requires the differentiation between acute and past infection, which is especially important when DNAemia due to B19V (hereafter, "B19V DNAemia") is detected in pregnancy. Here, we explored whether the level of the chemokine CXCL-10, in combination with findings of molecular and serological assays, can discriminate between acute and past B19V infection. B19V DNA-positive serum samples from 222 immunocompetent individuals were analyzed for (1) viral DNA loads, (2) anti-B19V immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), (3) anti-VP1 IgG avidity, (4) anti-VP-2 epitope type specificity (ETS), and (5) CXCL-10 serum levels. Anti-B19V IgM and IgG, avidity, and ETS assays were used to categorize individuals with B19V DNAemia as having acute or past B19V infection. Acute B19V infection caused a significant increase in the serum concentration of CXCL-10, compared with the concentration at baseline, before infection. Higher CXCL-10 serum levels were furthermore detected in acute B19V infection as compared to past infection. As a marker, CXCL-10 serum levels could discriminate between acute and past B19V infection, with an excellent discriminatory capacity when CXCL-10 and B19V DNA levels were used as combined parameters. Acute B19V infection is associated with increased CXCL-10 production, and measurement of CXCL-10 serum levels thus allows for the staging of B19V infection in individuals with B19V DNAemia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
McClure, Vanessa; van Schoor, Mirinda; Thompson, Peter N.
Objective-To evaluate associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with duration of hospitalization and with outcome in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis. Design-Prospective observational study. Animals-79 client-owned puppies with naturally acquired canine parvovirus...... infection. Procedures-All puppies received supportive care. Serum CRP concentration was measured at the time of admission, approximately every 10 to 12 hours for the first 48 hours, and then every 24 hours until discharge from the hospital or death. Associations between outcome and CRP concentration...... at various time points or changes in CRP concentration over time were assessed via multiple logistic regression. Associations of CRP concentration with survival time and duration of hospitalization among survivors were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Use of CRP concentration to predict...
Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.
Biomarkers of infection were screened for their possible role as evaluators of antibiotic treatment in an aerosol infection model of porcine pneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap). Following infection of 12 pigs, clinical signs of pneumonia developed within 20 h, whereafter...... antibiotic treatment of acute Ap-infection ill pigs. The present model provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of antibiotic treatments, offering the advantage of clinical and pathological examinations combined with the use of biochemical infection markers....... recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...
Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John
During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with oth...
Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.
SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994
Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke
In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u......In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV......-US) was used in replacement boars for Danish artificial insemination (AI) centres and from July 1996, the vaccine was used in PRRSV-EU infected herds for prevention of disease. Soon after vaccine introduction, PRRSV non-infected herds experienced outbreaks of disease due to infection with PRRSV...... in the case herds). The data were analysed using a Cox-regression model. The hazard of infection increased significantly with exposure from PRRSV-US-infected neighbouring herds, purchase of animals from herds incubating PRRSV-US infection, increasing herd size and purchase of semen from boars at PRRSV...
Filippone, Claudia; Zhi, Ning; Wong, Susan; Lu, Jun; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Gallinella, Giorgio; Kakkola, Laura; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S; Brown, Kevin E
Three full-length genomic clones (pB19-M20, pB19-FL and pB19-HG1) of parvovirus B19 were produced in different laboratories. pB19-M20 was shown to produce infectious virus. To determine the differences in infectivity, all three plasmids were tested by transfection and infection assays. All three clones were similar in viral DNA replication, RNA transcription, and viral capsid protein production. However, only pB19-M20 and pB19-HG1 produced infectious virus. Comparison of viral sequences showed no significant differences in ITR or NS regions. In the capsid region, there was a nucleotide sequence difference conferring an amino acid substitution (E176K) in the phospholipase A2-like motif of the VP1-unique (VP1u) region. The recombinant VP1u with the E176K mutation had no catalytic activity as compared with the wild-type. When this mutation was introduced into pB19-M20, infectivity was significantly attenuated, confirming the critical role of this motif. Investigation of the original serum from which pB19-FL was cloned confirmed that the phospholipase mutation was present in the native B19 virus.
Filippone, Claudia; Zhi, Ning; Wong, Susan; Lu, Jun; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Gallinella, Giorgio; Kakkola, Laura; Venermo, Maria S Söderlund; Young, Neal S.; Brown, Kevin E.
Three full-length genomic clones (pB19-M20, pB19-FL and pB19-HG1) of parvovirus B19 were produced in different laboratories. pB19-M20 was shown to produce infectious virus. To determine the differences in infectivity, all three plasmids were tested by transfection and infection assays. All three clones were similar in viral DNA replication, RNA transcription, and viral capsid protein production. However, only pB19-M20 and pB19-HG1 produced infectious virus. Comparison of viral sequences showed no significant differences in ITR or NS regions. In the capsid region, there was a nucleotide sequence difference conferring an amino acid substitution (E176K) in the phospholipase A2-like motif of the VP1-unique (VP1u) region. The recombinant VP1u with the E176K mutation had no catalytic activity as compared with the wild-type. When this mutation was introduced into pB19-M20, infectivity was significantly attenuated, confirming the critical role of this motif. Investigation of the original serum from which pB19-FL was cloned confirmed that the phospholipase mutation was present in the native B19 virus. PMID:18252260
Langerhuus, S. N.; Tønnesen, E. K.; Jensen, K. H.
Aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI) with Staphylococcus aureus is a feared post-operative complication. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical signs and potential biomarkers of infection in a porcine AVPGI model. The biomarkers evaluated were: C-reactive protein (CRP......), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBC), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) density, lymphocyte CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in vitro responsiveness. Sixteen pigs were included in the study, and randomly assigned into four groups (n = 4): “SHAM” pigs had their infra...
van Gessel, Peter H.; Gaytant, Michael A.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Galama, Joep M. D.; Ursem, Nicolette T. C.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Wildschut, Hajo I. J.
Objective: To evaluate seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins and the rate of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant women. Design: Prospective assessment of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins in an unselected population of pregnant women booked for antenatal care from 1998
Gessel, P.H. van; Gaytant, M.A.; Vossen, A.C.; Galama, J.M.D.; Ursem, N.T.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wildschut, H.I.J.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins and the rate of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective assessment of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG immunoglobulins in an unselected population of pregnant women booked for antenatal care from 1998
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Agnoletti, Arianna F; Cogorno, Ludovica; Muda, Alessandro; Cozzani, Emanuele; Parodi, Aurora
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare syndrome consisting of acute symmetrical tenosynovitis of the hands and wrists associated with pain and marked pitting edema of the dorsum of the hands or the feet. Persistent rheumatoid factor seronegativity and elevated acute phase reactants are the rule, while radiographic findings are characterized by the absence of bony erosions. The syndrome has occasionally been associated with a wide range of diseases including solid and hematological malignancies, polymyalgia rheumatica, and other inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Two patients with skin eruption on hands and feet associated with arthromyalgias have been investigated to confirm diagnosis of RS3PE and to detect comorbidities. A revision of all the possible medical conditions correlated to RS3PE has been performed. We report two cases of RS3PE associated with Parvovirus B19 infection/reactivation. There are very few reports on the association between RS3PE and infectious agents, and in only one case the syndrome has been correlated to parvovirus infection. We want to underline the importance for patients with RS3PE to be seen by dermatologists who should become familiar with this syndrome and remark that Parvovirus B19 infection may be a potential cause of RS3PE. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
Solange Artimos de Oliveira
Full Text Available This study was designed to analyse the clinical and epidemiological data from human parvovirus B19 cases in a six-year study of rash diseases conduct in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 673 patients with acute rash diseases were seen at two primary health care units and at a general hospital. A clotted blood sample was collected from all subjects at the time of consultation. Forty-nine per cent (330 cases of the patients were negative for dengue, rubella and measles IgM or for low avidity IgG to HHV-6. Of these 330, 105 (31.8% were identified as IgM positive to parvovirus B19 by using an antibody capture EIA. During the study period, three distinct peaks of parvovirus infection were detected, suggesting that the disease appears to cycle in approximately 4-5 years. B19 infection was characterized by variable combinations of fever, flu-like symptoms, arthropathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Frequency of fever and arthropathy was substantially higher in adults, 75% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 11.39, p = 0.0007] and 62.5% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 29.89, p = 0.0000], respectively. "Slapped-cheek" appearance and reticular or lace-like rash were seen in only 30.1% of the children. No adult presented this typical rash. The lack of the typical rash pattern in a large proportion of parvovirus B19 and the similarity of clinical manifestations to other rash diseases, specially to rubella, highlight the difficulty of diagnosing B19 infection on clinical grounds alone.
Rita CN Cubel
Full Text Available Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded lung and liver tissue from 23 cases of non immune hydrops fetalis and five control cases, in which hydrops were due to syphilis (3 and genetic causes (2, were examined for the presence of human parvovirus B19 by DNA hybridisation. Using in situ hybridisation with a biotynilated probe one positive case was detected. Using 32P-labelled probes in a dot blot assay format, five further positives were obtained. These were all confirmed as positive by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Electron microscopy revealed virus in all these five positive cases. The six B19 DNA positive cases of hydrops fetalis were from 1974, 1980, 1982, 1987 and 1988, four of which occurred during the second half of the year, confirming the seasonality of the disease.
Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine
Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) "stem-like" cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance.
Du, Taofeng; Shi, Yunpeng; Xiao, Shuqi; Li, Na; Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Angke; Nan, Yuchen; Mu, Yang; Sun, Yani; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, En-Min
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve as an entry inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, chikungunya virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of curcumin on early stages of PRRSV infection. Curcumin inhibited infection of Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by four different genotype 2 PRRSV strains, but had no effect on the levels of major PRRSV receptor proteins on Marc-145 cells and PAMs or on PRRSV binding to Marc-145 cells. However, curcumin did block two steps of the PRRSV infection process: virus internalization and virus-mediated cell fusion. Our results suggested that an inhibition of genotype 2 PRRSV infection by curcumin is virus strain-independent, and mainly inhibited by virus internalization and cell fusion mediated by virus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that curcumin holds promise as a new anti-PRRSV drug.
Rahul B. Chamute; Mahadev A. Jadhav; Anant Patil
Parvoviruses are typically linear, non-segmented single-stranded DNA viruses, with an average genome size of 5000 nucleotides. Parvoviruses are some of the smallest viruses found in nature. Some have been found as small as 23 nm. Many types of mammalian species have a strain of parvovirus associated with them. Parvoviruses tend to be specific about the taxon of animal they will infect, but this is a somewhat flexible characteristic. Thus, all strains of parvovirus will affect dogs, wolves, an...
Samuel E Emiasegen
Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease, aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7% had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5% had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2% had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05 included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age.
Landry, Marie Louise
Primary parvovirus B19 infection is an infrequent, but serious and treatable, cause of chronic anemia in immunocompromised hosts. Many compromised hosts have preexisting antibody to B19 and are not at risk. However, upon primary infection, some patients may be able to mount a sufficient immune response to terminate active parvovirus B19 infection of erythroid precursors. The most common consequence of B19 infection in the compromised host is pure red-cell aplasia, resulting in chronic or recurrent anemia with reticulocytopenia. Anemia persists until neutralizing antibody is either produced by the host or passively administered. Parvovirus B19 should be suspected in compromised hosts with unexplained or severe anemia and reticulocytopenia, or when bone-marrow examination shows either giant pronormoblasts or absence of red-cell precursors. Diagnosis is established by detection of B19 DNA in serum in the absence of IgG antibody to B19. In some cases, IgG antibody is detected but is not neutralizing. Anti-B19 IgM may or may not be present. Therapy includes any or all of the following: red-cell transfusion, adjustment in medications to restore or improve the patient's immune system, and administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Following treatment, patients should be closely monitored, especially if immunosuppression is unchanged or increased. Should hematocrit trend downward and parvovirus DNA trend upward, the therapeutic options above should be revisited. In a few instances, monthly maintenance IVIG may be indicated. Caregivers should be aware that B19 variants, though rarely encountered, can be missed or under-quantitated by some real-time polymerase-chain reaction methods.
Laura C. Miller
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Identifying specific cell signaling or activation pathways that associate with variation in PRRSV replication and macrophage function may lead to identification of novel gene targets for the control of PRRSV infection. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE was used to create and survey the transcriptome of in vitro mock-infected and PRRSV strain VR-2332-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM at 0, 6, 12, 16, and 24 hours after infection. The transcriptome data indicated changes in transcript abundance occurring in PRRSV-infected PAMs over time after infection with more than 590 unique tags with significantly altered transcript abundance levels identified (P<.01. Strikingly, innate immune genes (whose transcript abundances are typically altered in response to other pathogens or insults including IL-8, CCL4, and IL-1β showed no or very little change at any time point following infection.
Luo, Yakun; Liang, Lin; Zhou, Ling; Zhao, Kai; Cui, Shangjin
Nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoPCR) is a novel method for the simple, rapid, and specific amplification of DNA and has been used to detect viruses. A duplex nanoPCR molecular detection system was developed to detect pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine bocavirus (PBoV). Primers were selected to target conserved regions within the PRV gE gene and the PBoV NS1 gene. Under optimized nanoPCR reaction conditions, two specific fragments of 316 bp (PRV) and 996 bp (PBoV) were amplified by the duplex nanoPCR with a detection limit of 6 copies for PRV and 95 copies for PBoV; no fragments were amplified when other porcine viruses were used as template. When used to test 550 clinical samples, the duplex nanoPRC assay and a conventional duplex PCR assay provided very similar results (98.1% consistency); single PRV infections, single PBoV infections, and concurrent PRV and PBoV infections were detected in 37%, 15%, and 9% of the samples, respectively. The results indicate that the novel duplex nanoPCR assay is useful for the rapid detection of PRV and PBoV in pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Most persons with parvovirus B19 infection are asymptomatic or exhibit mild, nonspecific, cold-like symptoms. However, hematologic problems associated with the infection include transient aplastic crisis, chronic red cell aplasia, mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. A rare hematologic manifestation is in the form of dyserythropoeisis. Herein, we present the case of a 9-year-old female with severe dyserythropoeisis associated with parvovirus infection.
Goldberg, Tony L.; Lowe, James F.; Milburn, Suzanne M.; Firkins, Lawrence D.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing individual clones, we characterized viral diversity in nine animals from two farms. All animals harbored multiple PRRSV variants at both the nucleic and the amino acid levels. Structural variation and rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution were no different within known epitopes than elsewhere. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that differences between farms, among animals within farms, and within individual animals accounted for 92.94, 3.84, and 3.22% of the total viral genetic variability observed, respectively. PRRSV exists during natural infection as a quasispecies distribution of related genotypes. Positive natural selection for immune evasiveness does not appear to maintain this diversity
Zhang, K; Wu, K; Liu, J; Ge, S; Xiao, Y; Shang, Y; Ning, Z
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands. Nucleotide identities between members of the APPV ranged between 83.1% and 83.5%, and this showed APPV is highly diverse. It is apparent that this provides the first molecular evidence of APPV infection in swine herds in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Sundaran S. Tinky
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV in fecal samples of diarrheic dogs by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunochromatographic (IC strip test and to compare the diagnostic potential of these tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 fecal samples collected from diarrheic dogs suspected for CPV infection were subjected to PCR using CPV-555 primer amplifying the gene coding for the VP1 protein. These samples were also tested by IC strip test using a commercial rapid Ag test kit. The results were statistically analyzed using McNemar test. Results: A total of 22 samples (44% were detected as positive by PCR, which yielded a specific amplicon of 583 bp. In IC strip test, 18 (36% samples were found to be positive. The sensitivity of the test as compared to PCR was found to be 72.22% and specificity was 92.86%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IC strip test was found to be 88.89% and 81.25%, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results of PCR and IC assay using McNemar test revealed no significant difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: The IC strip test could be employed as a rapid field level diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of canine parvoviral diarrhea.
Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K
False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valencia Pacheco, Guillermo; Nakazawa Ueji, Yumi E; Rodríguez Dzul, Edwin A; Angulo Ramírez, Angélica V; López Villanueva, Ricardo F; Quintal Ortiz, Irma G; Rosado Paredes, Elsy P
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects women, characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Its causal agent is unknown, but the combination of environmental, hormonal and genetic factors may favor the development of the disease. Parvovirus B19 has been associated with the development of SLE, since it induces the production of anti-single stranded DNA antibodies. It is unknown whether PV-B19 infection is an environmental factor that trigger or reactivate SLE in the Mexican Mayan population. A preliminary serological and molecular study of PV-B19 infection in Mayan women with established SLE was done. IgG and IgM anti PV-B19 were evaluated in 66 SLE patients and 66 control subjects, all women of Mayan origin. Viral DNA and viral load were analyzed by qPCR. Insignificant levels of IgM were observed in 14.3% (4/28) of the patients and 11.4% (4/35) of control subjects. IgG was detected in 82.1% (23/28) of the patients and 82.9% (29/35) of control subjects, but were significantly higher in patients. Viral DNA was found in 86.0% (57/66) of the patients and 81.0% (54/66) of control subjects. Viral load, quantified in 28/66 patients and 31/66 controls which were positive for IgM and IgG, was significantly higher in controls. The high prevalence of PV-B19 in Yucatan, and the presence of IgM, IgG, and viral load in Mayan women with established SLE suggest that PV-B19 infection could be an environmental factor to trigger or reactivate SLE.
Nakazawa Ueji, Yumi E; Rodríguez Dzul, Edwin A; Angulo Ramírez, Angélica V; López Villanueva, Ricardo F; Quintal Ortiz, Irma G; Rosado Paredes, Elsy P
Abstract Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects women, characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Its causal agent is unknown, but the combination of environmental, hormonal and genetic factors may favor the development of the disease. Parvovirus B19 has been associated with the development of SLE, since it induces the production of anti-single stranded DNA antibodies. It is unknown whether PV-B19 infection is an environmental factor that trigger or reactivate SLE in the Mexican Mayan population. Aim: A preliminary serological and molecular study of PV-B19 infection in Mayan women with established SLE was done. Methods: IgG and IgM anti PV-B19 were evaluated in 66 SLE patients and 66 control subjects, all women of Mayan origin. Viral DNA and viral load were analyzed by qPCR. Results: Insignificant levels of IgM were observed in 14.3% (4/28) of the patients and 11.4% (4/35) of control subjects. IgG was detected in 82.1% (23/28) of the patients and 82.9% (29/35) of control subjects, but were significantly higher in patients. Viral DNA was found in 86.0% (57/66) of the patients and 81.0% (54/66) of control subjects. Viral load, quantified in 28/66 patients and 31/66 controls which were positive for IgM and IgG, was significantly higher in controls. Conclusion: The high prevalence of PV-B19 in Yucatan, and the presence of IgM, IgG, and viral load in Mayan women with established SLE suggest that PV-B19 infection could be an environmental factor to trigger or reactivate SLE. PMID:29213152
Novakovic, Predrag; Detmer, Susan E; Suleman, Muhammad; Malgarin, Carol M; MacPhee, Daniel J; Harding, John C S
The placenta is a vital organ providing the developing fetus with nutrient and gas exchange, thermoregulation, and waste elimination necessary for fetal development, as well as producing hormones to maintain pregnancy. It is hypothesized that fetal pig death in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome may be attributed to pathology of the maternal-fetal interface leading to premature placental separation. This study was designed to evaluate the chronologic progression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-induced lesions at the maternal-fetal interface, with particular focus on placental separation in experimentally challenged third-trimester gilts. Fifteen gilts were inoculated with a virulent strain of PRRSV-2 on gestation day 86 ± 0.4. On multiple days postinoculation, 3 gilts along with 1 sham-inoculated control per time point were euthanized, and uterine and fetal placental tissues corresponding to each fetus were collected for histopathologic evaluation. The presence of any fetal lesion was 23 times more likely in compromised (meconium-stained and decomposed) compared with viable fetuses ( P < .001). In PRRSV-infected gilts, endometritis was more severe than placentitis, and the severity of endometrial inflammation and vasculitis increased progressively from 2 to 14 days postinoculation. Neither placental vasculitis nor a chronologic progression in the severity of placental detachment was observed. Severe placental detachment was more frequently present in PRRSV-infected compared with noninfected samples and was most significantly associated with placental inflammation, compared with other uterine lesions, viral load, or termination day. The results of this study suggest that placental separation by itself is not sufficient to significantly compromise fetal viability in reproductive porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome.
Kasprowicz, Victoria; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas
The evolution of peptide-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses to acute viral infections of humans is poorly understood. We analyzed the response to parvovirus B19 (B19), a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen with a compact and conserved genome. The magnitude and breadth of the CD4(+) T......-cell response to the two B19 capsid proteins were investigated using a set of overlapping peptides and gamma interferon-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a cohort of acutely infected individuals who presented with acute arthropathy. These were compared...... to those for a cohort of B19-specific immunoglobulin M-negative (IgM(-)), IgG(+) remotely infected individuals. Both cohorts of individuals were found to make broad CD4(+) responses. However, while the responses following acute infection were detectable ex vivo, responses in remotely infected individuals...
Ajdukovic, Mia; Pejic, Lucija; Papic, Neven; Vince, Adriana
Abstract Background Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) occurs worldwide and causes mild, acute exanthematous disease that occurs in a form of cyclic local epidemics. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical features and complication rates of acute HPV-B19 infection in different age groups. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 718 consecutive patients clinicaly diagnosed with acute HPV-B19 infection who visited outpatient department at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, Croatia during 2013–2014 outbreak. In 212 patients (of 298 tested) diagnosis was confirmed by positive IgM antibodies and/or HPV-B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Results Outbreak started in June 2013 and had a peak in April 2014, with highest prevalence in schoolchildren. There were no difference in clinical presentation or laboratory findings between clinicaly and serologicaly diagnosed patients. Biphasic presentation, fever, myalgia, arthralgia, headache and peripheral edema were more frequent in adults, but „slapped cheeks” was found predominantly in children. Complications were more common in adults, most commonly hematological disordes (mild anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia), vasculitis, hepatitis and aseptic meningitis. There were no deaths in our cohort. Children (n = 52) Adults (n = 160) P-value Age, years 8.8 ± 4.1 39 ± 10.7 Male sex 31 (59.6%) 26 (12.3%) 0.0001 Clinical presentation Biphasic presentation 8 (15.4%) 48 (30.0 %) 0.0460 Fever 26 (50.0%) 110 (68.7%) 0.0194 Rash 51 (98.1%) 127 (79.4%) 0.0008 Myalgia 5 (9.6%) 50 (31.2%) 0.0017 Arthralgia 9 (17.3%) 100 (62.5%) 0.0001 Headache 3 (5.8%) 34 (21.2%) 0.0107 “Slapped cheeks” 29 (55,8%) 24 (15.0%) 0.0001 Peripheral edema 6 (11.5%) 63 (39.4%) 0.0001 Anemia 4 (7.7%) 19 (11.8%) 0.6076 Leukopenia 1 (1.9%) 23 (14.5%) 0.0111 Thrombocytopenia 4 (7.7%) 35 (21.8%) 0.0231 Hepatitis 1 (1.9%) 11 (6.87%) 0.3011 Vasculitis 1 (1.9%) 2 (1.25%) 0.5721 Other 2 (3.8%) 3 (1.9%) 0.5982 Conclusion
Marcucci, Katherine T.; Martina, Yuri; Harrison, Frank; Wilson, Carolyn A.; Salomon, Daniel R.
The porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) Gag protein contains two late (L) domain motifs, PPPY and P(F/S)AP. Using viral release assays we demonstrate that PPPY is the dominant L domain involved in PERV release. PFAP represents a novel retroviral L domain variant and is defined by abnormal viral assembly phenotypes visualized by electron microscopy and attenuation of early PERV release as measured by viral genomes. PSAP is functionally dominant over PFAP in early PERV release. PSAP virions are 3.5-fold more infectious in vitro by TCID 50 and in vivo results in more RNA positive tissues and higher levels of proviral DNA using our human PERV-A receptor (HuPAR-2) transgenic mouse model [Martina, Y., Marcucci, K.T., Cherqui, S., Szabo, A., Drysdale, T., Srinivisan, U., Wilson, C.A., Patience, C., Salomon, D.R., 2006. Mice transgenic for a human porcine endogenous retrovirus receptor are susceptible to productive viral infection. J. Virol. 80 (7), 3135-3146]. The functional hierarchies displayed by PERV L domains, demonstrates that L domain selection in viral evolution exists to promote efficient viral assembly, release and infectivity in the virus-host context
Schwarz, Lukas; Riedel, Christiane; Högler, Sandra; Sinn, Leonie J; Voglmayr, Thomas; Wöchtl, Bettina; Dinhopl, Nora; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till; Lamp, Benjamin
In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these cases by RT-PCR. A genomic sequence and seven partial sequences were determined and revealed a 90% identity to the US APPV sequences and 92% identity to German sequences. In confirmation with previous reports, APPV genomes were identified in different body fluids and tissues including the CNS of diseased piglets. APPV could be isolated from a "shaking piglet", which was incapable of consuming colostrum, and passaged on different porcine cells at very low titers. To assess the antibody response a blocking ELISA was developed targeting NS3. APPV specific antibodies were identified in sows and in PCR positive piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT). APPV genomes were detected continuously in piglets that gradually recovered from CT, while the antibody titers decreased over a 12-week interval, pointing towards maternally transmitted antibodies. High viral loads were detectable by qRT-PCR in saliva and semen of infected young adults indicating a persistent infection.
Barah, Faraj; Whiteside, Sigrid; Batista, Sonia; Morris, Julie
Parvovirus B19 has been linked with various clinical syndromes including neurological manifestations. However, its role in the latter remains not completely understood. Although the last 10 years witnessed a surge of case reports on B19-associated neurological aspects, the literature data remains scattered and heterogeneous, and epidemiological information on the incidence of B19-associated neurological aspects cannot be accurately extrapolated. The aim of this review is to identify the characteristics of cases of B19-associated neurological manifestations. A computerized systematic review of existing literature concerning cases of B19-related neurological aspects revealed 89 articles describing 129 patients; 79 (61.2%) were associated with CNS manifestations, 41 (31.8%) were associated with peripheral nervous system manifestations, and 9 (7.0%) were linked with myalgic encephalomyelitis. The majority of the cases (50/129) had encephalitis. Clinical characteristic features of these cases were analyzed, and possible pathological mechanisms were also described. In conclusion, B19 should be included in differential diagnosis of encephalitic syndromes of unknown etiology in all age groups. Diagnosis should rely on investigation of anti-B19 IgM antibodies and detection of B19 DNA in serum or CSF. Treatment of severe cases might benefit from a combined regime of intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids. To confirm these outcomes, goal-targeted studies are recommended to exactly identify epidemiological scenarios and explore potential pathogenic mechanisms of these complications. Performing retrospective and prospective and multicenter studies concerning B19 and neurological aspects in general, and B19 and encephalitic syndromes in particular, are required. © 2014 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24459081
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. Methods The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Results Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3 deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Conclusions Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.
Hein Min Tun
Full Text Available In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradicating this virus. To further understand the survivability and infectivity of PEDv in the infected manure, we performed longitudinal monitoring in two open earthen manure storages (EMSs; previously referred to as lagoon from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to nine months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMSs, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMSs, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMSs. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMSs.
Mirambo, Mariam M; Maliki, Fatma; Majigo, Mtebe; Mushi, Martha F; Moremi, Nyambura; Seni, Jeremiah; Matovelo, Dismas; Mshana, Stephen E
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection has been associated with congenital infection which may result into a number of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The epidemiology and the magnitude of B19 infections among pregnant women have been poorly studied in developing countries. This study was done to establish preliminary information about the magnitude of B19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and June 2015 among 258 pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics representing rural and urban areas in the city of Mwanza. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured data collection tool. Specific B19 IgM and IgG antibodies were determined using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (DRG Instruments GmbH, Germany). Data were analyzed using STATA version 11 software. The median age of study participants was 21 IQR (19-25) years. Of 253 pregnant women; 116(44.96%), 109(42.25%) and 33(12.79%) were in the first, second and third trimester respectively. The majority 168(66.4%) of women were from urban areas. Of 253 pregnant women, the overall prevalence of IgM was 83(32.8%) while that of IgG was 142(55.0%) among 258 women tested. A total of 50(19.4%) women were positive for both IgG and IgM indicating true IgM positive. History of baby with low birth weight (OR: 10, 95% CI: 1.82-58.05, P = 0.01) was independent predictor of B19 IgG seropositivity and being at the third trimester was protective (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.16-0.92, P = 0.03). The IgG titers were found to decrease significantly as gestational age increases (Spearman's rho = -0.2939, p = 0.0004) CONCLUSION: More than a half of pregnant women in Mwanza city are B19 IgG sero-positive with about one third of these being B19 IgM seropositive. Further studies to determine the impact of B19 infections among pregnant women and their newborns are recommended in developing countries.
Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe; van de Kerkhove, Maarten-Paul; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Amoroso, Pietro; Battisti, Sonia; Starace, Maria; di Florio, Ernesto; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Scala, Simona; Bracco, Adele; Mancini, Antonio; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Calise, Fulvio
Background: Currently a number of bioartificial livers (BAL) based on porcine liver cells have been developed as a treatment to bridge acute liver failure patients to orthotopic liver transplantation or liver regeneration. These xenotransplantation related treatments hold the risk of infection of
Activation statuses of monocytic cells are critically important for antiviral immunity. Devastating viruses like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are capable of directly infecting these cells, subverting host immunity. Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) are major target cells in ...
Full Text Available The interactions occurring between a virus and a host cell during a viral infection are complex. The purpose of this paper was to analyze altered cellular protein levels in porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV-infected swine testicular (ST cells in order to determine potential virus-host interactions. A proteomic approach using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification was conducted on the TGEV-infected ST cells. The results showed that the 4-plex iTRAQ-based quantitative approach identified 4,112 proteins, 146 of which showed significant changes in expression 48 h after infection. At 64 h post infection, 219 of these proteins showed significant change, further indicating that a larger number of proteomic changes appear to occur during the later stages of infection. Gene ontology analysis of the altered proteins showed enrichment in multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion, response to stress, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, cell motility, protein complex assembly, growth, developmental maturation, immune system process, extracellular matrix organization, locomotion, cell-cell signaling, neurological system process, and cell junction organization. Changes in the expression levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, caspase-8, and heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α were also verified by western blot analysis. To our knowledge, this study is the first time the response profile of ST host cells following TGEV infection has been analyzed using iTRAQ technology, and our description of the late proteomic changes that are occurring after the time of vigorous viral production are novel. Therefore, this study provides a solid foundation for further investigation, and will likely help us to better understand the mechanisms of TGEV infection and pathogenesis.
Čapenko, Svetlana; Kozireva, Svetlana; Folkmane, Inese; Bernarde, Kristīna; Rozentāls, Rafails; Murovska, Modra
The frequency of B19 infection in renal transplant donors and recipients was studied to determine the significance of active viral infection in the development of anemia. Serum, plasma, and peripheral blood leukocyte samples of 47 renal transplant donors, 38 recipients with anemia (Group 1), and 25 without anemia (Group 2) after renal transplantation were evaluated for the presence of anti-B19 specific antibodies (ELISA) and B19 DNA (nPCR). Active persistent B19 infection after renal transplantation was detected in 12 of the 38 in the Group 1 (10 had reactivation and 2 primary infection), and none of the recipients in the Group 2 had it. Of the 12 recipients in the Group 1, 10 were seropositive and 2 seronegative before renal transplantation; 10 received the transplants from the seropositive and 2 from seronegative donors. rHuEPO therapy-resistant severe anemia was detected only in the recipients with active B19 infection after renal transplantation in the Group 1 (7/12). The logistic regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between active B19 infection and severe anemia (OR, 0.039; 95% CI, 0.006-0.257; P=0.001). Active B19 infection was documented only in the anemic recipients and could be associated with the development of severe anemia after renal transplantation. This allows us to recommend concurrent screening for viral DNA in plasma and detection of anti-B19 IgM class antibodies. To find the association between B19 infection and the development of anemia, further investigations are necessary.
Harder, Timm C.; Hufnagel, Markus; Zahn, Katrin; Beutel, Karin; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Ullmann, Uwe; Rautenberg, Peter
Detection of parvovirus B19 DNA offers diagnostic advantages over serology, particularly in persistent infections of immunocompromised patients. A rapid, novel method of B19 DNA detection and quantification is introduced. This method, a quantitative PCR assay, is based on real-time glass capillary thermocycling (LightCycler [LC]) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The PCR assay allowed quantification over a dynamic range of over 7 logs and could quantify as little as 250 B19 genome equivalents (geq) per ml as calculated for plasmid DNA (i.e., theoretically ≥5 geq per assay). Interrater agreement analysis demonstrated equivalence of LC-FRET PCR and conventional nested PCR in the diagnosis of an active B19 infection (kappa coefficient = 0.83). The benefit of the new method was demonstrated in an immunocompromised child with a relapsing infection, who required an attenuation of the immunosuppressive therapy in addition to repeated doses of immunoglobulin to eliminate the virus. PMID:11724854
Parvovirus is an erythrovirus that infects red cell precursors in individuals with conditions characterised by a high red cell turnover like sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia. Arthritis, vasculitis, carditis, bone marrow failure, and the slapped cheek appearance have been associated with Parvovirus B19 infection. Recurrent ...
Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar
Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179
J.P.M. Langeveld; J.I. Casal; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); E. Cortes; R.L. de Swart (Rik); C. Vela (Carmen); K. Dalsgaard (Kristian); W.C. Puijk (Wouter); W.M.M. Schaaper (Wim); R.H. Meloen
textabstractA synthetic peptide vaccine which protects dogs against challenge with virulent canine parvovirus is described. The amino acid sequence used was discovered in previous studies on the immunogenic properties of previously mapped antigenic sites and represents the amino-terminal region of
Bhat, Rauf; Rommelaere, Jean
Investigating how the immune system functions during malignancies is crucial to developing novel therapeutic strategies. Natural killer (NK) cells, an important component of the innate immune system, play a vital role in immune defense against tumors and virus-infected cells. The poor survival rate in colon cancer makes it particularly important to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Oncolytic viruses, in addition to lysing tumor cells, may have the potential to augment antitumor immune responses. In the present study, we investigate the role of NK cells and how parvovirus H-1PV can modulate NK-cell mediated immune responses against colon carcinoma. Human NK cells were isolated from the blood of healthy donors. The cytotoxicity and antibody-mediated inhibition of NK cells were measured in chromium release assays. Phenotypic assessment of colon cancer and dendritic cells was done by FACS. The statistical significance of the results was calculated with Student’s t test (*p <0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001). We show that IL-2-activated human NK cells can effectively kill colon carcinoma cells. Killing of colon carcinoma cells by NK cells was further enhanced upon infection of the former cells with parvovirus H-1PV. H-1PV has potent oncolytic activity against various tumors, yet its direct killing effect on colon carcinoma cells is limited. The cytotoxicity of NK cells towards colon carcinoma cells, both mock- and H-1PV-infected, was found to be mostly mediated by a combination of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), namely NKp30, 44, and 46. Colon carcinoma cells displayed low to moderate expression of NK cell ligands, and this expression was modulated upon H-1PV infection. Lysates of H-1PV-infected colon carcinoma cells were found to increase MHC class II expression on dendritic cells. Altogether, these data suggest that IL-2-activated NK cells actively kill colon carcinoma cells and that this killing is mediated by several natural cytotoxicity receptors
Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D
The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM are a major cause of mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Immune responses induced by human parvovirus B19 (B19 are considered an important pathogenic mechanism in myocarditis or DCM. However, little is known about Th17-related cytokines in SLE patients with DCM about the linkage with B19 infection. IgM and IgG against B19 viral protein, and serum levels of Th17-related cytokines were determined using ELISA in eight SLE patients with DCM and six patients with valvular heart disease (VHD. Humoral responses of anti-B19-VP1u and anti-B19-NS1 antibody were assessed using Western blot and B19 DNA was detected by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Levels of interleukin (IL-17, IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were significantly higher in SLE patients with DCM (mean ± SEM, 390.99±125.48 pg/ml, 370.24±114.09 pg/ml, 36.01±16.90 pg/ml, and 183.84±82.94 pg/ml, respectively compared to healthy controls (51.32±3.04 pg/ml, p<0.001; 36.88±6.64 pg/ml, p<0.001; 5.39±0.62 pg/ml, p<0.005; and 82.13±2.42 pg/ml, p<0.005, respectively. Levels of IL-17 and IL-6 were higher in SLE patients with DCM versus those with VHD (both p<0.01. Five (62.5% of DCM patients had detectable anti-B19-NS1 IgG and four (50.0% of them had anti-B19-VP1u IgG, whereas only one (16.7% of VHD patients had detectable anti-B19-NS1 IgG and anti-B19-VP1u IgG. Serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and IL-1β were markedly higher in SLE patients with anti-B19-VP1u IgG and anti-B19-NS1 IgG compared to those without anti-B19-VP1u IgG or anti-B19-NS1 IgG, respectively. These suggest a potential association of B19 with DCM and Th17-related cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of DCM in SLE patients.
Chen, Der-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Lan, Joung-Liang
Dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM) are a major cause of mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immune responses induced by human parvovirus B19 (B19) are considered an important pathogenic mechanism in myocarditis or DCM. However, little is known about Th17-related cytokines in SLE patients with DCM about the linkage with B19 infection. IgM and IgG against B19 viral protein, and serum levels of Th17-related cytokines were determined using ELISA in eight SLE patients with DCM and six patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Humoral responses of anti-B19-VP1u and anti-B19-NS1 antibody were assessed using Western blot and B19 DNA was detected by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly higher in SLE patients with DCM (mean ± SEM, 390.99±125.48 pg/ml, 370.24±114.09 pg/ml, 36.01±16.90 pg/ml, and 183.84±82.94 pg/ml, respectively) compared to healthy controls (51.32±3.04 pg/ml, pB19-NS1 IgG and four (50.0%) of them had anti-B19-VP1u IgG, whereas only one (16.7%) of VHD patients had detectable anti-B19-NS1 IgG and anti-B19-VP1u IgG. Serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and IL-1β were markedly higher in SLE patients with anti-B19-VP1u IgG and anti-B19-NS1 IgG compared to those without anti-B19-VP1u IgG or anti-B19-NS1 IgG, respectively. These suggest a potential association of B19 with DCM and Th17-related cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of DCM in SLE patients. PMID:25462010
Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Mwangi, Waithaka; Hernandez, Jesus
Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-α treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells is dependent on TGF-β but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3 + CD25 + T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3 + CD25 + T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-α treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.
Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren
DNA and viral mRNA were detected in cells in the mesenchymal stroma of the placental labyrinth and hematoma but only occasionally in the cytotrophoblast of the placental hematoma. Placentae of animals infected during pregnancy showed in addition very high levels of virus and also viral replication...... in a large number of cytotrophoblast cells in the placental hematoma, which exhibited distinct inclusion bodies. In both groups, neither virus nor virus replication could be detected in maternal endothelial cells or fetal syncytiotrophoblast of the placental labyrinth. Fetuses were positive for virus...
Naciute, Milda; Maciunaite, Gabriele; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Zinkeviciene, Aukse; Mauricas, Mykolas; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute
To investigate T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of human parvovirus B19 DNA-positive (B19 + ) and -negative (B19 - ) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy persons. Blood samples were collected from 115 patients with RA and 47 healthy volunteers; 27 patients with RA and nine controls were B19 + Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4, 8, 25 and 45RA were analyzed on blood cells. CD25 expression on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - , CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD25 low and CD25 hi cells was increased on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - T-cells and the percentage of CD25 + cells was increased on CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - T-cells of B19 + patients with RA in comparison with B19 - patients and controls. Raised levels of CD4 and CD8 regulatory T-cells in B19 + RA patients could cause down-regulation of antiviral clearance mechanisms and lead to activation of persistent human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with RA. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The appearance of symptoms compatible with systemic autoimmune diseases has been described in relation to several viral infections like HIV, cytomegalovirus and especially PVB19, depending on the evolution of the immunological condition of the host and their age. We present a young immunocompetent male patient, with clinical manifestations simulating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with important activation of cytokines. Methods: For quantification of the different cytokines in plasma, a commercially available multiplex bead immunoassay, based on the Luminex platform (Cat # HSCYTO-60SK-08, Milliplex® MAP High Sensitivity, Millipore, was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All samples were run in duplicate and the data (mean fluorescence intensity were analyzed using a Luminex reader. The mean concentration was calculated using a standard curve. Results: The clinical evolution was favourable without the need for any specific treatment, showing complete recovery after two months. Whilst the symptoms and viral charge were disappearing, the anti-DNA continued to increase and we demonstrate important activation of IL-10, IL-6 and TNFα cytokines as a result of a hyperstimulating response by an immunocompetent hyperfunctional system, which persists after clinical improvement. We should emphasize the behaviour of two cytokines: IL-12p70 and IL-2, which showed opposite tendencies. Conclusions: Viral infections, especially PVB19, can produce or simulate several autoimmune diseases as a hyperstimulation response from an immunocompetent hyperfunctional system. Consequently, a persistent increase of autoantobodies and important activation of cytokines, even after clinical improvement and seroconversion, can be demonstrated.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pig population is made up of several naturalized breeds; among them the Piau breed is known for its rusticity and large fat stores. The naturalized breeds, in comparison with commercial ones, may have an increased resistance to diseases circulating in their territory. Thus, this study aimed to verify if there are differences between the serologic profile against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 of Piau pigs and that of a commercial breed from a farm naturally infected by PCV2. The serum viral load was measured by qPCR, and levels of anti-PCV2 antibodies were measured by ELISA. The results showed that the serum viral load was similar across all animals. However, Piau piglets showed higher levels of antibodies compared to commercial piglets (P= 0.05, while sows of the commercial breed showed higher levels than the Piau breed (P< 0.01. There was not a statistical difference between pigs of different production stages in the seroprevalence of PCV2 or the blood viral load. This work demonstrates that, with regard to a natural PCV2 infection, the Piau breed has a different humoral immune response compared to the response developed by the commercial pigs. The results support the importance of conservation of native breeds.
A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted fo...
Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.
A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.
Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John
During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with other...... respiratory pathogens often results in a larger effect on production, sometimes with clinical signs. Little is known about the impact of a moderate level PCV2 infection without co-infections, particularly in terms of feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial consumption. The purpose of the study was to evaluate...... the effect of vaccination against PCV2 in a sub-clinically infected, high-health finishing herd in terms of viral load in serum, feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial treatments. The study was conducted as a randomised clinical field trial with a parallel group design. Vaccination against PCV2...
Parvoviruses are minute single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of mammalians and invertebrates. Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) was discovered in the 1970s and was soon found to cause several diseases, including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemias, fetal hydrops, and fetal death. The B19V titer in blood is high during acute infection. After primary infection, B19V has been shown to persist in tissues of symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. Prior to the commencement of this w...
Upadhyay, Mohita; Samal, Jasmine; Kandpal, Manish; Vasaikar, Suhas; Biswas, Banhi; Gomes, James; Vivekanandan, Perumal
Parvoviruses are rapidly evolving viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including vertebrates and invertebrates. Extensive methylation of the parvovirus genome has been recently demonstrated. A global pattern of methylation of CpG dinucleotides is seen in vertebrate genomes, compared to "fractional" methylation patterns in invertebrate genomes. It remains unknown if the loss of CpG dinucleotides occurs in all viruses of a given DNA virus family that infect host species spanning across vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the link between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion among autonomous parvoviruses and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We demonstrate major differences in the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides among autonomous parvoviruses which share similar genome organization and common ancestry, depending on the infected host species. Parvoviruses infecting vertebrate hosts had significantly lower relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides than parvoviruses infecting invertebrate hosts. The strong correlation of CpG dinucleotide depletion with the gain in TpG/CpA dinucleotides and the loss of TpA dinucleotides among parvoviruses suggests a major role for CpG methylation in the evolution of parvoviruses. Our data present evidence that links the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides in parvoviruses to the methylation capabilities of the infected host. In sum, our findings support a novel perspective of host-driven evolution among autonomous parvoviruses.
Kakurina, Natalja; Kadisa, Anda; Lejnieks, Aivars; Mikazane, Helena; Kozireva, Svetlana; Murovska, Modra
We evaluated a possible correlation between the clinical activities of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RA patients were organized into two groups: 100 patients in the main group and 97 in the RA(DAS28) group. Four subgroups were defined from the main group according to the presence or absence of certain infection-specific markers: group I comprised 43 patients who had IgG antibodies against B19; group II, 25 patients with active B19 infection (B19-specific IgM antibodies and/or plasma viremia); group III, 19 patients with latent/persistent B19 infection (virus-specific sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes' DNA with or without B19-specific IgG antibodies), and group IV, 13 patients without infection markers. The RA(DAS28) group was divided into four subgroups similarly to the main group: group I, 35; group II, 31; group III, 19; and group IV, 12 patients. Disease-specific clinical values in both groups were analyzed employing EFA, and the RA(DAS28) group was additionally assessed using Disease Activity Score (DAS)28. RA activity was higher in patients who had markers of B19 infection. The highest activity of RA in both study groups was in patients with latent/persistent infection. In the RA(DAS28) group, according to DAS28, the highest activity of RA was in patients with active B19 infection. Using EFA and DAS28, a correlation between the clinical activity of RA and B19 infection was confirmed. These data suggest that EFA is applicable for medico-biological studies. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Rubio, Mari-Paz; López-Bueno, Alberto; Almendral, José M
The mechanisms involved in the emergence of virulent mammalian viruses were investigated in the adult immunodeficient SCID mouse infected by the attenuated prototype strain of the parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp). Cloned MVMp intravenously inoculated in mice consistently evolved during weeks of subclinical infection to variants showing altered plaque phenotypes. All the isolated large-plaque variants spread systemically from the oronasal cavity and replicated in major organs (brain, kidney, liver), in sharp contrast to the absolute inability of the MVMp and small-plaque variants to productively invade SCID organs by this natural route of infection. The virulent variants retained the MVMp capacity to infect mouse fibroblasts, consistent with the lack of genetic changes across the 220-to-335 amino acid sequence of VP2, a capsid domain containing main determinants of MVM tropism. However, the capsid of the virulent variants shared a lower affinity than the wild type for a primary receptor used in the cytotoxic infection. The capsid gene of a virulent variant engineered in the MVMp background endowed the recombinant virus with a large-plaque phenotype, lower affinity for the receptor, and productive invasiveness by the oronasal route in SCID mice, eventually leading to 100% mortality. In the analysis of virulence in mice, both MVMp and the recombinant virus similarly gained the bloodstream 1 to 2 days postoronasal inoculation and remained infectious when adsorbed to blood cells in vitro. However, the wild-type MVMp was cleared from circulation a few days afterwards, in contrast to the viremia of the recombinant virus, which was sustained for life. Significantly, attachment to an abundant receptor of primary mouse kidney epithelial cells by both viruses could be quantitatively competed by wild-type MVMp capsids, indicating that virulence is not due to an extended receptor usage in target tissues. We conclude that the selection of capsid-receptor interactions of
Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811
Zhu, Yu; Wang, Gui-Hua; Cui, Yu-Dong; Cui, Shang-Jin
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause serious disease and even death in neonatal piglets, resulting in serious damage to the swine industry worldwide. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3) is the only accessory gene in the PEDV genome. Previous studies have indicated that PEDV vaccine strains have a partial deletion in ORF3. In this study, a nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR) assay targeting the ORF3 of PEDV was developed to distinguish PEDV field strains from attenuated strains by using a specific pair of primers. The PCR products of field strains and attenuated strains were 264 bp and 215 bp in length, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were also assessed. The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay was 10-100 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay, with no cross-reactions when amplifying porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine rotavirus (RV), and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay we describe here can be used to distinguish field strains from vaccine strains of PEDV, and it shows promise for reducing economic loss due to PEDV infection.
Transcriptomic analysis reveals the potential of highly pathogenic PRRS virus to modulate immune system activation related to host-pathogen and damage associated signaling in infected porcine monocytes
One of the largest risks to the continued stability of the swine industry is by pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that can decimate production as it spreads among individuals. These infections can be low or highly pathogenic, and because it infects monocytic ...
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV, a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population and a major recombinant strain (86.7%. The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity.
Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina
Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity. PMID:25365348
Borel, Nicole; Dumrese, Claudia; Ziegler, Urs; Schifferli, Andrea; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas
Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs), medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 microm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs) was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.
William Marciel de Souza
Full Text Available Parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae are small, single-stranded DNA viruses. Many parvoviral pathogens of medical, veterinary and ecological importance have been identified. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing (HTS to investigate the diversity of parvoviruses infecting wild and domestic animals in Brazil. We identified 21 parvovirus sequences (including twelve nearly complete genomes and nine partial genomes in samples derived from rodents, bats, opossums, birds and cattle in Pernambuco, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states. These sequences were investigated using phylogenetic and distance-based approaches and were thereby classified into eight parvovirus species (six of which have not been described previously, representing six distinct genera in the subfamily Parvovirinae. Our findings extend the known biogeographic range of previously characterized parvovirus species and the known host range of three parvovirus genera (Dependovirus, Aveparvovirus and Tetraparvovirus. Moreover, our investigation provides a window into the ecological dynamics of parvovirus infections in vertebrates, revealing that many parvovirus genera contain well-defined sub-lineages that circulate widely throughout the world within particular taxonomic groups of hosts.
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is responsible for causing toxoplasmosis, one of the most prevalent zoonotic parasitoses worldwide. The mechanisms that mediate T. gondii infection of pigs (the most common source of human infection and renal tissues are still unknown. To identify the critical alterations that take place in the transcriptome of both porcine kidney (PK-15 cells and T. gondii following infection, infected cell samples were collected at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 h post infection and RNA-Seq data were acquired using Illumina Deep Sequencing. Differential Expression of Genes (DEGs analysis was performed to study the concomitant gene-specific temporal patterns of induction of mRNA expression of PK-15 cells and T. gondii. High sequence coverage enabled us to thoroughly characterize T. gondii transcriptome and identify the activated molecular pathways in host cells. More than 6G clean bases/ sample, including > 40 million clean reads were obtained. These were aligned to the reference genome of T. gondii and wild boar (Sus scrofa. DEGs involved in metabolic activities of T. gondii showed time-dependent down-regulation. However, DEGs involved in immune or disease related pathways of PK-15 cells peaked at 6 h PI, and were highly enriched as evidenced by KEGG analysis. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that TGME49_120110 (PCNA, TGME49_049180 (DHFR-TS, TGME49_055320 and TGME49_002300 (ITPase are the four hub genes with most interactions with T. gondii at the onset of infection. These results reveal altered profiles of gene expressed by PK-15 cells and T. gondii during infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies to uncover the mechanisms of T. gondii interaction with porcine renal tissue by functional analysis of these DEGs.
Kailasan, Shweta; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Parrish, Colin R
Parvoviruses infect a wide variety of hosts, and their ancestors appear to have emerged tens to hundreds of millions of years ago and to have spread widely ever since. The diversity of parvoviruses is therefore extensive, and although they all appear to descend from a common ancestor and share common structures in their capsid and nonstructural proteins, there is often low homology at the DNA or protein level. The diversity of these viruses is also seen in the widely differing impacts they have on their hosts, which range from severe and even lethal disease to subclinical or nonpathogenic infections. In the past few years, deep sequencing of DNA samples from animals has shown just how widespread the parvoviruses are in nature, but most of the newly discovered viruses have not yet been associated with any disease. However, variants of some parvoviruses have altered their host ranges to create new epidemic or pandemic viruses. Here, we examine the properties of parvoviruses and their interactions with their hosts that are associated with these disparate pathogenic outcomes.
Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki
Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Krell, S; Adams, I; Arnold, U; Kalinski, T; Aumann, V; König, W; König, B
An 11-year-old patient with anamnestic fever for 3 days and signs of upper respiratory tract infection underwent fulminant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia with concomitant agranulocytosis. From autopsia influenza B virus and parvovirus B19 were detected by nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT). Specific IgG but no IgM points to preexisting parvovirus B19 infection. Whether in this case agranulocytosis can be interpreted as early manifestation of reactivated parvovirus B19 infection is under discussion. Therefore, parvovirus B19 could have provoked a foudroyant course of influenza B pneumonia which was superinfected with S. aureus.
Thaiwong, T; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M
Recurrent outbreaks of sudden death and bloody diarrhea were reported in March 2013 and February 2014 in a breeding colony of Papillon dogs. During the first outbreak, 1 adult dog and 2 eight-month-old puppies died. During the second outbreak, 2 ten-week-old puppies died. One puppy from the first outbreak and 2 puppies from the second outbreak were examined at necropsy. Histologically, all 3 puppies had severe segmental crypt necrosis of the small intestine and marked lymphoid follicle depletion in the spleen and Peyer's patches. Real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated abundant canine parvovirus (CPV-2) DNA (Ctcanine circovirus 1 (CaCV-1). Very high levels of CaCV-1 DNA (Ct<13) were detected in small intestine, lymph nodes, and spleen. In situ hybridization for CaCV-1 detected rare positive nuclei of regenerating crypt epithelium but abundant amounts of CaCV-1 nucleic acid in the cytoplasm and nuclei of histiocytes in all lymphoid tissues, including granulomatous inflammatory foci and hepatic Kupffer cells. Significant levels of CaCV-1 DNA were detected in blood and serum (Ct as low as 13) but not feces from 3 surviving dogs at 2 months or 1 year after the outbreak, respectively. We hypothesize that CPV-2 infection predisposed dogs to CaCV-1 infection and ultimately resulted in more severe clinical disease. © The Author(s) 2016.
Larroche, C; Scieux, C; Honderlick, P; Piette, A M; Morinet, F; Blétry, O
Reported here is the case of a patient who spontaneously recovered from hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. The previously healthy 37-year-old-man was hospitalized after 10 days of high fever, arthralgia and arthritis and was determined to have hemophagocytic syndrome. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen, early antigen and parvovirus B19 (B19) were found. B19 DNA and low-level EBV DNA were detected in bone marrow, serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The patient recovered spontaneously without any treatment. Two months later anti-B19 IgG antibodies were detected, while at 9-month follow-up, anti-B19 IgM antibodies were no longer detectable and B19 DNA had disappeared from serum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous resolution of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant EBV reactivation in an otherwise healthy adult.
Sato, Atsuo; Umezawa, Remi; Kurosawa, Rumiko; Kajigaya, Yasuhiko
A case of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is reported. A 6-year-old previously healthy girl was admitted to our hospital complaining of slight fever and petechial hemorrhage on her neck, trunk and the proximal parts of extremities. On admission, the platelet count was within normal range (180 x 10(3)/microliter) but white blood cells and reticulocytes were moderately suppressed (2.4 x 10(3)/microliter and 1@1000, respectively). The purpura disappeared in a week and the blood cell counts fully recovered without any specific treatment. Detection of B19 DNA and anti-B19 IgM antibody in the serum on admission led to the final diagnosis. Since the cellular receptor for B19, the blood group P antigen, is expressed on vascular endothelial cells as well as erythroid progenitor cells, the purpura was considered to be the result of direct vascular injury. She was very unique as she subsequently exhibited papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome and erythema infectiosum during follow-up. This case may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of cutaneous manifestations of B19 infection.
Full Text Available Proper functioning of the mitochondria is crucial for the survival of the cell. Viruses are able to interfere with mitochondrial functions as they infect the host cell. Parvoviruses are known to induce apoptosis in infected cells, but the role of the mitochondria in parvovirus induced cytopathy is only partially known. Here we demonstrate with confocal and electron microscopy that canine parvovirus (CPV associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane from the onset of infection. During viral entry a transient depolarization of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increase in ROS level was detected. Subsequently, mitochondrial homeostasis was normalized shortly, as detected by repolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and decrease of ROS. Indeed, activation of cell survival signalling through ERK1/2 cascade was observed early in CPV infected cells. At 12 hours post infection, concurrent with the expression of viral non-structural protein 1, damage to the mitochondrial structure and depolarization of its membrane were apparent. Results of this study provide additional insight of parvovirus pathology and also more general information of virus-mitochondria association.
Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj
Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.
Jain, Amita; Jain, Parul; Kumar, Archana; Prakash, Shantanu; Khan, Danish Nasar; Kant, Ravi
The present study was planned to estimate the incidence of human Parvovirus B19 infection and understand its progression in children suffering with hematological malignancy. The circulating B19V genotypes and viral mutations occurring in strains of B19V over one-year period were also studied. Children with malignancies were enrolled consecutively and were followed up for one-year period. Serum sample was collected at the time of enrolment and each follow up visit and was tested for anti B19V IgG and IgM as well as for B19V DNA. At least one B19V DNA positive sample from each patient was processed for sequencing. For patients positive for B19V DNA >1 time and at least 6 months apart, last positive sample from the same patient was also sequenced to study the nucleotide change over time. We have found very high incidence of B19V infection (100%) in the study population. All the patients tested positive for at least one B19V infection parameter (either antibodies or DNA) at least once, over one year of follow up. Cumulative percent positivity of anti B19V IgG, anti B19V IgM and B19V DNA was 85.3%, 45.2% and 72.1% respectively. Genotype 3b was reported, with occasional nucleotide change over one year period. DNA clearance was delayed in spite of appearance of IgG antibodies. Appearance of IgM class of antibodies was either delayed or absent. To conclude, children with haematological malignancies have high incidence of B19V infection with late and short lived serological response and persistence of DNA for long duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mao, Yu; Li, Jin Jun; Liu, Yuan; Dong, Wei; Pang, Pei; Deng, Zhi Bang
Porcine circovirus type 2- (PCV2-) associated reproductive disorders and enteritis have commonly been observed on PCV2-contaminated pig farms in recent years. In order to investigate disorders of intestinal immunity in piglets infected by PCV2 during the fetal period, 9 PCV2b-infected piglets and 6 non-infected piglets at one day of age were selected and euthanised prior to suckling. Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and duodena were collected to investigate factors related to intestinal immunity and to detect lymphocytic apoptosis. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the PCV2b-infected piglets but IFN-γ levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) and IL-4 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in infected piglets than in the controls. Furthermore, lymphocytic apoptosis increased in PCV2b-infected piglets and CD4+ to CD8+ ratios were lower in these piglets than in the controls. These findings suggest vertical transmission of PCV2b to fetuses, leading to an imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets.
Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and
Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei-Chen; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Qing-Guo; Guo, Ying; Fan, Lin-Ni; Liu, Yi-Xiong; Huang, Gao-Sheng
Ectopic lymphoid follicle infiltration is a key event in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1), which is induced by antigen stimulation, can regulate all lymphocyte lineages. Several groups independently demonstrated that human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is closely associated with HT. Hence, we determined whether PRDM1 is expressed in HT thyroid tissue and whether there is any correlation between PRDM1 expression and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. We detected PRDM1 expression in HT (n = 86), normal thyroid tissue (n = 30), and nontoxic nodular goiter (n = 20) samples using immunohistochemistry. We also detected PVB19 protein in HT samples in a double-blind manner and analyzed the correlation between the 2 proteins using immunofluorescence confocal detection and coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we detected changes of the expression levels of PRDM1 and PVB19 in transfected primary thyroid follicular epithelial cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that PRDM1 protein is significantly highly expressed in the injured follicular epithelial cells in HT (83/86 cases) than in normal thyroid cells (0/30 cases) or in nontoxic nodular goiter cells (0/20 cases) (P thyroid epithelial cells also showed PRDM1 up-regulation after PVB19 NS1 transfection. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of PRDM1 and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tu, Mengyu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun
Until now, more than seventeen parvovirus have been reported which can infect mammals and poultries. The infected cells appeared different properties of apoptosis and death, present a typical cytopathic effect. NS1 is a major nonstructural protein of parvovirus, with a conservative structure and function, which plays an important role in the viral life cycle. In addition to the influence on viral replication, the NS1 also participates in apoptosis induced by viruses. Parvovirus induced apoptosis which is mainly mediated by mitochondrial pathway, this review summarized the latest research progresses of parvovirus induced apoptosis.
Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.
Serological and non-quantitative DNA detection techniques (PCR) have been widely used to monitor porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection dynamics (1,2). In spite of available epidemiological information, very few data on PCV2 load dynamics of Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) a...
This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
We reported earlier that day-old broiler chickens showed typical runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) post infection with chicken parvovirus (ChPV). There was also evidence that ChPV-specific maternal antibodies could provide significant protection against parvovirus induced enteric disease. Here, we st...
Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.
The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...
Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Mwape, K E; Van Damme, I; Hobbs, E; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Zulu, G; Colston, A; Willingham, A L; Devleesschauwer, B; Van Hul, A; Chota, A; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S
Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard). Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half), including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56%) and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%), out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3%) had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than 10 cysticerci. Depending on the aim of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than
Giørtz-Carlsen, Birgitte; Rittig, Søren; Thelle, Thomas
The spectrum of symptoms correlated to parvovirus B19 infections has expanded greatly during the past years. We report a case of anaemia, encephalitis-like symptoms and acute hepatitis in a 15-months-old Danish girl associated with parvovirus B19, verified by positive serum IgM og IgG antibodies....... She presented with non-febrile seizures and decreased level of consciousness. Later she developed signs of acute hepatitis. The course was benign. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov-19...
Carman, S; Povey, C
Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were ...
Olsen, Helle G; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Nielsen, Ole L
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a prominent acute phase protein. Although its biological functions are debated, the wide species distribution of highly homologous SAA proteins and their uniform behavior in response to injury or inflammation in itself suggests a significant role for this protein. The pig...... is increasingly being used as a model for the study of inflammatory reactions, yet only little is known about how specific SAA genes are regulated in the pig during acute phase responses and other responses induced by pro-inflammatory host mediators. We designed SAA gene specific primers and quantified the gene...... expression of porcine SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in liver, spleen, and lung tissue from pigs experimentally infected with the Gram-negative swine specific bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, as well as from pigs experimentally...
Finlaison, Deborah S; Cook, Roger W; Srivastava, Mukesh; Frost, Melinda J; King, Katherine R; Kirkland, Peter D
In 2003 an outbreak of sudden deaths occurred in 2-3-week-old pigs on a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. There was a marked increase in the birth of stillborn pigs and preweaning losses associated with a multifocal non-suppurative myocarditis with myonecrosis. The aim of this study was to amplify any infectious agents present in field material to aid the detection and identification of the causative agent of the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC). Foetuses were directly inoculated in utero with tissue extracts from field cases of PMC at 56-60, 70-84 or 85-94 days of gestation and euthanased 7-28 days later. The IgG concentration in foetal sera/body fluids was measured, hearts were examined by light microscopy and selected hearts were examined by electron microscopy. An infectious agent was detected in tissues from cases of PMC and its identification as the novel pestivirus Bungowannah virus has recently been reported (Kirkland et al., 2007). Sow sera, foetal tissues and foetal sera/body fluids were tested for Bungowannah virus RNA by qRT-PCR and antibody by peroxidase-linked assay. Bungowannah virus was detected in numerous organs of the porcine foetus. Following direct foetal exposure it is probable that this virus spreads by direct intra-uterine transmission to adjacent foetuses and by trans-uterine transmission to the dam. Data were obtained for both the replication of the virus in the porcine foetus and the humoral immune response in the foetus and sow. Crown Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric
Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.
Full Text Available Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.
Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Getu, Sarah; Beukers, Martijn; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van Run, Peter R W A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Poen, Marjolein J; Osinga, Nynke; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E
Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.
Georges, Elodie; Rihova, Zuzana; Cmejla, Radek; Decleire, Pierre-Yves; Langen, Corinne
We report a case of a 65-year-old man who developed an acute illness with fever, arthralgia and nephritic syndrome. Antinuclear antibodies were slightly positive and complement levels were low. Renal biopsy showed exudative diffuse proliferative endocapillary glomerulonephritis with diffuse immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement deposition (C3d, C4d, C1q) on immunofluorescence. The patient was first treated with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil for suspected lupus with WHO class IV glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis was questioned and a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated nephritis was made based on elevation of serum IgM antibodies for parvovirus B19 and detection of parvovirus B19 DNA on renal biopsy. The immunosuppressive treatment was stopped and progressive spontaneous regression of clinical and laboratory abnormalities was observed. We conclude that human parvovirus B19 infection should be considered as a cause of lupus-like symptomatology and acute glomerulonephritis.
Norja, Päivi; Lassila, Riitta; Makris, Mike
The introduction of dual viral inactivation of clotting factor concentrates has practically eliminated infections by viruses associated with significant pathogenicity over the last 20 years. Despite this, theoretical concerns about transmission of infection have remained, as it is known that currently available viral inactivation methods are unable to eliminate parvovirus B19 or prions from these products. Recently, concern has been raised following the identification of the new parvoviruses, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) and new genotypes of parvovirus B19, in blood products. Parvoviruses do not cause chronic pathogenicity similar to human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus, but nevertheless may cause clinical manifestations, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Manufacturers should institute measures, such as minipool polymerase chain reaction testing, to ensure that their products contain no known viruses. So far, human bocavirus, another new genus of parvovirus, has not been detected in fractionated blood products, and unless their presence can be demonstrated, routine testing during manufacture is not essential. Continued surveillance of the patients and of the safety of blood products remains an important ongoing issue. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kumar, Satish; Gupta, R M; Sen, Sourav; Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Kotwal, Atul; Sumathi, S H
Human parvovirus B19 is an emerging transfusion transmitted infection. Although parvovirus B19 infection is connected with severe complications in some recipients, donor screening is not yet mandatory. To reduce the risk of contamination, plasma-pool screening and exclusion of highly viraemic donations are recommended. In this study the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors was detected by ELISA. A total of 1633 samples were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 by ELISA. The initial 540 samples were screened for both IgM and IgG class antibodies and remaining 1093 samples were screened for only IgM class antibodies by ELISA. Net prevalence of IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in our study was 7.53% and prevalence of IgG antibodies was 27.96%. Dual positivity (IgG and IgM) was 2.40%. The seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 among blood donor population in our study is high, and poses an adverse transfusion risk especially in high-risk group of patients who have no detectable antibodies to B19. Studies with large sample size are needed to validate these results.
van Rijckevorsel, G. G. C.; Sonder, G. J. B.; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.
A study was undertaken to estimate the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 infection in the general adult population of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. To our knowledge this is the first study testing parvovirus B19 in a random sample of the Dutch adult population. The study was a cross-sectional survey,
Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.
It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero...... infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2...... and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood...
Lackner, Cornelia; Leydold, Sandra M; Modrof, Jens; Farcet, Maria R; Grillberger, Leopold; Schäfer, Birgit; Anderle, Heinz; Kreil, Thomas R
Porcine circovirus-1 (PCV1) was recently identified as a contaminant in live Rotavirus vaccines, which was likely caused by contaminated porcine trypsin. The event triggered the development of new regulatory guidance on the use of porcine trypsin which shall ensure that cell lines and porcine trypsin in use are free from PCV1. In addition, manufacturing processes of biologicals other than live vaccines include virus clearance steps that may prevent and mitigate any potential virus contamination of product. In this work, artificial spiking of down-scaled models for the manufacturing process of an inactivated pandemic influenza virus vaccine were used to investigate inactivation of PCV1 and the physico-chemically related porcine parvovirus (PPV) by formalin and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment as well as removal by the purification step sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. A PCV1 infectivity assay, using a real-time PCR infectivity readout was established. The formalin treatment (0.05% for 48h) showed substantial inactivation for both PCV1 and PPV with reduction factors of 3.0log10 and 6.8log10, respectively, whereas UV-C treatment resulted in complete PPV (≥5.9log10) inactivation already at a dose of 13mJ/cm but merely 1.7log10 at 24mJ/cm(2) for PCV1. The UV-C inactivation results with PPV were confirmed using minute virus of mice (MVM), indicating that parvoviruses are far more sensitive to UV-C than PCV1. The sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation also contributed to PCV1 clearance with a reduction factor of 2log10. The low pH treatment during the production of procine trypsin was investigated and showed effective inactivation for both PCV1 (4.5log10) and PPV (6.4log10). In conclusion, PCV1 in general appears to be more resistant to virus inactivation than PPV. Still, the inactivated pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing process provides for robust virus reduction, in addition to the already implemented testing for PCV1 to avoid any contaminations
Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup Infecção simultânea por vírus da cinomose e da parvovirose associada à necrose cardíaca em um canino
Selwyn Arlington Headley; Taís Berelli Saito
Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...
G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. Groen (Jan); H.F. Egberink (Herman); G.H.A. Borst (Gerrit); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractComplex trapping blocking (CTB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. Double antibody sandwich ELISAs for the detection of CPV-,
G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); N. Juntti; B. Klingeborn; J. Groen (Jan); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractAn enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was developed for the detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) or CPV antigen in dog faeces and two other ELISA systems were developed for the detection of CPV-specific antibodies in dog sera. The ELISA's were based on the use of
Roberts, N. Elizabeth; Almond, Glen W.
This study evaluated the influence of concomitant infections with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on growth performance, serum metabolite concentrations, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (10 weeks of age) were treated with either an intranasal administration of PRRSV and an intratracheal infusion of M. hyopneumoniae (treatment; n = 8) or a sham inoculation with medium (sham; n = 8), or w...
Xu, Min; Wang, Shujie; Li, Linxi; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wu, Jiabin; Li, Liqin; Rong, Fulong; Xu, Mingming; Sun, Guangli; Xiang, Hua; Cai, Xuehui
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV)-infected pigs (4/12) and the coinfected pigs (8/10); however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10) than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12) and SS7-infected pigs (0/10). The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.
Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Su-Jin; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccinations on disease severity in an experimental PCV2-M. hyopneumoniae dual challenge model. Vaccine effectiveness was evaluated using microbiological (PCV2 viremia and M. hyopneumoniae nasal shedding), immunological (neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ-secreting cells), and pathological (gross lung lesions, histopathologic pulmonary and lymphoid lesions, and the presence of PCV2 antigen and M. hyopneumoniae DNA within the lesions) evaluations. Although M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of PCV2-associated lesions and lesion-associated PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs, vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not reduce PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, or PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs. In addition, vaccination against PCV2 did not reduce the nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, the M. hyopneumoniae-induced pulmonary lesions or the lesion-associated M. hyopneumoniae DNA in dually challenged pigs. Dual challenge with PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae did not interfere with the induction of active immunity induced by a previous single vaccination for either PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not decrease the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae and (ii) vaccination against PCV2 alone decreased the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae in dually challenged pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fan, Wentao; Sun, Zhaoyu; Shen, Tongtong; Xu, Danning; Huang, Kehe; Zhou, Jiyong; Song, Suquan; Yan, Liping
Waterfowl parvoviruses are classified into goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) according to their antigenic features and host preferences. A novel duck parvovirus (NDPV), identified as a new variant of GPV, is currently infecting ducks, thus causing considerable economic loss. This study analyzed the molecular evolution and population dynamics of the emerging parvovirus capsid gene to investigate the evolutionary processes concerning the host shift of NDPV. Two important amino acids changes (Asn-489 and Asn-650) were identified in NDPV, which may be responsible for host shift of NDPV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the currently circulating NDPV originated from the GPV lineage. The Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree indicated that the NDPV diverged from GPV approximately 20 years ago. Evolutionary rate analyses demonstrated that GPV evolved with 7.674 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, and the data for MDPV was 5.237 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, whereas the substitution rate in NDPV branch was 2.25 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Meanwhile, viral population dynamics analysis revealed that the GPV major clade, including NDPV, grew exponentially at a rate of 1.717 year-1. Selection pressure analysis showed that most sites are subject to strong purifying selection and no positively selected sites were found in NDPV. The unique immune-epitopes in waterfowl parvovirus were also estimated, which may be helpful for the prediction of antibody binding sites against NDPV in ducks. PMID:28352261
Full Text Available Introduction: Some viral infections have been suggested to trigger or cause autoimmune diseases. One of these viruses is parvovirus B19 which can have various rheumatologic manifestations. In this study we investigated the association between parvovirus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosis(SLE, systemic sclerosis(SSc and undifferentiated arthritis at the Rheumatological Clinic, Imam Khomeini hospital. Methods: In this sectional case-control study, IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 were measured with ELISA in 41 patients with RA, 28 patients with SLE, 13 patients with SSc, 8 patients with undifferentiated arthritis as well as 90 healthy controls. The ELISA kit (DRG, Germany was semi-quantitative and qualititative. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgM was detected in one patient with RA, one with SSc and four in the control group. IgG anti- B19-specific antibody was detected in 58.5% of RA patients, 67.9% of SLE patients, 69. 2% of SSc patients, 87.5% of undifferentiated arthritis patients as compared to 53.3% of controls. The results were compared between the patient and control groups(p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, there was no significant correlation for the antibody titer against parvovirus B19 in the patient and control group. The highly positive response of IgG against parvovirus in undifferentiated arthritis implies the need for more research.
Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.
A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00×10−4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15×10−4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses. PMID:25390639
Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E
A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4) for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4) for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.
Full Text Available A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8% of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5% of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.
Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V
Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt
, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P ...The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish......·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance...
Meier, William A.; Galeota, Judy; Osorio, Fernando A.; Husmann, Robert J.; Schnitzlein, William M.; Zuckermann, Federico A.
Infection of swine with virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus induced a rapid, robust antibody response that comprised predominantly nonneutralizing antibodies and waned after approximately 3 months. In contrast, the initial onset of virus-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells (SC) in the pig lymphocyte population remained at a fairly low level during this period and then increased gradually in frequency, plateauing at 6 months postinfection. A similar polarization of the host humoral and cellular immune responses was also observed in pigs immunized with a PRRS-modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Even coadministration of an adjuvant that enhanced the immune response to a pseudorabies (PR) MLV vaccine failed to alter the induction of PRRS virus-specific IFN-γ SC (comprising predominately CD4/CD8α double positive memory T cells with a minority being typical CD4 - /CD8αβ + T cells) and the generation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, unlike inactivated PR virus, nonviable PRRS virus did not elicit virus-neutralizing antibody production. Presumably, an intrinsic property of this pathogen delays the development of the host IFN-γ response and preferentially stimulates the synthesis of antibodies incapable of neutralization
Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; Du, Fang; Liu, Can; Liu, Jianchai; Cheng, Minheng; Zhu, Rining; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Soomro, Majid Hussain
Background In recent decades, Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection has been recognized as the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and has become a threat to the swine industry. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is another high prevalent pathogen in swine in many regions of the world. PCV2 and HEV are both highly prevalent in pig farms in China. Case presentation In this study, we characterized the HEV and PCV2 co-infection in 2?3 month-old piglets, based on pathogen identifi...
Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers
in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference...... is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs...... is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...
Op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij werden gedurende een periode van 31 maanden de gevolgen van infecties met het parvovirus bekeken bij de zeugen van verschillende worpnummers. Bij de eersteworps zeugen bleek de groep zeugen, die een infectiedoormaakte tijdens de dracht 0,9 levend geboren
Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV, a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166 highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.
Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, J.P.
The objective of the experimental study was to examine whether aerial ammonia alone could predispose the respiratory system of pigs to infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type A. Two groups of 5 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 ppm ammonia and less than 5 ppm ammonia...
Bakri, M.M.; Sutherland, A.D.; Brown, D.J.; Veselý, Pavel; Crossan, C.; Scobie, L.
Roč. 16, č. 6 (2009), s. 472-476 ISSN 0908-665X Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHB-CT-2006-037377 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : C. difficile * hospital acquired infection * xenotransplant * zoonoses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2009
Agbede, Olajide O.; Omoare, Adesuyi A.; Ernest, Samuel K.
Sera collected from 57 anaemic and 115 non-anaemic age-matched pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria, between November 2014 and December 2015 were assayed for human parvovirus B19-specific IgM antibodies by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. A total of 17 (29.8%) anaemic children and 18 (15.7%) non-anaemic children were positive for parvovirus B19 infection. Infection with parvovirus B19 is common in this population, and screening for the virus during differential diagnosis is recommended. PMID:29850435
Christiansen, Johanna G; Jensen, Henrik E; Johansen, Louise K; Kochl, Janne; Koch, Jørgen; Aalbaek, Bent; Nielsen, Ole L; Leifsson, Páll S
Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and, in particular, infective endocarditis (IE), are serious and potentially life-threatening diseases. An increasingly important agent of human IE is Staphylococcus aureus, which typically causes an acute endocarditis with high mortality. The study aim was to evaluate the pig as a model for non-bacterial as well as S. aureus-associated endocarditis, as these models would have several advantages compared to other laboratory animal models. Fourteen animals underwent surgery with placement of a plastic catheter in the left side of the heart. Six of the pigs did not receive a bacterial inoculation and were used to study the development of NBTE. The remaining eight pigs were inoculated intravenously once or twice with S. aureus, 10(5)-10(7) cfu/kg body weight. Two bacterial strains were used: S54F9 (porcine) and NCTC8325-4 (human). Clinical examination, echocardiography and bacterial blood cultures were used to diagnose and monitor the development of endocarditis. Animals were euthanized at between two and 15 days after catheter placement, and tissue samples were collected for bacteriology and histopathology. Pigs inoculated with 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9 developed clinical, echocardiographic and pathologic signs of IE. All other pigs, except one, developed NBTE. Serial blood cultures withdrawn after inoculation were positive in animals with IE, and negative in all other animals. S. aureus endocarditis was successfully induced in pigs with an indwelling cardiac catheter after intravenous inoculation of 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9. The model simulates typical pathological, clinical and diagnostic features seen in the human disease. Furthermore, NBTE was induced in all but one of the pigs without IE. Thus, the pig model can be used in future studies of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of NBTE and S. aureus endocarditis.
Oliver-Ferrando, Salvador; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; Callén, Antonio; Merdy, Olivier; Joisel, François; Sibila, Marina
This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups, respectively) and unvaccinated pigs (NON-VAC group). Blood (n = 112 pigs) and oral fluid (OF) (n = 40 pens) samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 load, humoral immunity and viral genotyping. Percentage of PCV2-DNA positive sera mainly raised by 10 weeks of age, being maximum at 14 weeks of age, and then started to decrease at 18 and 25 weeks of age. Specifically, PCV2 vaccination at 3 or 6 weeks of age yielded similar results, since they produced an earlier seroconversion and reduced, at different sampling points, the proportion of viremic animals in comparison to the unvaccinated group. In contrast, PCV2 vaccination at 10 weeks of age only achieved such reduction at 25 weeks of age; in this case, vaccination coincided with the increase of the percentage of viremic pigs in the population. Both serological techniques used in sera and OF offered similar results with a high and statistically significant correlation. In contrast, a higher percentage of PCV2 DNA positivity was detected in OF in comparison with sera. In conclusion, under the present study conditions, the optimal time for PCV2 piglet vaccination was at either 3 or 6 weeks of age.
Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole
The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin...... and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...
Rogo, L D; Mokhtari-Azad, T; Kabir, M H; Rezaei, F
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus of the family Parvoviridae, the subfamily Parvovirinae, the genus Erythrovirus and Human parvovirus B19 type species. It is a common community-acquired respiratory pathogen without ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, age or geographic boundaries. Moreover, the epidemiological and ecological relationships between human parvovirus B19, man and environment have aroused increasing interest in this virus. B19V infection is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which were well established and some are still controversial, however, it is also underestimated from a clinical perspective. B19V targets the erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow by binding to the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4), leading to large receptor-induced structural changes triggering cell death either by lysis or by apoptosis mediated by the nonstructural (NS)1 protein. The pattern of genetic evolution, its peculiar properties and functional profile, the characteristics of its narrow tropism and restricted replication, its complex relationship with the host and its ample pathogenetic potential are all topics that are far from a comprehensive understanding. The lack of efficient adaptation to in vitro cellular cultures and the absence of animal models have limited classical virological studies and made studies on B19V dependent on molecular biology. The present review looks at the nature of this virus with the view to provide more information about its biology, which may be useful to the present and future researchers. human parvovirus B19; respiratory pathogen; biology; genome; fifth disease; transient aplastic crisis; anemia.
Zhang, Ruoxi; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan; Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo
To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.
Zhang, Ruoxi [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fang, Liurong, E-mail: email@example.com [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi [College of Life Science and Technology, Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering, Wuhan 430415 (China); Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China)
To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.
Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J
Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. M...
Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Eriksen, Lis
Several studies have demonstrated a consistent increase in the CD8(+) T-cell subset of pigs following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV). Consequently, it has been suggested that CD8(+) T-cells may play an important role in protection against this infection. In order...... increased disease nor influenced the ability to clear virus in the treated pigs......., confirmed the depletion effect of specific mAb therapy. Almost complete depletion of cell subsets expressing the CD8(+) antigen was obtained on day 2 and 5 post infection (PI) with nadir less than 1 % of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). One week PI, an increase in T-cell subsets was observed...
A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...
Li, Linlin; Woods, Leslie; Gerstenberg, Greg; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric
We characterize the genome of the first reported deer parvovirus, Ungulate tetraparvovirus 5, which we detected by PCR in multiple tissues from 2/9 California mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus californicus) with hair loss syndrome (HLS) and in 4/12 deer without HLS, suggesting this common infection does not cause HLS.
Teemu O Ihalainen
Full Text Available The nucleus of interphase eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized structure containing the three-dimensional network of chromatin and numerous proteinaceous subcompartments. DNA viruses induce profound changes in the intranuclear structures of their host cells. We are applying a combination of confocal imaging including photobleaching microscopy and computational methods to analyze the modifications of nuclear architecture and dynamics in parvovirus infected cells. Upon canine parvovirus infection, expansion of the viral replication compartment is accompanied by chromatin marginalization to the vicinity of the nuclear membrane. Dextran microinjection and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP studies revealed the homogeneity of this compartment. Markedly, in spite of increase in viral DNA content of the nucleus, a significant increase in the protein mobility was observed in infected compared to non-infected cells. Moreover, analysis of the dynamics of photoactivable capsid protein demonstrated rapid intranuclear dynamics of viral capsids. Finally, quantitative FRAP and cellular modelling were used to determine the duration of viral genome replication. Altogether, our findings indicate that parvoviruses modify the nuclear structure and dynamics extensively. Intranuclear crowding of viral components leads to enlargement of the interchromosomal domain and to chromatin marginalization via depletion attraction. In conclusion, parvoviruses provide a useful model system for understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced intranuclear modifications.
Bernstein, David I; El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A; Wolff, Mark; Simone, Gina; Segawa, Claire; Wong, Susan; Shelly, Daniel; Young, Neal S; Dempsey, Walla
Parvovirus B19 is an important human pathogen causing erythema infectiosum, transient aplastic crisis in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders and hydropsfetalis. We therefore evaluated a parvovirus B19 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of a 25 μg dose of parvovirus B19 recombinant capsid; 2.5 and 25 μg doses of the recombinant capsid given with MF59; and saline placebo were assessed in healthy adults. Because of 3 unexplained cutaneous events the study was halted after enrollment of 43 subjects and before any subject received their third scheduled dose. The rashes developed 5-9 days after the first or second injection and were seen in one placebo recipient (without an injection site lesion) and two vaccine recipients (with injection site reactions). No clear cause was established. Other safety evaluations revealed mostly injection site reactions that were mild to moderate with an increase in pain in subjects receiving vaccine and MF59. After dose 2 the majority of vaccine recipients developed ELISA and neutralizing antibody to parvovirus B19. Given the possible severe consequences of parvovirus B19 infection, further development of a safe and effective vaccine continues to be important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J
Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. Moreover, T3 was found to up-modulate the level of cell sensitivity to parvovirus attack. These data suggest an interconnection between T3 signalling and NS cytotoxic pathways. Images PMID:8230488
Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter
Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.
Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S
Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.
Dagher, Fadi; Jiang, Jun; Tijssen, Peter; Laliberté, Jean-François
Porcine parvoviruses (PPV) are known to be particularly resistant to many disinfectants used to control other non-enveloped viruses. However, effective disinfectants used against PPV are harsh and corrosive to animal health facilities and the environment. We propose a noncorrosive “green” disinfectant that generates peracetic acid in-situ and is capable of inactivating PPV completely at a 1% concentration for a 10-minute contact time. PMID:28154460
Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching; Lee, Kuang-Lun
The transmission routes for human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in areas with high seroprevalence are not known. In the work described here, persistent PARV4 viral replication was investigated by conducting a longitudinal study. Ten healthcare workers each provided a blood sample at the beginning of the study (first sample) and 12 months later (second sample). The paired samples were tested for PARV4-positivity by immunoblotting analysis and nested polymerase chain reactions. IgG antibodies against PARV4 were detected in six participants, three of whom also had IgM antibodies against PARV4. The immunoblotting results did not vary over time. PARV4 DNA was detected in the first blood sample from one participant who had IgG antibodies against PARV4 and in the second blood samples from 2 participants who had IgG and IgM antibodies against PARV4. Detection of PARV4 DNA in the second blood samples from two seropositive participants suggests the existence of persistent PARV4 replication or reactivation of inactive virus in the tissues. The finding of persistent or intermittent PARV4 replication in individuals with past infections provides an important clue toward unraveling the non-parenteral transmission routes of PARV4 infection in areas where the virus is endemic.
Lohse, Louise; Krog, Jesper Schak; Strandbygaard, Bertel
Outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) were reported across Europe during the 1980s and 1990s, but only sporadic outbreaks occurred in recent years. PED virus (PEDV) spread for the first time into the USA in 2013 and has caused severe economic losses. Retrospectively, it was found that two...
Pröll, Maren Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system genera...
Welle, Thijs; Hoekstra, Anna T.; Daemen, Ineke A.J.J.M.; Berkers, Celia R.; de Oliveira Costa, Matheus
Introduction: Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is a production limiting disease in pig farming. Currently antimicrobial therapy is the only treatment and control method available. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the metabolic response of porcine colon
Ibrahem, Wijdan Nazar; Hasony, Hassan Jaber; Hassan, Jenan Ghulam
To investigate the association of human parvovirus B19 infection with the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and its effect on TEL-AML-1 fusion gene and the presence of mutant P53. The case-control study was conducted at Basrah Hospital for Paediatrics and Gynaecology, Basrah, Iraq, from May 2009 to April 2010. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from 40 newly diagnosed cases and 60 healthy children to serve as control matched by age and gender. Human parvovirus B19-IgG and anti-P53 antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on extracted ribonucleic acid from fresh blood samples using specified primers. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. A higher proportion of human parvovirus B19-positive cases was found in leukaemic patients (n=19; 47.5%) compared to 12 (20%) in the control group (pparvovirus-B19 infection as 10 (71.4%) of TEL-AML-1 translocation-positive cases had human parvovirus-B19 IgG. On the other hand, there was no association between such infections and P53 gene mutation in the patients. Human parvovirus-B19 infection is common in the population, with higher prevalence among leukaemic patients with significant association between human parvovirus-B19 and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 belongs on the family Circoviridae. This virus family includes small, non-enveloped viruses, with a circular, single-standed DNA genome.This virus causes mainly subclinical infections, but a number of diseases have been linked to it (porcine circovirus diseases, PCVD. The most economically important PCVD is postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, which mainly affects pigs of 2 to 5 months of age, with progressive wasting, diarrhea and respiratory disorders. Main PMWS lesions are found in lymphoid tissues, which are characterized by lymphocyte depletion with granulomatous (histiocytic and multinucleate giant cell infiltration. PMWS is considered as multifactorial disease, with a number of infectious and non-infectious factors able to act as disease triggering in PCV2 infected pigs. PCVDs are worldwide distributed, and PMWS was diagnosed in Macedonia in 2007.
J Kee Ho
Full Text Available There are occasional pediatric reports of parvovirus B19-associated transient acute hepatitis and hepatic failure. A case of a 34-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed severe and prolonged but self-limited acute hepatitis and myelosuppression following acute parvovirus B19 infection is reported. Parvovirus B19 may be the causative agent in some adult cases of acute non-A-E viral hepatitis and acute liver failure.
Chen, Yang; Guo, Wanzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Yan, Qigui; Luo, Yan; Shi, Qian; Chen, Dishi; Zhu, Ling; Wang, Xiaoyu
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV) system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene. A recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 was obtained by homologous recombination between the vector PRV viral DNA and a transfer plasmid. Then recombinant virus was purified with plaque purification, and its identity confirmed by PCR amplification, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) analyses. Electronic microscopy of PRV SA215/VP2 confirmed self-assembly of both pseudorabies virus and VLPs from VP2 protein. Immunization of piglets with recombinant virus elicited PRV-specific and PPV-specific humoral immune responses and provided complete protection against a lethal dose of PRV challenges. Gilts immunized with recombinant viruses induced PPV-specific antibodies, and significantly reduced the mortality rate of (1 of 28) following virulent PPV challenge compared with the control (7 of 31). Furthermore, PPV virus DNA was not detected in the fetuses of recombinant virus immunized gilts. In this study, a recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 virus expressing PPV VP2 protein was constructed using PRV SA215 vector. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the recombinant virus were demonstrated in piglets and primiparous gilts. This recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 represents a suitable candidate for the development of a bivalent vaccine against both PRV and PPV infection.
A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature.
Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki
The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure.
Folitse, R D; Kodie, D O; Amemor, E; Dei, D; Tasiame, W; Burimuah, V; Emikpe, B O
Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT ® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α 0.05 . We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection.
Folitse, R. D; Kodie, D.O; Amemor, E.; Dei, D.; Tasiame, W.; Burimuah, V.; Emikpe, B.O
Background: Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α0.05 Results: We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. Conclusion: The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection. PMID:29302647
The objective of this study was to determine cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO), or coinfected with both. Twenty-eight pigs were randomly assigned to one ...
Gabner, S; Egerbacher, M; Gasse, H; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Höltig, D; Waldmann, K-H; Blecha, F; Saalmüller, A; Hennig-Pauka, I
Innate immunity is critically important for the outcome of infection in many diseases. It was previously shown that cathelicidin PR-39, an important porcine multifunctional host defence peptide, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and respiratory tract tissue after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.pp.). To date, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are thought to be the only source of PR-39. The aim of this study was to further characterize PR-39⁺ cells and selected immune cell populations in lung tissue during the peracute (7-10 hours), acute (2 days), reconvalescent (7 days) and chronic (21 days) stages of experimental infection with A.pp. serotype 2. In total, six mock-infected control pigs and 12 infected pigs were examined. Using immunofluorescence double-labeling, antibodies against PR-39 were combined with antibodies against CD3 (T-cells), CD79 (B-cells), Iba1 (activated macrophages), TTF-1 (lung epithelial cells expressing surfactant proteins), macrophage/L1 protein and myeloperoxidase (MPO, cells of the myeloid linage). In the peracute and acute phases of infection, total PR-39⁺ cells and myeloid linage cells increased, whereas CD3⁺ cells and TTF-1⁺ cells decreased. Double labeling revealed that most Macrophage/L1 protein+ cells and to a lesser extent MPO⁺ cells co-expressed PR-39. In addition, few bronchial epithelial cells and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (both identified with TTF-1) produced PR-39. Occasionally, CD3⁺ T cells expressing PR-39 were seen in infected animals. Taken together, this study identifies cell types, other than PMNs, in lungs of A.pp.-infected pigs that are capable of producing PR-39. In addition, these findings provide further insights into the dynamics of different immune cell populations during A.pp.-infection.
Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Farideh; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Karimi, Gharib; Farahmand, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza
Due to the tropism of human parvovirus B19 to erythroid progenitor cells, infection in patients with an underlying hemolytic disorder such as beta-thalassemia major leads to suppression of erythrocyte formation, referred to as transient aplasia crisis (TAC), which may be life-threatening. We investigated the prevalence of parvovirus B19 among patients with beta thalassemia major attending the Zafar Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood samples and parvovirus B19 genotypes in plasma samples of patients with thalassemia major. The population consisted of 150 patients with beta-thalassemia major who attended the Zafar clinic in Tehran. Specimens were studied using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 in our study population was 4%. Of 150 patients with thalassemia, six (4%) were positive for B19 DNA. There was no significant correlation between blood transfusion frequency and B19 DNA positivity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus B19 revealed genotype I in these six patients. In this study, acute B19 infections were detected in patients with beta thalassemia major. Screening of such high-risk groups can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection; thus, screening is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease-prevention measures.
Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás
From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.
Javanmard, Davod; Ziaee, Masood; Ghaffari, Hadi; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is one of the smallest DNA viruses and shows great resistance to most disinfectants. Therefore, it is one of the common contaminant pathogens present in blood and plasma products. Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a newly identified parvovirus, which is also prevalent in parenteral transmission. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of B19V and PARV4 DNA among patients with hemophilia in Birjand County in eastern Iran. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study comprising nearly all people with hemophilia in this region. Whole blood samples were taken after patient registration and sent for plasma isolation. After nucleic acid extraction, B19V was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction, PARV4 DNA was then detected using sensitive semi-nested PCR. In total, there were 86 patients with hemophilia, with mean age 28.5±1.5 years. Of these, 90.7% were men and 9.3% women; 84.9% had hemophilia A and 7.0% had hemophilia B. We found 11 patients (12.8%) were positive for B19V DNA and 8 were positive (9.3%) for PARV4 DNA. The prevalence of B19V was higher in middle-aged groups rather than younger people, whereas PARV4 infection was more common in younger patients ( P B19 virus, imposing more precautionary measures for serum and blood products is recommended.
Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east Africa.
Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Fehr, D; Grob, M; Elgizoli, M; Packer, C; Martenson, J S; O'Brien, S J; Lutz, H
While viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), herpesvirus (FHV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvovirus (FPV), and immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting Tanzania's national parks and (ii) to evaluate the possible biological importance and the interrelationship of these viral infections. Antibodies to FCV, never reported previously in free-ranging lions, were detected in 70% of the sera. In addition, a much higher prevalence of antibodies to FCoV (57%) was found than was previously reported in Etosha National Park and Kruger National Park. Titers ranged from 25 to 400. FeLV antigen was not detectable in any of the serum samples. FCoV, FCV, FHV, and FIV were endemic in the Serengeti, while a transient elevation of FPV titers pointed to an outbreak of FPV infection between 1985 and 1987. Antibody titers to FPV and FCV were highly prevalent in the Serengeti (FPV, 75%; FCV, 67%) but not in Ngorongoro Crater (FPV, 27%; FCV, 2%). These differences could be explained by the different habitats and biological histories of the two populations and by the well-documented absence of immigration of lions from the Serengeti plains into Ngorongoro Crater after 1965. These observations indicate that, although the pathological potential of these viral infections seemed not to be very high in free-ranging lions, relocation of seropositive animals by humans to seronegative lion populations must be considered very carefully.
Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah
Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death. However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.
Castro, Tatiana X.; Cubel Garcia, Rita de Cássia N.; Gonçalves, Luciana P. S.; Costa, Erika M.; Marcello, Gracy C.G.; Labarthe, Norma V.; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya
The clinical and laboratory findings in puppies naturally infected with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus (CPV) were compared with findings in uninfected puppies. Lymphopenia was the only parameter related to CCoV infection that was statistically significant; vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, hemorrhagic fluid diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, and hypoproteinemia were correlated with CPV infection. PMID:24155496
Roić, B; Cajavec, S; Ergotić, N; Lipej, Z; Madić, J; Lojkić, M; Pokrić, B
The insoluble immune complexes (ICs) were prepared under the conditions of double immunodiffusion in gel, using the suspension of the ultrasound treated PK-15 cell-line infected with porcine parvovirus (PPV) containing both viral particles and viral proteins, as well as pig or rabbit anti-PPV polyclonal immune sera. The immunodiffusion performed in an agarose gel allows only viral subunits with a molecular mass equal to or less than 1000 kDa, rather than the viral particles, to diffuse through the gel and reach the point where the immunoprecipitate is to be formed. The immunoprecipitation under the conditions of the diffusion ensures the optimal, i.e. equimolar ratio of both immunoprecipitating components, antibody/antigen in the IC. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Western blot analyses showed the ICs were composed of two proteins, a protein in which molecular mass corresponded to the VP2 of the PPV and a protein with a molecular mass of the IgG. This suggests that the ICs are mainly composed of the VP2 antigen and IgG class antibodies. The potency of the IC-vaccines prepared in the form of a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion was compared with that of a commercially available, inactivated oil vaccine. The vaccination of gilts, 6 weeks before mating, with the IC containing allogeneic pig antibodies, resulted in the development of high and long-lasting anti-PPV antibody titres, similar to those generated by the licenced vaccine (P > 0.01). The content of the virus material administered by the IC was twice lower than that in the licenced vaccine. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed in the gilts during the period of the trial with the IC vaccine. The number of viable piglets per litter varied between 9 and 12 and no signs of the PPV infection were detected. Rabbits were used as one of the alternative laboratory animal models accepted for the testing of the vaccine against the PPV. The rabbit humoral immune response
Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D
Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog
Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long
We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.
Lu, Zen H; Wang, Xinglong; Wilson, Alison D; Dorey-Robinson, Daniel L W; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Frossard, Jean-Pierre
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major infectious threat to the pig industry worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that microevolution within a quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV; potentially impacting the pathogenicity of the virus. Here, we report on micro-evolutionary events taking place within the viral quasispecies population in lung and lymph node 3 days post infection (dpi) following experimental in vivo infection with the prototypical Lelystad PRRSV (LV). Sequence analysis revealed 16 high frequency single nucleotide variants (SNV) or differences from the reference LV genome which are assumed to be representative of the consensus inoculum genome. Additionally, 49 other low frequency SNVs were also found in the inoculum population. At 3 dpi, a total of 9 and 10 SNVs of varying frequencies could already be detected in the LV population infecting the lung and lymph nodes, respectively. Interestingly, of these, three and four novel SNVs emerged independently in the two respective tissues when compared to the inoculum. The remaining variants, though already present at lower frequencies in the inoculum, were positively selected and their frequency increased within the quasispecies population. Hence, we were able to determine directly from tissues infected with PRRSV the repertoire of genetic variants within the viral quasispecies population. Our data also suggest that microevolution of these variants is rapid and some may be tissue-specific.
Singh, Devinder P; Gowda, Arvind U; Chopra, Karan; Tholen, Michael; Chang, Sarah; Mavrophilipos, Vasilios; Semsarzadeh, Nina; Rasko, Yvonne; Holton Iii, Luther
This study evaluates the effect of negative pressure wound therapy with antiseptic instillation (NPWTi) in the clearance of infection and biofilm formation in an in vivo model of infected spinal implants compared to traditional treatment modalities. Five pigs underwent titanium rod implantation of their spinous processes followed by injection of 1 x 106 CFUs/100μL of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the fascia at each site. At 1 week postoperatively, an experimental arm of 3 pigs received NPWTi, and a control arm of 2 pigs received wet-to-dry dressings. The persistence of local infection in the experimental group was compared to the control group using tissue cultures. Biofilm development on spinal implants was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Mean bacterial count showed a statistical difference between the experimental and the control groups (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of uniform biofilm formation across the surface of control group instrumentation, whereas the experimental group showed interrupted areas between biofilm formations. The authors concluded that NPWTi is associated with decreased bacterial load and biofilm formation compared to wet-to-dry dressings in an in vivo porcine model of infected spinal instrumentation.
Ghazi, Hani O.
Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence rate of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) to parvovirus B19 in pregnant Saudi women in Makkah. Subjects and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total of 1200 serum samples were tested for antibodies to parvovirus B19 known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in women and newborn infants. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies detected in 46.6% and IgM antibodies were found in 2.25% of different age groups. Conclusion: The previous exposure to parvovirus B19 was determined, and 560 (46.6%) of 1200 pregnant Saudi women tested at their first antenatal visit were seropositive for specific IgG. The rate of maternal infection in susceptible pregnancies was 2.25%. These results were in accordance with previous studies performed in other countries. PMID:23012138
Johnsen, C. K.; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Ahrens, P.
CCL27 (also named CTACK, ALP, ILC and ESkine) is a CC chemokine primarily expressed by keratinocytes of the skin. The cognate receptor of CCL27 named CCR10 (GPR-2), is also expressed in skin-derived cells, and in addition by a subset of peripheral blood T-cells and in a variety of other tissues....... In this paper, we report the cloning of porcine CCL27 cDNA and investigation of CCL27 mRNA expression in Staphylococcus hyicus infected piglets. At the protein level, 77 and 74% homology was found to human and mouse CCL27 sequences, respectively. The results of the expression analyses show that CCL27 m...
Bidin, M; Lojkić, I; Bidin, Z; Tiljar, M; Majnarić, D
Phylogenetic diversity of parvovirus detected in commercial chicken and turkey flocks is described. Nine chicken and six turkey flocks from Croatian farms were tested for parvovirus presence. Intestinal samples from one turkey and seven chicken flocks were found positive, and were sequenced. Natural parvovirus infection was more frequently detected in chickens than in turkeys examined in this study. Sequence analysis of 400 nucleotide fragments of the nonstructural gene (NS) showed that our sequences had more similarity with chicken parvovirus (ChPV) (92.3%-99.7%) than turkey parvovirus (TuPV) (89.5%-98.9%) strains. Phylogenetic analysis grouped our sequences in two clades. Also, the higher prevalence of ChPV than TuPV in tested flocks was defined. The necropsy findings suggested a malabsorption syndrome followed by a preascitic condition. Further research of parvovirus infection, pathogenesis, and the possibility of its association with poult enteritis and mortality syndrome (PEMS) and runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) is needed to clarify its significance as an agent of enteric disease.
Ian H. Mendenhall
Full Text Available Cross-species transmission can often lead to deleterious effects in incidental hosts. Parvoviruses have a wide host range and primarily infect members of the order Carnivora. Here we describe juvenile common palm civet cats (Paradoxurus musangus that were brought to the Singapore zoo and fell ill while quarantined. The tissues of two individual civets that died tested PCR-positive for parvovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed this parvovirus strain falls in a basal position to a clade of CPV that have infected dogs in China and Uruguay, suggesting cross-species transmission from domestic to wild animals. Our analysis further identified these viruses as genotype CPV-2a that is enzootic in carnivores. The ubiquity of virus infection in multiple tissues suggests this virus is pathogenic to civet cats. Here we document the cross-species transmission from domestic dogs and cats to wild civet populations, highlighting the vulnerability of wildlife to infectious agents in companion animals.
Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo
Clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence for the sickle cell anemia (SCA) crisis in Nigerian patients arising from parvovirus b19 infection remains inadequate. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of anti-parvovirus b19 antibodies in a population of SCA patients and non-SCA healthy controls in Lagos, Nigeria. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled 73 confirmed SCA patients from 5 district hospitals in Lagos and 81 sex and age-matched non-SCA healthy controls. Serum sample from each study participant was screened for anti-parvovirus b19 by ELISA and PCR techniques. Standard biomedical assays were also done. Anti-parvovirus b19 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 22 (14.3%) and 97 (62.9%) of the 154 sera screened, 13 (17.8%) and 45 (61.6%) in SCA patients; 9 (11.1%) and 52 (64.2%) in non-SCA controls. The overall seronegativity rate was 19.5%. Parvovirus B19 DNA was found in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 IgM seropositive SCA serum samples screened. On the whole, parvovirus b19 infection was more commonly asymptomatic in non-SCA controls but caused significant elevation in liver enzymes in infected SCA patients (P parvovirus b19 infection increased 65 times during unsteady state among the SCA patients. Although no deaths of infected patients were recorded during the study, age below 12 years, hospitalization and overcrowded environment were risk factors for infection. We conclude that parvovirus b19 is common in SCA patients, incurring greater susceptibility to infections. PMID:23885266
Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo
Clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence for the sickle cell anemia (SCA) crisis in Nigerian patients arising from parvovirus b19 infection remains inadequate. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of anti-parvovirus b19 antibodies in a population of SCA patients and non-SCA healthy controls in Lagos, Nigeria. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled 73 confirmed SCA patients from 5 district hospitals in Lagos and 81 sex and age-matched non-SCA healthy controls. Serum sample from each study participant was screened for anti-parvovirus b19 by ELISA and PCR techniques. Standard biomedical assays were also done. Anti-parvovirus b19 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 22 (14.3%) and 97 (62.9%) of the 154 sera screened, 13 (17.8%) and 45 (61.6%) in SCA patients; 9 (11.1%) and 52 (64.2%) in non-SCA controls. The overall seronegativity rate was 19.5%. Parvovirus B19 DNA was found in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 IgM seropositive SCA serum samples screened. On the whole, parvovirus b19 infection was more commonly asymptomatic in non-SCA controls but caused significant elevation in liver enzymes in infected SCA patients (P parvovirus b19 infection increased 65 times during unsteady state among the SCA patients. Although no deaths of infected patients were recorded during the study, age below 12 years, hospitalization and overcrowded environment were risk factors for infection. We conclude that parvovirus b19 is common in SCA patients, incurring greater susceptibility to infections.
Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X.; Guan, X.; Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A.; Fang, Y.
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1α and nsp1β subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1α and nsp1β. Cleavage sites between nsp1α/nsp1β and nsp1β/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1α and nsp1β mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-β expression. The nsp1β was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1β has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1α alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.
Ibrahem, W.N.; Hasony, H.J.; Hassan, J.G.
Objective: To investigate the association of human parvovirus B19 infection with the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and its effect on TEL-AML-1 fusion gene and the presence of mutant P53. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at Basrah Hospital for Paediatrics and Gynaecology, Basrah, Iraq, from May 2009 to April 2010. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from 40 newly diagnosed cases and 60 healthy children to serve as control matched by age and gender. Human parvovirus B19-IgG and anti-P53 antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on extracted ribonucleic acid from fresh blood samples using specified primers. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A higher proportion of human parvovirus B19-positive cases was found in leukaemic patients (n=19; 47.5%) compared to 12 (20%) in the control group (p<0.05). There was significant association between Tel-Amyl-1 translocation and human parvovirus-B19 infection as 10 (71.4%) of TEL-AML-1 translocation-positive cases had human parvovirus-B19 IgG. On the other hand, there was no association between such infections and P53 gene mutation in the patients. Conclusion: Human parvovirus-B19 infection is common in the population, with higher prevalence among leukaemic patients with significant association between human parvovirus-B19 and TEL-AML-1 fusion gene in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (author)
Klepfish, A; Rachmilevitch, E; Schattner, A
A patient with primary biliary cirrhosis and associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura was treated with 4 weekly courses of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting B-cell surface antigen CD20. Her thrombocyte count and even cholestatic liver function tests improved. However, 17 weeks after rituximab treatment, she developed severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count 0.23x10(3)/mul) and recurrent thrombocytopenia with abnormal bone marrow of all three lineages. Although delayed-onset neutropenia has been reported after rituximab, reactivated viral infections have also been encountered. Parvovirus B19 was suspected and confirmed as the cause of neutropenia in our patient. The patient was supported by GCSF treatment and recovered uneventfully after several weeks. Neutropenia after rituximab can also be the predominant manifestation of reactivated parvovirus B19 infection and have a favorable prognosis.
Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.
Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.
Baylis, Sally A; Tuke, Philip W; Miyagawa, Eiji; Blümel, Johannes
Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a novel parvovirus, which like parvovirus B19 (B19V) can be a contaminant of plasma pools used to prepare plasma-derived medicinal products. Inactivation studies of B19V have shown that it is more sensitive to virus inactivation strategies than animal parvoviruses. However, inactivation of PARV4 has not yet been specifically addressed. Treatment of parvoviruses by heat or low-pH conditions causes externalization of the virus genome. Using nuclease treatment combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction, the extent of virus DNA externalization was used as an indirect measure of the inactivation of PARV4, B19V, and minute virus of mice (MVM) by pasteurization of albumin and by low-pH treatment. Infectivity studies were performed in parallel for B19V and MVM. PARV4 showed greater resistance to pasteurization and low-pH treatment than B19V, although PARV4 was not as resistant as MVM. There was a 2- to 3-log reduction of encapsidated PARV4 DNA after pasteurization and low-pH treatment. In contrast, B19V was effectively inactivated while MVM was stable under these conditions. Divalent cations were found to have a stabilizing effect on PARV4 capsids. In the absence of divalent cations, even at neutral pH, there was a reduction of PARV4 titer, an effect not observed for B19V or MVM. In the case of heat treatment and incubation at low pH, PARV4 shows intermediate resistance when compared to B19V and MVM. Divalent cations seem important for stabilizing PARV4 virus particles. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Kobayashi, Yujin; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Ishiwatari, Yusaku; Kanno, Hitoshi; Takei, Masami
Although there are several case reports of human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis, no systematic reviews of adult patients with hereditary spherocytosis with human parvovirus B19 infection have been published as clinical case reports. In this study, we report a case of aplastic crisis due to human parvovirus B19 infection in an adult patient with hereditary spherocytosis. A 33-year-old woman with hereditary spherocytosis and gallstones was admitted because of rapid progress in marked anemia and fever. Although empiric antibiotic therapy was prescribed, her clinical symptoms and liver function test worsened. Because the anti-human parvovirus B19 antibody and deoxyribonucleic acid levels assessed by polymerase chain reaction were positive, the patient was diagnosed with aplastic crisis due to the human parvovirus B19 infection. We collected and reviewed several case reports of patients with hereditary spherocytosis aged > 18 years with human parvovirus B19 infection between 1984 and 2010. A total of 19 reports with 22 cases [median age, 28 years (range, 18-43 range); male: female ratio, 6:16], including the present case were identified. The male-to-female ratio of 6:16 implied that younger females were predominantly affected. Although fever and abdominal symptoms were common initial symptoms, liver dysfunction or skin eruptions were less commonly documented. Anti-human parvovirus B19 antibody or deoxyribonucleic acid levels assessed by polymerase chain reaction was commonly used to diagnose human parvovirus B19 infection and may be useful to distinguish human parvovirus B19 infection from other abdominal infection in patients with hereditary spherocytosis.
Rappaport, E S; Quick, G; Ransom, D; Helbert, B; Frankel, L S
We have reported a case of aplastic crisis occurring in an 11-year-old black boy with occult hereditary spherocytosis. An etiologic diagnosis of human parvovirus (HPV) B19 infection was confirmed serologically. The Coulter Model S + IV proved useful for both diagnosis and treatment monitoring through serial histograms. The relationship of HPV infection and aplastic crisis is discussed.
Zhang, Kao; Jin, Huijun; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Neng, Changai; Chen, Huihui; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia
To construct recombinant adenovirus containing canine interferon-gamma (cIFN-gamma) gene and to investigate its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). [Methods] The cIFN-gamma gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct pShuttle3-cIFN-gamma expression vector, from which the cIFN-gamma expression cassette was transferred into the adenovirus genomic plasmid pAdeno-X by specific restriction sites to generate recombinant adenovirus genomic plasmid pAd-cIFN-gamma. The pAd-cIFN-gamma plasmid was linearized by digestion and transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells to generate the replication-defective cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus (Ad-cIFN-gamma). To analyze its anti-canine parvovirus activity, the MDCK cells were pre-infected by Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus, and then infected by canine parvovirus. The antiviral activity of the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus against parvovirus was analyzed. The recombinant adenovirus containing cIFN-gamma gene was constructed by the ligation method. The recombinant adenovirus could mediates recombinant cIFN-gamma secretory expression in MDCK cells. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus could significantly inhibit canine parvovirus replication in MDCK cells pre-infected with the recombinant adenovirus. These results indicate that the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus has the potent antiviral activity against canine parvovirus. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus was successfully constructed by the ligation method and possessed a powerful antiviral activity against canine parvovirus.
Edmonson, M Bruce; Riedesel, Erica L; Williams, Gary P; Demuri, Gregory P
Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated not only with erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) but also, rarely, with purpuric or petechial rashes. Most reports of these atypical rashes describe sporadic cases with skin lesions that have distinctively focal distributions. During a community outbreak of fifth disease, we investigated a cluster of illnesses in children with generalized petechial rashes to determine whether parvovirus was the causative agent and, if so, to describe more fully the clinical spectrum of petechial rashes that are associated with this virus. Systematic evaluation was conducted by general pediatricians of children with petechial rashes for evidence of acute parvovirus infection. During the outbreak, acute parvovirus infection was confirmed in 13 (76%) of 17 children who were evaluated for petechial rash. Confirmed case patients typically had mild constitutional symptoms, and most (11 [85%] of 13) had fever. Petechiae were typically dense and widely distributed; sometimes accentuated in the distal extremities, axillae, or groin; and usually absent from the head/neck. Most case patients had leukopenia, and several had thrombocytopenia. Parvovirus immunoglobulin M was detected in 8 (73%) of 11 acute-phase serum specimens, and immunoglobulin G was detectable only in convalescent specimens. Parvovirus DNA was detected in all 7 tested serum specimens, including 2 acute-phase specimens that were immunoglobulin M-negative. All case patients had brief, uncomplicated illnesses, but 6 were briefly hospitalized and 1 underwent a bone marrow examination. Two case patients developed erythema infectiosum during convalescence. During an outbreak of fifth disease, parvovirus proved to be a common cause of petechial rash in children, and this rash was typically more generalized than described in case reports. Associated clinical features, hematologic abnormalities, and serologic test results are consistent with a viremia-associated illness that is distinct
Lau, Susanna K P; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Yeung, Hazel C; Li, Kenneth S M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Zhao, Pyrear S H; Lau, Candy C C; Lam, Carol S F; Choi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Ben C H; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S Y; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Libiao; Wang, Ming; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Compared to the enormous species diversity of bats, relatively few parvoviruses have been reported. We detected diverse and potentially novel parvoviruses from bats in Hong Kong and mainland China. Parvoviruses belonging to Amdoparvovirus, Bocaparvovirus and Dependoparvovirus were detected in alimentary, liver and spleen samples from 16 different chiropteran species of five families by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of partial helicase sequences showed that they potentially belonged to 25 bocaparvovirus, three dependoparvovirus and one amdoparvovirus species. Nearly complete genome sequencing confirmed the existence of at least four novel bat bocaparvovirus species (Rp-BtBoV1 and Rp-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus pusillus, Rs-BtBoV2 from Rhinolophus sinicus and Rol-BtBoV1 from Rousettus leschenaultii) and two novel bat dependoparvovirus species (Rp-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus pusillus and Rs-BtAAV1 from Rhinolophus sinicus). Rs-BtBoV2 was closely related to Ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 with 93, 72.1 and 78.7 % amino acid identities in the NS1, NP1 and VP1/VP2 genes, respectively. The detection of bat bocaparvoviruses, including Rs-BtBoV2, closely related to porcine bocaparvoviruses, suggests recent interspecies transmission of bocaparvoviruses between bats and swine. Moreover, Rp-BtAAV1 and Rs-BtAAV1 were most closely related to human AAV1 with 48.7 and 57.5 % amino acid identities in the rep gene. The phylogenetic relationship between BtAAVs and other mammalian AAVs suggests bats as the ancestral origin of mammalian AAVs. Furthermore, parvoviruses of the same species were detected from multiple bat species or families, supporting the ability of bat parvoviruses to cross species barriers. The results extend our knowledge on the diversity of bat parvoviruses and the role of bats in parvovirus evolution and emergence in humans and animals.
Parodis López, Yanet; Santana Estupiñán, Raquel; Marrero Robayna, Silvia; Gallego Samper, Roberto; Henríquez Palop, Fernando; Rivero Vera, José Carlos; Camacho Galán, Rafael; Pena López, María José; Sablón González, Nery; González Cabrera, Fayna; Oliva Dámaso, Elena; Vega Díaz, Nicanor; Rodríguez Pérez, José Carlos
Infections remain an issue of particular relevance in renal transplant patients, particularly viral infections. Human parvovirus B19 infection causes severe refractory anaemia, pancytopenia and thrombotic microangiopathy. Its presence is recognized by analysing blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by the discovery of typical giant proerythroblasts in the bone marrow. We report the case of a 65 year-old man with a history of deceased donor renal transplant in September 2014. At 38 days after the transplant, the patient presented progressive anaemia that was resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. At 64 days after transplant, hyperthermia occurred with progressive deterioration of the patient's general condition. The viral serology and the first blood PCR for human parvovirus B19 were both negative. At 4 months and 19 days after, a bone marrow biopsy was conducted, showing giant erythroblasts with nuclear viral inclusions that were compatible with parvovirus; a PCR in the tissue confirmed the diagnosis. A second blood PCR was positive for parvovirus. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and the temporary discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil, a complete remission of the disease occurred, although the blood PCR for parvovirus B19 remained positive, so monitoring is necessary for future likely recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Calistru, Ana Maria; Lisboa, Carmen; Cunha, Ana Paula; Bettencourt, Herberto; Azevedo, Filomena
We report the case of a 22-year-old male patient with 2 episodes, 4 months apart, of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) associated with oral intake of amoxicillin and simultaneous reactivation of parvovirus B19 infection proven by positive polymerase chain reaction test in the skin fragment and blood sample and elevation of the IgG antibodies titer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AGEP resulting from the interaction between drug hypersensitivity and the reactivation of parvovirus B19. A combination of an immunological reaction to the drug and virus infection could be responsible for the clinical picture.
Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Koch, Rüdiger; Hoeltig, Doris; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Blecha, Frank; Brauer, Carsten; Gasse, Hagen
Host defence peptides are important components of mammalian innate immunity. We have previously shown that PR-39, a cathelicidin host defence peptide, is an important factor in porcine innate immune mechanisms as a first line of defence after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. PR-39 interacts with bacterial and mammalian cells and is involved in a variety of processes such as killing of bacteria and promotion of wound repair. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected pigs PR-39 concentrations are elevated during the chronic but not during the acute stage of infection when polymorphonuclear neutrophils (known as the major source of PR-39) are highly increased. Thus it was assumed, that the real impact of PR-39 during infection might not be reflected by its concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Using immunohistochemistry this study demonstrates the actual distribution of PR-39 in tissue of the upper and lower respiratory tract of healthy pigs, and of pigs during the acute and chronic stage of experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.During the acute stage of infection PR-39 accumulated adjacent to blood vessels and within bronchi. Immune reactions were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of cells with morphological characteristics of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as in extracellular fluids. During the chronic stage of infection pigs lacked clinical signs and lung alterations were characterized by reparation and remodelling processes such as tissue sequestration and fibroblastic pleuritis with a high-grade accumulation of small PR-39-positive cells resembling polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In healthy pigs, PR-39 was homogenously expressed in large single cells within the alveoli resembling alveolar macrophages or type 2 pneumocytes. PR-39 was found in all tissue samples of the upper respiratory tract in healthy and diseased pigs. Within the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, PR-39 dominated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Airborne transmitted pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, need to interact with host cells of the respiratory tract in order to be able to enter and disseminate in the host organism. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM and MA104 derived monkey kidney MARC-145 cells are known to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication and are the most studied cells in the literature. More recently, new cell lines developed to study PRRSV have been genetically modified to make them permissive to the virus. The SJPL cell line origin was initially reported to be epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of swine. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if SJPL cells could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. Results The SJPL cell growth was significantly slower than MARC-145 cell growth. The SJPL cells were found to express the CD151 protein but not the CD163 and neither the sialoadhesin PRRSV receptors. During the course of the present study, the SJPL cells have been reported to be of monkey origin. Nevertheless, SJPL cells were found to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication even if the development of the cytopathic effect was delayed compared to PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. Following PRRSV replication, the amount of infectious viral particles produced in SJPL and MARC-145 infected cells was similar. The SJPL cells allowed the replication of several PRRSV North American strains and were almost efficient as MARC-145 cells for virus isolation. Interestingly, PRRSV is 8 to 16 times more sensitive to IFNα antiviral effect in SJPL cell in comparison to that in MARC-145 cells. PRRSV induced an increase in IFNβ mRNA and no up regulation of IFNα mRNA in both infected cell types. In addition, PRRSV induced an up regulation of IFNγ and TNF-α mRNAs only in infected MARC-145 cells. Conclusions In conclusion, the SJPL cells are permissive to PRRSV. In addition, they are
Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.
The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...
Heegaard, Erik D.; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Heilmann, Carsten J.; Hornsleth, Allan
Parvovirus B19 (hereafter referred to as B19) exhibits a marked tropism to human bone marrow (BM), and infection may lead to erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, hydrops fetalis, and various hematologic disorders. Recently, a distinct parvovirus isolate termed V9 with an unknown clinical spectrum was discovered. In contrast to the many studies of B19 serology and viremia, valid information on the frequency of B19 or V9 DNA in the BM of healthy individuals is limited. To develop a reference valu...
Saasa, Ngonda; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; M'kandawire, Ethel; Siwila, Joyce
Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated). The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated ( p vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions.
Full Text Available The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114 or sham inoculated (n = 19 at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21 days later. PRRSV RNA concentration was measured by qRT-PCR in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (n = 1391. Presence of fetal lesions was positively related to PRRSV RNA concentration in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (P<0.05 for both, but not to the distribution or severity of vasculitis, or the severity of endometrial inflammation. The presence of fetal and umbilical lesions was associated with greater odds of meconium staining (P<0.05 for both. The distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium were not significantly related to PRRSV RNA concentration in maternal-fetal interface or fetal thymus. Endometrial inflammation severity was positively related to distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium (P<0.001 for both. Conclusions from this study suggest that type 2 PRRSV infection in pregnant gilts induces significant histopathological lesions at maternal-fetal interface, but they are not associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface at 21 days post infection. Conversely, fetal pathological lesions are associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus, and meconium staining is significantly associated with the presence of both fetal and umbilical lesions observed 21 days post infection.
Novakovic, Predrag; Harding, John C. S.; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Ladinig, Andrea; Detmer, Susan E.
The pathogenesis of fetal death caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis by assessing potential relationships between specific histopathological lesions and PRRSV RNA concentration in the fetuses and the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or sham inoculated (n = 19) at 85±1 days of gestation. Dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied 21 days later. PRRSV RNA concentration was measured by qRT-PCR in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (n = 1391). Presence of fetal lesions was positively related to PRRSV RNA concentration in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus (P<0.05 for both), but not to the distribution or severity of vasculitis, or the severity of endometrial inflammation. The presence of fetal and umbilical lesions was associated with greater odds of meconium staining (P<0.05 for both). The distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium were not significantly related to PRRSV RNA concentration in maternal-fetal interface or fetal thymus. Endometrial inflammation severity was positively related to distribution and severity of vasculitis in endometrium (P<0.001 for both). Conclusions from this study suggest that type 2 PRRSV infection in pregnant gilts induces significant histopathological lesions at maternal-fetal interface, but they are not associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface at 21 days post infection. Conversely, fetal pathological lesions are associated with presence of PRRSV in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal thymus, and meconium staining is significantly associated with the presence of both fetal and umbilical lesions observed 21 days post infection. PMID:26963101
Full Text Available The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI. The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status. A total of 114 naïve, high-health pregnant gilts were inoculated with type 2 PRRSV on gestation day 85±1 with euthanasia 21 days later; 19 sham-inoculated gilts served as controls. Two hundred and fifty samples of uterine tissue with fetal placenta were selected based on negative, low PRRSV RNA, and high PRRSV RNA concentration (0, 2.7 log10 copies/mg, respectively. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in the endometrium and at the MFI. PRRSV RNA concentration and numbers of PRRSV immunopositive cells in uterine and placental tissue were positively associated with the severity of apoptosis in the endometrium and the MFI (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. The number of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI was also positively associated with the severity (P<0.001 of vasculitis, but not total numbers of inflammatory cells in the endometrium. Increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI were associated with PRRSV load in the fetal thymus, and greater odds of meconium staining of the fetus at 21 days post infection (P<0.001 for both. These findings suggest an important role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of uterine epithelial and trophoblastic cell death at the MFI. Moreover, apoptosis at the MFI is significantly associated with fetal demise during in utero type 2 PRRSV infection.
Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie
Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.
Full Text Available Background: Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. Case report. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thromocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Conclusion: Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present with reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.
Zikidou, Panagiota; Grapsa, Anastassia; Bezirgiannidou, Zoe; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Mantadakis, Elpis
Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with the presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.
Eduardo C. Oliveira
Full Text Available Noventa e seis cães com lesões macroscópicas sugestivas de parvovirose canina foram necropsiados no Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul no período de março de 2005 a novembro de 2006. Tecidos destes caninos foram analisados através de histologia e imuno-histoquímica. Aumento das placas de Peyer do intestino delgado e hiperemia da mucosa e serosa intestinal foram os achados macroscópicos mais observados. Microscopicamente, foi visualizada enterite necrótica em 77% dos cães. Em 17,7% as alterações histológicas do intestino delgado ficaram prejudicadas pela autólise, dificultando a interpretação. O teste de imuno-histoquímica em cortes de intestino delgado, linfonodo mesentérico, timo, baço, tonsila, língua e medula óssea de todos os 96 casos, foi positivo em 91,6% (88/96 dos casos. O intestino delgado demonstrou o melhor resultado, obtendo-se marcações em 77% (74/96 dos casos. A análise final do exame paramétrico de Fisher demonstrou uma fraca associação entre autólise intestinal e resultado positivo da imuno-histoquímica onde as chances de um intestino delgado autolisado histologicamente apresentar resultado positivo na imuno-histoquímica é 0,33 vezes menor (OR=0,33; 95%IC: 0,10-1,17 quando comparada a um intestino delgado não autolisado.Ninety-six dogs with gross lesions suggestive of canine parvovirus infection were selected and necropsied in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, between March 2005 and November 2006. The main gross lesions were enlargement of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine and hyperemia in the intestinal mucosa and serosa. Microscopically, the small intestine showed necrotizing enteritis in 77% (74/96 of the dogs examined. However, in 17.7% of the histological evaluation in the small intestine were damaged due to autolytic changes making it difficult to obtain an appropriate interpretation. The
François, S; Filloux, D; Roumagnac, P; Bigot, D; Gayral, P; Martin, D P; Froissart, R; Ogliastro, M
Our knowledge of the genetic diversity and host ranges of viruses is fragmentary. This is particularly true for the Parvoviridae family. Genetic diversity studies of single stranded DNA viruses within this family have been largely focused on arthropod- and vertebrate-infecting species that cause diseases of humans and our domesticated animals: a focus that has biased our perception of parvovirus diversity. While metagenomics approaches could help rectify this bias, so too could transcriptomics studies. Large amounts of transcriptomic data are available for a diverse array of animal species and whenever this data has inadvertently been gathered from virus-infected individuals, it could contain detectable viral transcripts. We therefore performed a systematic search for parvovirus-related sequences (PRSs) within publicly available transcript, genome and protein databases and eleven new transcriptome datasets. This revealed 463 PRSs in the transcript databases of 118 animals. At least 41 of these PRSs are likely integrated within animal genomes in that they were also found within genomic sequence databases. Besides illuminating the ubiquity of parvoviruses, the number of parvoviral sequences discovered within public databases revealed numerous previously unknown parvovirus-host combinations; particularly in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that the host-ranges of extant parvoviruses might span the entire animal kingdom.
Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup Infecção simultânea por vírus da cinomose e da parvovirose associada à necrose cardíaca em um canino
Selwyn Arlington Headley
Full Text Available Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a dual infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus.Descreve-se a infecção simultânea de cinomose e parvovirose associada à degeneração e necrose do miocárdio em um cão. Clinicamente, o cão apresentou mioclonias, nistagmo, hipoplasia do esmalte dentário, pústulas abdominais e ulceração bilateral da córnea. Foram observadas encefalite desmielinzante, degeneração e necrose do miocárdio com mineralização, e necrose, hemorragia e fusão das vilosidades intestinais. As lesões observadas neste cão são características com uma infecção pelos vírus da cinomose e da parvovirose.
Ni, Zixin; Yang, Fan; Cao, Weijun; Zhang, Xiangle; Jin, Ye; Mao, Ruoqing; Du, Xiaoli; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Jianhong; Liu, Xiangtao; Zhu, Zixiang; Zheng, Haixue
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in livestock. The viral proteinase L(pro) of FMDV is involved in pathogenicity, and mutation of the L(pro) SAP domain reduces FMDV pathogenicity in pigs. To determine the gene expression profiles associated with decreased pathogenicity in porcine cells, we performed transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing technology and compared differentially expressed genes in SK6 cells infected with FMDV containing L(pro) with either a wild-type or mutated version of the SAP domain. This analysis yielded 1,853 genes that exhibited a ≥ 2-fold change in expression and was validated by real-time quantitative PCR detection of several differentially expressed genes. Many of the differentially expressed genes correlated with antiviral responses corresponded to genes associated with transcription factors, immune regulation, cytokine production, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. Alterations in gene expression profiles may be responsible for the variations in pathogenicity observed between the two FMDV variants. Our results provided genes of interest for the further study of antiviral pathways and pathogenic mechanisms related to FMDV L(pro).
Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti
The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290
Stenger, Michael; Behr-Rasmussen, Carsten; Klein, Kasper
INTRODUCTION: Conservative treatment solutions against aortic prosthetic vascular graft infection (APVGI) for inoperable patients are limited. The combination of antibiotics with antibacterial helper compounds, such as the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ), should be explored. AIM: To investigate...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine parvovirus (PPV VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene. Methods A recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 was obtained by homologous recombination between the vector PRV viral DNA and a transfer plasmid. Then recombinant virus was purified with plaque purification, and its identity confirmed by PCR amplification, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA analyses. Electronic microscopy of PRV SA215/VP2 confirmed self-assembly of both pseudorabies virus and VLPs from VP2 protein. Results Immunization of piglets with recombinant virus elicited PRV-specific and PPV-specific humoral immune responses and provided complete protection against a lethal dose of PRV challenges. Gilts immunized with recombinant viruses induced PPV-specific antibodies, and significantly reduced the mortality rate of (1 of 28 following virulent PPV challenge compared with the control (7 of 31. Furthermore, PPV virus DNA was not detected in the fetuses of recombinant virus immunized gilts. Conclusions In this study, a recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 virus expressing PPV VP2 protein was constructed using PRV SA215 vector. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the recombinant virus were demonstrated in piglets and primiparous gilts. This recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 represents a suitable candidate for the development of a bivalent vaccine against both PRV and PPV infection.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... from each dog shall be individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to...
... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged with virulent canine parvovirus furnished or approved by...
Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.
Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation
Oliver-Ferrando, Salvador; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; Callén, Antonio; Merdy, Olivier; Joisel, François; Sibila, Marina
This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical infected breeding herd (PCV2 circulation but absence of major reproductive problems). Ninety-four pregnant sows were primo-immunized with a commercial PCV2 vaccine and ninety-seven were injected with phosphate-buffered saline at 6 and 3 weeks before the first studied farrowing, and then boosted at 2 weeks before the second one. Blood samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 DNA load and antibodies. At farrowing, main reproductive parameters and piglet vitality index were registered. In addition, in those litters with more than three mummified or stillborn piglets, microscopic examination and PCV2 antigen detection in foetal myocardium was done. Vaccinated sows showed significantly higher antibody levels compared to the non-vaccinated counterparts. PCV2 DNA was only detected at farrowing in 2 (4.2%) non-vaccinated sows. Vaccinated sows had 1.3 more live-born piglets per litter at the second cycle than non-vaccinated counterparts. Piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly higher (+ 12.7%) vitality score than the ones born from non-vaccinated sows. No PCV2 compatible lesions neither PCV2 antigen were detected in the tested foetal hearts. The present study represents a first attempt to demonstrate that PCV2 sow vaccination may have a positive influence on prolificacy and vitality of the offspring in a subclinical infected breeding herd. However, since reproductive outcomes at farm level may be affected by a number of factors, further studies would be needed to confirm this association.
Albina, E; Mesplède, A; Chenut, G; Le Potier, M F; Bourbao, G; Le Gal, S; Leforban, Y
In early 1992, a CSF epizootic was clinically recognised in a wild boar population of approximately 1300 animals within an area of 250km(2) located in the east of France. In order to check the CSF situation in wild boars outside this area, a serological survey was carried out in the rest of France, for 8 consecutive years (1991-1998). This paper reports on the results obtained during this survey which included wild boars shot during the hunting period but also boars reared within fences. Around 1000-2700 sera a year were tested for the presence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and also to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Out of 12025 sera tested over the whole period, 80 wild boars were found positive for CSF antibodies. Sixty of them were collected on wild boars shot during the years 1992-1994 in the epizootic area located in east of France and 10 were collected in Corsica during the years 1994-1996. The last four positive samples were single reactors coming from areas or farms, which were thereafter confirmed to be serologically negative. These results together with the fact that no disease has been reported so far illustrate that the French wild boar population is probably not concerned by CSF infection (excepted in the east of France where the disease has now become enzootic). Two hundred and forty nine sera were initially detected as CSF positive but confirmed secondarily as positive for border disease (BD) antibodies. This finding shows that wild boars are also susceptible to infection by ruminant pestiviruses. Four hundred and twenty three wild boars have been found positive for ADV antibodies. In addition, from 1993 to 1995, 909 samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Thirty three of them were positive. The results on AD and PRRS antibody detection show that wild boars may constitute a reservoir for various infectious diseases of pigs.
Chandramouli, Sumana; Medina-Selby, Angelica; Coit, Doris; Schaefer, Mary; Spencer, Terika; Brito, Luis A; Zhang, Pu; Otten, Gillis; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C
Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease in children, aplastic crisis in those with blood dyscrasias, and hydrops fetalis. Previous parvovirus B19 virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were produced by co-infection of insect cells with two baculoviruses, one expressing wild-type VP1 and the other expressing VP2. In humans, the VLPs were immunogenic but reactogenic. We have developed new VLP-based parvovirus B19 vaccine candidates, produced by co-expressing VP2 and either wild-type VP1 or phospholipase-negative VP1 in a regulated ratio from a single plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These VLPs are expressed efficiently, are very homogeneous, and can be highly purified. Although VP2 alone can form VLPs, in mouse immunizations, VP1 and the adjuvant MF59 are required to elicit a neutralizing response. Wild-type VLPs and those with phospholipase-negative VP1 are equivalently potent. The purity, homogeneity, yeast origin, and lack of phospholipase activity of these VLPs address potential causes of previously observed reactogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fifth Disease (parvovirus B19) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... infectiosum, is a viral illness caused by human parvovirus B19. It occurs most commonly in children ages 4 ...
J. Groen (Jan); N. Juntti; J.S. Teppema; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)
textabstractImmuno affinity chromatography with virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, directed to the haemagglutinating protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) was used to purify and concentrate CPV from infected cell culture. The procedure was monitored by testing the respective fractions in an
Kooistra, K.; Mesman, H. J.; de Waal, M.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Zaaijer, H. L.
Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch
Gabor, Julian J.; Schwarz, Norbert G.; Esen, Meral; Kremsner, Peter G.; Grobusch, Martin P.
Clinical and epidemiological data from Central Africa on influenza A and parvovirus B19 infections are limited. We analyzed 162 blood samples of infants 3, 9, 15, and 30 months of age for IgG antibodies against both pathogens. Antibody responses were 0, 3.7%, 12.3%, and 20.4% against influenza A;
Jødal, Lars; Jensen, Svend Borup; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg
Introduction. Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly applied for infection imaging using [18F]FDG as tracer, but uptake is unspecific. The present study compares the kinetics of [18F]FDG and three other PET tracers with relevance for infection imaging. Methods. A juvenile porcine...... osteomyelitis model was used. Eleven pigs underwent PET/CT with 60-minute dynamic PET imaging of [18F]FDG, [68Ga]Ga-citrate, [11C]methionine, and/or [11C]donepezil, along with blood sampling. For infectious lesions, kinetic modelling with one- and two-tissue-compartment models was conducted for each tracer...... for the analysis. Conclusions. The kinetics of the four studied tracers in infection was characterized. For clinical applications, [18F]FDG remains the first-choice PET tracer. [11C]methionine may have a potential for detecting soft tissue infections. [68Ga]Ga-citrate and [11C]donepezil were not found useful...
Lacroix, Jeannine; Kis, Zoltán; Josupeit, Rafael; Schlund, Franziska; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Leuchs, Barbara; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane
About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS) patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.
Full Text Available About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.
Alarcon, Pablo; Rushton, Jonathan; Wieland, Barbara
Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a multi-factorial disease with major economic implications for the pig industry worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the economic impact of PMWS and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infections (PCV2SI) for farrow-to-finish farms and to estimate the resulting cost to the English pig industry. A disease model was built to simulate the varying proportions of pigs in a batch that get infected with PCV2 and develop either PMWS, subclinical disease (reduce growth without evident clinical signs) or remain healthy (normal growth and no clinical signs), depending on the farm level PMWS severity. This PMWS severity measure accounted for the level of post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity and proportion of PCV2 infected pigs observed on farms. The model generated six outcomes: infected pigs with PMWS that die (PMWS-D); infected pigs with PMWS that recover (PMWS-R); subclinical pigs that die (Sub-D); subclinical pigs that reach slaughter age (Sub-S); healthy pigs sold (H-S); and pigs, infected or non-infected by PCV2, that die due to non-PCV2 related causes (nonPCV2-D). Enterprise and partial budget analyses were used to assess the deficit/profits and the extra costs/extra benefits of a change in disease status, respectively. Results from the economic analysis at pig level were combined with the disease model's estimates of the proportion of different pigs produced at different severity scores to assess the cost of PMWS and subclinical disease at farm level, and these were then extrapolated to estimate costs at national level. The net profit for a H-S pig was £19.2. The mean loss for a PMWS-D pig was £84.1 (90% CI: 79.6-89.1), £24.5 (90% CI: 15.1-35.4) for a PMWS-R pig, £82.3 (90% CI: 78.1-87.5) for a Sub-D pig, and £8.1 (90% CI: 2.18-15.1) for a Sub-S pig. At farm level, the greatest proportion of negative economic impact was attributed to PCV2 subclinical pigs. The economic impact for the English
... of Conditions Not Listed? Not Listed? Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer ... or "erythema infectiosum." The virus is found in respiratory droplets during an infection and is easily transmitted ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background shRNA targeting the integrin αv subunit, which is the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV receptor, plays a key role in virus attachment to susceptible cells. We constructed a RNAi lentiviral vector, iαv pLenti6/BLOCK -iT™, which expressed siRNA targeting the FMDV receptor, the porcine integrin αv subunit, on PK-15 cells. We also produced a lentiviral stock, established an iαv-PK-15 cell line, evaluated the gene silencing efficiency of mRNA using real-time qRT-PCR, integrand αv expression by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF and cell enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (cell ELISA, and investigated the in vivo inhibitory effect of shRNA on FMDV replication in PK-15 cells. Results Our results indicated successful establishment of the iαv U6 RNAi entry vector and the iαv pLenti6/BLOCK -iT expression vector. The functional titer of obtained virus was 1.0 × 106 TU/mL. To compare with the control and mock group, the iαv-PK-15 group αv mRNA expression rate in group was reduced by 89.5%, whilst IIF and cell ELISA clearly indicated suppression in the experimental group. Thus, iαv-PK-15 cells could reduce virus growth by more than three-fold and there was a > 99% reduction in virus titer when cells were challenged with 102 TCID50 of FMDV. Conclusions Iαv-PK-15 cells were demonstrated as a cell model for anti-FMDV potency testing, and this study suggests that shRNA could be a viable therapeutic approach for controlling the severity of FMD infection and spread.
Stuckey, Juliana; Strauss, Daniel; Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Gao, Jinxin; Luo, Wen; Quertinmont, Michelle; O'Donnell, Sean; Chen, Dayue
Viral filtration is routinely incorporated into the downstream purification processes for the production of biologics produced in mammalian cell cultures (MCC) to remove potential viral contaminants. In recent years, the use of retentive filters designed for retaining parvovirus (~20 nm) has become an industry standard in a conscious effort to further improve product safety. Since retentive filters remove viruses primarily by the size exclusion mechanism, it is expected that filters designed for parvovirus removal can effectively clear larger viruses such as retroviruses (~100 nm). In an attempt to reduce the number of viral clearance studies, we have taken a novel approach to demonstrate the feasibility of claiming modular retrovirus clearance for Asahi Planova 20N filters. Porcine parvovirus (PPV) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) were co-spiked into six different feedstreams and then subjected to laboratory scale Planova 20N filtration. Our results indicate that Planova 20N filters consistently retain retroviruses and no retrovirus has ever been detected in the filtrates even when significant PPV breakthrough is observed. Based on the data from multiple in-house viral validation studies and the results from the co-spiking experiments, we have successfully claimed a modular retrovirus clearance of greater than 6 log10 reduction factors (LRF) to support clinical trial applications in both USA and Europe. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Norja, Päivi; Hedman, Lea; Kantola, Kalle; Kemppainen, Kaisa; Suvilehto, Jari; Pitkäranta, Anne; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Seppänen, Mikko; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria
Human bocaviruses 1-4 (HBoV1-4) and parvovirus 4 (PARV4) are recently discovered human parvoviruses. HBoV1 is associated with respiratory infections of young children, while HBoV2-4 are enteric viruses. The clinical manifestations of PARV4 remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether the DNAs of HBoV1-4 and PARV4 persist in human tissues long after primary infection. Biopsies of tonsillar tissue, skin, and synovia were examined for HBoV1-4 DNA and PARV4 DNA by PCR. Serum samples from the tissue donors were assayed for HBoV1 and PARV4 IgG and IgM antibodies. To obtain species-specific seroprevalences for HBoV1 and for HBoV2/3 combined, the sera were analyzed after virus-like particle (VLP) competition. While HBoV1 DNA was detected exclusively in the tonsillar tissues of 16/438 individuals (3.7%), all of them ≤8 years of age. HBoV2-4 and PARV4 DNAs were absent from all tissue types. HBoV1 IgG seroprevalence was 94.9%. No subject had HBoV1 or PARV4 IgM, nor did they have PARV4 IgG. The results indicate that HBoV1 DNA occurred in a small proportion of tonsils of young children after recent primary HBoV1 infection, but did not persist long in the other tissue types studied, unlike parvovirus B19 DNA. The results obtained by the PARV4 assays are in line with previous results on PARV4 epidemiology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Riolobos, Laura; Domínguez, Carlos; Kann, Michael; Almendral, José M.
It is unknown whether the mammalian cell cycle could impact the assembly of viruses maturing in the nucleus. We addressed this question using MVM, a reference member of the icosahedral ssDNA nuclear parvoviruses, which requires cell proliferation to infect by mechanisms partly understood. Constitutively expressed MVM capsid subunits (VPs) accumulated in the cytoplasm of mouse and human fibroblasts synchronized at G0, G1, and G1/S transition. Upon arrest release, VPs translocated to the nucleus as cells entered S phase, at efficiencies relying on cell origin and arrest method, and immediately assembled into capsids. In synchronously infected cells, the consecutive virus life cycle steps (gene expression, proteins nuclear translocation, capsid assembly, genome replication and encapsidation) proceeded tightly coupled to cell cycle progression from G0/G1 through S into G2 phase. However, a DNA synthesis stress caused by thymidine irreversibly disrupted virus life cycle, as VPs became increasingly retained in the cytoplasm hours post-stress, forming empty capsids in mouse fibroblasts, thereby impairing encapsidation of the nuclear viral DNA replicative intermediates. Synchronously infected cells subjected to density-arrest signals while traversing early S phase also blocked VPs transport, resulting in a similar misplaced cytoplasmic capsid assembly in mouse fibroblasts. In contrast, thymidine and density arrest signals deregulating virus assembly neither perturbed nuclear translocation of the NS1 protein nor viral genome replication occurring under S/G2 cycle arrest. An underlying mechanism of cell cycle control was identified in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated VPs trimeric assembly intermediates, which accessed a non-conserved route distinct from the importin α2/β1 and transportin pathways. The exquisite cell cycle-dependence of parvovirus nuclear capsid assembly conforms a novel paradigm of time and functional coupling between cellular and virus life
Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.
Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos
Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Results of testing 107 serum samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa L., 1758 for thepresence of antibodies to six economically significant porcine infectious disease agents (porcinereproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV, swine influenza virus(SIV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV, porcine transmissiblegastroenteritis virus (TGEV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are presented in the paper. Wild boarwere sampled in seven regions of Russia for diagnostic purposes. The obtained results showed thepresence of antibodies to ADV in 32.5% of samples (83/27, to PPV – in 62% of samples (92/57, toMycoplasma hyopneumoniae – in 52% of samples (98/51. All samples were seronegative to PRRSvirus (107/0, TGEV (91/0 and SIV of H1N1 (89/0 and H3N2 (58/0 subtypes. The researchesdemonstrated the extensive circulation of porcine parvovirus, Aujeszky’s disease virus andMycoplasma hyopneumoniae among Wild boar in some regions of Russia.
Miranda, C; Thompson, G
The authors report a field study that investigated the canine parvovirus (CPV) strains present in dogs that developed the disease after being vaccinated. Faecal samples of 78 dogs that have been vaccinated against CPV and later presented with clinical signs suspected of parvovirus infection were used. Fifty (64.1 per cent) samples tested positive by PCR for CPV. No CPV vaccine type was detected. The disease by CPV-2b occurred in older and female dogs when compared with that by CPV-2c. The clinical signs presented by infected dogs were similar when any of both variants were involved. In most cases of disease, the resulting infection by field variants occurred shortly after CPV vaccination. Two dogs that had been subjected to a complete vaccination schedule and presented with clinical signs after 10 days of vaccination, had the CPV-2c variant associated. The phylogenetic studies showed a close relationship of the isolates in vaccinated dogs to European field strains. Despite the limited sample size in this study, the findings point to the significance of the continuous molecular typing of the virus as a tool to monitor the prevalent circulating CPV strains and access the efficacy of current vaccines. Adjustments on the vaccine types to be used may have to be evaluated again according to each epidemiological situation in order to achieve the dog's optimal immune protection against CPV.
Servant-Delmas, A; Morinet, F
Since its discovery, the human parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been associated with many clinical situations in addition to the prototype clinical manifestations, i.e. erythema infectiosum and erythroblastopenia crisis. The clinical significance of the viral B19V DNA persistence in sera after acute infection remains largely unknown. Such data may constitute a new clinical entity and is discussed in this manuscript. In 2002, despite the genetic diversity among B19V viruses has been reported to be very low, the description of markedly distinct sequences showed a new organization into three genotypes. The most recent common ancestor for B19V genotypes was estimated at early 1800s. B19V replication is enhanced by hypoxia and this might to explain the high viral load detected by quantitative PCR in the sera of infected patients. The minimum infectious dose necessary to transmit B19V infection by the transfusion of labile blood products remains unclear. At the opposite, the US Food and Drug Administration proposed a limit of 10(4)IU/mL of viral DNA in plasma pools used for the production of plasma derivatives. Recently, a new human parvovirus (PARV4) has been discovered. The consequences on blood transfusion of this blood-borne agent and its pathogenicity are still unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V
Antibodies to a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-related coronavirus have been demonstrated in mink sera by indirect immunofluorescence, peroxidase-linked antibody assays and immunoblotting. This is the first serological evidence of a specific coronavirus infection in mink. The putative...
Schorling, Stefan; Schalasta, Gunnar; Enders, Gisela; Zauke, Michael
The COBAS AmpliPrep instrument (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany) automates the entire sample preparation process of nucleic acid isolation from serum or plasma for polymerase chain reaction analysis. We report the analytical performance of the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit (Roche Diagnostics) using nucleic acids isolated with the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit (Roche Diagnostics) and amplified with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit. The kit combination processes 72 samples per 8-hour shift. The lower detection limit is 234 IU/ml at a 95% hit-rate, linear range approximately 104-1010 IU/ml, and overall precision 16 to 40%. Relative sensitivity and specificity in routine samples from pregnant women are 100% and 93%, respectively. Identification of a persistent parvovirus B19-infected individual by the polymerase chain reaction among 51 anti-parvovirus B19 IgM-negative samples underlines the importance of additional nucleic acid testing in pregnancy and its superiority to serology in identifying the risk of parvovirus B19 transmission via blood or blood products. Combination of the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit provides a reliable and time-saving tool for sensitive and accurate detection of parvovirus B19 DNA. PMID:14736825
Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.
Marco, Helena; Guermah, Imane; Matas, Lurdes; Hernández, Alba; Navarro, Maruja; Lopez, Dolores; Bonet, Josep
A previously healthy 32-yearold woman developed arterial hypertension, proteinuria, and hematuria (nephritic syndrome) with normal renal function and was diagnosed with post-infectious glomerulonephritis secondary to parvovirus B19 infection. The renal biopsy showed endocapillary glomerulonephritis, with positive IgG, C3, and C1q immunoreactivity in the capillary walls and ultrastructural evidence of subendothelial deposits. The diagnosis of parvovirus B19 infection was confirmed by IgG/IgM serological positivity and parvovirus DNA demonstration in both peripheral blood and kidney tissue. Glomerular involvement improved spontaneously. To be noted are the atypical signs and symptoms of our patient who, unlike previously reported cases, failed to show fever, skin rash, or affected relatives.
The objectives of this study were to determine if the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in semen will be increased in boars experimentally coinfected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and if PCV2 vaccination of the boars prior to PCV2 exposure will result in reduced PCV2 viremia and...
Sobala-Szczygieł, Barbara; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna; Kępa, Lucjan; Oczko-Grzesik, Barbara; Piotrowski, Damian; Stolarz, Wojciech
Parvovirus B19 infection is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations among which some are well known but others remain controversial. The role of this infection as a cause of acute hepatitis or exacerbation of chronic liver disease requires discussion regarding its significance in a strategy of prevention and treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. Clinical importance of this infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a is still unclear but exactly in this population significant complications during treatment may arise. Parvovirus B19 infection is not rare among persons with chronic hepatitis B, therefore searching for co-infection should be placed in standard diagnostic procedures especially in case of exacerbation of chronic hepatitis, pancytopaenia or anaemia of unknown origin. Pegylated interferon alpha 2a still remains a gold standard of therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis B according to European (EASL) and Polish guidelines. We present a case of 35 years old woman treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a who developed acute liver failure in 23rd week of chronic hepatitis B therapy. An exacerbation of hepatitis with encephalopathy and pancytopaenia have been observed. Parvovirus B19 and HBV co-infection does not increase the frequency of liver function abnormalities in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further investigations should be done to describe the natural course of co-infection with parvovirus B19 and HBV and to establish possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and chronic hepatitis B and also the influence of interferon alpha 2a on the infections course.
Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola
Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liefeldt, Lutz; Plentz, Annelie; Klempa, Boris; Kershaw, Olivia; Endres, Anne-Sophie; Raab, Ulla; Neumayer, Hans-H; Meisel, Helga; Modrow, Susanne
Organ transplant recipients infected with parvovirus B19 frequently develop persistent viremia associated with chronic anemia and pure red cell aplasia. In this study, a male renal transplant recipient who had been infected with parvovirus B19/genotype 2 after renal transplantation at the age of 34 years is described. The patient was repeatedly treated with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) that resulted in the resolvement of symptoms but not in virus eradication. During an observation period of 33 months after transplantation three phases associated with high parvovirus B19 viremia were observed. Both the first and the second viremic phases were combined with severe anemia. Parvovirus B19 specific IgM-antibodies were initially detected at the beginning of the second phase in continually rising concentrations. Initially eradication of the virus by immunoglobulin therapy was reported after the first viremic phase [Liefeldt et al. (2002): Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:1840-1842]. Retrospectively this statement has to be corrected. It was based on the use of a qualitative PCR assay specific for parvovirus B19 genotype 1 associated with reduced sensitivity for detection of genotype 2. After sequence analysis of the viral DNA and adjustment of a real-time PCR assay (TaqMan) for quantitative detection of all three B19 virus genotypes analysis of consecutive serum samples allowed the demonstration of long lasting phases with reduced viral loads following IVIG-treatment. These results demonstrate that IVIG treatment of parvovirus B19-triggered anemia in transplant recipients offers an opportunity to resolve symptoms, but does not guarantee eradication of the virus. Since reactivation of parvovirus B19 infection can result in high virus load associated with the recurrence of symptoms repeated screening for viral DNA is recommended using the TaqMan system established for quantitative detection of all three genotypes of parvovirus B19. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Suikkanen, Sanna; Antila, Mia; Jaatinen, Anne; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Vuento, Matti
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A 2 like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA 2 activity on CPV entry process. PLA 2 activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA 2 inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA 2 activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA 2 activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A 1 , brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A 1 , brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA 2 activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA 2 activity is essential for productive infection and
Systemic thioridazine in combination with dicloxacillin against early aortic graft infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model: In vivo results do not reproduce the in vitro synergistic activity.
Full Text Available Conservative treatment solutions against aortic prosthetic vascular graft infection (APVGI for inoperable patients are limited. The combination of antibiotics with antibacterial helper compounds, such as the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ, should be explored.To investigate the efficacy of conservative systemic treatment with dicloxacillin (DCX in combination with TDZ (DCX+TDZ, compared to DCX alone, against early APVGI caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA in a porcine model.The synergism of DCX+TDZ against MSSA was initially assessed in vitro by viability assay. Thereafter, thirty-two pigs had polyester grafts implanted in the infrarenal aorta, followed by inoculation with 106 CFU of MSSA, and were randomly administered oral systemic treatment with either 1 DCX or 2 DCX+TDZ. Treatment was initiated one week postoperatively and continued for a further 21 days. Weight, temperature, and blood samples were collected at predefined intervals. By termination, bacterial quantities from the graft surface, graft material, and perigraft tissue were obtained.Despite in vitro synergism, the porcine experiment revealed no statistical differences for bacteriological endpoints between the two treatment groups, and none of the treatments eradicated the APVGI. Accordingly, the mixed model analyses of weight, temperature, and blood samples revealed no statistical differences.Conservative systemic treatment with DCX+TDZ did not reproduce in vitro results against APVGI caused by MSSA in this porcine model. However, unexpected severe adverse effects related to the planned dose of TDZ required a considerable reduction to the administered dose of TDZ, which may have compromised the results.
Full Text Available Aim: Hashimato thyroiditis also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis is characterized by lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration of thyroid follicles causing destruction and atrophy in thyroid tissue. Reports on coexistence of several HLA antigen types in Hashimoto thyroiditis may indicate genetic predisposition. Parvovirus B19 is a prevalent and single stranded DNA virus that can cause disease in humans. Parvovirus B 19 infection may be responsible for autoimmune disorders or trigger them. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between Parvovirus B19 and Hashimato thyroiditis. Material and Method: Fifity patients with Hashimato thyroiditis that were admitted to our Internal Medicine outpatient clinic and thirty healthy subjects were included in this study. Parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG were studied by EIA (Virion/Serion, Germany. Statistical analysis of the data was studied with chi-square test at Izmir University School of Medicine Department of Biostatistics . p0.05. IgG levels in patient group was statistically significant (p
Lopez, O. J.; Oliveira, M. F.; Garcia, E. Alvarez; Kwon, B. J.; Doster, A.; Osorio, F. A.
Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that passive transfer of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-neutralizing antibodies (NA) protected pregnant sows against reproductive failure and conferred sterilizing immunity in sows and offspring. We report here on the dose requirement for protection by passive transfer with NA in young weaned pigs. The presence of a 1:8 titer of PRRSV-NA in serum consistently protected pigs against viremia. Nevertheless, their lungs, to...
Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages
William A. Cafruny
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolonecontaining compound Plasmocin™, as well as the quinolones nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, have potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. PRRSV replication was inhibited by these antibiotics in both cultured MARC-145 cells and cultured primary alveolar porcine macrophages (PAMs. Furthermore, sub-optimal concentrations of nalidixic acid synergized with antiviral cytokines (AK-2 or IFN-γ to quantitatively and qualitatively inhibit PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells or PAMs. The antiviral activity of Plasmocin and nalidixic acid correlated with reduced actin expression in MARC-145 cells. Replication of the related lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV was also inhibited in primary mouse macrophages by Plasmocin. These results are significant to the development of antiviral strategies with potentially reduced toxicity, and provide a model system to better understand regulation of arterivirus replication.
Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Lorusso, Alessio; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio
A total of 29 faecal samples collected from dogs with diarrhoea following canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination were tested by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays for discrimination between CPV vaccine and field strains and by diagnostic tests for detection of other canine pathogens. Fifteen samples tested positive only for CPV field strains; however, both vaccine and field strains were detected in three samples. Eleven samples were found to contain only the vaccine strain, although eight of them tested positive for other pathogens of dogs. Only three samples were found to contain the vaccine strain without evidence of canine pathogens. The present study confirms that most cases of parvovirus-like disease occurring shortly after vaccination are related to infection with field strains of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) rather than to reversion to virulence of the modified live virus contained in the vaccine.
Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated). The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples (p < 0.0001) but not within breed (p = 0.098) or sex (p = 0.572). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions. PMID:27699205
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n=174 and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n=56. Each dog’s age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated. The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (p<0.001. There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples (p<0.0001 but not within breed (p=0.098 or sex (p=0.572. Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions.
Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian
Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission. PMID:23018024
Full Text Available CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression.The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections.The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19.
Bonvicini, Francesca; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Di Furio, Francesca; De Falco, Luisa; Gallinella, Giorgio
CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression. The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections. The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19. PMID:22413013
Liliane Costa Conteville
Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V infects individuals worldwide and is associated with an ample range of pathologies and clinical manifestations. B19V is classified into three distinct genotypes, all identified in Brazil. Here, we report a complete sequence of a B19V genotype 1A that was obtained by high-throughput metagenomic sequencing. This genome provides information that will contribute to the studies on B19V epidemiology and evolution.
Gama, Bianca E.; Emmel, Vanessa E.; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Gutiyama, Luciana M.; Arcuri, Leonardo; Colares, Marta; de Cássia Tavares, Rita; Bouzas, Luis F.; Abdelhay, Eliana; Hassan, Rocio
Background. Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common human pathogen, member of the family Parvoviridae. Typically, B19V has been found to infect erythroid progenitors and cause hematological disorders, such as anemia and aplastic crisis. However, the persistence of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been demonstrated in tonsils, liver, skin, brain, synovial, and testicular tissues as well as bone marrow, for both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Although the molecular and cellular mechani...
Quantitative analysis of waterfowl parvoviruses in geese and Muscovy ducks by real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation between age, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of waterfowl parvoviruses
Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterfowl parvoviruses cause serious loss in geese and ducks production. Goose parvovirus (GPV is infectious for geese and ducks while Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV infects Muscovy ducks only. So far, for these viruses' sensitive detection polymerase chain reaction (PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP were applied. However, there was no molecular biology method for both waterfowl parvoviruses detection and quantification which could unify the laboratory procedures. The level of GPV and MDPV replication and distribution plays a significant role in the parvoviral infection progress and is strictly correlated to clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, experiments conducted previously on GPV distribution in geese, performed as animal trial, did not involve epidemiological data from the disease field cases. The study on the correlation between age, clinical symptoms and viral DNA copy number may be benefitable in understanding the GPV and MDPV infection. Such data may also aid in determination of the stage and severity of the infection with parvoviruses. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time PCR for parallel detection of GPV and MDPV in geese and Muscovy ducks and to determine the correlation between the age of the infected birds, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number for the estimation of the disease stage or severity. Results In order to develop quantitative real-time PCR the viral material was collected from 13 farms of geese and 3 farms of Muscovy ducks. The designed primers and Taqman probe for real-time PCR were complementary to GPV and MDPV inverted terminal repeats region. The pITR plasmid was constructed, purified and used to prepare dilutions for standard curve preparation and DNA quantification. The applied method detected both GPV and MDPV in all the examined samples extracted from the heart and liver of the infected birds. The conducted correlation tests have shown relationship
Jason T Kaelber
Full Text Available Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.
Kaelber, Jason T; Demogines, Ann; Harbison, Carole E; Allison, Andrew B; Goodman, Laura B; Ortega, Alicia N; Sawyer, Sara L; Parrish, Colin R
Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR) for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species) modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.
Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 is a human pathogenic virus, a ssDNA member of the family Parvoviridae, characterized by a selective tropism for erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs in the bone marrow and an ample pathogenetic potential. The selective tropism for EPCs can be explained both in terms of receptor-mediated tropism and of an intracellular permissive environment conditioned by the cell differentiation and proliferation stage. Infection of EPCs is productive, induces apoptosis and leads to a temporary arrest of erythropoiesis, which can usually be manifest in cases of underlying erythropoietic disorders or immune system deficiencies. Endothelial cells constitute an additional diffuse target, whose infection is mediated by ADE phenomenon, but is normally nonproductive and mainly leading to inflammatory processes. The relevance of parvovirus as a cardiotropic virus is recently emerging, while its capability of intrauterine transmission and consequences on the fetus is known and should not be overlooked. To the purpose of diagnosis, a combination of molecular and immunological methods offers the best discrimination of active infectious processes, and an application of these methods especially in cases of atypical presentations should be encouraged. Ongoing research is directed towards the development of a vaccine and the discovery of antiviral drugs that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of parvovirus B19 infections.
van Rijckevorsel, Gini G. C.; Bovee, Lian P. M. J.; Damen, Marjolein; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van den Hoek, Anneke
Background: Primary maternal infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19V), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes like congenital infection or foetal loss. Women working in child day care have an increased exposure to CMV, B19V, and VZV. By comparing
Miranda, Carla; Carvalheira, Júlio; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect CPV in naturally infected dogs from several veterinary clinics distributed throughout Portugal between 2012 and 2014 and to identify risk factors associated with CPV infection. From 209 dogs suspected of being infected with CPV, historical data and clinical signs were collected. Fecal samples were screened for CPV by PCR assay and those positive were confirmed by sequencing. The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate associations between each of the predisposing factors and CPV status. Of the samples collected, 77.5% tested CPV-positive. Statistical analysis showed that animals in the three age categories (pdogs be infected with CPV. On the other hand, clinical signs such as depression [OR=4.4, p=0.02] and dehydration status [OR=2.38, p=0.001] made dogs more likely to be CPV-infected. The results indicate that although having a high morbidity, only 18% of the Portuguese dog population died in the study. Some of the risk factors identified in this study have not been commonly reported, yet they are easy to obtain and can be used as prognostic indicators in the veterinary practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Waldman, Meryl; Kopp, Jeffrey B
Parvovirus B19 is a common human pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum in children, hydrops fetalis in pregnant women, and transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Immunosuppressed patients can fail to mount an effective immune response to B19, resulting in prolonged or persistent viremia. Renal transplant recipients can develop symptomatic B19 infections as a result of primary infection acquired via the usual respiratory route or via the transplanted organ, or because of reactivation of latent or persistent viral infection. The most common manifestations of B19 infection in immunosuppressed patients are pure red cell aplasia and other cytopenias. Thus, this diagnosis should be considered in transplant recipients with unexplained anemia and reticulocytopenia or pancytopenia. Collapsing glomerulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy have been reported in association with B19 infection in renal transplant recipients, but a causal relationship has not been definitively established. Prompt diagnosis of B19 infection in the renal transplant recipient requires a high index of suspicion and careful selection of diagnostic tests, which include serologies and polymerase chain reaction. Most patients benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and/or alteration or reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. Conservative therapy might be sufficient in some cases.
Jo, Eu-Ri; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon
In this study, gamma irradiation sensitivities of bacteria and viruses in porcine skin were evaluated to establish the optimum sterilization condition for the dressing material and a xenoskin graft. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used as model pathogens and inoculated at 10 6 –10 7 log CFU/g. As model viruses, porcine parvovirus (PPV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and poliovirus were used and inoculated at 10 5 –10 6 TCID 50 /g into porcine skin. The D 10 value of E. coli was found to be 0.25±0.1 kGy. B. subtilis endospores produced under stressful environmental conditions showed lower radiation sensitivity as D 10 was 3.88±0.3 kGy in porcine skin. The D 10 values of PPV, BVDV, and poliovirus were found to be 1.73±0.2, 3.81±0.2, and 6.88±0.3 kGy, respectively. These results can offer the basic information required for inactivating pathogens by gamma irradiation and achieving dressing material and porcine skin grafts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background PARV4 is a new member of the Parvoviridae family not closely related to any of the known human parvoviruses. Viremia seems to be a hallmark of PARV4 infection and viral DNA persistence has been demonstrated in a few tissues. Till now, PARV4 has not been associated with any disease and its prevalence in human population has not been clearly established. This study was aimed to assess the tissue distribution and the ability to persist of PARV4 in comparison to parvovirus B19 (B19V. Results PARV4 and B19V DNA detection was carried out in various tissues of individuals without suspect of acute viral infection, by a real time PCR and a nested PCR, targeting the ORF2 and the ORF1 respectively. Low amount of PARV4 DNA was found frequently (>40% in heart and liver of adults individuals, less frequently in lungs and kidneys (23,5 and 18% respectively and was rare in bone marrow, skin and synovium samples (5,5%, 4% and 5%, respectively. By comparison, B19V DNA sequences were present in the same tissues with a higher frequency (significantly higher in myocardium, skin and bone marrow except than in liver where the frequency was the same of PARV4 DNA and in plasma samples where B19V frequency was significantly lower than that of PARV4 Conclusions The particular tropism of PARV4 for liver and heart, here emerged, suggests to focus further studies on these tissues as possible target for viral replication and on the possible role of PARV4 infection in liver and heart diseases. Neither bone marrow nor kidney seem to be a common target of viral replication.
Colon-Moran, Winston; Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A
Porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), a gammaretrovirus, infects human cells in vitro, thus raising the potential risk of cross-species transmission in xenotransplantation. Two members of the solute carrier family 52 (SLC52A1 and SLC52A2) are PERV-A receptors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cDNA encoding SLC52A1 identified that only one of two putative glycosylation signals is occupied by glycans. In addition, we showed that glycosylation of SLC52A1 is not necessary for PERV-A receptor function. We also identified that at a minimum, three cysteine residues are sufficient for SLC52A1 cell surface expression. Mutation of cysteine at position 365 and either of the two cysteine residues in the C-terminal tail at positions 442 or 446 reduced SLC52A1 surface expression and PERV-A infection suggesting that these residues may contribute to overall structural stability and receptor function. Understanding interactions between PERV-A and its cellular receptor may provide novel strategies to prevent zoonotic infection in the setting of xenotransplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Paglino, Justin C; Andres, Wells; van den Pol, Anthony N
Members of the genus Parvovirus are small, nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses that are nonpathogenic in humans but have potential utility as cancer therapeutics. Because the innate immune response to parvoviruses has received relatively little attention, we compared the response to parvoviruses to that of several other types of viruses in human cells. In normal human glia, fibroblasts, or melanocytes, vesicular stomatitis virus evoked robust beta interferon (IFN-β) responses. Cytomegalovirus, pseudorabies virus, and Sindbis virus all evoked a 2-log-unit or greater upregulation of IFN-β in glia; in contrast, LuIII and MVMp parvoviruses did not evoke a detectable IFN-β or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG; MX1, oligoadenylate synthetase [OAS], IFIT-1) response in the same cell types. The lack of response raised the question of whether parvoviral infection can be attenuated by IFN; interestingly, we found that IFN did not decrease parvovirus (MVMp, LuIII, and H-1) infectivity in normal human glia, fibroblasts, or melanocytes. The same was true in human cancers, including glioma, sarcoma, and melanoma. Similarly, IFN failed to attenuate transduction by the dependovirus vector adeno-associated virus type 2. Progeny production of parvoviruses was also unimpaired by IFN in both glioma and melanoma, whereas vesicular stomatitis virus replication was blocked. Sarcoma cells with upregulated IFN signaling that show high levels of resistance to other viruses showed strong infection by LuIII. Unlike many other oncolytic viruses, we found no evidence that impairment of innate immunity in cancer cells plays a role in the oncoselectivity of parvoviruses in human cells. Parvoviral resistance to the effects of IFN in cancer cells may constitute an advantage in the virotherapy of some tumors. Understanding the interactions between oncolytic viruses and the innate immune system will facilitate employing these viruses as therapeutic agents in cancer patients. The cancer
Costa, Elisa; Tormo, Nuria; Clari, María Ángeles; Bravo, Dayana; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Navarro, David
Acute parvovirus B19 infection has been reported to cause false-positive results frequently in the Epstein-Barr (EBV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays from DiaSorin performed on the Liaison platform. We tested 65 sera from patients with a presumptive or conclusive diagnosis of acute parvovirus B19 infection in both assays and obtained no false-positive results in the EBV IgM test and 10.4% nonspecific reactivities in the HSV IgM assay. Our data support the specificity of both assays in this clinical setting. PMID:19571110
Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael
Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.
Desario, Costantina; Addie, Diane D.; Martella, Vito; Vieira, Maria João; Elia, Gabriella; Zicola, Angelique; Davis, Christopher; Thompson, Gertrude; Thiry, Ethienne; Truyen, Uwe; Buonavoglia, Canio
Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries. PMID:17953097
Divers, Thomas J; Tennant, Bud C; Kumar, Arvind; McDonough, Sean; Cullen, John; Bhuva, Nishit; Jain, Komal; Chauhan, Lokendra Singh; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Lipkin, W Ian; Laverack, Melissa; Trivedi, Sheetal; Srinivasa, Satyapramod; Beard, Laurie; Rice, Charles M; Burbelo, Peter D; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward; Kapoor, Amit
Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler's disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares horses using a tetanus antitoxin contaminated with EqPV-H. Viremia developed, the horses seroconverted, and acute hepatitis developed that was confirmed by clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic testing. We also determined that EqPV-H is an endemic infection because, in a cohort of 100 clinically normal adult horses, 13 were viremic and 15 were seropositive. We identified a new virus associated with equine serum hepatitis and confirmed its pathogenicity and transmissibility through contaminated biological products.
Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of