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Sample records for population-based incidence prevalence

  1. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: a population-based study.

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    Vilppula, Anitta; Kaukinen, Katri; Luostarinen, Liisa; Krekelä, Ilkka; Patrikainen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Mäki, Markku; Collin, Pekka

    2009-06-29

    Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002-2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  2. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: A population-based study

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    Vilppula Anitta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s. Methods The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Results Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002–2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. Conclusion The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  3. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study.

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    Tyler Hyungtaek Rim

    Full Text Available Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC. The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60-79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period.

  4. Prevalence, incidence and mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus revisited : A prospective population-based study in The Netherlands (ZODIAC-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink-Veltmaat, LJ; Bilo, HJG; Groenier, KH; Houweling, ST; Rischen, RO; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: To present actual data to estimate prevalence, incidence and mortality of known type 2 diabetes mellitus in all age categories in The Netherlands. Methods: Prospective population-based study between 1998 and 2000 in The Netherlands. Baseline population of 155,774 patients, registered

  5. Incidence and Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis in the UK Over Two Decades: Population-Based Study

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    West, Joe; Fleming, Kate M; Tata, Laila J; Card, Timothy R; Crooks, Colin J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) nationally and regionally by time and age groups. Understanding this epidemiology is crucial for hypothesizing about causes and quantifying the burden of disease. METHODS: Patients with CD or DH were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between 1990 and 2011. Incidence rates and prevalence were calculated by age, sex, year, and region of residence. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) adjusted for age, sex, and region were calculated with Poisson regression. RESULTS: A total of 9,087 incident cases of CD and 809 incident cases of DH were identified. Between 1990 and 2011, the incidence rate of CD increased from 5.2 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.8–6.8) to 19.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 17.8–20.5; IRR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.7–4.8). The incidence of DH decreased over the same time period from 1.8 per 100,000 to 0.8 per 100,000 person-years (average annual IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94–0.97). The absolute incidence of CD per 100,000 person-years ranged from 22.3 in Northern Ireland to 10 in London. There were large regional variations in prevalence for CD but not DH. CONCLUSIONS: We found a fourfold increase in the incidence of CD in the United Kingdom over 22 years, with large regional variations in prevalence. This contrasted with a 4% annual decrease in the incidence of DH, with minimal regional variations in prevalence. These contrasts could reflect differences in diagnosis between CD (serological diagnosis and case finding) and DH (symptomatic presentation) or the possibility that diagnosing and treating CD prevents the development of DH. PMID:24667576

  6. The Rising Prevalence and Incidence of Gout in British Columbia, Canada: Population-Based Trends from 2000-2012

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    Rai, Sharan K.; Aviña-Zubieta, J. Antonio; McCormick, Natalie; De Vera, Mary A.; Shojania, Kam; Sayre, Eric C.; Choi, Hyon K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gout is increasingly recognized as the most common form of inflammatory arthritis worldwide; however, no Canadian data on the disease burden of gout are available. We estimated the prevalence, incidence, prescription patterns, and comorbidity burden of gout in an entire Canadian province (British Columbia [BC]) over the last decade. Methods We utilized PopulationData BC, a province-wide database, to estimate temporal trends in the prevalence and incidence of gout from 2000-2012, as well as according to age category. Annual estimates were age-sex-standardized using 2012 as the reference. We also examined annual trends in prescription patterns of common gout medications and assessed the comorbidity burden among gout patients in 2012. Results The 2012 prevalence of gout was 3.8% among the overall population, and the incidence rate was 2.9 per 1,000 person-years. Both gout prevalence and incidence increased substantially over the study period. This burden additionally increased according to age category, affecting over 8% of those ages 60-69 years in 2012. Approximately 22% of gout patients received a prescription for urate-lowering therapy (ULT), which remained stable over the study period, while colchicine and oral glucocorticoid use both increased modestly. By 2012, 72%, 52%, and 18% of prevalent gout patients had been diagnosed with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, respectively. Conclusions The burden of gout in BC, Canada, is substantial, and both the prevalence and incidence have increased over the past decade, while prescription of ULT remains low. These data support the need to improve gout prevention and care. PMID:28040245

  7. Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: a systematic review of population-based studies.

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    Ng, Siew C; Shi, Hai Yun; Hamidi, Nima; Underwood, Fox E; Tang, Whitney; Benchimol, Eric I; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2018-12-23

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a global disease in the 21st century. We aimed to assess the changing incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease around the world. We searched MEDLINE and Embase up to and including Dec 31, 2016, to identify observational, population-based studies reporting the incidence or prevalence of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis from 1990 or later. A study was regarded as population-based if it involved all residents within a specific area and the patients were representative of that area. To be included in the systematic review, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease needed to be reported separately. Studies that did not report original data and studies that reported only the incidence or prevalence of paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (diagnosis at age incidence (119 studies) and prevalence (69 studies) of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We used temporal trend analyses to report changes as an annual percentage change (APC) with 95% CI. We identified 147 studies that were eligible for final inclusion in the systematic review, including 119 studies of incidence and 69 studies of prevalence. The highest reported prevalence values were in Europe (ulcerative colitis 505 per 100 000 in Norway; Crohn's disease 322 per 100 000 in Germany) and North America (ulcerative colitis 286 per 100 000 in the USA; Crohn's disease 319 per 100 000 in Canada). The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease exceeded 0·3% in North America, Oceania, and many countries in Europe. Overall, 16 (72·7%) of 22 studies on Crohn's disease and 15 (83·3%) of 18 studies on ulcerative colitis reported stable or decreasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in North America and Europe. Since 1990, incidence has been rising in newly industrialised countries in Africa, Asia, and South America, including Brazil (APC for Crohn's disease +11·1% [95% CI 4·8-17·8] and APC for ulcerative colitis +14·9% [10·4-19·6]) and Taiwan (APC

  8. Prevalence and predictors of 6-month fatigue in patients with ischemic stroke: a population-based stroke incidence study in Auckland, New Zealand, 2002-2003.

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    Feigin, Valery L; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Parag, Varsha; Hackett, Maree L; Kerse, Ngaire; Barber, P Alan; Theadom, Alice; Krishnamurthi, Rita

    2012-10-01

    Although persistent and significant fatigue affects the daily life of stroke survivors, there are no population-based studies examining the prevalence of fatigue in 6-month survivors of ischemic stroke and few studies of predictors of poststroke fatigue. This article examined data from the Auckland Regional Community Stroke study conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2002 to 2003. Presence of fatigue was evaluated at 6 months in 613 patients with ischemic stroke using a Short Form 36 Vitality Score (energy and fatigue) of ≤ 47. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of fatigue development 6 months poststroke. The prevalence of fatigue was 30% (28% in men and 33% in women). There was a clear association between increased prevalence of fatigue and advancing age. The only baseline variables independently associated with an increased risk of developing fatigue at 6 months poststroke were prestroke incontinence and being of New Zealand European ethnicity. Being independent and living alone at baseline were associated with significant reduction in the risk of being fatigued at 6 months poststroke. Severe depression at 6 months was significantly and independently associated with being fatigued. The prevalence of fatigue found in our study is at the lower level of range reported in other studies. The prevalence of fatigue increased with advancing age, as found in most previous studies. Because fatigue can have a negative impact on stroke recovery, particular attention needs to be paid to those who are older, incontinent before stroke, and those who report severe symptoms of depression at 6 months after stroke.

  9. Estimated prevalence and incidence of diagnosed ADHD and health care utilization in adults in Sweden – a longitudinal population-based register study

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    Polyzoi M

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Polyzoi,1 Ewa Ahnemark,2 Emma Medin,1,3 Ylva Ginsberg4,5 1PAREXEL International, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Medical Affairs Department, Shire Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: Although the worldwide prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is estimated to be between 2% and 5%, it is considered to be underdiagnosed. This register study explored the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD and incidence of newly diagnosed ADHD in Swedish adults over time, and assessed comorbidities and pharmacologic treatment. Methods: National Patient Register data were used to estimate the overall prevalence of adults (≥18 years with a registered ADHD diagnosis from 2006 to 2011, and the incidence of newly registered diagnoses from 2007 to 2011. Data from the Prescribed Drug Register were used to estimate the mean dose of the most frequently prescribed ADHD medication. Results: The estimated annual prevalence (N=44,364 of diagnosed ADHD increased from 0.58 per 1,000 persons in 2006 to 3.54 per 1,000 persons in 2011. The estimated annual incidence of newly diagnosed ADHD (N=24,921 increased from 0.39 per 1,000 persons to 0.90 per 1,000 persons between 2007 and 2011. At least one comorbidity was diagnosed in 52.6% of adults with ADHD (54.0% of newly diagnosed adults, with anxiety, substance use disorders, and depression being the most common. Among all adults with ADHD, 78.9% (65.7% of newly diagnosed adults were prescribed ADHD medication and one-third were prescribed more than one add-on medication. Osmotic release oral system methylphenidate was the most commonly used medication. The mean daily dose was 51.5 mg, and was

  10. Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of World Health Organization Groups 1 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

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    Wijeratne, D Thiwanka; Lajkosz, Katherine; Brogly, Susan B; Lougheed, M Diane; Jiang, Li; Housin, Ahmad; Barber, David; Johnson, Ana; Doliszny, Katharine M; Archer, Stephen L

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes 5 groups of pulmonary hypertension (PH), categorized by pathogenesis or comorbidity: 1-pulmonary arterial hypertension 2-left-heart disease, 3-lung disease and hypoxia 4-chronic thromboembolic disease, and 5-miscellaneous. The epidemiology of PH, apart from group 1, is largely unknown. We describe incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, mortality and prescribing patterns for groups 1 to 4 PH from 1993 to 2012. Case definitions are based on hospitalizations and emergency department visits, using the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data, which comprises linked databases of universal coverage health service records for Ontario residents. This cohort included 50 529 patients with PH. The annual incidence of adult PH increased from 2003 to 2012 from 24.1 to 28.7 cases/100 000 population and the annual prevalence from 1993 to 2012 from 99.8 to 127.3 cases/100 000 population, respectively. The most common form of adult PH was group 2, alone (34.2%) or combined with group 3 PH (29.3%). A diagnosis of PH increased the 1-year standardized mortality ratio 7.2-fold. Mortality in adults with PH was 13.0%, 36.4%, and 62.4%, at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Mortality was highest in groups 2 and 3 and lowest in group 1. PH was present in only 3.6% of people with left heart disease, 0.7% with lung disease, and 1.4% with thromboembolic disease, suggesting that PH is a relatively rare complication of these common diseases. Children (age<16 years) accounted for 3.6% of the cohort. In children group 1 PH was most common (65.2%), and 5-year mortality was lower (21.4%) than in adults. Group 1-specific PH therapies were increasingly prescribed over time and paradoxically were often used in patients who seemed to have group 2, PH based on diagnostic codes indicating left heart disease. The incidence and prevalence of adult PH are increasing. Groups 2 and 3 are the most common and lethal forms of PH. This study identifies an

  11. Hepatoblastoma incidence in Taiwan: A population-based study

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    Giun-Yi Hung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of hepatoblastoma is not well known in Taiwan. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence rates of hepatoblastoma by age and sex. Methods: The data of patients with hepatoblastoma diagnosed from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Incidence rates of hepatoblastoma according to sex and age were analyzed. This study employed the published methods of International Agency for Research on Cancer to calculate the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRRs. Results: In total, 211 patients were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma during the 18-year study period. The ASIR was 0.76 per million person-years. Hepatoblastoma was predominantly diagnosed in children (n = 184, 87.2%. By contrast, adolescents/adults (n = 10, 4.7% and elderly people (n = 17, 8.1% were rarely affected. The incidence peaked at ages 0–4 years with corresponding ASIR of 7.3 per million person-years. A significant male predilection was only found in children and elderly people, with male-to-female SIRRs of 1.23 and 1.89, respectively. During 1995–2012, the overall incidence of hepatoblastoma significantly increased only in children (annual percent change: 7.4%, 95% CI 3.9%–11.1%, p < 0.05 and specifically in boys (annual percent change: 6.5%, 95% CI 1.9%–11.2%, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Only 27 patients aged ≥ 15 years with hepatoblastoma were identified in this study, the existence of adult hepatoblastoma still requires novel molecular tools to elucidate. The association between the upward trend of hepatoblastoma incidence in boys and increased survival of prematurity in Taiwan warrants further investigations. Keywords: Hepatoblastoma, Incidence, Taiwan

  12. Scleroderma prevalence: demographic variations in a population-based sample.

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    Bernatsky, S; Joseph, L; Pineau, C A; Belisle, P; Hudson, M; Clarke, A E

    2009-03-15

    To estimate the prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) using population-based administrative data, and to assess the sensitivity of case ascertainment approaches. We ascertained SSc cases from Quebec physician billing and hospitalization databases (covering approximately 7.5 million individuals). Three case definition algorithms were compared, and statistical methods accounting for imperfect case ascertainment were used to estimate SSc prevalence and case ascertainment sensitivity. A hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression model that accounted for possible between-test dependence conditional on disease status estimated the effect of patient characteristics on SSc prevalence and the sensitivity of the 3 ascertainment algorithms. Accounting for error inherent in both the billing and the hospitalization data, we estimated SSc prevalence in 2003 at 74.4 cases per 100,000 women (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69.3-79.7) and 13.3 cases per 100,000 men (95% CrI 11.1-16.1). Prevalence was higher for older individuals, particularly in urban women (161.2 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 148.6-175.0). Prevalence was lowest in young men (in rural areas, as low as 2.8 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 1.4-4.8). In general, no single algorithm was very sensitive, with point estimates for sensitivity ranging from 20-73%. We found marked differences in SSc prevalence according to age, sex, and region. In general, no single case ascertainment approach was very sensitive for SSc. Therefore, using data from multiple sources, with adjustment for the imperfect nature of each, is an important strategy in population-based studies of SSc and similar conditions.

  13. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

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    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  14. HIV incidence from the first population-based cohort study in India.

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    Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, G Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Ahmed, G Md Mushtaq; Akbar, Mohammed; Ramgopal, Sri P; Sudha, Talasila; Alary, Michel; Dandona, Rakhi

    2013-07-17

    Understanding about who acquires new HIV infection and the determinants of why some persons get infected and others do not is fundamental to controlling HIV in the population. We assess HIV incidence and its associations in the population of a high HIV burden district in Andhra Pradesh state in southern India by a population-based longitudinal cohort study. We re-surveyed a population-based cohort of 12,617 adults in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh for which we had reported a baseline HIV prevalence of 1.72% (rural 1.64%, urban 1.89%) among the 15-49 years age group in 2004-2005. We conducted interviews to assess risk behaviour and performed HIV testing again in 2010-2011. We assessed the rate of new HIV infection and its associations using multiple logistic regression. The participation rate in the follow-up was 74.9% and 63.9% of the baseline rural and urban samples, respectively. Over a mean follow-up of 5.63 years, the incidence of HIV was 1.26 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.83-1.69), after adjusting for slight compositional bias in the follow-up sample. The incidence per 1000 person-years was higher among rural men (1.68) than urban men (0.85), and among rural women (1.28) than urban women (0.54). The strongest association with incidence was a HIV positive spouse in the baseline for both men (odds ratio 266, 95% CI 62-1137) and women (odds ratio 28, 95% CI 9-88). Among men the other significant associations with HIV incidence were frequent use of condom for sex over the past 6 months, non-circumcision, more than one lifetime woman sex partner or ever visited sex worker, and transport-related occupation; for women the other significant associations were having had HIV testing other than antenatal check-up, previously married but currently not, and tobacco use. These first population-based cohort incidence data from India suggest that rural areas of high HIV burden states would need more attention to prevent new HIV infections, and that spouses of HIV

  15. Exposure to ambient air pollution and the incidence of dementia: A population-based cohort study.

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    Chen, Hong; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Copes, Ray; Hystad, Perry; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Tu, Karen; Brook, Jeffrey R; Goldberg, Mark S; Martin, Randall V; Murray, Brian J; Wilton, Andrew S; Kopp, Alexander; Burnett, Richard T

    2017-11-01

    Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2.1 million individuals). Follow-up extended until 2013. We used population-based health administrative databases with a validated algorithm to ascertain incident diagnosis of dementia as well as prevalent cases. Using satellite observations, land-use regression model, and an optimal interpolation method, we derived long-term average exposure to fine particulate matter (≤2.5μm in diameter) (PM 2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ), respectively at the subjects' historical residences based on a population-based registry. We used multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for individual and contextual factors, such as diabetes, brain injury, and neighborhood income. We conducted various sensitivity analyses, such as lagging exposure up to 10years and considering a negative control outcome for which no (or weaker) association with air pollution is expected. We identified 257,816 incident cases of dementia in 2001-2013. We found a positive association between PM 2.5 and dementia incidence, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.05) for every interquartile-range increase in exposure to PM 2.5 . Similarly, NO 2 was associated with increased incidence of dementia (HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.08-1.12). No association was found for O 3 . These associations were robust to all sensitivity analyses examined. These estimates translate to 6.1% of

  16. Physical activity and incidence of sarcopenia: the population-based AGES—Reykjavik Study

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    Mijnarends, Donja M.; Koster, Annemarie; Schols, Jos M. G. A.; Meijers, Judith M. M.; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Meirelles, Osorio; Harris, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Background: the prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. Physical activity might slow the rate of muscle loss and therewith the incidence of sarcopenia. Objective: to examine the association of physical activity with incident sarcopenia over a 5-year period. Design: data from the population-based Age, Gene/Environment, Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study were used. Setting: people residing in the Reykjavik area at the start of the study. Subjects: the study included people aged 66–93 years (n = 2309). Methods: the amount of moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Sarcopenia was identified using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm, including muscle mass (computed tomography imaging), grip strength (computerised dynamometer) and gait speed (6 m). Results: mean age of the participants was 74.9 ± 4.7 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 7.3% at baseline and 16.8% at follow-up. The incidence proportion of sarcopenia over 5 years was 14.8% in the least-active individuals and 9.0% in the most-active individuals. Compared with the least-active participants, those reporting a moderate–high amount of MVPA had a significantly lower likelihood of incident sarcopenia (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Participants with a high amount of MVPA had higher baseline levels of muscle mass, strength and walking speed, but baseline MVPA was not associated with the rate of muscle loss. Conclusion: a higher amount of MVPA seems to contribute to counteracting the development of sarcopenia. To delay the onset of sarcopenia and its potential adverse outcomes, attention should be paid to increasing physical activity levels in older adults. PMID:27189729

  17. Prevalence of Primary Sjögren's Syndrome in a US Population-Based Cohort.

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    Maciel, Gabriel; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L; Cornec, Divi

    2017-10-01

    To report the point prevalence of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in the first US population-based study. Cases of all potential primary SS patients living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, on January 1, 2015, were retrieved using Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, and ascertained by manual medical records review. Primary SS cases were defined according to physician diagnosis. The use of diagnostic tests was assessed and the performance of classification criteria was evaluated. The number of prevalent cases in 2015 was also projected based on 1976-2005 incidence data from the same source population. A total of 106 patients with primary SS were included in the study: 86% were female, with a mean ± SD age of 64.6 ± 15.2 years, and a mean ± SD disease duration of 10.5 ± 8.4 years. A majority were anti-SSA positive (75%) and/or anti-SSB positive (58%), but only 22% met American-European Consensus Group or American College of Rheumatology criteria, because the other tests required for disease classification (ocular dryness objective assessment, salivary gland functional or morphologic tests, or salivary gland biopsy) were rarely performed in clinical practice. According to the physician diagnosis, the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of primary SS was 10.3 per 10,000 inhabitants, but according to classification criteria, this prevalence was only 2.2 per 10,000. The analysis based on previous incidence data projected a similar 2015 prevalence rate of 11.0 per 10,000. The prevalence of primary SS in this geographically well-defined population was estimated to be between 2 and 10 per 10,000 inhabitants. Physicians rarely used tests included in the classification criteria to diagnose the disease in this community setting. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Era.

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    Benard, Vicki B; Castle, Philip E; Jenison, Steven A; Hunt, William C; Kim, Jane J; Cuzick, Jack; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Du, Ruofei; Robertson, Michael; Norville, Scott; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2017-06-01

    A substantial effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines on reducing HPV-related cervical disease is essential before modifying clinical practice guidelines in partially vaccinated populations. To determine the population-based cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) trends when adjusting for changes in cervical screening practices that overlapped with HPV vaccination implementation. The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry, which captures population-based estimates of both cervical screening prevalence and CIN, was used to compute CIN trends from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014. Under New Mexico Administrative Code, the New Mexico HPV Pap Registry, a statewide public health surveillance program, receives mandatory reporting of all cervical screening (cytologic and HPV testing) and any cervical, vulvar, and vaginal histopathological findings for all women residing in New Mexico irrespective of outcome. Prespecified outcome measures included low-grade CIN (grade 1 [CIN1]) and high-grade CIN (grade 2 [CIN2] and grade 3 [CIN3]). From 2007 to 2014, a total of 13 520 CIN1, 4296 CIN2, and 2823 CIN3 lesions were diagnosed among female individuals 15 to 29 years old. After adjustment for changes in cervical screening across the period, reductions in the CIN incidence per 100 000 women screened were significant for all grades of CIN among female individuals 15 to 19 years old, dropping from 3468.3 to 1590.6 for CIN1 (annual percentage change [APC], -9.0; 95% CI, -12.0 to -5.8; P women 20 to 24 years old, dropping from 1027.7 to 627.1 (APC, -6.3; 95% CI, -10.9 to -1.4; P = .02). Population-level decreases in CIN among cohorts partially vaccinated for HPV may be considered when clinical practice guidelines for cervical cancer screening are reassessed. Evidence is rapidly growing to suggest that further increases in raising the age to start screening are imminent, one step toward integrating screening and vaccination.

  19. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes is Not Increasing in a Population-Based Cohort in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA

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    Cartee, Amanda K.; Owens, Lisa A.; Lahr, Brian D.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Murray, Joseph A.; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Worldwide studies show that the type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence is increasing by 3% annually. Objectives We investigated the recent incidence of T1D in a US Midwestern county to determine whether this increase has been sustained and compare to celiac disease (CD) incidence. The prevalence of (CD), an associated autoimmune disease, within the cohort was also investigated. Design A broad search strategy was used to identify all cases of T1D in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1,1994 and December 31, 2010 using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Diagnosis and residency status were confirmed through the medical record. Incidence rates were directly standardized to the 2010 United States population. Poisson regression was used to test for a change in incidence rate. Clinical charts were reviewed to confirm case status. Setting Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Main Outcome Measure The trend in T1D incidence in a population-based study in a Midwestern US county. Results There were 233 incident cases of T1D. Directly adjusting for age and sex with respect to the 2010 US white population, the overall annual incidence of T1D was 9.2 (95% CI, 8.0-10.4) per 100,000 people per year among all ages and 19.9 (95% CI, 16.6-23.2) per 100,000 per people per year for those younger than 20 years. There was no significant increase in the incidence of T1D over time (P=.45). Despite the overall stability in annual incidence, there was an initial increasing trend followed by a plateau. Of the 109 T1D patients (46%) tested for CD, 12% had biopsy-proven CD. Conclusions The incidence of T1D has stopped increasing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in the most recent decade. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and explore reasons for this plateau. PMID:27492913

  20. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to

  1. Incidence of hand eczema in a population-based twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Ravn, H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on the incidence of hand eczema are sparse. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to determine the incidence rate of hand eczema in a population-based twin cohort. Secondly, the role of genetic factors and other potential risk factors...... for hand eczema was investigated. METHODS: A questionnaire on self-reported hand eczema was answered by 5610 and 4128 twin individuals in 1996 and 2005, respectively. Data were analysed in a Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The crude incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence...... with an increased risk, whereas no association with age, sex, smoking or alcohol was found...

  2. A Population-Based Study of the Incidence of Acute Spinal Cord Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Suri, M Fareed K

    2017-06-01

    There is a paucity of reliable data regarding incidence of acute spinal cord infarction in population-based studies. To determine the incidence of acute spinal cord infarction using a population-based design. Medical records and neuroimaging data of all patients with acute spinal cord infarction from Stearns and Benton Counties, Minnesota, between January 1, 2010 and May 31, 2014 were reviewed. Patients with a first-time diagnosis of spinal cord infarction were categorized as primary or secondary depending upon underlying etiology identified. We calculated the incidences of primary and secondary spinal cord infarction adjusted for age and sex based on the 2010 US census (189,093 resident populations). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of spinal cord infarction was 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-7.2] per100,000 person-years. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of primary and secondary spinal cord infarction was 1.5 [95% CI 0.6-3.6] and 1.6 [95% CI 0.6-3.6] per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The age-adjusted incidences among men and women were 1.5 [95%CI 0.6-3.7] and 4.6 [95% CI 2.2-8.7] per 100,000 person-years, respectively. No case fatality was observed at one month. We provide incidence rates for acute spinal cord infarction to assist in future studies and resource allocation.

  3. The Global Incidence of Appendicitis: A Systematic Review of Population-based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Mollie; Quan, Samuel; Kaplan, Belle S; Molodecky, Natalie; Ball, Chad G; Chernoff, Greg W; Bhala, Nij; Ghosh, Subrata; Dixon, Elijah; Ng, Siew; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2017-08-01

    We compared the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy across the world and evaluated temporal trends. Population-based studies reported the incidence of appendicitis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for population-based studies reporting the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. Time trends were explored using Poisson regression and reported as annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). APC were stratified by time periods and pooled using random effects models. Incidence since 2000 was pooled for regions in the Western world. The search retrieved 10,247 citations with 120 studies reporting on the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. During the 21st century the pooled incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy (in per 100,000 person-years) was 100 (95% CI: 91, 110) in Northern America, and the estimated number of cases in 2015 was 378,614. The pooled incidence ranged from 105 in Eastern Europe to 151 in Western Europe. In Western countries, the incidence of appendectomy steadily decreased since 1990 (APC after 1989=-1.54; 95% CI: -2.22, -0.86), whereas the incidence of appendicitis stabilized (APC=-0.36; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.26) for both perforated (APC=0.95; 95% CI: -0.25, 2.17) and nonperforated appendicitis (APC=0.44; 95% CI: -0.84, 1.73). In the 21st century, the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy is high in newly industrialized countries in Asia (South Korea pooled: 206), the Middle East (Turkey pooled: 160), and Southern America (Chile: 202). Appendicitis is a global disease. The incidence of appendicitis is stable in most Western countries. Data from newly industrialized countries is sparse, but suggests that appendicitis is rising rapidly.

  4. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a population-based sample in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingqi; Zhang, Huiyun; Liu, Huimin; Luo, Songping; Wang, Tianfang; Zhang, Junlong; Ji, Lijin

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and the frequency and severity of the symptoms in a population-based sample of Chinese women of reproductive age. Women aged 18-45 years were screened for suspected PMS and PMDD based on the ACOG recommendations for a diagnosis of PMS and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). For those who were consistent with PMS diagnostic criteria, the daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) questionnaire was used to assess the symptoms prospectively over 2 months. Participants were then categorized as having no perceived symptoms, mild PMS, moderate PMS, and PMDD, based on a validated algorithm. Among the study group, the incidence of PMDD was 2.1% and PMS was 21.1%. The most common symptoms were irritability (91.21%), breast tenderness (77.62%), depression (68.31%), abdominal bloating (63.70%) and angry outbursts (59.62%). The prevalence of PMS/PMDD and the frequency and severity of the symptoms have their own characteristics in Chinese women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial disparities in incidence and outcome in multiple myeloma: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, Adam J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Devesa, Susan S.; Anderson, William F.; Weiss, Brendan M.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common hematologic malignancy in blacks. Some prior studies suggest inferior survival in blacks; others suggest similar survival. Using the original 9 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries, we conducted a large-scale population-based study including 5798 black and 28 939 white MM patients diagnosed 1973-2005, followed through 2006. Age-adjusted incidence rates, disease-specific survival, and relative survival rates were calculated by race, ag...

  6. Incidence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa : a nationwide population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Hoek, H. W.; Linna, M. S.; Raevuori, A.; Sihvola, E.; Bulik, C. M.; Rissanen, A.; Kaprio, J.

    Background. Little is known about the epidemiology of bulimia nervosa outside clinical settings. We report the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa using for the first time a nationwide Study design. Method. To assess the incidence and natural course and outcomes of DSM-IV bulimia

  7. Incidence of anogenital warts in Germany: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.

  8. Incidence of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Croatia: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadojić, Dragutin; Demarin, Vida; Dikanović, Marinko; Lusić, Ivo; Tuskan-Mohar, Lidija; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Mihaljević, Ivan; Kadojić, Mira; Bitunjac, Milan; Vranjes, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this population based neuroepidemiological study was to establish the real incidence rates of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD): stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Republic of Croatia. Multicentric study included 89 501 persons of all ages in four regional centres in Croatia: Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod, Rijeka and Split. The following incidence rates of stroke, expressed at population of 100 000, have been established: Zagreb 290.52, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 302.14, Rijeka 219.65, Split 195.82. Incidence rate of stroke for the Republic of Croatia is 251.39. The following incidence rates of TIA, expressed at population of 100,000, have been established: Zagreb 87.15, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 156.53, Rijeka 90.11, Split 59.10. Incidence rate of TIA for the Republic of Croatia is 100.55. In the continental part of Croatia (Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod) incidence rate of stroke is higher by 45%, while incidence rate of TIA is higher by 82% than in the coastal part of Croatia, probably due to different lifestyle and environmental factors. The study has shown relatively high incidence rates of acute CVD (stroke and TIA) in the Republic of Croatia, which proves that CVD are a great public health problem.

  9. Prevalence and prognosis of synchronous colorectal cancer: a Dutch population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.F.; Kranse, R.; Damhuis, R.A.; Wilt, J.H. de; Ouwendijk, R.J.; Kuipers, E.J.; Leerdam, M.E. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A noticeable proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are diagnosed with synchronous CRC. Large population-based studies on the incidence, risk factors and prognosis of synchronous CRC are, however, scarce, and are needed for better determination of risks of synchronous CRC in

  10. [Breast cancer incidence related with a population-based screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Caicoya, Martín; Prieto, Miguel; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-02-20

    To compare breast cancer cumulative incidence, time evolution and stage at diagnosis between participants and non-participant women in a population-based screening program. Cohort study of breast cancer incidence in relation to participation in a population screening program. The study population included women from the target population of the screening program. The source of information for diagnostics and stages was the population-based cancer registry. The analysis period was 1999-2010. The Relative Risk for invasive, in situ, and total cancers diagnosed in participant women compared with non-participants were respectively 1.16 (0.94-1.43), 2.98 (1.16-7.62) and 1.22 (0.99-1.49). The Relative Risk for participants versus non-participants was 2.47 (1.55-3.96) for diagnosis at stagei, 2.58 (1.67-3.99) for T1 and 2.11 (1.38-3.23) for negative lymph node involvement. The cumulative incidence trend had two joint points in both arms, with an Annual Percent of Change of 92.3 (81.6-103.5) between 1999-2001, 18.2 (16.1-20.3) between 2001-2005 and 5.9 (4.0-7.8) for the last period in participants arm, and 72.6 (58.5-87.9) between 1999-2001, 12.6 (7.9-17.4) between 2001-2005, and 8.6 (6.5-10.6) in the last period in the non-participant arm. Participating in the breast cancer screening program analyzed increased the in situ cumulative cancer incidence, but not the invasive and total incidence. Diagnoses were earlier in the participant arm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Saudi Arabia; Population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhy, Hanan H; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2017-07-01

    The annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) data in Saudi Arabia has not been updated since 1993. To estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) and ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia using Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013. Participants were randomly selected from the population served by the primary healthcare centers of the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh, Jeddah, Alhassa and Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1369 participants were included. The overall prevalence of LTBI was similar using TST and QFT-GIT (9.3% and 9.1% respectively, p=0.872) but stratified prevalence rates were variable in all sociodemographic groups except marital status. Additionally, the prevalence rates of LTBI using either test alone showed significant differences by several sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. The overall ARTI was 0.36% using TST and 0.35% using QFT-GIT. We are reporting much lower estimates for the prevalence of LTBI and the ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia relative to the data that have been used for more than two decades. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A Population-Based Study of the Incidence of Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, John J.; Bruce, Alison J.; Torgerson, Rochelle R.; Schenck, Louis A.; Davis, Mark D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To calculate the incidence of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 2000 to 2010. Patients and Methods Using the medical record linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified newly diagnosed cases of BMS from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010. Diagnoses were confirmed through the presence of burning pain symptoms of the oral mucosa with normal oral examination findings and no associated clinical signs. Incidence was estimated using decennial census data for Olmsted County. Results In total, 169 incident cases were identified, representing an annual age- and sex-adjusted incidence of BMS of 11.4 per 100,000 person-years. Age-adjusted incidence was significantly higher in women than men (18.8 [95% CI, 16.4–22.9] vs 3.7 [95% CI, 2.6–5.7] per 100,000 person-years [P<.001]). Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 89 years had the highest disease incidence, with the maximal rate in women aged 70 to 79 years (70.3 per 100,000 person-years). After age 50 years, BMS incidence in men and women significantly increased across age-groups (P=.02). Olmsted County study participants were predominantly white, which is a study limitation. In addition, diagnostic criteria for identifying BMS in the present study may not apply for all situations because no diagnostic criteria are universally recognized for identifying BMS. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first population-based incidence study of BMS reported to date. The data show that BMS is an uncommon disease highly associated with female sex and advancing age. PMID:25176397

  13. Strabismus Incidence in a Danish Population-Based Cohort of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Skotte, Line

    2017-01-01

    , overall and by subtype, among children 7 years or younger. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was conducted with data from 96 842 children enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-specific incidence and cumulative incidence and median...... identified in the cohort. We found an overall cumulative strabismus incidence of 2.56% (95% CI, 2.42-2.69) at 7 years. The overall incidence was similar among boys and girls. Two hundred sixteen participants (16.5%) (95% CI, 14.5-18.6) had congenital esotropia, 177 (13.5%) (95% CI, 11.7-15.5) had fully...... accommodative esotropia, 252 (19.3%) (95% CI, 17.1-21.5) had partially accommodative esotropia, and 181 (13.8%) (95% CI, 12.0-15.8) had exotropia. The esotropia:exotropia ratio was 5.4:1 (95% CI, 3.4:1 to 7.5:1). Age-specific incidence curves for congenital esotropia, fully accommodative esotropia, partially...

  14. A population-based, incidence cohort study of mid-back pain after traffic collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M S; Boyle, E; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic collisions often result in a wide range of symptoms included in the umbrella term whiplash-associated disorders. Mid-back pain (MBP) is one of these symptoms. The incidence and prognosis of different traffic injuries and their related conditions (e.g. neck pain, low back pain...... data from a population-based inception cohort of all traffic injuries occurring in Saskatchewan, Canada, during a 2-year period were used. Annual overall and age-sex-specific incidence rates were calculated, the course of recovery was described using the Kaplan-Meier technique, and associations between...... recovery was 101 days (95% CI: 99-104) and about 23% were still not recovered after 1 year. Participant's expectation for recovery, general health, extent of severely affecting comorbidities and having experienced a previous traffic injury were some of the prognostic factors identified. CONCLUSIONS...

  15. Incidence and prognosis of stroke in young adults: a population-based study in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppo, Elisabetta; De Gennaro, Riccardo; Granieri, Gino; Fazio, Patrik; Cesnik, Edward; Granieri, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria

    2012-02-01

    The reported annual incidence of juvenile stroke ranges from 9 to 47 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. We sought to estimate the incidence of first-ever stroke in young adults through a population-based stroke registry in a well-defined and stable population. We planned to collect all cases of new stroke in people aged 15-44 years in Ferrara, Italy, over the period 2002-2007. During the surveillance period, a first-ever stroke was diagnosed in 39 patients, giving a mean annual crude incidence rate of 12.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 8.6-16.5), 9.1 when adjusted to the European population. The overall 30-day case fatality rate was 7.7, 21.4% for hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence rate was in the range of estimates detected in western countries. The case-fatality rate was lower than that reported in less recent studies. The stroke subtype predicted the probability of death and the outcome.

  16. Incidences and variations of hospital acquired venous thromboembolism in Australian hospitals: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Hassan; Chen, Jack; Ou, Lixin; Hillman, Ken; Flabouris, Arthas

    2016-09-22

    Data on hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) incidence, case fatality rate and variation amongst patient groups and health providers is lacking. We aim to explore HA-VTE incidences, associated mortality, trends and variations across all acute hospitals in New South Wales (NSW)-Australia. A population-based study using all admitted patients (aged 18-90 with a length of stay of at least two days and not transferred to another acute care facility) in 104 NSW acute public and private hospitals during 2002-2009. Poisson mixed models were used to derive adjusted rate ratios (IRR) in presence of patient and hospital characteristics. Amongst, 3,331,677 patients, the incidence of HA-VTE was 11.45 per 1000 patients and one in ten who developed HA-VTE died in hospital. HA-VTE incidence, initially rose, but subsequently declined, whereas case fatality rate consistently declined by 22 % over the study period. Surgical patients were 128 % (IRR = 2.28, 95 % CI: 2.19-2.38) more likely to develop HA-VTE, but had similar case fatality rates compared to medical patients. Private hospitals, in comparison to public hospitals had a higher incidence of HA-VTE (IRR = 1.76; 95 % CI: 1.42-2.18) for medical patients. However, they had a similar incidence (IRR = 0.91; 95 % CI: 0.75-1.11), but a lower mortality (IRR = 0.59; 95 % CI: 0.47-0.75) amongst surgical patients. Smaller public hospitals had a lower HA-VTE incidence rate compared to larger hospitals (IRR  1.71). Hospitals with a lower reported HA-VTE incidence tended to have a higher HA-VTE case fatality rate. Despite the decline in HA-VTE incidence and case fatality, there were large variations in incidents between medical and surgical patients, public and private hospitals, and different hospital groups. The causes of such differences warrant further investigation and may provide potential for targeted interventions and quality improvement initiatives.

  17. Diabetes incidence and projections from prevalence surveys in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2016-11-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis) matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence) from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160) was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI) change. T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980-2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13-26% lower), and 0.5-0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8-14% lower), could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1-4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25-64 years.

  18. The prevalence of genetic and serologic markers in an unselected European population-based cohort of IBD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lene; Vind, Ida; Vermeire, Severine

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it has become evident that genetic factors are involved in disease susceptibility. Studies have suggested a north-south gradient in the incidence of IBD, raising the question whether this difference is caused...... by genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of polymorphisms in CARD15 and TLR4 and occurrence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) in a European population-based IBD cohort. METHODS: Individuals from the incident cohort were genotyped...... for three mutations in CARD15 and the Asp299gly mutation in TLR4. Levels of ASCA and pANCA were assessed. Disease location and behaviour at time of diagnosis was obtained from patient files. RESULTS: Overall CARD15 mutation rate was 23.9% for CD and 9.6% for UC patients (P

  19. Incidence of type 1 diabetes in China, 2010-13: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jianping; Zhou, Zhiguang; Guo, Lixin; Zhu, Dalong; Ji, Linong; Luo, Xiaoping; Mu, Yiming; Jia, Weiping

    2018-01-03

    To estimate the incidence of type 1 diabetes in all age groups in China during 2010-13. Population based, registry study using data from multiple independent sources. National registration system in all 505 hospitals providing diabetes care, and communities of patients with diabetes in 13 areas across China, covering more than 133 million person years at risk, approximately 10% of the whole population. 5018 people of all ages with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and resident in the study areas from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2013. Incidence of type 1 diabetes per 100 000 person years by age, sex, and study area. Type 1 diabetes was doctor diagnosed and further validated by onsite follow-up. Completeness of case ascertainment was assessed using the capture mark recapture method. 5018 cases of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes were ascertained: 1239 participants were aged China was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 1.84). Incidence per 100 000 persons years by age group was 1.93 (0.83 to 3.03) for 0-14 years, 1.28 (0.45 to 2.11) for 15-29 years, and 0.69 (0.00 to 1.51) for ≥30 years, with a peak in age group 10-14 years. The incidence in under 15s was positively correlated with latitude (r=0.88, PChina occurred among adults. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Chinese children was among the lowest reported in the study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Northern China: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    Full Text Available AIMS & BACKGROUNDS: Although inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are emerging and increasing in China, epidemiologic data are rarely available. This study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of IBD in Northern China. METHODS: This is a prospective, population-based study of incidence of IBD in Daqing, Heilongjiang province of Northern China from March 1, 2012 to February 28, 2013. All incident patients with IBD were clinically identified by IBD specialist group from five main General Hospitals covering the healthcare service for 1,343,364 residents in the urban areas of Daqing. IBD cases included in this study were followed-up for three months for diagnosis confirmation. RESULTS: A total of 27 new IBD cases including 25 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC and 2 cases of Crohn's disease (CD were identified. The population at risk was 1,343,364 person years. Age-adjusted incidence for total IBD, CD and UC were 1.77, 0.13, and 1.64 per 100,000 population, respectively. A male predominance was found in CD patients (male to female ratio was 2 ∶ 0. In contrast, no obvious gender predominance was found in UC patients (male to female ratio was 1 ∶ 1.1. CD patients were diagnosed at an average age of 39.5 years. The main disease phenotypes of UC were distal colitis with a 24% of proctitis and 56% of left-sided colitis. The mean diagnostic age of UC patients was 48.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the incidence of IBD in the Northern Chinese population. A lower incidence of IBD, similar male predominance for CD, similar disease phenotype of UC, and lower disease activity was observed in Daqing compared to that in Southern China.

  1. Risk and course of motor complications in a population-based incident Parkinson's disease cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornestad, Anders; Forsaa, Elin B; Pedersen, Kenn Freddy; Tysnes, Ole-Bjorn; Larsen, Jan Petter; Alves, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Motor complications may become major challenges in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease. In this study, we sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, evolution, and treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in a population-representative, incident Parkinson's disease cohort. In this prospective population-based 5-year longitudinal study, we followed 189 incident and initially drug-naïve Parkinson's disease patients biannually for detailed examination of dyskinesias and motor fluctuations as defined by the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses to assess cumulative incidence and risk factors of these motor complications. The 5-year cumulative incidence of motor complications was 52.4%. Motor fluctuations occurred in 42.9% and dyskinesias in 24.3%. Besides higher motor severity predicting both motor fluctuations (p = 0.016) and dyskinesias (p motor fluctuations (p = 0.001), whereas female gender predicted dyskinesias (p = 0.001). Actual levodopa dose at onset of motor fluctuations (p = 0.037) or dyskinesias (p 0.1) independently predicted development of motor complications. Motor fluctuations reversed in 37% and dyskinesias in 49% of patients on oral treatment and remained generally mild in those with persistent complications. No patients received device-aided therapies during the study. More than 50% in the general Parkinson's disease population develop motor complications within 5 years of diagnosis. However, they remain mild in the vast majority and are reversible in a substantial proportion of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence and time trends of Herpes zoster in rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study

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    Veetil, Bharath Manu Akkara; Myasoedova, Elena; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Green, Abigail B.; Crowson, Cynthia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, time trends, risk factors and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) in a population-based incidence cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to a group of individuals without RA from the same population. Methods All residents of Olmsted County, MN who first fulfilled 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA between 1/1/1980 and 12/31/2007 and a cohort of similar residents without RA were assembled and followed by retrospective chart review until death, migration, or 12/31/2008. Results There was no difference in the presence of HZ prior to RA incidence/index date between the cohorts (p=0.85). During follow-up 84 patients with RA (rate: 12.1 per 1000 person-years) and 44 subjects without RA (rate: 5.4 per 1000 person-years) developed HZ. Patients with RA were more likely to develop HZ than those without RA (hazard ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.5). Patients diagnosed with RA in 1995–2007 had a higher likelihood of developing HZ than those diagnosed in 1980–1994. Erosive disease, previous joint surgery, use of hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids were significantly associated with the development of HZ in RA, while the use of methotrexate or biologic agents was not. Complications of HZ occurred at a similar rate in both cohorts. Conclusion The incidence of HZ is increased in RA and has risen in recent years. The increasing incidence of HZ in more recent years is also noted in the general population. RA disease severity is associated with development of HZ. PMID:23281295

  3. Oral cancer in Cali, Colombia: a population-based analysis of incidence and mortality trends.

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    Dora Ordóñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the time trends of the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer (OC in Cali, Colombia between 1962-2007. Materials and methods. Age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR and mortality (ASMR rates for oral cancer were estimated using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and from the database of the Municipal Secretary of Public Health (MSPH respectively. Annual percentage change (APC was used to measure the changes in rates over time. Results. 1 637 new cases of oral cancer were registered in the CPCR and the mean age upon diagnosis was 60 years. The ASIR decreased from 1962-2007 in men APC= 1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6 and women APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4.The ASMR decreased from 1984-2001 only in men, APC=2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5. Conclusions. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and mortality rates for OC in Cali, Colombia. The type of tumor associated to these changes was the squamous cell carcinoma

  4. [Oral cancer in Cali, Colombia: a population-based analysis of incidence and mortality trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Dora; Aragón, Natalia; García, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the time trends of the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer (OC) in Cali, Colombia between 1962-2007. Age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for oral cancer were estimated using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and from the database of the Municipal Secretary of Public Health (MSPH) respectively. Annual percentage change (APC) was used to measure the changes in rates over time. 1637 new cases of oral cancer were registered in the CPCR and the mean age upon diagnosis was 60 years. The ASIR decreased from 1962-2007 in men APC= 1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6) and women APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4).The ASMR decreased from 1984-2001 only in men, APC=2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5). There was a significant decrease in the incidence and mortality rates for OC in Cali, Colombia. The type of tumor associated to these changes was the squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. The Contemporary Incidence and Sequelae of Rhabdomyolysis Following Extirpative Renal Surgery: A Population Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi-Hammerschmidt, Francisco; Tinay, Ilker; Allard, Christopher B; Su, Li-Ming; Preston, Mark A; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kibel, Adam S; Wang, Ye; Chung, Benjamin I; Chang, Steven L

    2016-02-01

    We evaluate the contemporary incidence and consequences of postoperative rhabdomyolysis after extirpative renal surgery. We conducted a population based, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent extirpative renal surgery with a diagnosis of a renal mass or renal cell carcinoma in the United States between 2004 and 2013. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate 90-day mortality (Clavien grade V), nonfatal major complications (Clavien grade III-IV), hospital readmission rates, direct costs and length of stay. The final weighted cohort included 310,880 open, 174,283 laparoscopic and 69,880 robotic extirpative renal surgery cases during the 10-year study period, with 745 (0.001%) experiencing postoperative rhabdomyolysis. The presence of postoperative rhabdomyolysis led to a significantly higher incidence of 90-day nonfatal major complications (34.7% vs 7.3%, p rhabdomyolysis (incidence risk ratio 1.83, 95% CI 1.56-2.15, p rhabdomyolysis (vs laparoscopic approach, OR 2.43, p rhabdomyolysis (p rhabdomyolysis developing. Our study confirms that postoperative rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon complication among patients undergoing extirpative renal surgery, but has a potentially detrimental impact on surgical morbidity, mortality and costs. Male gender, comorbidities, obesity, prolonged surgery (more than 5 hours) and a robotic approach appear to place patients at higher risk for postoperative rhabdomyolysis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry

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    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Hamdani, Houria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 7.4 million deaths. Cancer has become a major public health concern in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to estimate cancer incidence in Mascara Province based on the population-based cancer registry. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Mascara covering all cancer cases diagnosed by all methods and included in the registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site, sex, age, and crude rate. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs) were calculated, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. A total of 1875 cases of invasive cancer were recorded. The mean age of diagnosis for all cancers was 52.66 ± 0.5 in men and 59.18 ± 0.6 in women. The ASR for all cancers in females was 27.8 per 100,000, and that for males was 23.6 per 100,000. The most important finding of the present study was the high incidence of liver cancer among males and females in Mascara. Among females, breast cancer was the most frequently reported followed by Cervix uteri, liver and colon. The most frequent cancer types in males were lung, colon, esophagus and stomach and liver. Cancer incidence in Mascara province was lower than that reported in other national and regional registries. Findings of the present study revealed high incidence of liver cancer in the province, the highest in Algeria, suggesting high prevalence of risk factors. PMID:26417294

  7. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

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    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  8. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

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    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  9. Incidence & prevalence of stroke in India: A systematic review

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    Sureshkumar Kamalakannan

    2017-01-01

    Methods: All population-based, cross-sectional studies and cohort studies from India which reported the stroke incidence rate or cumulative stroke incidence and/or the prevalence of stroke in participants from any age group were included. Electronic databases (Ovid, PubMed, Medline, Embase and IndMED were searched and studies published during 1960 to 2015 were included. A total of 3079 independent titles were identified for screening, of which 10 population-based cross-sectional studies were considered eligible for inclusion. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not carried out. Results: The cumulative incidence of stroke ranged from 105 to 152/100,000 persons per year, and the crude prevalence of stroke ranged from 44.29 to 559/100,000 persons in different parts of the country during the past decade. These values were higher than those of high-income countries. Interpretation & conclusions: A paucity of good-quality epidemiological studies on stroke in India emphasizes the need for a coordinated effort at both the State and national level to study the burden of stroke in India. Future investment in the population-based epidemiological studies on stroke would lead to better preventive measures against stroke and better rehabilitation measures for stroke-related disabilities in the country.

  10. The Prevalence of Amblyopia and Its Determinants in a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Saatchi, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Rafati, Shokoofeh; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its determinants in a population-based study in Mashhad County, Iran. This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on the population of Mashhad County aged >1 year using randomized stratified cluster sampling. Examinations were performed after selection of the participants and their free transportation to the sampling site. The examinations included the measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction, cover testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ophthalmoscopy. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/30 or less or 2-line interocular optotype acuity differences with no pathology. After considering the exclusion criteria, the data of 2739 individuals, 65.6% of whom were women, were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 29.5±17.5 years. The prevalence of amblyopia was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.77%-5.43%) in the total population. The lowest prevalence was 2.24% in the age group 5-15 years (95% CI: 0.99%-3.48%) and the highest prevalence was 7.14% in the age group 55-65 years (95% CI: 2.64%-11.56%). Anisometropic amblyopia was observed in 45.24% of the amblyopic participants. Isometropic, mixed (strabismic/anisometropic), and strabismic amblyopia were other common causes of amblyopia, with a prevalence of 24.6%, 16.67%, and 13.49% in amblyopic patients, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of having amblyopia for each 1-year increase in age was 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Amblyopia was less common in people with better socioeconomic status. This study showed the prevalence of amblyopia in all age groups in a population-based study for the first time. The findings of this study regarding the relatively high prevalence of amblyopia in the older population and its lower prevalence in young people indicate attention to amblyopia in recent years.

  11. Prevalence of depression: Comparisons of different depression definitions in population-based samples of older adults.

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    Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2017-10-15

    Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study.

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    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control. This population-based registry study, devised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries, collected data on all malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms of the CNS diagnosed before age 20 years in populations covered by high-quality cancer registries with complete data for 2001-10. Incidence rates per million person-years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardised incidence rates (WSRs), using the age-specific incidence rates (ASR) for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years). All rates were reported for 19 geographical areas or ethnicities by sex, age group, and cancer type. The regional WSRs for children aged 0-14 years were compared with comparable data obtained in the 1980s. Of 532 invited cancer registries, 153 registries from 62 countries, departments, and territories met quality standards, and contributed data for the entire decade of 2001-10. 385 509 incident cases in children aged 0-19 years occurring in 2·64 billion person-years were included. The overall WSR was 140·6 per million person-years in children aged 0-14 years (based on 284 649 cases), and the most common cancers were leukaemia (WSR 46·4), followed by CNS tumours (WSR 28·2), and lymphomas (WSR 15·2). In children aged 15-19 years (based on 100 860 cases), the ASR was 185·3 per million person-years, the most common being lymphomas (ASR 41·8) and the group of epithelial tumours and melanoma (ASR 39·5

  13. The Prevalence of Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

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    Kohorst, John J.; Bruce, Alison J.; Torgerson, Rochelle R.; Schenck, Louis A.; Davis, Mark D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as symptoms of persistent burning in the mouth without objective findings accounting for the symptoms. Objectives To calculate the point prevalence of BMS in Olmsted County, Minnesota, on December 31, 2010. Methods The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records linkage system was used to identify BMS cases diagnosed or potentially diagnosed before December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria were subjective oral discomfort, normal oral examination, and documented BMS diagnosis by a REP physician. Results In total, 149 BMS cases were confirmed, representing age- and sex-adjusted point prevalence of BMS in Olmsted County of 0.11%, or 105.6 (95% CI, 88.6–122.6) per 100,000 persons. Age-adjusted prevalence in women was significantly higher than men: 168.6 (95% CI, 139.0–198.2) vs 35.9 (95% CI, 21.4–50.3) per 100,000 persons (P<.001). The highest prevalence was in women aged 70 through 79 years (527.9 per 100,000 persons). Mean (SD) age at BMS diagnosis was 59.4 (15.1) years (range, 25–90 years). Conclusions To our knowledge, we provide the first report of population-based BMS prevalence. The data show that BMS most commonly affects women older than 50 years, and when defined through diagnostic criteria, it is less prevalent than described previously. PMID:25495557

  14. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  15. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus in Malawi: population-based national NCD STEPS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Mvula, Chimwemwe J; Kathyola, Damson

    2014-05-12

    Previously considered as a disease of the affluent, west or urban people and not of public health importance, diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform prevention, treatment and control are lacking. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25-64 years. A multi-stage cluster sample design and weighting were used to produce a national representative data for that age range. Detailed findings on the magnitude of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting blood glucose are presented in this paper. Fasting blood glucose measurement was conducted on 3056 participants (70.2% females, 87.9% from rural areas). The age- sex standardised population-based mean fasting blood glucose was 4.3 mmol/L (95% CI 4.1-4.4 mmol/L) with no significant differences by age, sex and location (urban/rural). The overall prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 4.2% (95% CI 3.0%-5.4%). Prevalence of impaired blood glucose was higher in men than in women, 5.7% (95% CI 3.9%-7.5%) vs 2.7% (95% CI 1.6%- 3.8%), p prevalence of raised fasting blood glucose or currently on medication for diabetes was 5.6% (95% CI 2.6%- 8.5%). Although the prevalence of diabetes was higher in men than women, 6.5% (95% CI 2.6%-10.3%) vs 4.7% (95% CI 2.4%-7.0%), in rural than urban, 5.4% (95% CI 2.4%-8.4%) vs 4.4% (95% CI 2.8%-5.9%) and in males in rural than males in urban, 6.9% (95% CI 2.8%-11.0%) vs 3.2% (95% CI 0.1%-6.3%), the differences were not statistically significant, p > 0.05. Compared to previous estimates, prevalence of diabetes increased from prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose and diabetes mellitus call for the implementation of primary healthcare approaches such as the WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases

  16. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  17. Incidence and Predictors of Infective Endocarditis in Mitral Valve Prolapse: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Ognjen; Michelena, Hector I.; Avierinos, Jean-Francois; Mahoney, Douglas W.; DeSimone, Daniel C.; Baddour, Larry M.; Suri, Rakesh M.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and predictors of infective endocarditis in a population-based cohort of mitral valve prolapse(MVP) patients. Patients and methods We identified all adult Olmsted County residents with MVP diagnosed by echocardiography from January 1989 to December 1998 and cross-matched them with the Rochester Epidemiologic Project-identified Olmsted County cases of infective endocarditis(IE) from January 1986 to December 2006. We retrospectively analyzed and de-novo confirmed each IE case using the modified Duke criteria. Results There were 896 Olmsted County residents with echocardiographic MVP diagnosis, mean age 53±21 years, 565(63%) women. Mean follow-up was 11±5 years. The 15-year cohort-risk of IE after MVP diagnosis was 1.1±0.4%; incidence of 86.6[95% CI, 43.3–173.2]cases per 100,000 person-years; age- and sex-adjusted relative-risk of IE in MVP of 8.1[95% CI: 3.6–18.0] compared to the County general population(PMVP patients with ≥moderate mitral regurgitation(289.5[108.7–771.2] cases per 100,000 person-years, P=.02 compared to MVP adults is higher than previously reported in case-control tertiary care-center studies. MVP patients with ≥moderate mitral regurgitation or a flail leaflet are at notable risk of developing IE as compared to those without mitral regurgitation. PMID:26856780

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study

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    Roy A. Wong-McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  19. Using HPV prevalence to predict cervical cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monisha; Bruni, Laia; Diaz, Mireia; Castellsagué, Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Kim, Jane J

    2013-04-15

    Knowledge of a country's cervical cancer (CC) burden is critical to informing decisions about resource allocation to combat the disease; however, many countries lack cancer registries to provide such data. We developed a prognostic model to estimate CC incidence rates in countries without cancer registries, leveraging information on human papilloma virus (HPV) prevalence, screening, and other country-level factors. We used multivariate linear regression models to identify predictors of CC incidence in 40 countries. We extracted age-specific HPV prevalence (10-year age groups) by country from a meta-analysis in women with normal cytology (N = 40) and matched to most recent CC incidence rates from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents when available (N = 36), or Globocan 2008 (N = 4). We evaluated country-level behavioral, economic, and public health indicators. CC incidence was significantly associated with age-specific HPV prevalence in women aged 35-64 (adjusted R-squared 0.41) ("base model"). Adding geographic region to the base model increased the adjusted R-squared to 0.77, but the further addition of screening was not statistically significant. Similarly, country-level macro-indicators did not improve predictive validity. Age-specific HPV prevalence at older ages was found to be a better predictor of CC incidence than prevalence in women under 35. However, HPV prevalence could not explain the entire CC burden as many factors modify women's risk of progression to cancer. Geographic region seemed to serve as a proxy for these country-level indicators. Our analysis supports the assertion that conducting a population-based HPV survey targeting women over age 35 can be valuable in approximating the CC risk in a given country. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  20. Measures of Disease Frequency: Prevalence and Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    To describe how often a disease or another health event occurs in a population, different measures of disease frequency can be used. The prevalence reflects the number of existing cases of a disease. In contrast to the prevalence, the incidence reflects the number of new cases of disease and can be

  1. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: systematic review of population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuonye II

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah,2 Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu,3 Kenneth Arinze Ohagwu,1 Ogbonna Collins Nwabuko,4 Uwa Onwuchekwa,5 Miracle Erinma Chukwuonye,6 Emmanuel Chukwuebuka Obi,1 Efosa Oviasu7 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Anambra State, 4Department of Haematology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, 6Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 7Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria Background: The aim of this study was to identify and discuss published population-based studies carried out in Nigeria that have information on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and have also used the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI practice guidelines in defining CKD, with emphasis on the performance of three estimating equations for glomerular filtration rate (GFR – Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, Cockcroft–Gault, and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in Google, MEDLINE, PubMed, and AJOL database, with the aim of identifying relevant population-based studies with information on the prevalence of CKD in a location in Nigeria. Results: Seven cross-sectional population-based studies were identified. Two of the studies used the Cockcroft–Gault and observed a prevalence of 24.4% and 26%. Four of the studies used the MDRD and the prevalences observed were 12.3%, 14.2%, 2.5%, and 13.4%. One of the studies used the CKD

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Chinese women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi; Lu, Yongxian

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the current prevalence rate of urinary incontinence (UI) and to identify risk factors in Chinese women, we conducted a population-based survey in 3058 women in Beijing, China, in 2009. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 22.1%, with stress UI (12.9%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (1.7%) and mixed UI (7.5%). The prevalence rates of UI, urgency UI, and mixed UI increased with age, with the highest recorded in participants aged ≥70 years. However, stress UI was most commonly seen in participants aged 50 to 69 years. Risk factors for UI included aging, lower education background, older age of menarche, menstrual disorder, pregnancy history, episiotomy, chronic pelvic pain, gynecological disease, other chronic diseases, constipation, fecal incontinence, lower daily water intake, and frequency of high protein intake. UI is a common disorder in Chinese women, and many risk factors are able to affect the development of UI. © 2011 APJPH.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies.

  4. The prevalence of diagnosed tourette syndrome in Canada: A national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeun; Hirsch, Lauren; Martino, Davide; Jette, Nathalie; Roberts, Jodie; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine: (1) the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in Canada by sex in youth (aged 12-17) and adults and (2) socioeconomic factors in this population. The majority of epidemiological studies of tics have focused on children and youth, with few studies describing the prevalence of tics in adult populations. Canadian data on Tourette syndrome prevalence were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2010 and 2011 cycles, a Statistics Canada population-based cross-sectional survey that collects information related to health status. We determined the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome and examined sociodemographic factors, including age, sex, education, income, employment, and birthplace. Overall, 122,884 Canadians participated in the surveys, with 122 participants diagnosed with Tourette syndrome. The prevalence of Tourette syndrome was higher in males in youth: 6.03 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 3.24-8.81) in males versus 0.48 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.91) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 5.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.38-11.81). In adults, the prevalence of Tourette syndrome was 0.89 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-1.29) in males versus 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.16.0-0.71) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.08). After adjusting for age and sex, adults with Tourette syndrome had lower odds of receiving postsecondary education or being employed and higher odds of having income lower than the median and receiving governmental support. Data on the prevalence of Tourette syndrome in adults are scarce because most studies focus on children. Our data demonstrate a decreasing prevalence risk ratio for sex in adults compared to children. A diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is associated with lower education, income, and employment in adulthood. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016

  5. Elevated incidence rates of diabetes in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Seclen, Segundo Nicolas; Rosas, Moises Ernesto; Arias, Arturo Jaime; Medina, Cecilia Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Objective A recent report from a non-nationally representative, geographically diverse sample in four separate communities in Peru suggests an unusually high diabetes incidence. We aimed to estimate the national diabetes incidence rate using PERUDIAB, a probabilistic, national urban population-based longitudinal study. Research design and methods 662 subjects without diabetes, selected by multistage, cluster, random sampling of households, representing the 24 administrative and the 3 (coast, ...

  6. Men's and Women's Health Beliefs Differentially Predict Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korin, Maya Rom; Chaplin, William F.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Butler, Mark J.; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in the association between beliefs in heart disease preventability and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods: A total of 2,688 Noninstitutionalized Nova Scotians without prior CHD enrolled in the Nova Scotia Health Study (NSHS95) and were followed for 10…

  7. Incidence of symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the knee : A population-based study in Olmsted County

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareek, A.; Sanders, T. L.; Wu, I. T.; Larson, D. R.; Saris, D. B.F.; Krych, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To (1) define population-based incidence of knee Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions using the population of Olmsted County, (2) examine trends over time, and (3) evaluate rate of surgical management over time. Method: Study population included 302 individuals who were diagnosed with

  8. High blood pressure: prevalence and adherence to guidelines in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Diana; Curjuric, Ivan; Dratva, Julia; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Quinto, Carlos; Rochat, Thierry; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Burdet, Luc; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Pons, Marco; Gerbase, Margaret W; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure, the single leading health risk factor worldwide, contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to add to the understanding of diagnosed and undiagnosed high blood pressure in Switzerland and to evaluate adherence to hypertension guidelines. Included were 3962 participants from the first (2001-2003) and second (2010-2011) follow-ups of the population-based Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults. High blood pressure was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg and the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed hypertension was based on questionnaire information. High blood pressure was found in 34.9% of subjects, 49.1% of whom were unaware of this condition; 30.0% had doctor-diagnosed hypertension and, although 82.1% of these received drug treatments, in only 40.8% was blood pressure controlled (<140/90 mm Hg). Substantial first-line beta-blocker use and nonadherence to comorbidity-specific prescription guidelines were observed and remained mostly unexplained. Age-adjusted rates of unawareness and uncontrolled hypertension were more than 20% higher than in the USA. There is room for improvement in managing hypertension in Switzerland. Population-based observational studies are essential for identifying and evaluating unmet needs in healthcare; however, to pinpoint the underlying causes it is imperative to facilitate linkage of cohort data to medical records.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A J; Lee, J; Saw, S-M; Gazzard, G; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Tan, D T H

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and identify associated risk factors for dry eye syndrome in a population in Sumatra, Indonesia. Methods: A one stage cluster sampling procedure was conducted to randomly select 100 households in each of the five rural villages and one provincial town of the Riau province, Indonesia, from April to June 2001. Interviewers collected demographic, lifestyle, and medical data from 1058 participants aged 21 years or over. Symptoms of dry eye were assessed using a six item validated questionnaire. Presence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time was analysed. Presence of pterygium was documented. Results: Prevalence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time adjusted for age was 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8 to 30.2). After adjusting for all significant variables, independent risk factors for dry eye were pterygium (p<0.001, multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) and a history of current cigarette smoking (p=0.05, multivariate OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). Conclusions: This population based study provides prevalence rates of dry eye symptoms in a tropical developing nation. From our findings, pterygium is a possible independent risk factor for dry eye symptoms. PMID:12446361

  10. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD.

  11. Incidence of fall-related injuries in Iran: A population-based nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Ekhtiari, Yalda Soleiman; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Motevalian, Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Eslami, Vahid; Karimi, Hasti; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2016-07-01

    Fall-related injuries are considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of fall-related injuries and its determinants in Iran. A cross-sectional household survey of a representative sample of 15-64 years old Iranians was carried out in 2011. A three-stage cluster sampling design was used. Total of 1525 clusters were randomly selected. Six households in each cluster were randomly selected, and one member of each household was interviewed. Data on the demographics and history of fall-related injury were obtained using the previously validated and reliability tested Short Form Injury Questionnaire 7 (SFIQ7). In all, 7886 subjects responded to the survey. The incidence rate of all fall-related injuries was 59 (95%CI: 45-72) per 1000 person-year. The incidence rate of First Aid Fall-Related Injuries (FAFRIs) and Medical Attended Fall-Related Injuries (MAFRIs) were 30±5 and 28±12, respectively. Homes were the most common place of falls (52.5%). For all and MAFRIs, the most common activity leading to fall injury was walking (37.8% and 47.6%, respectively) whereas for FAFRIs was playing (31.9%). For all and FAFRIs, the most common description was as follows: upper limb as the injured organ (52.0% and 61.2%, respectively) and superficial wound as the most prevalent type of injury (39.0% and 61.8%, respectively). However, for MAFRIs, lower limb injuries (52.9%) and fracture (43.6%) were more pronounced. Risk factors for MAFRI were as follows: paid work activity (OR: 3.11; 95%CI: 2.07-4.67), playing (OR: 14.64; 95%CI: 6.34-33.80), walking (OR: 57.09; 95%CI: 28.95-112.59), driving (OR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.23-6.63), and recreation activities (OR: 44.11; 95%CI: 14.04-138.54). Higher age and education were the other risk factors for MAFRI, as well as residing in rural areas. This study revealed considerable incidence of fall injuries in Iranian population especially in rural regions who need access to

  12. Diagnosed hypertension in Canada: incidence, prevalence and associated mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Cynthia; Dai, Sulan; Waters, Chris; Loukine, Lidia; Bancej, Christina; Quach, Susan; Ellison, Joellyn; Campbell, Norman; Tu, Karen; Reimer, Kim; Walker, Robin; Smith, Mark; Blais, Claudia; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Our objectives were to examine the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada and compare mortality among people with and without diagnosed hypertension. Methods: We obtained data from linked health administrative databases from each province and territory for adults aged 20 years and older. We used a validated case definition to identify people with hypertension diagnosed between 1998/99 and 2007/08. We excluded pregnant women from the analysis. Results: This retrospective population-based study included more than 26 million people. In 2007/08, about 6 million adults (23.0%) were living with diagnosed hypertension and about 418 000 had a new diagnosis. The age-standardized prevalence increased significantly from 12.5% in 1998/99 to 19.6% in 2007/08, and the incidence decreased from 2.7 to 2.4 per 100. Among people aged 60 years and older, the prevalence was higher among women than among men, as was the incidence among people aged 75 years and older. The prevalence and incidence were highest in the Atlantic region. For all age groups, all-cause mortality was higher among adults with diagnosed hypertension than among those without diagnosed hypertension. Interpretation: The overall prevalence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada from 1998 to 2008 was high and increasing, whereas the incidence declined during the same period. These findings highlight the need to continue monitoring the effectiveness of efforts for managing hypertension and to enhance public health programs aimed at preventing hypertension. PMID:22105752

  13. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Uganda: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Andrews, Carin; Peterson, Stefan; Wabwire Mangen, Fred; Eliasson, Ann Christin; Forssberg, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Few population-based studies of cerebral palsy have been done in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to examine cerebral palsy prevalence and subtypes, functional impairments, and presumed time of injury in children in Uganda. In this population-based study, we used a nested, three-stage, cross-sectional method (Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance System [HDSS]) to screen for cerebral palsy in children aged 2-17 years in a rural eastern Uganda district. A specialist team confirmed the diagnosis and determined the subtype, motor function (according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]), and possible time of brain injury for each child. Triangulation and interviews with key village informants were used to identify additional cases of suspected cerebral palsy. We estimated crude and adjusted cerebral palsy prevalence. We did χ 2 analyses to examine differences between the group screened at stage 1 and the entire population and regression analyses to investigate associations between the number of cases and age, GMFCS level, subtype, and time of injury. We used data from the March 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015, surveillance round of the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS. 31 756 children were screened for cerebral palsy, which was confirmed in 86 (19%) of 442 children who screened positive in the first screening stage. The crude cerebral palsy prevalence was 2·7 (95% CI 2·2-3·3) per 1000 children, and prevalence increased to 2·9 (2·4-3·6) per 1000 children after adjustment for attrition. The prevalence was lower in older (8-17 years) than in younger (cerebral palsy was the most common subtype (45 [46%] of 97 children) followed by bilateral cerebral palsy (39 [40%] of 97 children). 14 (27%) of 51 children aged 2-7 years had severe cerebral palsy (GMFCS levels 4-5) compared with only five (12%) of 42 children aged 8-17 years. Few children (two [2%] of 97) diagnosed with cerebral palsy were born preterm. Post-neonatal events were the

  14. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Santos, Iná da Silva dos; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, Sibil; Bertea, Paola Coda; Zemp, Elisabeth

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms and of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in a population-based sample of women of the entire reproductive age range, as well as to analyse predictors of PMS and PMDD in terms of socio-demographic, health status and health behavioural factors. A set of questions on PMS-based on the premenstrual syndrome screening tool developed by Steiner et al., translated into German and piloted-was integrated into the written questionnaire of the 2007 Swiss Health Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and multivariable regression analysis for the outcome variables PMS and PMDD were calculated. A total of 3,913 women aged 15 to 54 years answered the questions on PMS symptoms, and 3,522 of them additionally answered the questions on interference of PMS with life. Ninety one percent of the participants reported at least one symptom, 10.3% had PMS and 3.1% fulfilled the criteria for PMDD. The prevalence of PMS was higher in non-married women, in women aged 35-44 years and in women of the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland. Both PMS and PMDD were strongly associated with poor physical health and psychological distress. Socio-cultural factors seem to determine the prevalence, perception and handling of PMS. Considering the association with poor physical health and high psychological distress, a broader underlying vulnerability in women qualifying for PMDD must be assumed and should be taken into account in clinical management as well as in future research in this field.

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with neck pain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genebra, Caio Vitor Dos Santos; Maciel, Nicoly Machado; Bento, Thiago Paulo Frascareli; Simeão, Sandra Fiorelli Almeida Penteado; Vitta, Alberto De

    Neck pain is a musculoskeletal condition with high prevalence that may affect the physical, social, and psychological aspects of the individual, contributing to the increase in costs in society and business. To determine the prevalence of neck pain and associated factors in a population-based sample of adults aged 20 and more. Cross-sectional study based on a population survey. A total number of 600 individuals were interviewed in their homes, and the following data were collected: (1) participant characteristics (demographic, socioeconomic, and work-related aspects) using a pre-coded questionnaire; (2) physical activity level using the IPAQ; and (3) musculoskeletal symptoms using the Nordic questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and Poisson regression analyses were performed. The prevalence of neck pain was 20.3% (95% CI 17.3-23.7). The adjusted analyses showed that individuals who were widowers or separated (PR=2.26; 1.42-5.88), had a low income (PR=1.32; 1.22-6.27) or low educational level (PR=1.83; 1.02-5.26), worked while sitting and leaning (PR=1.55; 1.08-2.40), and who reported having two or more diseases (PR=1.71; 1.55-6.31) remained associated with neck pain. This study reveals the high prevalence of neck pain and remarkable association with widowed/separated people who have low income and low educational level, who perform their occupational activities in sitting and leaning positions, and who reported having two or more diseases. Knowledge of these risk factors will contribute to the development of forms of assistance in which neck pain can be prevented and better managed. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  18. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, and we quantified IR by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Prevalence of MetSyn was 21% according to IDF criteria and 16% according to NCEP criteria. Accordingly, we defined IDF-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 21% of the HOMA-IR distribution......, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with IDF-HOMA-IR and IDF-MetSyn included in the same model, the relative risk of an end point was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 to 2.29) for IDF-HOMA-IR and 1.16 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.60) for IDF-MetSyn. The corresponding figures for NCEP......, and NCEP-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 16% of the HOMA-IR distribution. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of CV end points (CV death, nonfatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal stroke) amounted to 233 cases. In proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, gender...

  19. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine Willum; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, and we quantified IR by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Prevalence of MetSyn was 21% according to IDF criteria and 16% according to NCEP criteria. Accordingly, we defined IDF-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 21% of the HOMA-IR distribution......, and NCEP-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 16% of the HOMA-IR distribution. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of CV end points (CV death, nonfatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal stroke) amounted to 233 cases. In proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, gender......, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with IDF-HOMA-IR and IDF-MetSyn included in the same model, the relative risk of an end point was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 to 2.29) for IDF-HOMA-IR and 1.16 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.60) for IDF-MetSyn. The corresponding figures for NCEP-HOMA-IR...

  20. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany: data from the prospective, population-based Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, Heike M; Fresenius, Susanne; Lamparter, Julia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-05-08

    Amblyopia is due to insufficient development of the visual system in early childhood and is a major source of lifelong impairment of visual acuity. Too little is known about the prevalence of amblyopia in Germany and the frequency of its various causes. The Gutenberg Health Study of the University of Mainz Faculty of Medicine is an ongoing population-based, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. All participants are examined for the presence of ocular, cardiovascular, neoplastic, metabolic, immunologic, and mental diseases. 3227 participants aged 35 to 44 underwent ophthalmological examination from 2007 to 2012. Amblyopia was defined as impaired visual acuity in the absence of any organic pathology capable of explaining the condition, and in the presence of a known risk factor for amblyopia. Amblyopia, when defined as a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.63, was present in 182 participants (5.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-6.5%), 120 of whom had a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.5 (3.7%, 95% CI 3.3-5.2%). A narrower definition of amblyopia requiring, in addition, an interocular difference in acuity of at least two lines yielded slightly lower prevalence figures: 5.0% (95% CI 4.2-5.8%) and 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4%), respectively. The causes of amblyopia (visual acuity ≤ 0.63) were anisometropia (different refractive strengths of the two eyes) in 49% of participants, strabismus (a squint) in 23%, both of these factors in 17%, and visual deprivation in 2%. 3 patients (2%) had relative amblyopia due to a traumatic cataract sustained in early childhood. 7% of the participants with amblyopia had binocular amblyopia. This study yielded a prevalence figure of 5.6% for amblyopia in Germany-a higher figure than in other, comparable population-based studies, which have generally yielded figures of ca. 3% for visual acuity ≤ 0.63. The distribution of the causes of amblyopia is similar across studies.

  2. Age/race differences in HER2 testing and in incidence rates for breast cancer triple subtypes: a population-based study and first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Jo; Butler, Ebonee N; Hair, Brionna Y; Ward, Kevin C; Andrews, Judy H; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriella; Bayakly, A Rana; O'Regan, Ruth M; Vertino, Paula M; Eley, J William

    2010-06-01

    Although US year 2000 guidelines recommended characterizing breast cancers by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), national cancer registries do not collect HER2, rendering a population-based understanding of HER2 and clinical "triple subtypes" (estrogen receptor [ER] / progesterone receptor [PR] / HER2) largely unknown. We document the population-based prevalence of HER2 testing / status, triple subtypes and present the first report of subtype incidence rates. Medical records were searched for HER2 on 1842 metropolitan Atlanta females diagnosed with breast cancer during 2003-2004. HER2 testing/status and triple subtypes were analyzed by age, race/ethnicity, tumor factors, socioeconomic status, and treatment. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Over 90% of cases received HER2 testing: 12.6% were positive, 71.7% negative, and 15.7% unknown. HER2 testing compliance was significantly better for women who were younger, of Caucasian or African-American descent, or diagnosed with early stage disease. Incidence rates (per 100,000) were 21.1 for HER2+ tumors and 27.8 for triple-negative tumors, the latter differing by race (36.3 and 19.4 for black and white women, respectively). HER2 recommendations are not uniformly adhered to. Incidence rates for breast cancer triple subtypes differ by age/race. As biologic knowledge is translated into the clinical setting eg, HER2 as a biomarker, it will be incumbent upon national cancer registries to report this information. Incidence rates cautiously extrapolate to an annual burden of 3000 and 17,000 HER2+ tumors for black and white women, respectively, and triple-negative tumors among 5000 and 16,000 respectively. Testing, rate, and burden variations warrant population-based in-depth exploration and clinical translation. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  3. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 orhypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  4. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan RK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rouba Karen Zeidan,1 Rita Farah,2 Mirna N Chahine,3 Roland Asmar,3 Hassan Hosseini,4,5 Pascale Salameh,6,7 Atul Pathak8 1Doctoral School of Biology Health and Biotechnologies, Toulouse III University, Toulouse, 2Doctoral School of Life and Health Sciences, Paris-Est University, Creteil, France; 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, F-MRI®, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Neurology, Henri Mondor Hospital AP-HP, 5EA 4391, Nerve Excitability and Therapeutics, Université Paris-Est, Creteil, France; 6School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, 7Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiology Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon; 8Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hypertension, Risk Factors and Heart Failure Unit, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France Background: Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs, as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose: To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs. Results: Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect

  5. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center ...

  6. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-10-21

    Does maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to tobacco smoke at age 4 months increase the risk of caries in deciduous teeth? Population based retrospective cohort study of 76 920 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan who received municipal health check-ups at birth, 4, 9, and 18 months, and 3 years and had information on household smoking status at age 4 months and records of dental examinations at age 18 months and 3 years. Smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to secondhand smoke at age 4 months was assessed by standardised parent reported questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the incidence of caries in deciduous teeth, defined as at least one decayed, missing, or filled tooth assessed by qualified dentists without radiographs. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of exposure to secondhand smoke compared with having no smoker in the family after propensity score adjustment for clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Prevalence of household smoking among the 76 920 children was 55.3% (n=42 525), and 6.8% (n=5268) had evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke. A total of 12 729 incidents of dental caries were observed and most were decayed teeth (3 year follow-up rate 91.9%). The risk of caries at age 3 years was 14.0% (no smoker in family), 20.0% (smoking in household but without evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke), and 27.6% (exposure to tobacco smoke). The propensity score adjusted hazard ratios of the two exposure groups compared with having no smoker in the family were 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.52) and 2.14 (1.99 to 2.29), respectively. The propensity score adjusted hazard ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and having no smoker in the family was 1.10 (0.97 to 1.25). Exposure to tobacco smoke at 4 months of age was associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of caries, and the risk of caries was also increased among those exposed to household

  7. Methodology of a population-based stroke and TIA incidence and outcomes study: the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study (ARCOS IV) 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita; Jones, Amy; Barber, P Alan; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn; Bennett, Derrick; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora; Starkey, Nicola; Theadom, Alice; Parag, Varsha; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Feigin, Valery L

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Stroke burden is immense as it leads to premature deaths, leaves survivors with ongoing disabilities, and has a major financial impact on the individual, their families, and the community. Reliable, high-quality evidence is needed on stroke risk factors, incidence, and outcomes to provide information on how best to reduce this burden. Population-based studies are regarded as the 'gold-standard' of measuring disease burden but are not common due to the logistical and financial challenges they present. The Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies are among a few in the world that have been carried out at a population level and at regular intervals. The aim of the fourth Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies IV is to examine the current measures of stroke incidence, prevalence, and outcomes as well the trends over four decades. This article describes the methodology of the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies IV with stroke and transient ischemic attacks cases registered over a 12-month period from March 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012. The methodology described may be used as a guide in order to design similar population-based stroke incidence and outcome studies in other countries and populations, thus facilitating the collection of most consistent and accurate stroke epidemiological data. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  8. Depression and incident dementia. An 8-year population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Ritschel, Franziska; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of depression (categorical diagnosis; major depression, MD) and depressive symptoms (dimensional diagnosis and symptom patterns) on incident dementia in the German general population. Within the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+), a representative sample of 1,265 individuals aged 75 years and older were interviewed every 1.5 years over 8 years (mean observation time 4.3 years; mean number of visits 4.2). Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the effect of baseline depression and depressive symptoms on incident dementia. The incidence of dementia was 48 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI) 45-51). Depressive symptoms (Hazard ratio HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05), and in particular mood-related symptoms (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14), showed a significant impact on the incidence of dementia only in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for cognitive and functional impairment. MD showed only a significant impact on incidence of dementia in Cox proportional hazards regression, but not in binary logistic regression models. The present study using different diagnostic measures of depression on future dementia found no clear significant associations of depression and incident dementia. Further in-depth investigation would help to understand the nature of depression in the context of incident dementia.

  9. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  10. A Population-based Survey of the Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in Nepal: The Bhaktapur Glaucoma Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, S.S.; Paudyal, I.; Khanal, S.; Twyana, S.N.; Paudyal, G.; Gurung, R.; Ruit, S.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of glaucoma in a Nepalese population. Design: Cross-sectional, population-based survey. Participants: A total of 4800 subjects aged 40 years or older from the Bhaktapur district of Kathmandu valley. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years or older were

  11. Definitions of medication-overuse headache in population-based studies and their implications on prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria L; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Case definitions of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in population-based research have changed over time. This study aims to review MOH prevalence reports with respect to these changes, and to propose a practical case definition for future studies based on the ICHD-3 beta....

  12. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  13. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and other substance use disorders in young adulthood: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhonen Tellervo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several risk factors for alcohol and other substance use disorders (SUDs have been identified, but it is not well understood whether their associations with SUD are independent of each other. In particular, it is not well known, whether the associations between behavioral and affective factors and SUDs are independent of other risk factors. The incidence of SUDs peaks by young adulthood making epidemiological studies of SUDs in young adults informative. Methods In a comprehensive population-based survey of mental health in Finnish young adults (aged 21-35 years, n = 605, structured clinical interview (SCID-I complemented by medical record data from all lifetime hospital and outpatient treatments were used to diagnose SUDs. We estimated the prevalences of lifetime DSM-IV SUDs, and investigated their associations with correlates from four domains representing: (1 behavioral and affective factors, (2 parental factors, (3 early initiation of substance use, and (4 educational factors. Independence of the association of behavioral and affective factors with SUD was investigated. Results Lifetime prevalences of abuse or dependence of any substance, alcohol, and any illicit substance were 14.2%, 13.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. Correlates from all four domains were associated with SUD. The associations between behavioral and affective factors (attention or behavior problems at school, aggression, anxiousness and SUD were largely independent of other correlates, whereas only daily smoking and low education associated with SUD after adjustment for behavioral and affective factors. Conclusion Alcohol use disorders are common in Finnish young adults, whereas other SUDs are less common than in many other developed countries. Our cross-sectional analyses suggested that the association between behavioral and affective factors and SUD was only partly accounted for by other correlates, such as early initiation of substance use and parental

  14. Incidence Rate of Community-Acquired Sepsis Among Hospitalized Acute Medical Patients-A Population-Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Jensen, Thøger Gorm

    2015-01-01

    to the hospital. DESIGN:: Population-based survey. SETTING:: Medical emergency department from September 1, 2010, to August 31, 2011. PATIENTS:: All patients were manually reviewed using a structured protocol in order to identify the presence of infection. Vital signs and laboratory values were collected...... to define the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ dysfunction. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Incidence rate of sepsis of any severity. Among 8,358 admissions to the medical emergency department, 1,713 patients presented with an incident admission of sepsis of any severity, median...... on symptoms and clinical findings at arrival, incidence rates of patients admitted to a medical emergency department with sepsis and severe sepsis are more frequent than previously reported based on discharge diagnoses....

  15. Decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer among individuals 50 years or older following recommendations for population-based screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Lund, Jennifer L.; Baron, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the U.S. is increasing among adults younger than age 50 years, but incidence has decreased among older populations after population-based screening was recommended in the late 1980s. Blacks have higher incidence than whites. These patterns have prompted suggestions to lower the screening age for average-risk populations or in blacks. At the same time, there has been controversy over whether reductions in CRC incidence can be attributed to screening. We examined age- and race-related differences in CRC incidence over a 40-year time period. Methods We determined the age-standardized incidence of CRC, from 1975 through 2013, using the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of cancer registries. We calculated incidence for 5-year age categories (20—24 years through 80—84 years and 85 years or older) for different time periods (1975—1979, 1980—1984, 1985—1989, 1990—1994, 1995—1999, 2000—2004, 2005—2009, and 2010—2013), tumor subsite (proximal colon, descending colon, and rectum), and stages at diagnosis (localized, regional, and distant). Analyses were stratified by race (white vs. black). Results There were 450,682 incident cases of CRC reported to the SEER registries over the entire period (1975—2013). Overall incidence was 75.5/100,000 white persons and 83.6/100,000 black persons. CRC incidence peaked during 1980 through 1989 and began to decrease in 1990. In whites and blacks, the decreases in incidence between the time periods of 1980—1984 and 2010—2013 were limited to the screening-age population (ages 50 years or older). Between these time periods, there was a 40% decrease in incidence among whites compared with a 26% decrease in incidence among blacks. Decreases in incidence were greater for cancers of the distal colon and rectum, and reductions in these cancers were greater among whites than blacks. CRC incidence among persons younger

  16. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  17. Incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10- year study course...

  18. Incidence and Prevalence of Psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10-year study course...

  19. Increase of Stroke Incidence in Young Adults in a Middle-Income Country: A 10-Year Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Norberto Luiz; Freire, Aracélli Tavares; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Dos Santos, Nayara; Reis, Felipe Ibiapina; Nagel, Vivian; Guesser, Vanessa V; Safanelli, Juliana; Longo, Alexandre L

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of stroke is on the rise in young adults in high-income countries. However, there is a gap of knowledge about trends in stroke incidence in young adults from low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to measure trends in incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (IH) in young people from 2005 to 2015 in Joinville, Brazil. We retrospectively ascertained all first-ever IS subtypes and IH that occurred in Joinville in the periods of 2005 to 2006, 2010 to 2011, and 2014 to 2015. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios of all strokes, IS, and IH. We also compared the prevalence of risk factors and extension of diagnostic work-up across the 3 periods. For 10 years, we registered 2483 patients (7.5% aged incidence significantly increased by 62% (incidence rate ratios, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.40) in subjects incidence rate ratios, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.60). Incidence of IS increased by 66% (incidence rate ratios, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.54), but there was no significant change in incidence of IH in subjects incidence is rising in young adults in Joinville, Brazil, because of increase in rates of ischemic but not hemorrhagic strokes. We urgently need better policies of cardiovascular prevention in the young. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Parkinson's disease in Russia: prevalence and incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razdorskaya V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the regional studies on the frequency of Parkinson's disease (PD and the incidence of it in Russia have been generalized, the main factors that determine the quality of the estimates of this disease epidemiological indicators have been identifyd. The article summarizes data from 19 original studies on the epidemiology of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Russia published between 2005-2015. Due to the statistical heterogeneity of the primary results computational analytics was not applied to the data; however, data consolidation allowed to perform a trend analysis of epidemiological indicators. The methodological basis of the majority of studies was medical aid appealabil-ity; two of the studies used door-to-door surveys. One of the studies returned questionably low epidemiological indicators obtained from the medical records, and the rest showed the standardized prevalence of 30.0-139.9/100,000 and incidence of 7.63-21.8/100,000 per year. Contribution of Parkinson's disease to the nosological structure of parkinsonism was >61.3%. Estimate of the number of patients with PD in Russia is approximately 210,000 people. Conclusions are made regarding the prevalence of PD in Russia according to the cross-cutting research on the level of indicators in the Western countries. The prevalence of PD by appealability is 2-3 times less than the prevalence in continuous research, both national and foreign. The incidence of PD, demonstrated in half of the studies, is stable from region to region and is comparable with the universally recognized values.

  1. Neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence: a population-based study in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danos, Denise M; Ferguson, Tekeda F; Simonsen, Neal R; Leonardi, Claudia; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Scribner, Richard A

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to demonstrate racial disparities in incidence and survival in the United States. This study investigates the role of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage in racial disparities in CRC incidence in Louisiana. Louisiana Tumor Registry and U.S. Census data were used to assess the incidence of CRC diagnosed in individuals 35 years and older between 2008 and 2012. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage index (CDI) was calculated based on the PhenX Toolkit protocol. The incidence of CRC was modeled using multilevel binomial regression with individuals nested within neighborhoods. Our study included 10,198 cases of CRC. Adjusting for age and sex, CRC risk was 28% higher for blacks than whites (risk ratio [RR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33). One SD increase in CDI was associated with 14% increase in risk for whites (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.10-1.18) and 5% increase for blacks (RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.09). After controlling for differential effects of CDI by race, racial disparities were not observed in disadvantaged areas. CRC incidence increased with neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities diminished with mounting disadvantage. Our results suggest additional dimensions to racial disparities in CRC outside of neighborhood disadvantage that warrants further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated incidence rates of diabetes in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclen, Segundo Nicolas; Rosas, Moises Ernesto; Arias, Arturo Jaime; Medina, Cecilia Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    A recent report from a non-nationally representative, geographically diverse sample in four separate communities in Peru suggests an unusually high diabetes incidence. We aimed to estimate the national diabetes incidence rate using PERUDIAB, a probabilistic, national urban population-based longitudinal study. 662 subjects without diabetes, selected by multistage, cluster, random sampling of households, representing the 24 administrative and the 3 (coast, highlands and jungle) natural regions across the country, from both sexes, aged 25+ years at baseline, enrolled in 2010-2012, were followed for 3.8 years. New diabetes cases were defined as fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL or on medical diabetes treatment. There were 49 cases of diabetes in 2408 person-years follow-up. The weighted cumulative incidence of diabetes was 7.2% while the weighted incidence rate was estimated at 19.5 (95% CI 13.9 to 28.3) new cases per 1000 person-years. Older age, obesity and technical or higher education were statistically associated with the incidence of diabetes. Our results confirm that the incidence of diabetes in Peru is among the highest reported globally. The fast economic growth in the last 20 years, high overweight and obesity rates may have triggered this phenomenon.

  3. Incidence and Short-term Mortality From Perforated Peptic Ulcer in Korea: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SeungJin; Shim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Nayoung; Kang, Jung Mook; Kim, Dong-Sook; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Cho, Yu Kyung; Jung, Sung Woo

    2012-01-01

    Background Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is associated with serious health and economic outcomes. However, few studies have estimated the incidence and health outcomes of PPU using a nationally representative sample in Asia. We estimated age- and sex-specific incidence and short-term mortality from PPU among Koreans and investigated the risk factors for mortality associated with PPU development. Methods A retrospective population-based study was conducted from 2006 through 2007 using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. A diagnostic algorithm was derived and validated to identify PPU patients, and PPU incidence rates and 30-day mortality rates were determined. Results From 2006 through 2007, the PPU incidence rate per 100 000 population was 4.4; incidence among men (7.53) was approximately 6 times that among women (1.24). Incidence significantly increased with advanced age, especially among women older than 50 years. Among 4258 PPU patients, 135 (3.15%) died within 30 days of the PPU event. The 30-day mortality rate increased with advanced age and reached almost 20% for patients older than 80 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 10% for women and 2% for men. Older age, being female, and higher comorbidity were independently associated with 30-day mortality rate among PPU patients in Korea. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to elderly women with high comorbidity who develop PPU. PMID:22955110

  4. Atherosclerosis profile and incidence of cardiovascular events: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullano Michael F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive disease often presenting as clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD events. This study evaluated the characteristics of individuals with a diagnosis of atherosclerosis and estimated the incidence of CVD events to assist in the early identification of high-risk individuals. Methods Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey were followed for 2 years to observe incident self-reported CVD. Respondents had subclinical atherosclerosis if they reported a diagnosis of narrow or blocked arteries/carotid artery disease without a past clinical CVD event (heart attack, stroke or revascularization. Characteristics of those with atherosclerosis and incident CVD were compared with those who did not report atherosclerosis at baseline but had CVD in the following 2 years using chi-square tests. Logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with atherosclerosis and incident events. Results Of 17,640 respondents, 488 (2.8% reported having subclinical atherosclerosis at baseline. Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with age, male gender, dyslipidemia, circulation problems, hypertension, past smoker, and a cholesterol test in past year (OR = 2.2 [all p Conclusion Self-report of subclinical atherosclerosis identified an extremely high-risk group with a >25% risk of a CVD event in the next 2 years. These characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals for more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic efforts.

  5. Incidence, aetiology and injury characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden: A prospective, population-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Andersson, Nina; Bjelak, Sapko; Giesecke, Kajsa; Hultling, Claes; Nilsson Wikmar, Lena; Phillips, Julie; Seiger, Åke; Stenimahitis, Vasilios; Trok, Katarzyna; Åkesson, Elisabet; Wahman, Kerstin

    2017-05-16

    To update the incidence rate, aetiology and injury characteristics of acutely-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden, using international standards of reporting. Prospective, (regional) population-based observation. Forty-nine consecutively enrolled individuals. A surveillance system of newly-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury was implemented for an 18-month period. The International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set was used to collect data on those who survived the first 7 days post-injury. After an 18-month period, 49 incident cases were registered, of whom 45 were included in this study. The crude incidence rate was 19.0 per million, consisting mainly of men (60%), and the mean age of the cohort was 55 years (median 58). Causes of injury were almost exclusively limited to falls and transport-related events, accounting for 58% and 40% of cases, respectively. The incidence has remained stable when compared with the previous study; however, significant differences exist for injury aetiology (p = 0.004) and impairment level (p = 0.01) in that more fall- and transport-related spinal cord injury occurred, and a larger proportion of persons was left with resultant tetraplegia, in the current study, compared with more sport-related injuries and those left with paraplegia in the previous study. The incidence rate appeared to remain stable in Stockholm, Sweden. However, significant changes in injury aetiology and impairment-level post injury were found, compared with the previous study. There remains a need for developing fall-related prevention strategies in rehabilitation settings as well as in population-based programmes.

  6. Increasing incidence of nutritional rickets: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Tebben, Peter J; Singh, Ravinder J; Cha, Stephen S; Maxson, Julie A; Yawn, Barbara P

    2013-02-01

    To determine temporal trends in incidence and risk factors of nutritional rickets in a community-based population. Rochester Epidemiology Project data were used to identify all children (aged rickets, vitamin D deficiency, hypovitaminosis D, rachitis, osteomalacia, genu varum, genu valgum, craniotabes, hypocalcemia, hypocalcemic seizure, and tetany. Record abstraction was performed to select individuals with radiographic confirmation of rickets. Age- and sex-matched controls were identified for the evaluation of risk factors. The main outcome measure was radiographic evidence of rickets without identifiable inherited, genetic, or nonnutritional causes. Incidence rates were calculated using Rochester Epidemiology Project census data. Of 768 children with eligible diagnostic codes, 23 had radiographic evidence of rickets; of these, 17 children had nutritional rickets. All 17 children were younger than 3 years, and 13 (76%) were of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Clinical presentation included poor growth (n=12), leg deformity (n=8), motor delay (n=5), leg pain (n=3), weakness (n=3), and hypocalcemia or tetany (n=2). The incidence of nutritional rickets in children younger than 3 years was 0, 2.2, 3.7, and 24.1 per 100,000 for the decades beginning in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000, respectively (P=.003 for incidence trend). Nutritional rickets was associated with black race, breast-feeding, low birth weight, and stunted growth (Prickets remains rare, but its incidence has dramatically increased since 2000. Not all cases of rickets can be attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-economic inequalities in the incidence of four common cancers: a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, E J; Allardice, G M; McLoone, P; Morrison, D S

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between socio-economic circumstances and cancer incidence in Scotland in recent years. Population-based study using cancer registry data. Data on incident cases of colorectal, lung, female breast, and prostate cancer diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 were obtained from a population-based cancer registry covering a population of approximately 2.5 million people in the West of Scotland. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed based on postcode of residence at diagnosis, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). For each cancer, crude and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated by quintile of SIMD score, and the number of excess cases associated with socio-economic deprivation was estimated. 93,866 cases met inclusion criteria, comprising 21,114 colorectal, 31,761 lung, 23,757 female breast, and 15,314 prostate cancers. Between 2001 and 2006, there was no consistent association between socio-economic circumstances and colorectal cancer incidence, but 2006-2012 saw an emerging deprivation gradient in both sexes. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for colorectal cancer between most deprived and least deprived increased from 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.16) to 1.24 (95% CI 1.11-1.39) during the study period. The incidence of lung cancer showed the strongest relationship with socio-economic circumstances, with inequalities widening across the study period among women from IRR 2.66 (95% CI 2.33-3.05) to 2.91 (95% CI 2.54-3.33) in 2001-03 and 2010-12, respectively. Breast and prostate cancer showed an inverse relationship with socio-economic circumstances, with lower incidence among people living in more deprived areas. Significant socio-economic inequalities remain in cancer incidence in the West of Scotland, and in some cases are increasing. In particular, this study has identified an emerging, previously unreported, socio-economic gradient in colorectal cancer incidence among women as well as men. Actions

  8. A population-based national estimate of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda: implications for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahimana, Marie-Rosette; Nyandwi, Alypio; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Olu, Olushayo; Condo, Jeanine Umutesi; Rusanganwa, Andre; Koama, Jean Baptiste; Ngoc, Candide Tran; Gasherebuka, Jean Bosco; Ota, Martin O; Okeibunor, Joseph C

    2017-07-10

    Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and a growing public health problem in many developed and developing countries. However, population-based data to inform policy development are scarce in Rwanda. This nationally representative study aimed to determine population-based estimates of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda. We conducted secondary epidemiological analysis of data collected from a cross-sectional population-based study to assess the risk factors for NCDs using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS). Adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval were used to establish association between hypertension, socio-demographic characteristics and health risk behaviors. Of the 7116 study participants, 62.8% were females and 38.2% were males. The mean age of study participants was 35.3 years (SD 12.5). The overall prevalence of hypertension was 15.3% (16.4% for males and 14.4% for females). Twenty two percent of hypertensive participants were previously diagnosed. A logistic regression model revealed that age (AOR: 8.02, 95% CI: 5.63-11.42, p Rwanda, suggesting the need for prevention and control interventions aimed at decreasing the incidence taking into consideration the risk factors documented in this and other similar studies.

  9. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Risk of Incident Hypertriglyceridemia: A Longitudinal Population-based Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Ren, Ping; Chen, Qingmei; Yang, Tianmeng; Chen, Changxi; Mao, Yushan

    2017-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is one of lipid metabolism abnormalities; however, it is still debatable whether serum uric acid is a cause or a consequence of hypertriglyceridemia. We performed the study to investigate the longitudinal association between serum uric acid levels and hypertriglyceridemia. The study included 4190 subjects without hypertriglyceridemia. The subjects had annual health examinations for 8 years to assess incident hyperglyceridemia, and the subjects were divided into groups based on the serum uric acid quartile. Cox regression models were used to analyze the risk factors of development hypertriglyceridemia. During follow-up, 1461 (34.9%) subjects developed hypertriglyceridemia over 8 years of follow-up. The cumulative incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was 28.2%, 29.1%, 36.9%, and 45.6% in quartile 1,2,3 and 4, respectively ( P for trend uric acid levels were independently and positively associated with the risk of incident hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia has become a serious public health problem. This longitudinal study demonstrates that high serum uric acid levels increase the risk of hypertriglyceridemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  10. Incidence of liver trauma and relative risk factors for mortality: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chien Chien

    2013-10-01

    Results: A total of 3196 liver trauma patients were admitted in 2007 and 2008, resulting in 264 deaths. The incidence rate is 13.9/100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was in the age 15–24 years group, 25.9/100,000 population; the highest mortality rate was in the age 75–84 years group, 2.1/100,000 population. Additionally, rural residents possessed a higher incidence and mortality rate than urban residents (15.9/100,000 population vs. 12.2/100,000 population and 1.4/100,000 population vs. 1.0/100,000 population. By using logistic regression, the mortality rate was significantly higher in the groups with patients aged >64 years, renal failure or liver cirrhosis, with head or chest, or other abdominal injury. If a patient received a hepatic or abdominal operation, this was retrospectively found to be associated with increased mortality risk (4.731 times, p US$660 were found to have a higher mortality risk (2.209 times, p  64 years group, pedestrians hit in motor-vehicle accidents, renal failure or liver cirrhosis, with head or chest, or other abdominal injury.

  11. Exploring the rising incidence of neuroendocrine tumors: a population-based analysis of epidemiology, metastatic presentation, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, Julie; Law, Calvin How Lim; Cukier, Moises; Saskin, Refik; Liu, Ning; Singh, Simron

    2015-02-15

    An increased incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has been reported worldwide, but the reasons underlying this rise have not been identified. By assessing patterns of metastatic presentation, this study sought to examine the epidemiologic characteristics of NETs and the contribution of early-stage detection to the rising incidence. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted with prospectively maintained databases linked at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Adult patients with a NET diagnosis from 1994 to 2009 in Ontario, Canada were included. The main outcomes included the overall and site-specific incidence, proportion of metastatic disease, overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Five thousand six hundred nineteen NET cases were identified. The incidence of NETs increased from 2.48 to 5.86 per 100,000 per year. Metastases were found in 20.8% at presentation and in another 38% after the initial diagnosis. The proportion of metastases at presentation decreased from 1994 to 2009 (from 29% to 13%). Therefore, although the incidence of all NETs increased, the overall incidence of metastases did not change (0.63-0.69 per 100,000 per year). The 10-year OS rate was 46.5%, and the RFS rate was 64.6%. In addition to the primary tumor site, independent predictors of worse OS included an advanced age (P incidence of NETs has markedly increased over the course of 15 years. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that the increase in the incidence of NETs may be due to increased detection. In addition to tumor characteristics, low income and rural residency portend worse survival for patients with NETs. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  12. Incidence and Clinical Outcomes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in South Korea, 2011-2014: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Han, Minkyung; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sohee; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in East Asia; however, population-based data from this region are lacking. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study to examine the incidence and disease course of IBD in South Korea. Using the National Health Insurance claims data, we collected data on patients diagnosed with IBD [10,049 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 5595 with Crohn's disease (CD)] from 2011 to 2014. During the study period, the average annual incidence of UC was 5.0 per 10 5 , while that of CD was 2.8 per 10 5 . Among patients with UC, the cumulative rates of surgery 1 and 4 years after diagnosis were 1.0 and 2.0%; those among patients with CD were 9.0 and 13.9%, respectively. The 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of moderate- to high-dose corticosteroid use were, respectively, 26.6 and 45.2% among patients with UC, and 29.9 and 50.8% among those with CD. Similarly, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of immunomodulator use were 14.1 and 26.4% among patients with UC, and 58.3 and 76.1% among those with CD, respectively. With regard to biologic use, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates were 3.0 and 9.0% among patients with UC, and 11.1 and 31.7% among those with CD, respectively. The recent incidence of IBD in South Korea has been the highest in East Asia. Patients who had been diagnosed recently with IBD showed lower rates of surgery and higher rates of immunomodulator and biologic use compared to those reported ever in South Korea.

  13. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Laurel L; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2018-01-29

    Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna, herpes zoster, delusional infestation, venous stasis syndrome, venous ulcer, and burning mouth syndrome were more commonly diagnosed. In those younger than 65 years, atypical nevi, psoriatic arthritis, pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, genital warts, alopecia areata, hidradenitis suppurativa, infantile hemangioma, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis (isolated cutaneous, with sarcoidosis-specific cutaneous lesions and with erythema nodosum) had a higher incidence. Many of the incidence rates by age group of diseases primarily affecting the skin derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project were similar to those reported elsewhere. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of hospitalization in Crohn's disease in a prospective population-based inception cohort from 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Laszlo; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Kiss, Lajos S; Pandur, Tunde; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-06-21

    To analyze the prevalence, length and predictors of hospitalization in the biological era in the population-based inception cohort from Veszprem province. Data of 331 incident Crohn's disease (CD) patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were analyzed (median age at diagnosis: 28; IQR: 21-40 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Probabilities of first CD-related hospitalization and re-hospitalization were 32.3%, 45.5%, 53.7% and 13.6%, 23.9%, 29.8%, respectively after one, three and five years of follow-up in Kaplan-Meier analysis. First-year hospitalizations were related to diagnostic procedures (37%), surgery or disease activity (27% and 21%). Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis (HR = 1.32, P = 0.001) and perianal disease (HR = 1.47, P = 0.04) were associated with time to first CD-related hospitalization, while disease behavior change (HR = 2.38, P = 0.002) and need for steroids (HR = 3.14, P = 0.003) were associated with time to first re-hospitalization in multivariate analyses. Early CD-related hospitalization (within the year of diagnosis) was independently associated with need for immunosuppressives (OR = 2.08, P = 0.001) and need for surgeries (OR = 7.25, P < 0.001) during the disease course. Hospitalization and re-hospitalization rates are still high in this cohort, especially during the first-year after the diagnosis. Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis was identified as the pivotal predictive factor of both hospitalization and re-hospitalization.

  16. Incidence and late prognosis of cushing's syndrome: a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, J; Juul, Svend; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose was to assess the incidence and late outcome of Cushing’s syndrome, particularly in Cushing’s disease. Information for all patients diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome during an 11-yr period in Denmark was retrieved. The incidence was 1.2–1.7/million·yr (Cushing’s disease), 0.......6/million·yr (adrenal adenoma) and 0.2/million·yr (adrenal carcinoma). Other types of Cushing’s syndrome were rare. In 139 patients with nonmalignant disease, 11.1% had died during follow-up (median, 8.1 yr; range, 3.1–14.0), yielding a standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 3.68 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2...... syndrome is rare and is associated with increased mortality, in patients with no concurrent malignancy also; 2) the excess mortality was mainly observed during the first year of disease; and 3) the impaired quality of health in long-term survivors of Cushing’s disease is not fully explained....

  17. Estimating leptospirosis incidence using hospital-based surveillance and a population-based health care utilization survey in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Biggs

    Full Text Available The incidence of leptospirosis, a neglected zoonotic disease, is uncertain in Tanzania and much of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in scarce data on which to prioritize resources for public health interventions and disease control. In this study, we estimate the incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania.We conducted a population-based household health care utilization survey in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania and identified leptospirosis cases at two hospital-based fever sentinel surveillance sites in the Kilimanjaro Region. We used multipliers derived from the health care utilization survey and case numbers from hospital-based surveillance to calculate the incidence of leptospirosis. A total of 810 households were enrolled in the health care utilization survey and multipliers were derived based on responses to questions about health care seeking in the event of febrile illness. Of patients enrolled in fever surveillance over a 1 year period and residing in the 2 districts, 42 (7.14% of 588 met the case definition for confirmed or probable leptospirosis. After applying multipliers to account for hospital selection, test sensitivity, and study enrollment, we estimated the overall incidence of leptospirosis ranges from 75-102 cases per 100,000 persons annually.We calculated a high incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, where leptospirosis incidence was previously unknown. Multiplier methods, such as used in this study, may be a feasible method of improving availability of incidence estimates for neglected diseases, such as leptospirosis, in resource constrained settings.

  18. Childhood cancer incidence and survival in Japan and England: A population-based study (1993-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Magadi, Winnie; Bonaventure, Audrey; Stiller, Charles A; Katanoda, Kota; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Rachet, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare cancer incidence and trends in survival for children diagnosed in Japan and England, using population-based cancer registry data. The analysis was based on 5192 children with cancer (age 0-14 years) from 6 prefectural cancer registries in Japan and 21 295 children diagnosed in England during 1993-2010. Differences in incidence rates between the 2 countries were measured with Poisson regression models. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors and Ewing sarcomas in England were more than twice as high as those in Japan. Incidence of germ cell tumors, hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was higher in Japan than in England. Incidence of all cancers combined decreased in Japan throughout the period 1993 to 2010, which was mainly explained by a decrease in registration of neuroblastoma in infants. For many cancers, 5-year survival improved in both countries. The improvement in survival in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was particularly dramatic in both countries. However, 5-year survival remained less than 80% in 2005-2008 in both countries for AML, brain tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, malignant bone tumors and neuroblastoma (age 1-14 years). There were significant differences in incidence of several cancers between countries, suggesting variation in genetic susceptibility and possibly environmental factors. The decrease in incidence for all cancers combined in Japan was related to the cessation of the national screening program for neuroblastoma. The large improvement in survival in CML coincided with the introduction of effective therapy (imatinib). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Estimating Leptospirosis Incidence Using Hospital-Based Surveillance and a Population-Based Health Care Utilization Survey in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Holly M.; Hertz, Julian T.; Munishi, O. Michael; Galloway, Renee L.; Marks, Florian; Saganda, Wilbrod; Maro, Venance P.; Crump, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of leptospirosis, a neglected zoonotic disease, is uncertain in Tanzania and much of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in scarce data on which to prioritize resources for public health interventions and disease control. In this study, we estimate the incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based household health care utilization survey in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania and identified leptospirosis cases at two hospital-based fever sentinel surveillance sites in the Kilimanjaro Region. We used multipliers derived from the health care utilization survey and case numbers from hospital-based surveillance to calculate the incidence of leptospirosis. A total of 810 households were enrolled in the health care utilization survey and multipliers were derived based on responses to questions about health care seeking in the event of febrile illness. Of patients enrolled in fever surveillance over a 1 year period and residing in the 2 districts, 42 (7.14%) of 588 met the case definition for confirmed or probable leptospirosis. After applying multipliers to account for hospital selection, test sensitivity, and study enrollment, we estimated the overall incidence of leptospirosis ranges from 75–102 cases per 100,000 persons annually. Conclusions/Significance We calculated a high incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, where leptospirosis incidence was previously unknown. Multiplier methods, such as used in this study, may be a feasible method of improving availability of incidence estimates for neglected diseases, such as leptospirosis, in resource constrained settings. PMID:24340122

  20. Cancer incidence patterns among children and adolescents in Taiwan from 1995 to 2009: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Chao-Chun; Lee, Chih-Ying

    2014-11-15

    Currently, little information is available on childhood cancer incidence rates in Eastern Asia. The objective of this study was to report the first population-based cancer surveillance of children and adolescents in Taiwan. Data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry were examined for cancer frequencies and incidence rates among individuals ages birth to 19 years from 1995 to 2009. Types of cancers were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Rates were compared by sex and age. For further comparisons with other countries, rates were age standardized to the 2000 world standard population in 5-year age groups. Trends in incidence rates also were evaluated. In total, 12,315 individuals were diagnosed with childhood cancers, for an age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 132.1 per million person-years from 1995 to 2009. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.19. Overall, leukemias were the most common cancer (ASR, 39.1 per million person-years), followed by central nervous system neoplasms (15.8 per million person-years), and lymphomas (15.3 per million person-years). During the 15-year study period, the incidence rates increased by 1% annually. Compared with other countries, the rate of hepatic tumors was 2 times greater in Taiwan. The rate of germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan was similar to that in the United States and was 1.3 to 1.9 times greater compared with Canada, Brazil, Israel, and Japan. Based on the current data, the observed increase in overall incidence rates was attributable only marginally to improvements in case ascertainment and diagnostic procedures. The high rates of malignant hepatic tumors and germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan suggest variations in the background risk factors. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  1. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  2. Progression, incidence, and risk factors for intervertebral disc degeneration in a longitudinal population-based cohort: the Wakayama Spine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraguchi, M; Yoshimura, N; Hashizume, H; Yamada, H; Oka, H; Minamide, A; Nagata, K; Ishimoto, Y; Kagotani, R; Kawaguchi, H; Tanaka, S; Akune, T; Nakamura, K; Muraki, S; Yoshida, M

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the progression, incidence, and risk factors for intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) throughout the lumbar spine using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population-based cohort. We followed up 617 subjects for more than 4 years as part of the Wakayama Spine Study. 1) "Progression of DD" in each of the entire, upper (L1/2 to L3/4) and lower (L4/5 and L5/S1) lumbar spine was defined as Pfirrmann grade progression at follow-up in at least one disc in the affected region. 2) "Incidence of DD" in each of these regions was defined if all discs were grade 3 or lower (white disc) at baseline, and at least one disc had progressed to grade 4 or higher (black disc) at follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for progression and incidence of DD. DD progression and incidence in the entire lumbar spine were 52.0% and 31.6% in men, and 60.4% and 44.7% in women, respectively. Women was associated with DD progression in the upper lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-2.42). Aging was associated with the incidence of DD in each region (entire: OR = 1.14, CI = 1.06-1.14; upper: OR = 1.10, CI = 1.05-1.15; lower: OR = 1.11, CI = 1.05-1.19). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with the incidence of DD in the upper lumbar spine (OR = 6.83, CI = 1.07-133.7). This 4-year longitudinal study is the first to demonstrate DD progression and incidence in the lumbar spine and their risk factors in a large population-based cohort. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  4. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiest, Kirsten M; Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Patten, Scott B; Kwon, Churl-Su; Dykeman, Jonathan; Pringsheim, Tamara; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Jetté, Nathalie

    2017-01-17

    To review population-based studies of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy worldwide and use meta-analytic techniques to explore factors that may explain heterogeneity between estimates. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were followed. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published on the prevalence or incidence of epilepsy since 1985. Abstract, full-text review, and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to explore the association between prevalence or incidence, age group, sex, country level income, and study quality. A total of 222 studies were included (197 on prevalence, 48 on incidence). The point prevalence of active epilepsy was 6.38 per 1,000 persons (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.57-7.30), while the lifetime prevalence was 7.60 per 1,000 persons (95% CI 6.17-9.38). The annual cumulative incidence of epilepsy was 67.77 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 56.69-81.03) while the incidence rate was 61.44 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 50.75-74.38). The prevalence of epilepsy did not differ by age group, sex, or study quality. The active annual period prevalence, lifetime prevalence, and incidence rate of epilepsy were higher in low to middle income countries. Epilepsies of unknown etiology and those with generalized seizures had the highest prevalence. This study provides a comprehensive synthesis of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy from published international studies and offers insight into factors that contribute to heterogeneity between estimates. Significant gaps (e.g., lack of incidence studies, stratification by age groups) were identified. Standardized reporting of future epidemiologic studies of epilepsy is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Social support and ovarian cancer incidence - A Swedish prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idahl, Annika; Hermansson, Andrea; Lalos, Ann

    2018-05-01

    Low social support is associated with worse prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. However, few studies have explored the relation between low social support and incidence of EOC. The aim of this prospective nested case-control study was to examine whether self-perceived low social support was associated with the incidence of EOC. The Swedish Cancer Registry was used to identify participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) comprising 58,000 women, who later developed EOC. Each case was matched to four cancer free controls. The VIP uses the Social Support questionnaire, a modified version of the validated questionnaire "The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction" (ISSI) measuring quantitative (AVSI) and qualitative (AVAT) aspects of social support. The risk of EOC in relation to AVSI and AVAT was similar between the 239 cases and the 941 controls after adjustment for educational level, smoking, BMI, Cambridge Physical Activity Index and age (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-1.01 and aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.16-1.81). Lagtime was found to have no impact. A decreased risk of serous ovarian cancer was seen in women with fewer persons available for informal socializing (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.95). Adjusted analyses showed non-significant odds ratios below 1.0 in the vast majority of histotypes. A general trend towards a decreased risk of ovarian cancer associated with low AVSI and AVAT was identified. Solely the serous subtype was significantly associated with low scores of AVSI. Prospective pathophysiological and epidemiological studies regarding social support are needed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction in tuberculosis incidence in the UK from 2011 to 2015: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H Lucy; Harris, Ross J; Muzyamba, Morris C; Davidson, Jennifer A; Lalor, Maeve K; Campbell, Colin N J; Anderson, Sarah R; Zenner, Dominik

    2018-04-19

    Following nearly two decades of increasing tuberculosis in the UK, TB incidence decreased by 32% from 2011 to 2015. Explaining this reduction is crucial to informing ongoing TB control efforts. We stratified TB cases notified in the UK and TB cases averted in the UK through pre-entry screening (PES) between 2011 and 2015 by country of birth and time since arrival. We used population estimates and migration data to establish denominators, and calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) between 2011 and 2015. We calculated the contribution of changing migrant population sizes, PES and changes in TB rates to the reduction in TB notifications. TB IRRs fell in all non-EU migrant and UK-born populations between 2011 and 2015 (0.61; 95%  CI 0.59 to 0.64 and 0.78; 0.73 to 0.83 respectively), with the greatest decrease in recent non-EU migrants (0.54; 0.48 to 0.61). 61.9% of the reduction in TB notifications was attributable to decreases in TB rates, 33.4% to a fall in the number of recent/mid-term non-EU migrants and 11.4% to PES. A small increase in notifications in EU-born migrants offset the reduction by 6.6%. Large decreases in TB rates in almost all populations accounted for the majority of the reduction in TB notifications, providing evidence of the impact of recent interventions to improve UK TB control. The particularly large decrease in TB rates in recent non-EU migrants provides evidence of the effectiveness of screening interventions that target this population. These findings will inform ongoing improvements to TB control. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Childhood Cancer Incidence in India Betweem 2012 and 2014: Report of a Population-based Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Anshu, Kumar; Bhakta, Subhajit

    2017-12-15

    To provide an overview of childhood cancer incidence in India between 2012-2014. Secondary data analysis on age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence for children (0-14 years) were collected from the report of the National Cancer Registry Programme in the year 2016. Age-adjusted rates of childhood cancer incidence ranged from 18.5 per million in the state of Nagaland to 235.3 per million in Delhi for boys. The rates were 11.4 per million in East Khasi Hill district and 152.3 per million in Delhi for girls. Leukemia was the most predominant cancer for both boys and girls. Lymphoma was the second most common cancer in boys, and brain tumors in girls. Childhood cancer incidence is increasing in India compared to population-based cancer registry survey of 2009-2011. Cancers are mostly affecting 0-4 years age group, and there is a rising trend of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mari?o-S?nchez, Franklin; Quint?, Lloren?; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, C?sar; Marin, Concepci?

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting: The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants: N...

  9. Estimated incidence of cardiovascular complications related to type 2 diabetes in Mexico using the UKPDS outcome model and a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Mehta, Roopa; Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Villalpando, Salvador; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2011-01-07

    To estimate the incidence of complications, life expectancy and diabetes related mortality in the Mexican diabetic population over the next two decades using data from a nation-wide, population based survey and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) outcome model. The cohort included all patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated during the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut) 2006. ENSANut is a probabilistic multistage stratified survey whose aim was to measure the prevalence of chronic diseases. A total of 47,152 households were visited. Results are shown stratified by gender, time since diagnosis (> or ≤ to 10 years) and age at the time of diagnosis (> or ≤ 40 years). The prevalence of diabetes in our cohort was 14.4%. The predicted 20 year-incidence for chronic complications per 1000 individuals are: ischemic heart disease 112, myocardial infarction 260, heart failure 113, stroke 101, and amputation 62. Furthermore, 539 per 1000 patients will have a diabetes-related premature death. The average life expectancy for the diabetic population is 10.9 years (95%CI 10.7-11.2); this decreases to 8.3 years after adjusting for quality of life (CI95% 8.1-8.5). Male sex and cases diagnosed after age 40 have the highest risk for developing at least one major complication during the next 20 years. Based on the current clinical profile of Mexican patients with diabetes, the burden of disease related complications will be tremendous over the next two decades.

  10. Incidence and prevalence of head lice in a district health authority area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Crawshaw, J G; Millership, S

    2003-09-01

    There are very few recent studies of the incidence and prevalence of head lice in the UK. A population-based questionnaire survey was carried out in a district health authority area. Two hundred and four of 235 primary schools (87%) agreed to participate. A total of 21,556 of 43,889 (49%) questionnaires were returned by parents. Overall 438 children had head lice at the time of the survey, giving a prevalence of 2.03%; 8,059 had had lice at some time in the last year giving an annual incidence of 37.4%.

  11. The association of statin use with reduced incidence of venous thromboembolism: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Riitta; Jula, Antti; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Haukka, Jari

    2014-11-05

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) continues to be a frequent medical emergency requiring rapid recognition so as to reach diagnosis and initiate anticoagulation therapy. The use of statins in addition to reducing the incidence of arterial thrombosis for decreasing the incidence and reoccurrence of VTE is reported. The aim of our study was to explore the association between statin usage and the incidence of new VTE at the population level during a 10-year follow-up. Population-based historic cohort. The Health 2000 Survey was based on a nationally representative sample. 8028 individuals aged 30 years or over in Finland. The primary end point event was the first ever hospitalisation due to one of the following causes: pulmonary embolism (International Classification of Diseases-10 I26), cerebral venous non-pyogenic thrombosis (I63.6), or venous thrombosis (I80.9-189). The preselected explanatory variables applied to the Poisson regression model were statin usage (no/yes) during follow-up (2000-2011) and several baseline data (age, sex; usage of blood glucose lowering drugs, vitamin K antagonists and antiplatelet agents). We observed 136 VTE events, the incidence of 1.72 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.04) per 1000 person-years. Current statin usage did not associate with the incidence of VTE according to the univariate model (rate ratio (RR) 0.93, 0.56 to 1.52), but when adjusted with baseline variables (age, sex, medications) the RR declined to 0.60 (0.36 to 1.00, p=0.04). Statin use offers protection against first ever VTE events and appears as a primary prevention tool in patients without anticoagulation or antiplatelet medication. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Age and sex differences in the incidence of diabetes mellitus in a population-based Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Tomás; Gil, Milagros; Lozano, Jose

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Spain ranges between 10% and 20%. However, very little is known about the incidence of DM because of difficulties involved in estimating it and its apparent lack of usefulness in practice. The aim of the present study was to describe the incidence of type 1 and type 2 DM (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) in the Castilla y León diabetes cohort (CODICyL). New diabetes cases, were registered on a standard form that included diagnostic criteria, background, symptoms, results of clinical examination, complications, other cardiovascular risk factors, and treatment. There were 1 354 619 person-years monitored between 2000 and 2013. We estimated the incidence of DM and calculated the relative risks adjusted for age, gender, and year of diagnosis with Poisson regression models. The incidence of DM in individuals aged ≥15 years was 196.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 188.4-205.7), whereas in those aged <15 years the incidence was 10.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 7.8-14.8). Men had a 36% higher risk than women of developing T2DM (95% CI 25%-49%). The greatest incidence of T2DM was found in 55-64-year-old men and 65-69-year-old women. The annual incidence of T2DM is approximately 2 per 1000 person-years, higher in men, and peaks in middle age. Although specific tests to differentiate between the two types of DM are not available in this study, the estimation of incidence in those <15 years of age (10.8 per 100 000 person-years) represents a close approximation of the incidence of T1DM. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Prospective population-based study of the association between vitamin D status and incidence of autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2015-01-01

    Beside its traditional role in skeletal health, vitamin D is believed to have multiple immunosuppressant properties, and low vitamin D status has been suggested to be a risk factor in the development of autoimmune disease. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and development...... of autoimmune disease. We included a total of 12,555 individuals from three population-based studies with measurements of vitamin D status (25-hydroxy vitamin D). We followed the participants by linkage to the Danish National Patient Register (median follow-up time 10.8 years). Relative risks of autoimmune...... disease were estimated by Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios, HRs (95 % confidence intervals CIs). There were 525 cases of incident autoimmune disease. The risk for a 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D was: for any autoimmune disease (HR = 0.94 % CI 0.90, 0.98); thyrotoxicosis (HR = 0.83, 95 % CI 0...

  14. Incidence and outcome of epilepsy syndromes with onset in the first year of life: A retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaily, Eija; Lommi, Markus; Lapatto, Risto; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2016-10-01

    Population-based studies on infantile epilepsy syndromes are scarce. Our aim was to provide syndrome-specific data on the incidence and outcome of epilepsy in a population-based cohort of infants with epilepsy onset in the first year. Included were all infants born in 1997 through 2006 whose epileptic seizures started before 12 months of age and who were residents of the Helsinki University Hospital district at the time of seizure onset. Patients were ascertained from hospital statistics, and all patient charts were reviewed. A reevaluation of the epilepsy syndromes, age at onset, etiology, and outcome at 24 months of age was based on data abstracted from the patient files. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 158 infants, of whom 92% were followed until age 24 months or death. The incidence of epilepsy in the first year was 124 of 100,000. An epilepsy syndrome recognized by the revised organization of epilepsies by ILAE was identified in 58% of the patients. The most common syndromes were West syndrome (41/100,000) and benign familial or nonfamilial infantile epilepsy (22/100,000). Etiology was structural-metabolic in 35%, genetic in 17%, and unknown in 48%. Early age at onset was associated with structural-metabolic etiology. Seven infants (4.4%) died before age 2 years. One infant with an SCN2A mutation died of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). At 24 months, 58% of all children included in the cohort were seizure-free, and 46% had both seizure freedom and age-appropriate cognitive development. Age at onset was not associated with outcome when etiology was controlled for. Benign familial and nonfamilial infantile epilepsy appears to be more common than previously suggested, second only to West syndrome. Early age at onset is not an independent risk factor for poor outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Incidence, recurrence, and long-term survival of ischemic stroke subtypes: A population-based study in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Hamidreza; Thrift, Amanda G; Kapral, Moira K; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Amiri, Amin; Farzadfard, Mohammad T; Behrouz, Réza; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2017-10-01

    Background Incidence, risk factors, case fatality and survival rates of ischemic stroke subtypes are unknown in the Middle East due to the lack of community-based incidence stroke studies in this region. Aim To characterize ischemic stroke subtypes in a Middle Eastern population. Methods The Mashad Stroke Incidence Study is a community-based study that prospectively ascertained all cases of stroke among the 450,229 inhabitants of Mashhad, Iran between 2006 and 2007. We identified 512 cases of first-ever ischemic stroke [264 men (mean age 65.5 ± 14.4) and 248 women (mean age 64.14 ± 14.5)]. Subtypes of ischemic stroke were classified according to the TOAST criteria. Incidence rates were age standardized to the WHO and European populations. Results The proportion of stroke subtypes was distributed as follows: 14.1% large artery disease, 15% cardioembolic, 22.5% small artery disease, 43.9% undetermined and 4.5% other. The greatest overall incidence rates were attributed to undetermined infarction (49.97/100,000) followed by small artery disease (25.54/100,000). Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and atrial fibrillation differed among ischemic stroke subtypes. Overall, there were 268 (52.34%) deaths and 73 (14.25%) recurrent strokes at five years after incident ischemic stroke, with the greatest risk of recurrence seen in the large artery disease (35.6%) and cardioembolic (35.5%) subgroups. Survival was similar in men and women for each stroke subtype. Conclusions We observed markedly greater incidence rates of ischemic stroke subtypes than in other countries within the Mashad Stroke Incidence Study after age standardization. Our findings should be considered when planning prevention and stroke care services in this region.

  17. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in Relation to Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borné, Yan; Smith, J Gustav; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of leukocytes in blood have been associated with diabetes mellitus. This prospective study aimed to explore whether total and differential leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of diabetes. A missense variant R262W in the SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) gene, coding for a protein that negatively regulates hematopoietic cell proliferation, was also studied in relation to incidence of diabetes. Leukocyte count and its subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and mixed cells) were analyzed in 26,667 men and women, 45-73 years old, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Information about the R262W polymorphism (rs3184504) in SH2B3 was genotyped in 24,489 subjects. Incidence of diabetes was studied during a mean follow-up of 14 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine incidence of diabetes by total and differential leukocyte counts. Mendelian randomization analysis using R262W as an instrumental variable was performed with two-stage least squares regression. A total of 2,946 subjects developed diabetes during the follow-up period. After taking several possible confounders into account, concentrations of total leukocyte count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were all significantly associated with incidence of diabetes. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; quartile 4 vs quartile 1) were 1.37 (1.22-1.53) for total leukocytes, 1.33 (1.19-1.49) for neutrophils and 1.29 (1.15-1.44) for lymphocytes. The R262W polymorphism was strongly associated with leukocytes (0.11x109 cells/l per T allele, p = 1.14 x10-12), lymphocytes (p = 4.3 x10-16), neutrophils (p = 8.0 x10-6) and mixed cells (p = 3.0 x10-6). However, there was no significant association between R262W and fasting glucose, HbA1c or incidence of diabetes. Concentrations of total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes are associated with incidence of diabetes. However, the lack of association with the R262W polymorphism suggests that the associations

  18. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder: A nation-wide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per K; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2017-11-01

    Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (12.7 μg/L; interquartile range [IQR]: 7.9-15.5 μg/L) and controls (12.5 μg/L; IQR: 7.6-15.7 μg/L; P=.2). Further, the incidence rate ratio of mania/bipolar disorder did not decrease with higher long-term lithium exposure, overall, or within age categories (0-40, 41-60 and 61-100 years of age). Higher long-term lithium exposure from drinking water was not associated with a lower incidence of bipolar disorder. The association should be investigated in areas with higher lithium levels than in Denmark. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy among Danish type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of retinopathy in long-surviving type 1 diabetic patients. It also investigated the 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy and associated risk factors in a Danish population-based cohort. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 727...... type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, was identified in 1973. In 1981-1982, baseline retinopathy was graded and other risk factors were assessed in 573 patients. Twenty-five years later, 308 patients were still alive. Of these, 201 (65.3%) were re-examined at follow-up in 2007......-2008. RESULTS: The median age and duration of diabetes at follow-up were 58.8 and 43 years, respectively. At follow-up, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 97.0%. Non-proliferative retinopathy was found in 45.8%, and 51.2% had proliferative retinopathy. The 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy...

  20. Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence among Elderly Women in Yazd, Iran: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the high prevalence of UI, especially stress UI and it's relation with some diseases such as diabetes and obesity, any intervention programs aimed to increase the healthy life style among women may be effective in management of UI.

  1. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi,; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. Methods The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they wer...

  2. Epidemiology of infections by HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhea and Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Barcelona City: a population-based incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Pastor, Marc; García de Olalla, Patricia; Barberá, Maria-Jesús; Manzardo, Christian; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Gurguí, Mercè; Humet, Victoria; Vall, Martí; Ribera, Esteban; Villar, Judit; Martín, Gemma; Sambeat, Maria A; Marco, Andres; Vives, Alvaro; Alsina, Mercè; Miró, Josep M; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-10-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and their epidemiological characteristics in Barcelona city. Population-based incidence study of all newly occurring diagnoses of HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea and LGV detected in Barcelona between January 2007 and December 2011. A descriptive analysis was performed. The annual incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated by sex, sexual conduct and educational level. To estimate global sex-specific rates we used the Barcelona city census; for the calculation of rates by sexual conduct and educational level we used estimates of the Barcelona Health Interview Survey. Trends were analysed using the chi-squared test for linear trend. HIV. 66.8 % of the HIV cases were men who had sex with men (MSM). The incidence rates in MSM over the study period were from 692.67/100,000 to 909.88/100,000 inh. Syphilis. 74.2 % of the syphilis cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 224.9/100,000 to 891.97/100,000 inh. and the MSM with a university education ranged from 196.3/100,000 to 1020.8/100,000. Gonorrhea. 45.5 % of the gonorrhea cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 164.24/100,000 to 404.79/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 176.7/100,000 to 530.1/100,000 inh.. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). 95.3 % of the LGV cases are MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 24.99/100,000 to 282.99/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 9.3/100,000 to 265/100,000 inh. An increase in cases of STI was observed. These STI mainly affected MSM with a university education. Continuing to monitor changes in the epidemiology of STI, and identifying the most affected groups should permit redesigning preventive programs, with the goal of finding the most efficient way to reach these population groups.

  3. Prevalence and impact of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult cancer patients in comparison with population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Knoop, Hans; Jansen, Rosemarie; Prins, Judith B; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Husson, Olga; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-09-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (aged 18-35 years at diagnosis) consulting a multidisciplinary AYA team in comparison with gender- and age-matched population-based controls. In addition, impact of severe fatigue on quality of life and correlates of fatigue severity were examined. AYAs with cancer (n = 83) completed questionnaires including the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), Quality of Life (QoL)-Cancer Survivor, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (reflecting psychological distress), and the Cancer Worry Scale (reflecting fear of cancer recurrence or progression). The vast majority of participants had been treated with chemotherapy (87%) and had no active treatment at the time of participation (73.5%). Prevalence of severe fatigue (CIS-fatigue score ≥35) in AYAs with cancer (48%, n = 40/83) was significantly higher in comparison with matched population-based controls (20%, n = 49/249; p fatigued AYAs with cancer reported lower QoL compared to non-severely fatigued AYAs with cancer (p fatigue severity (p fatigue based on a validated cut-off score was highly prevalent in this group of AYAs with cancer. QoL is significantly affected by severe fatigue, stressing the importance of detection and management of this symptom in those patients affected by a life-changing diagnosis of cancer in late adolescence or young adulthood.

  4. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.

  5. Population-based prevalence survey of follicular trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in the Casamance region of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding-Esch, Emma M; Kadimpeul, Julbert; Sarr, Boubacar; Sane, Awa; Badji, Souleymane; Laye, Mass; Sillah, Ansumana; Burr, Sarah E; MacLeod, David; Last, Anna R; Holland, Martin J; Mabey, David C; Bailey, Robin L

    2017-07-26

    Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) prevalence of ≥10% in 1-9 year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1-9 year-olds falls 1% in all districts. With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.

  6. Population-based prevalence survey of follicular trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in the Casamance region of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M. Harding-Esch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF prevalence of ≥10% in 1–9 year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1–9 year-olds falls 1% in all districts. Conclusion With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.

  7. Incidence of Enuresis and Encopresis Among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Population-Based Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael W.; Natchev, Brooke E.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study reports the incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) versus those without AD/HD. METHOD Subjects included 358 (74.5% male) children with research-identified AD/HD from a 1976-1982 population-based birth cohort (N = 5718) and 729 (75.2% male) non-AD/HD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a diagnosis of enuresis or encopresis was made or last follow-up prior to 18 years of age. The complete medical record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on age of initial diagnosis of an elimination disorder, frequency and duration of symptoms, identification of exclusionary criteria specified by DSM-IV, with confirmation of the diagnosis by expert consensus. RESULTS Children with AD/HD were 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.4; p = 0.002) times more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for enuresis than non-AD/HD controls; they were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2 – 2.7; p = 0.006) times more likely to do so than non-AD/HD controls when less stringent criteria for a diagnosis of enuresis were employed. Though not significant, children with AD/HD were 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7-4.6; p = 0.23) times more likely to meet criteria for encopresis than non-AD/HD controls. The relative risk was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1; p = 0.05) when a less stringent definition for encopresis was utilized. CONCLUSIONS The results of this population-based study demonstrate that children with AD/HD are more likely than their peers without AD/HD to develop enuresis with a similar trend for encopresis. PMID:23680296

  8. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  9. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Mason

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data.Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution.The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-21.0, and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7-21.9. The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2-13.2, and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2-6.0 and children aged 1-4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7-3.9. Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6-34.8, and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2-29.5. The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1-4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9-5.8. Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6; with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies.Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies for scabies may reduce the burden of both conditions and their downstream

  10. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Daniel S; Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7-21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2-13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2-6.0) and children aged 1-4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7-3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6-34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2-29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1-4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9-5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies for scabies may reduce the burden of both conditions and their downstream complications.

  11. Prevalence of polyhydramnios at a Danish hospital--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anne; Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Rode, Line

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of polyhydramnios, the related maternal and perinatal morbidity, and to estimate the association between perinatal outcome and the degree of polyhydramnios in a Danish population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 168 w...

  12. Red cell distribution width in relation to incidence of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Söderholm

    Full Text Available Increased red cell distribution width (RDW has been related to poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease, and is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if RDW is associated with increased incidence of stroke and its subtypes in individuals from the general population.Red cell distribution width was measured in 26,879 participants (16,561 women and 10,318 men aged 45-73 years without history of coronary events or stroke, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Incidences of total stroke and stroke subtypes over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years were calculated in relation to sex-specific quartiles of RDW. The presence of carotid plaque and intima-media thickness, as assessed by ultrasound, was studied in relation to RDW in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 5,309.Incidences of total stroke (n = 1,869 and cerebral infarction (n = 1,544 were both increased in individuals with high RDW. Hazard ratios (HRs in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were 1.31 for total stroke (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.54, p for trend = 0.004 and 1.32 for cerebral infarction (95% CI: 1.10-1.58, p for trend = 0.004 after adjustment for stroke risk factors and hematological parameters. The adjusted HR for intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 230 was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.90-2.30 and the HR for subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 75 was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.43-2.07, in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of RDW. Red cell distribution width was positively associated with intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (p for trend = 0.011.Red cell distribution width in the highest quartile was associated with increased incidence of total stroke and cerebral infarction. There was no significant association between RDW and incidence of intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  13. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and unspecified leukemias (UL. The annual incidence rate (AIR and average annual incidence rate (AAIR were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1 Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  14. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis in subjects with moderate hypertension. A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik B; Borglykke, Anders; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim. To examine the prevalence of significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) in subjects with moderate to severe hypertension. Materials and methods. Subjects aged 50-66 years with blood pressure >160/100 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive treatment were selected from the population study...

  15. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Li, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Wu, S.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In China, the rapid socioeconomic transition and the consequential traditional culture change had significant influences on Chinese older-adult depression. In the present study, the prevalence, the potential risk, and the protective factors of depression in the Chinese older population

  16. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about the presence of chronic morbidity in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients at disease onset. Previous studies have been mainly performed in established IA patients or they focus on isolated co-morbid diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic

  17. Hospitalization Rate and Population-Based Incidence of Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Children in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Shi, Ting; Zhang, Xiyan; Xue, Jian; Wang, Yin; Yu, Jia; Huang, Yukai; Lin, Sheng; Zhao, Genming; Tian, Jianmei; Zhang, Tao

    2018-03-22

    Data on hospitalization burden of CAP in children is very limited in China. This study aimed to estimate the hospitalization rate and population-based incidence of hospitalization of CAP for children <15 years of age in Suzhou, China. This was a retrospective study of children hospitalized in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 2010 to December 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <15 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) including J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included. All-cause clinical community-acquired pneumonia (CCAP) and radiographically confirmed pneumonia (RCAP) were identified based on individual medical chart review. The hospitalization rate (HR) and population-based cumulative incidence of hospitalization (HI) were calculated. Among 184,734 children <15 years old admitted to SCH during the study period, 31,302 children were identified as having CCAP, and 24,218 (77.4%) children confirmed as having RCAP. CCAP hospitalization occurred year round and peaked during winter and early spring. The overall HRs for CCAP and RCAP were 189.0 (95%CI, 187.1-190.9) and 146.2 (95%CI, 144-148) per 1,000 hospitalizations respectively, and the HIs per 100,000 children annually were CCAP, 3,235.8 (95%CI, 3207.3-3264.2) and RCAP, 2,503.5 (95%CI, 2,478.3-2,528.6). For children <5 years old, the HR for CCAP was 248.4 (95%CI, 245.9-250.9) and RCAP 194.0 (95%CI, 191.4-196.3) per 1,000 hospitalizations; the HI for CCAP was 6,956.2 (95%CI: 6,892.8-7,019.6) and 5,431.9 (95%CI: 5,375.4-5,488.4) per 100,000 children for RCAP. The highest HR and HI were observed in children 29 days to <6 months old: HR for CCAP was 407.4 (95%CI: 400.9-413.9) per 1,000 hospitalizations and HI for CCAP was 11,203.7 (95%CI: 11,026.8-11,380.6) per 100,000 children annually. There is a considerable burden of CAP among children <15 years of age in Suzhou, particularly among children 29 days to <6 months of age and during winter

  18. B-vitamin consumption and the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among the US adults: population based ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wu-Ping

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes occurred after the worldwide spread of B-vitamins fortification, in which whether long-term exposure to high level of B vitamins plays a role is unknown. Our aim was to examine the relationships between B-vitamins consumption and the obesity and diabetes prevalence. Methods This population based ecological study was conducted to examine possible associations between the consumption of the B vitamins and macronutrients and the obesity and diabetes prevalence in the US population using the per capita consumption data from the US Economic Research Service and the prevalence data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The prevalences of diabetes and adult obesity were highly correlated with per capita consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin with a 26-and 10-year lag, respectively (R2 = 0.952, 0.917 and 0.83 for diabetes, respectively, and R2 = 0.964, 0.975 and 0.935 for obesity, respectively. The diabetes prevalence increased with the obesity prevalence with a 16-year lag (R2 = 0.975. The relationships between the diabetes or obesity prevalence and per capita niacin consumption were similar both in different age groups and in male and female populations. The prevalence of adult obesity and diabetes was highly correlated with the grain contribution to niacin (R2 = 0.925 and 0.901, respectively, with a 10-and 26-year lag, respectively. The prevalence of obesity in US adults during 1971-2004 increased in parallel with the increase in carbohydrate consumption with a 10-year lag. The per capita energy and protein consumptions positively correlated with the obesity prevalence with a one-year lag. Moreover, there was an 11-year lag relationship between per capita energy and protein consumption and the consumption of niacin, thiamin and riboflavin (R2 = 0.932, 0.923 and 0.849 for energy, respectively, and R2 = 0.922, 0.878 and 0.787 for protein

  19. Prevalence of anxiety disorders: a population-based epidemiological study in metropolitan area of Casablanca, Morocco

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    Berrada Soumia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, no epidemiological study has been conducted to show the current prevalence of mental disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in Moroccan subjects. Methods We used cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of Casablanca city. Direct interviews used the Mini International Neurpsychiatric Interview in its validated Moroccan Arabic version Results Among 800 subjects, 25.5% met criteria of at least one current anxiety disorder: Panic Disorder (2%, Agoraphobia (7.6% Social phobia (3.4, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (6.1%, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (3.4%, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (4.3% Conclusion The results are generally similar to those of Western countries. Future studies need to replicate these results and to concentrate on their impact on the quality of life and the cost of such conditions in the community.

  20. Estimating cardiovascular disease incidence from prevalence: a spreadsheet based model

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    Xue Feng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease incidence and prevalence are both core indicators of population health. Incidence is generally not as readily accessible as prevalence. Cohort studies and electronic health record systems are two major way to estimate disease incidence. The former is time-consuming and expensive; the latter is not available in most developing countries. Alternatively, mathematical models could be used to estimate disease incidence from prevalence. Methods We proposed and validated a method to estimate the age-standardized incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, with prevalence data from successive surveys and mortality data from empirical studies. Hallett’s method designed for estimating HIV infections in Africa was modified to estimate the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI in the U.S. population and incidence of heart disease in the Canadian population. Results Model-derived estimates were in close agreement with observed incidence from cohort studies and population surveillance systems. This method correctly captured the trend in incidence given sufficient waves of cross-sectional surveys. The estimated MI declining rate in the U.S. population was in accordance with the literature. This method was superior to closed cohort, in terms of the estimating trend of population cardiovascular disease incidence. Conclusion It is possible to estimate CVD incidence accurately at the population level from cross-sectional prevalence data. This method has the potential to be used for age- and sex- specific incidence estimates, or to be expanded to other chronic conditions.

  1. Prevalence and clinical symptoms of migrainous vertigo in Germany - a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Feldmann, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of migrainous vertigo (MV) in the general population by assessing the prevalence, clinical features, co morbid conditions, quality of life, and health care utilization. Methods: We screened a representative sample of the adult population in Germany (n=4,869) for moderate or severe dizziness/vertigo and followed up with validated neurotologic telephone interviews (n=1003). Diagnostic criteria for MV were as follows: 1. recurrent vestibular vertigo, 2....

  2. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Estimated incidence of cardiovascular complications related to type 2 diabetes in Mexico using the UKPDS outcome model and a population-based survey

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    Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the incidence of complications, life expectancy and diabetes related mortality in the Mexican diabetic population over the next two decades using data from a nation-wide, population based survey and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS outcome model Methods The cohort included all patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated during the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut 2006. ENSANut is a probabilistic multistage stratified survey whose aim was to measure the prevalence of chronic diseases. A total of 47,152 households were visited. Results are shown stratified by gender, time since diagnosis (> or ≤ to 10 years and age at the time of diagnosis (> or ≤ 40 years. Results The prevalence of diabetes in our cohort was 14.4%. The predicted 20 year-incidence for chronic complications per 1000 individuals are: ischemic heart disease 112, myocardial infarction 260, heart failure 113, stroke 101, and amputation 62. Furthermore, 539 per 1000 patients will have a diabetes-related premature death. The average life expectancy for the diabetic population is 10.9 years (95%CI 10.7-11.2; this decreases to 8.3 years after adjusting for quality of life (CI95% 8.1-8.5. Male sex and cases diagnosed after age 40 have the highest risk for developing at least one major complication during the next 20 years. Conclusions Based on the current clinical profile of Mexican patients with diabetes, the burden of disease related complications will be tremendous over the next two decades.

  4. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands: a 30-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-11-16

    Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other birth defects. The aim of this study is to describe the birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands. In a population-based, epidemiological study we investigated the birth prevalences of CLD for 1981-2010. Data were collected by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in the northern Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL). We excluded malpositions, club foot, and dislocation/dysplasia of hips or knees. Trends were analysed for the 19-year period 1992-2010 using χ² tests, as well as CLD association with anomalies affecting other organs. The birth prevalence of CLD was 21.1/10,000 births for 1981-2010. There was an overall decrease in non-syndromic limb defects (P = 0.023) caused by a decrease in the prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly (P CLD, 55% were males, 57% had isolated defects, 13% had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and 30% had a recognised syndrome. The upper:lower limb ratio was 2:1, and the left:right side ratio was 1.2:1. Cardiovascular and urinary tract anomalies were common in combination with CLD (37% and 25% of cases with MCA). Digestive-tract anomalies were significantly associated with CLD (P = 0.016). The birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands was 21.1/10,000 births. The birth prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly dropped from 5.2/10,000 to 1.1/10,000 in 1992-2010.

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

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    Camacho Paul A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life.

  6. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

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    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risks of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase in Hispanics: a population-based study.

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    Jen-Jung Pan

    Full Text Available Study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and risk factors for and association with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic injury in a large Hispanic health disparity cohort with high rates of obesity.Analysis of data from a prospective cross-sectional population based study. From 2004-7, we randomly recruited 2000 community participants to the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort collecting extensive socioeconomic, clinical and laboratory data. We excluded 153 subjects due to critical missing data. Pearson chi-square tests and Student's t-tests were used for categorical and continuous variable analysis, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for elevated ALT.The mean age of the cohort was 45 years and 67% were females. The majority of the cohort was either overweight (32.4% or obese (50.7%. Almost half (43.7% had MS and nearly one-third diabetes. Elevated ALT level was more prevalent in males than females. Obesity was a strong risk for abnormal ALT in both genders. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and young age were risks for elevated ALT in males only, whereas increased fasting plasma glucose was associated with elevated ALT in females only.We identified high prevalence of MS and markers of liver injury in this large Mexican American cohort with gender differences in prevalence and risk factors, with younger males at greatest risk.

  8. Prevalence of risk factors for hepatitis C and associated factors: a population-based study in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitko, David Timm; Bastos, Gisele Alsina Nader; Pinto, Maria Eugênia Bresolin

    2013-04-01

    The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  9. Social inequalities in the prevalence of common mental disorders in adults: a population-based study in Southern Brazil

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    Ramona Sant’Ana Maggi de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with Common Mental Disorders (CMD in adults in a capital city in Southern Brazil. Methods: Population-based survey conducted on 1,720 adults aged 20 - 59 years from Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The CMD were investigated through the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. The independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, health-related behaviors, health conditions and use of health services. Multivariable Poisson regression was used for the estimation of prevalence ratios (PR and 95%CI. Results: The prevalence of CMD was 14.7%. Adjusted analyses showed that the prevalence was higher among women, those self-reported as blacks, with lower educational level, poor, divorced/separated/widowed, inactive in leisure time, heavy smokers, people with chronic diseases, those who reported negative health self-rating, those who had medical appointments and who were hospitalized before the interview. Conclusion: CMD is relatively high among population subgroups most vulnerable to social inequalities and with worse conditions related to health indicators.

  10. PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR HEPATITIS C AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS: a population-based study in southern Brazil

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    David Timm KVITKO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. Objective To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. Results The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. Conclusions To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  11. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus—A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China

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    Yuchen Qin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol, or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china.

  12. Prevalence and etiology of epilepsy in a Norwegian county-A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Marte; Nakken, Karl Otto; Edland, Astrid; Hansen, Gunnar; Hellum, Morten Kristoffer; Koht, Jeanette

    2015-05-01

    Epilepsy represents a substantial personal and social burden worldwide. When addressing the multifaceted issues of epilepsy care, updated epidemiologic studies using recent guidelines are essential. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence and causes of epilepsy in a representative Norwegian county, implementing the new guidelines and terminology suggested by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Included in the study were all patients from Buskerud County in Norway with a diagnosis of epilepsy at Drammen Hospital and the National Center for Epilepsy at Oslo University Hospital. The study period was 1999-2014. Patients with active epilepsy were identified through a systematic review of medical records, containing information about case history, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetic tests, blood samples, treatment, and other investigations. Epilepsies were classified according to the revised terminology suggested by the ILAE in 2010. In a population of 272,228 inhabitants, 1,771 persons had active epilepsy. Point prevalence on January 1, 2014 was 0.65%. Of the subjects registered with a diagnostic code of epilepsy, 20% did not fulfill the ILAE criteria of the diagnosis. Epilepsy etiology was structural-metabolic in 43%, genetic/presumed genetic in 20%, and unknown in 32%. Due to lack of information, etiology could not be determined in 4%. Epilepsy is a common disorder, affecting 0.65% of the subjects in this cohort. Every fifth subject registered with a diagnosis of epilepsy was misdiagnosed. In those with a reliable epilepsy diagnosis, every third patient had an unknown etiology. Future advances in genetic research will probably lead to an increased identification of genetic and hopefully treatable causes of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Prevalence, incidence and course of lower extremity injuries in runners during a 12-month follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel van, D.; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; van Middelkoop, M.; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2014-01-01

    To describe the incidence, 12-month prevalence, and course of lower extremity injuries that occurred during and after the Amgen Singelloop Breda in 2009. The design was based on a prospective cohort study with a population-based setting. In total, 3605 registered runners received a web-based

  14. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

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    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence.To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects.The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role.Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed across sexes. The findings are suggestive of

  15. Prevalence of abnormalities in knees detected by MRI in adults without knee osteoarthritis: population based observational study (Framingham Osteoarthritis Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, Ali; Niu, Jingbo; Hayashi, Daichi; Roemer, Frank W; Englund, Martin; Neogi, Tuhina; Aliabadi, Piran; McLennan, Christine E; Felson, David T

    2012-08-29

    To examine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees with no radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to determine the prevalence of structural lesions associated with osteoarthritis and their relation to age, sex, and obesity. Population based observational study. Community cohort in Framingham, MA, United States (Framingham osteoarthritis study). 710 people aged >50 who had no radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0) and who underwent MRI of the knee. Prevalence of MRI findings that are suggestive of knee osteoarthritis (osteophytes, cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions, subchondral cysts, meniscal lesions, synovitis, attrition, and ligamentous lesions) in all participants and after stratification by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and the presence or absence of knee pain. Pain was assessed by three different questions and also by WOMAC questionnaire. Of the 710 participants, 393 (55%) were women, 660 (93%) were white, and 206 (29%) had knee pain in the past month. The mean age was 62.3 years and mean BMI was 27.9. Prevalence of "any abnormality" was 89% (631/710) overall. Osteophytes were the most common abnormality among all participants (74%, 524/710), followed by cartilage damage (69%, 492/710) and bone marrow lesions (52%, 371/710). The higher the age, the higher the prevalence of all types of abnormalities detectable by MRI. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of any of the features between BMI groups. The prevalence of at least one type of pathology ("any abnormality") was high in both painful (90-97%, depending on pain definition) and painless (86-88%) knees. MRI shows lesions in the tibiofemoral joint in most middle aged and elderly people in whom knee radiographs do not show any features of osteoarthritis, regardless of pain.

  16. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2010-08-05

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  17. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

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    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  18. Prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: a population based survey

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    Gafarzadeh Motlag A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability with high health care cost in Iran. It accounts for nearly 50 percent of all deaths per year. Yet little is known about CAD and CAD risk factors in the Iranian population. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different CAD risk factors in an Iranian population. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted involving 3000 healthy adults at 18 years of age or above who were recruited with cluster random sampling. Demographic data and risk factors were determined by taking history, physical examination and laboratory tests. Results The average age was 36.23 ± 15.26. There was 1381 female (46% and 1619 male (54% out of which 6.3% were diabetic, 21.6% were smoker, and 15% had positive familial heart disease history. 61% had total cholesterol level > 200 mg/dL, 32% triglyceride > 200 mg/dl, 47.5% LDL-c > 130 mg/dl, 5.4% HDL-c 140 mmHg, 9.1% diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and 87% of them were physically inactive. Conclusion Clinical and Para-clinical data indicated that Iranian adult population are of a high level of CAD risk factors, which may require urgent decision making to address national control measures regarding CAD.

  19. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus-A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiuqiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Lu, Jian; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-05-19

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china.

  20. First-Ever Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Incidence and 30-Day Case-Fatality Rates in a Population-Based Study in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahit, M Cecilia; Coppola, Mariano L; Riccio, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological data about stroke are scarce in low- and middle-income Latin-American countries. We investigated annual incidence of first-ever stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 30-day case-fatality rates in a population-based setting in Tandil, Argentina....... METHODS: We prospectively identified all first-ever stroke and TIA cases from overlapping sources between January 5, 2013, and April 30, 2015, in Tandil, Argentina. We calculated crude and standardized incidence rates. We estimated 30-day case-fatality rates. RESULTS: We identified 334 first-ever strokes.......1% (95% CI, 14.2-36.6) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.8) for TIA. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first prospective population-based stroke and TIA incidence and case-fatality estimate in Argentina. First-ever stroke incidence was lower than that reported in previous Latin...

  1. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

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    Sanjay Rampal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009 criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73, respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11. The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic

  2. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzikhan, Natalie; Verhamme, Katia M C; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; Lahousse, Lies

    2016-08-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre-bronchodilator obstructive spirometry (FEV1/FVC smokers. The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was 27.2 %, while this proportion was 7.3 % in males. The prevalence of COPD in the Rotterdam Study is 4.7 % and the overall incidence is approximately 9/1000 PY, with a higher incidence in males and in smokers. The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial.

  3. Prevalence of autism and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxelgren, Ulrika Wester; Myrelid, Åsa; Annerén, Göran; Ekstam, Bodil; Göransson, Cathrine; Holmbom, Agneta; Isaksson, Anne; Åberg, Marie; Gustafsson, Jan; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based group of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and to relate the findings to level of intellectual disability and to medical conditions. From a population-based cohort of 60 children and adolescents with Down syndrome, 41 individuals (29 males, 12 females; mean age 11y, age range 5-17y) for whom parents gave consent for participation were clinically assessed with regard to ASD and ADHD. The main instruments used were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Rating Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II. High rates of ASD and ADHD were found: 17 (42%) and 14 (34%) of the 41 children met DSM criteria for ASD and ADHD respectively. Children with Down syndrome and coexisting neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders in addition to intellectual disability and medical disorders constitute a severely disabled group. Based on the results, we suggest that screening is implemented for both ASD and ADHD, at the age of 3 to 5 years and early school years respectively, to make adequate interventions possible. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Incident HIV during pregnancy and early postpartum period: a population-based cohort study in a rural area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Terusha; Vandormael, Alain; Thorne, Claire; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-07-26

    The evidence on the effect of pregnancy on acquiring HIV is conflicting, with studies reporting both higher and lower HIV acquisition risk during pregnancy when prolonged antiretroviral therapy was accessible. The aim of this study was to assess the pregnancy effect on HIV acquisition where antiretroviral therapy was widely available in a high HIV prevalence setting. This is a retrospective cohort study nested within a population-based surveillance to determine HIV incidence in HIV-uninfected women from 15 to 49 years from 2010 through 2015 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. HIV incidence per 100 person-years according to pregnancy status (not pregnant, pregnant, to eight weeks postpartum) were measured in 5260 HIV-uninfected women. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression with pregnancy included as a time varying variable. Overall, pregnancy HIV incidence was 4.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.4-5.8), higher than non-pregnancy (4.0; 95% CI 3.7-4.3) and postpartum incidences (4.2 per 100 person-years; 95% CI 2.3-7.6). However, adjusting for age, and demographic factors, pregnant women had a lower risk of acquiring HIV (HR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9, P = 0.032) than non-pregnant women; there were no differences between postpartum and non-pregnant women (HR 1.2; 95% CI 0.4-3.2; P = 0.744). In models adjusting for the interaction of age and gravidity, pregnant women under 25 years with two or more pregnancies had a 2.3 times greater risk of acquiring HIV than their older counterparts (95% CI 1.3-4.3; P = 0.008). Pregnancy had a protective effect on HIV acquisition. Elevated HIV incidence in younger women appeared to be driven by those with higher gravidity. The sexual and biological factors in younger women should be explored further in order to design appropriate HIV prevention interventions.

  5. Identification and medical utilization of incident cases of alcohol dependence: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chun-Hung; Li, Min-Shan; Yang, Tien-Wey; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Su, Sheng-Shiang; Hung, Yen-Ni; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2018-05-05

    Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) often seek help from medical professionals due to alcohol-related diseases, but the overall distribution of medical specialties identifying new AD cases is unclear. We investigated how such cases were identified and how medical resources were utilized before the identification of AD in a nationwide cohort. We enrolled a population-based cohort (N = 1,000,000) using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan; 8181 cases with incident AD were retrieved between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. For this nested case-control study, four controls were matched for age and sex with each case based on risk-set sampling. We measured various dimensions of medical utilization before AD was diagnosed, including department visited, physical comorbidity, and medication used. Conditional logistic regression was used for estimating the variables associated with AD. Patients living in less urbanized areas who were unemployed were more likely to develop AD. The highest proportions (34.2%) of AD cases were identified in the internal medicine department, followed by the emergency (22.3%) and psychiatry (18.7%) departments. AD patients had a higher risk of comorbid chronic hepatic disease (adjusted RR = 2.72, p identification of AD than controls. AD patients also had greater numbers of hospital admissions than controls, including non-psychiatric and psychiatric hospitalizations. Outpatient visit numbers were similar for AD patients and controls. The findings indicate that clinicians providing care in diverse medical settings should be prepared to screen for unhealthy alcohol use and to mitigate its detrimental effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael W; Natchev, Brooke E; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Voigt, Robert G; Barbaresi, William J

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus those without ADHD. Subjects included 358 children (74.5% boys) with research-identified ADHD from a 1976 to 1982 population-based birth cohort (n = 5718) and 729 (75.2% boys) non-ADHD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a diagnosis of enuresis or encopresis was made or last follow-up before 18 years of age. The complete medical record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on age of initial diagnosis of an elimination disorder, frequency and duration of symptoms, and identification of exclusionary criteria specified by DSM-IV, with confirmation of the diagnosis by expert consensus. Children with ADHD were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.4; P = .002) times more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for enuresis than non-ADHD controls; they were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.7; P = .006) times more likely to do so than non-ADHD controls when less stringent criteria for a diagnosis of enuresis were employed. Though not significant, children with ADHD were 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7-4.6; P = .23) times more likely to meet criteria for encopresis than non-ADHD controls. The relative risk was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1; P = .05) when a less stringent definition for encopresis was utilized. Children with ADHD are more likely than their peers without ADHD to develop enuresis with a similar trend for encopresis. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and risk of violence against people with and without disabilities: findings from an Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnjacki, Lauren; Emerson, Eric; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2016-02-01

    There are no population-based estimates of the prevalence of interpersonal violence among people with disabilities in Australia. The project aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of violence for men and women according to disability status; 2) compare the risk of violence among women and men with disabilities to their same-sex non-disabled counterparts and; 3) compare the risk of violence between women and men with disabilities. We analysed the 2012 Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey on Personal Safety of more than 17,000 adults and estimated the population-weighted prevalence of violence (physical, sexual and intimate partner violence and stalking/harassment) in the past 12 months and since the age of 15. Population-weighted, age-adjusted, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of violence by disability status and gender. People with disabilities were significantly more likely to experience all types of violence, both in the past 12 months and since the age of 15. Women with disabilities were more likely to experience sexual and partner violence and men were more likely to experience physical violence. These results underscore the need to understand risk factors for violence, raise awareness about violence and to target policies and services to reduce violence against people with disabilities in Australia. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Elder Abuse and Neglect in the Community: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David; Pillemer, Karl; Caccamise, Paul L; Mason, Art; Henderson, Charles R; Berman, Jacquelin; Cook, Ann Marie; Shukoff, Denise; Brownell, Patricia; Powell, Mebane; Salamone, Aurora; Lachs, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    To estimate past-year prevalence and identify risk and protective factors of elder emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglect. Cross-sectional, population-based study using random-digit-dial sampling and direct telephone interviews. New York State households. Representative (race, ethnicity, sex) sample (N = 4,156) of English- or Spanish-speaking, community-dwelling, cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older. The Conflict Tactics Scale was adapted to assess elder emotional and physical abuse. Elder neglect was evaluated according to failure of a responsible caregiver to meet an older adult's needs using the Duke Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) scale. Caseness thresholds were based on mistreatment behavior frequencies and elder perceptions of problem seriousness. Past-year prevalence of elder emotional abuse was 1.9%, of physical abuse was 1.8%, and of neglect was 1.8%, with an aggregate prevalence of 4.6%. Emotional and physical abuse were associated with being separated or divorced, living in a lower-income household, functional impairment, and younger age. Neglect was associated with poor health, being separated or divorced, living below the poverty line, and younger age. Neglect was less likely in older adults of Hispanic ethnicity. Elder abuse and neglect are common problems, with divergent risk and protective factor profiles. These findings have direct implications for public screening and education and awareness efforts designed to prevent elder mistreatment. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  10. Prevalence and heritability of body dysmorphic symptoms in adolescents and young adults: a population-based nationwide twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Jesper; Ivanov, Volen Z; Mataix-Cols, David; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lundström, Sebastian; Pérez-Vigil, Ana; Monzani, Benedetta; Lichtenstein, Paul; Rück, Christian

    2018-02-28

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) usually begins during adolescence but little is known about the prevalence, etiology, and patterns of comorbidity in this age group. We investigated the prevalence of BDD symptoms in adolescents and young adults. We also report on the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on BDD symptoms, and the risk for co-existing psychopathology. Prevalence of BDD symptoms was determined by a validated cut-off on the Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) in three population-based twin cohorts at ages 15 (n = 6968), 18 (n = 3738), and 20-28 (n = 4671). Heritability analysis was performed using univariate model-fitting for the DCQ. The risk for co-existing psychopathology was expressed as odds ratios (OR). The prevalence of clinically significant BDD symptoms was estimated to be between 1 and 2% in the different cohorts, with a significantly higher prevalence in females (1.3-3.3%) than in males (0.2-0.6%). The heritability of body dysmorphic concerns was estimated to be 49% (95% CI 38-54%) at age 15, 39% (95% CI 30-46) at age 18, and 37% (95% CI 29-42) at ages 20-28, with the remaining variance being due to non-shared environment. ORs for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems ranged from 2.3 to 13.2. Clinically significant BDD symptoms are relatively common in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly in females. The low occurrence of BDD symptoms in adolescent boys may indicate sex differences in age of onset and/or etiological mechanisms. BDD symptoms are moderately heritable in young people and associated with an increased risk for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Gronner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m², waist circumference and blood pressure (BP were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively. Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ≥100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education.

  12. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of High Blood Pressure: A Population-Based Survey in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Anh Ha

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors with alcohol use disorders among adults: a population-based study in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisdorfer, Emilene; Büchele, Fátima; Pires, Rodrigo Otávio Moretti; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2012-09-01

    The study aimed to describe the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in an adult population from Brazil and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral variables and health conditions. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with adults (20 to 59 years) of a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil with a random sample of 1,720 individuals. Cluster sampling was done in two stages: census tract first and household second. Alcohol use disorders were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and associations were tested with selected variables by Poisson Regression. Results of multivariate analysis were expressed as prevalence ratios. The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in the population was 18.4% (95% CI: 16.6% - 20.3%), higher among men (29.9%) than in women (9.3%). The prevalence of abstinence was 30.6%; 6.8% of respondents had already caused problems to themselves or to others after drinking; and 10.3% reported that a relative, friend or doctor had already shown concern on their drinking. After multivariate analysis, an association with alcohol use disorders remained for: being male, age 20 to 29 years, being single, declaring to be light-skinned blacks and being an ex-smoker or current smoker. The prevalence of alcohol use disorders identified is high compared with other similar studies, with differences according to being male, age 20 to 29, skin color and tobacco use. These issues must be considered in formulating public health policies aimed at reducing problems related to alcohol use.

  14. Prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in a population-based sample of children living in remote Australia: the Lililwan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela L; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Lucas, Barbara R; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Try, Julianne; Hawkes, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, Emily; Hand, Marmingee; Watkins, Rochelle E; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Bower, Carol; Boulton, John; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of alcohol use in pregnancy invited researchers to determine the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) in their communities. Population-based prevalence study using active case ascertainment in children born in 2002/2003 and living in the Fitzroy Valley, in Western Australia (April 2010-November 2011) (n = 134). Socio-demographic and antenatal data, including alcohol use in pregnancy, were collected by interview with 127/134 (95%) consenting parents/care givers. Maternal/child medical records were reviewed. Interdisciplinary assessments were conducted for 108/134 (81%) children. FAS/pFAS prevalence was determined using modified Canadian diagnostic guidelines. In 127 pregnancies, alcohol was used in 55%. FAS or pFAS was diagnosed in 13/108 children, a prevalence of 120 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 70-196). Prenatal alcohol exposure was confirmed for all children with FAS/pFAS, 80% in the first trimester and 50% throughout pregnancy. Ten of 13 mothers had Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores and all drank at a high-risk level. Of children with FAS/pFAS, 69% had microcephaly, 85% had weight deficiency and all had facial dysmorphology and central nervous system abnormality/impairment in three to eight domains. The population prevalence of FAS/pFAS in remote Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley is the highest reported in Australia and similar to that reported in high-risk populations internationally. Results are likely to be generalisable to other age groups in the Fitzroy Valley and other remote Australian communities with high-risk alcohol use during pregnancy. Prevention of FAS/pFAS is an urgent public health challenge. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Incidence of Suicide Among Persons Who Had a Parent Who Died During Their Childhood: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Li, Jiong; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Obel, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-12-01

    Parental death from suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide in the bereaved child, but little is known about the long-term risks of suicide after parental death from other causes. A better understanding of this association may improve suicide prevention efforts. To examine the long-term risks of suicide after parental death and how the risk trajectories differed by cause of parental death while accounting for major potential confounding variables. A population-based matched cohort study was performed using information from nationwide registers (data from 1968 to 2008) in 3 Scandinavian countries (for a total of 7,302,033 persons). We identified 189,094 children (2.6%) who had a parent who died before the child reached 18 years of age (ie, the bereaved cohort). Each bereaved child was matched by sex and age to 10 children who did not have a parent who died before they reached 18 years of age (for a total of 1,890,940 children) (ie, the reference cohort). Both cohorts were followed for up to 40 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR), while accounting for age at parental death, sex, time since bereavement, maternal/paternal death, birth order, family history of psychiatric illness, and socioeconomic status. Data analyses were finalized June 24, 2015. The main exposure was death of a parent within the first 18 years of life. Incidence of suicide among persons who had a parent who died during their childhood. During follow-up, 265 bereaved persons (0.14%) and 1342 nonbereaved persons (0.07%) died of suicide (IRR = 2.02 [95% CI, 1.75-2.34]); IRR = 3.44 (95% CI, 2.61-4.52) for children who had a parent who died of suicide, and IRR = 1.76 (95% CI, 1.49-2.09) for children who had a parent who died of other causes. The IRR tended to be higher for children who had a parent who died before they reached 6 years of age, and the IRR remained high for at least 25 years. During 25 years of follow-up, the absolute risk

  16. Is current smoking still an important environmental factor in inflammatory bowel diseases? Results from a population-based incident cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter L; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Lovasz, Barbara D; David, Gyula; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Golovics, Petra A; Mandel, Michael; Horvath, Agnes; Szathmari, Miklos; Kiss, Lajos S; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that smoking is an important environmental factor in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with dichotomous effects in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between smoking and IBD risk in a population-based database from Veszprem Province, which included incident cases diagnosed between January 1, 1977, and December 31, 2008. Data from 1420 incident patients were analyzed (UC: 914, age at diagnosis: 38.9 years; CD: 506, age at diagnosis: 31.5 years). Both inpatient and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Overall, smoking frequency in the adult general population was 36.1%. Of patients with CD, 47.2% were current smokers at diagnosis. Smoking was more frequent in male patients (P = 0.002) and was associated with an increased risk of CD (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-2.37; P < 0.001). In contrast, current smoking was protective against UC (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.41). The effect of smoking was linked to gender (in CD, more deleterious in male patients) and age at diagnosis and was most prominent in young adults, with a difference already being seen in 18- to 19-year-olds. In CD, a change in disease behavior (P = 0.02), location from ileal or colonic to ileocolonic (P = 0.003), arthritis/arthropathy (P = 0.002), need for steroids (P = 0.06), or AZA (P = 0.038) was more common in current smokers. Smoking in UC was associated with more extensive disease (P = 0.01) and a tendency for decreased need for colectomy (P = 0.06). Current smoking was associated with the risk of IBD. This effect was linked to gender and age at diagnosis and was most prominent in young adults. No association was observed in pediatric or elderly patients. The deleterious and protective effects of smoking on the course in CD and UC were partially confirmed.

  17. Nickel exposure and prevalent albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria: evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Qi; Zhu, Mingjiang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Huaixing; Li, Zi; Chen, Yan; Yin, Huiyong; Lin, Xu

    2016-05-01

    High exposure to nickel could induce renal dysfunction in rodents and occupational workers. However, little is known about the effects of non-occupational exposure to nickel on renal health in the general population. We aimed to examine the associations of urinary nickel concentrations with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese adults. 2115 non-institutionalised Chinese men and women aged 55-76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included. Urinary nickel concentrations were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Plasma uric acid, urea nitrogen, C reactive protein and urinary albumin, β2-microglobulin and creatinine were measured. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and β2-microglobulinuria was defined as urinary β2-microglobulin ≥200 µg/g creatinine. Median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.95 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 2.57-6.71 μg/g creatinine), and prevalence of albuminuria, β2-microglobulinuria and both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria was 22.1%, 24.5% and 9.7%, respectively. Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of urinary nickel, the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.99 (1.46 to 2.78) for albuminuria, 1.44 (1.07 to 1.95) for β2-microglobulinuria, and 2.95 (1.74 to 4.97) for both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. The association remained significant when further controlling for inflammatory markers or other heavy metals (all p trend nickel levels were positively associated with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese men and women, who had relatively low background nickel exposure. More prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  19. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G

    2007-01-01

    registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... system and inclusion of outpatients. From 1995 to 2002 the incidence rate was reasonable constant with an average of 83.3 new cases per 100,000 person-years at risk, except for patients over 60 years of age where we observed an increase in incidence with calendar time. The age-specific incidence rates...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during...

  20. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

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    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common chronic diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality. In the evaluation of all illnessand its impact on the community, a surveillance system becomes necessary to allows us to know its incidence. Cancersurveillance is achieved by the population-based cancer registry. Methodology: The Population Based Cancer Registry ofMetropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (RPC-AMB collected information from the years 2000 to 2004, in patients with anymalignant cancer the which include both invasive and in situ behavior in addition to reside within this geographical area . TheCancer Registry also collects data on brain and nervous system tumors classified as benign or those that have uncertainbehavior. Basal cell cancers of the skin were included during the two first years as well as all the intraepithelial neoplasm ofthe cervix. Active collections of information at all sources by registry staff were made (Hospitals, Health care institutions,especially oncology centers and Pathology and Hematology Laboratories and some specialist in oncology attention. Theinclusion approaches are verified and collects data on specific sociodemographic information (age, gender, residence, placeof birth, etc. and on the anatomic site of the tumor, the cell type of the cancer, behavior and extension on each individualdiagnosed with cancer. Each case was coded using the International Classification of Diseases Oncology Third Edition (ICDO-3, for topographical and morphological code. The data was entered into a computer with CanReg-4 software that is aconfigurable computer program designed for cancer registration in population-based registries and was provided as aservice by the Descriptive Epidemiology Unit to members of the International Association of Cancer Registries. This softwareprovides the number of cancer cases (frequency and the incidence rates. The quality control included exhaustiveness of thecases and information, verification of the

  1. Incidence and prevalence of nutritional and hereditary rickets in southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jacobsen, Bendt; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of nutritional rickets and the incidence and prevalence of hereditary rickets. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study based on a review of medical records. Methods Patients aged 0-14.9 years referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark...... from 1985 to 2005 with a diagnosis of rickets were identified by register search and their medical records were retrieved. Patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of primary rickets were included. Results We identified 112 patients with nutritional rickets of whom 74% were immigrants. From 1995......-2005 the average incidence of nutritional rickets in children aged 0-14.9 years and 0-2.9 years was 2.9 and 5.8 per 100,000 per year, respectively. Among immigrant children born in Denmark the average incidence was 60 (0-14.9 years) per 100,000 per year. Ethnic Danish children were only diagnosed in early...

  2. Trends in the prevalence of periodontitis in Taiwan from 1997 to 2013: A nationwide population-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Chieh; Su, Ni-Yu; Huang, Jing-Yang; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2017-11-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent oral diseases. In this study, we probed the nationwide registered database to assess the time trends of prevalence of periodontitis in Taiwan.A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the registered database compiled by the National Health Insurance provided by the Department of Health, Taiwan, from 1997 to December 2013.We found that the prevalence of periodontitis significantly increased from 11.5% in 1997 to 19.59% in 2013 (P for trend periodontitis from 1997 to 2013 was 54.46 ± 14.47 and 45.51 ± 16.58 years old, respectively. The proportion of individuals with periodontitis in age group >65 years old decreased markedly. The proportion of individuals with periodontitis in age groups periodontitis (male: RR, 67.42, 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.04-266.76; female: RR, 65.85, 95% CI, 16.70-259.70). Both male and female groups showed the similar age-effect pattern in the cross-sectional age curve from age-period-cohort model. There was an upturn with advancing age up to 40 to 50 years old and then a downward trend in both genders. Population dwelling in suburban area (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.97) and rural area (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) had the lower risk of periodontitis than those who lived in urban area. The higher income group revealed the higher risk of periodontitis compared with lower income group (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.18-1.23).The prevalence of periodontitis significantly increased in Taiwan over past 17 years. The mean age with periodontitis was shown in a decreased pattern. The use of a nationwide population-based database could provide sufficient sample size, generalizability, and statistical power to assess the periodontal status in Taiwan.

  3. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya: a population-based survey.

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    Joshi, Mark David; Ayah, Richard; Njau, Elijah Kaharo; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Kayima, Joshua Kyateesa; Njeru, Erastus Kennedy; Mutai, Kenneth Kipyegon

    2014-11-18

    Urbanisation has been described as a key driver of the evolving non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemic. In Africa, hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular problem. We determined the prevalence and risk factor correlates of hypertension in the largest Nairobi slum. In 2010 we conducted a population-based household survey in Kibera, a large informal settlement in Nairobi City; utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method. The WHO instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors was administered by trained medical assistants, who also recorded blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measures. BP was recorded using a mercury sphygmomanometer utilising the American Heart Association guidelines. Hypertension was defined as per the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee or use of prescribed antihypertensive medication. Those with hypertension or with random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) >11.1 mmol/l had an 8 hours fasting venous blood sugar sample drawn. Age standardised prevalence was computed and multivariate analysis to assess associations. We screened 2200 and enrolled 2061 adults; 50.9% were males; mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had primary level education. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (95% CI) was 22.8% (20.7, 24.9). 20% (53/258) were aware of their hypertensive status; 59.3% had pre-hypertension; 80% reported high levels of physical activity and 52% were classified as harmful alcohol drinkers; 10% were current smokers and 5% had diabetes. Majority of males had normal BMI and waist circumference, whereas a third of females were obese or overweight and 40% had central obesity. Older age, higher general and central obesity were independently associated with hypertension and higher SBP and DBP readings. Our findings of high prevalence of hypertension, in association with excess body weight in this poor urban slum community, point to the need

  4. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associations with Lipid Profiles in Iranian Men: A Population-Based Screening Program

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    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterized by a collection of interdependent disorders, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and diabetes. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MS in Qom, Iran. Materials and Methods: A population-based screening program was conducted in the city of Qom, in 845 urban adult men over 25 years old in 2014. Abdominal obesity, fasting blood glucose (FBG, blood pressure, and the serum lipid profile were measured in subjects after fasting for at least 8 hours. MS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test, t-test, and multiple logistic regression. Results: The overall prevalence of MS was 23.0%, and the most common prevalent metabolic abnormalities associated with MS were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in 34.3% of subjects, a waist circumference >102 cm in 33.9%, blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg in 27.6%, fasting triglycerides (TG ≥150 mg/dL in 25%, and FBG ≥110 mg/dL in 20.6%. A FBG level ≥110 mg/dL (odds ratio [OR]=4.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14∼8.24, dyslipidemia (OR=3.51; 95% CI, 2.10∼5.89, and a fasting TG ≥150 mg/dL were the most important factors contributing to MS. Conclusions: The prevalence of MS in men in Qom was higher than has been reported in other countries, but it was lower than the mean values that have been reported elsewhere in Iran. FBG was the most important factor contributing to MS, and all elements of the lipid profile showed important associations with MS.

  5. Sex difference in the association between habitual daytime napping and prevalence of diabetes: a population-based study.

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    Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Lin, Diaozhu; Ren, Meng; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Fangping; Li, Yan; Yan, Li

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associations between habitual daytime napping and diabetes and whether it varies by sex, menopause, and sleep quality. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 8621 eligible individuals aged 40 years or older. Information on daytime napping hours, night-time sleep duration, history of menstruation, and sleep quality was self-reported. Diabetes was diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.4 % in men and 15.6 % in women. Increased daytime napping hours were positively associated with parameters of glycometabolism in women, such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h plasma glucose, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, all P for trend napping group, 0-1-h daytime napping group, and more than 1-h daytime napping group were 14.5, 15.6, and 20.8 %, respectively (P for trend = 0.0004). A similar trend was detected in postmenopausal women (P for trend = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, compared with no-habitual daytime napping postmenopausal women, those with daytime napping more than 1 h had higher prevalent diabetes (odds ratios 1.36, 95 % confidence interval, 1.04-1.77). In subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women, associations of daytime napping levels and prevalent diabetes were detected in older, overweight participants with good sleep quality who have not retired from work. In conclusion, our study suggests that habitual daytime napping is associated with prevalence of diabetes in postmenopausal women.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia.

  7. A comparative population-based study of prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva, Switzerland from 1973 to 2006

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    Chen Cynthia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in Sweden and Geneva, and the third most common in men in Singapore. This population-based study describes trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva (Switzerland from 1973 to 2006 and explores possible explanations for these different trends. Methods Data from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were extracted from national cancer registries in Singapore (n = 5,172, Sweden (n = 188,783 and Geneva (n = 5,755 from 1973 to 2006. Trends of incidence and mortality were reported using the Poisson and negative binomial regression models. The age, period and birth-cohort were tested as predictors of incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer. Results Incidence rates of prostate cancer increased over all time periods for all three populations. Based on the age-period-cohort analysis, older age and later period of diagnosis were associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer, whereas older age and earlier period were associated with higher mortality rates for prostate cancer in all three countries. Conclusions This study demonstrated an overall increase in incidence rates and decrease in mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva. Both incidence and mortality rates were much lower in Singapore. The period effect is a stronger predictor of incidence and mortality of prostate cancer than the birth-cohort effect.

  8. Prevalence of Self-Reported Lifetime History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Disability: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), regardless of treatment setting, and their associated negative outcomes. A total of 2701 adult Coloradoans. A statewide, population-based, random digit-dialed telephone survey. The lifetime history of TBI was assessed by a modification of the Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; activity limitation and life satisfaction were also assessed. The distribution of self-reported lifetime injury was as follows: 19.8%, no injury; 37.7%, injury but no TBI; 36.4%, mild TBI; and 6.0%, moderate-severe TBI. Of those reporting a TBI, 23.1% were hospitalized, 38.5% were treated in an emergency department, 9.8% were treated in a physician's office, and 27.5% did not seek medical care. A clear gradient of activity limitations and low life satisfaction was seen, with the highest proportions of these negative outcomes occurring in people reporting more severe TBI and the lowest proportions in those not reporting a TBI. Approximately twice as many people reported activity limitations and low life satisfaction after nonhospitalized TBI compared with hospitalized TBI. This investigation highlights the seriousness of TBI as a public health problem and the importance of including all severities of TBI, no matter where, or if treated, in estimating the prevalence of disability co-occurring with TBI.

  9. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

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    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of Incident Liver Disease in Patients with Psoriasis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population-Based Study.

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    Ogdie, Alexis; Grewal, Sungat K; Noe, Megan H; Shin, Daniel B; Takeshita, Junko; Chiesa Fuxench, Zelma C; Carr, Rotonya M; Gelfand, Joel M

    2018-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the risk for incident liver disease in psoriasis (PsO), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We performed a cohort study among patients with PsO, PsA, or RA and matched controls in The Health Improvement Network from 1994 to 2014. Outcomes of interest were any liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis (any etiology). Among patients with PsO (N = 197,130), PsA (N = 12,308), RA (N = 54,251), and matched controls (N = 1,279,754), the adjusted hazard ratios for any liver disease were elevated among patients with PsO (without systemic therapy [ST] 1.37; with ST 1.97), PsA (without ST 1.38; with ST 1.67), and RA without an ST (1.49) but not elevated in patients with RA prescribed an ST (0.96). Incident nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was highest in patients with PsO prescribed an ST (2.23) and PsA with an ST (2.11). The risk of cirrhosis was highest among patients with PsO with an ST (2.62) and PsA without an ST (3.15). Additionally, the prevalence of liver disease and cirrhosis increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing body surface area affected by PsO (P for trend <0.001). More so than RA, PsO and PsA are associated with liver disease, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis, and this was true even among patients without ST exposure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia infection in Hong Kong: A population-based geospatial household survey and testing.

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    William Chi Wai Wong

    Full Text Available Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong.Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling. A questionnaire on sexual practice and health was conducted, and polymerase chain reaction was used to test the urine for genital chlamydial infection. Invitation letters were sent to the selected households and a team of interviewers were sent to recruit one subject per household. Prevalence data was weighted according to the 2011 census and risk factors identified through logistic regression.Among 881 participants (response rate of 24.5%, the overall Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was low at 1.4% (95%CI 0.8-2.5% but sexually active young (18-26 years women had relatively high prevalence (5.8%, 95%CI 1.7-18.2% in Hong Kong. A unique U-shape disease burden was observed with peaks in younger and older (40-49 years women. Amongst the sexually active women, the risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were: younger age (aOR = 25.4, 95% CI 2.81-230; living alone (aOR = 8.99, 95% CI 1.46-55.40; and, among all the sexually active participants, males (including the male partners of the female participants who had travelled out of Hong Kong in the previous 12 months had higher risks of infection (aOR = 5.35; 95% CI 1.25-22.8. A core-peripheral geographical distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was also observed.Young and older sexually active women in Hong Kong have high prevalence of chlamydia. Routine screening for sexually active women and young men should be considered. Further research on testing feasibility and linkage

  12. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Nakuru, Kenya: a cross-sectional population-based study.

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    Wanjiku Mathenge

    Full Text Available Diseases of the posterior segment of the eye, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, have recently been recognised as the leading or second leading cause of blindness in several African countries. However, prevalence of AMD alone has not been assessed. We hypothesized that AMD is an important cause of visual impairment among elderly people in Nakuru, Kenya, and therefore sought to assess the prevalence and predictors of AMD in a diverse adult Kenyan population.In a population-based cross-sectional survey in the Nakuru District of Kenya, 100 clusters of 50 people 50 y of age or older were selected by probability-proportional-to-size sampling between 26 January 2007 and 11 November 2008. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. All participants underwent a standardised interview and comprehensive eye examination, including dilated slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist and digital retinal photography. Images were graded for the presence and severity of AMD lesions following a modified version of the International Classification and Grading System for Age-Related Maculopathy. Comparison was made between slit lamp biomicroscopy (SLB and photographic grading. Of 4,381 participants, fundus photographs were gradable for 3,304 persons (75.4%, and SLB was completed for 4,312 (98%. Early and late AMD prevalence were 11.2% and 1.2%, respectively, among participants graded on images. Prevalence of AMD by SLB was 6.7% and 0.7% for early and late AMD, respectively. SLB underdiagnosed AMD relative to photographic grading by a factor of 1.7. After controlling for age, women had a higher prevalence of early AMD than men (odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9. Overall prevalence rose significantly with each decade of age. We estimate that, in Kenya, 283,900 to 362,800 people 50 y and older have early AMD and 25,200 to 50,500 have late AMD, based on population estimates in 2007.AMD is an important cause of visual

  13. Dental erosion: prevalence, incidence, and distribution

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    Jager, D.H.J.; Amaechi, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion is one of the most common dental diseases and it is a growing problem. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence of dental erosion. For these studies different cross sections of the population are investigated. Large differences were found between countries,

  14. Hyperthyroidism incidence fluctuates widely in and around pregnancy and is at variance with some other autoimmune diseases: a Danish population-based study.

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    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism in women of reproductive age is predominantly caused by Graves' disease. Pregnancy associated changes in the immune system may influence the onset of disease, but population-based incidence rates in and around pregnancy have not been reported. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of maternal hyperthyroidism (defined by redeemed prescription of antithyroid drugs) in and around pregnancy and to compare this with the incidence of other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This was a population-based cohort study. The study used the Danish nationwide registers. The participants were women who gave birth to singleton liveborn children in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403,958). Incidence rates (IR) of maternal hyperthyroidism during a 4-year period beginning 2 years before and ending 2 years after the date when the mother was giving birth for the first time in the study period were measured. Altogether 3673 women (0.9%) were identified with an onset of hyperthyroidism from 1997 to 2010, and the overall IR of maternal hyperthyroidism was 65.0/100,000/year. The IR of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy varied widely and was high in the first 3 months of pregnancy [incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs the remaining study period: 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.06)), very low in the last 3 months of pregnancy (0.26 (0.15-0.44)], and reached the highest level 7-9 months postpartum [3.80 (2.88-5.02)]. The incidence variation in and around pregnancy was different for RA and IBD. These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence of hyperthyroidism was high in early pregnancy and postpartum, whereas such particular pattern was not observed for other diseases of autoimmune origin.

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality among young adults aged 20-39 years worldwide in 2012: a population-based study.

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    Fidler, Miranda M; Gupta, Sumit; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Ferlay, Jacques; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Bray, Freddie

    2017-12-01

    To date, the burden of cancer among young adults has rarely been studied in depth. Our aim was to describe the scale and profile of cancer incidence and mortality worldwide among 20-39 year-olds, highlighting major patterns by age, sex, development level, and geographical region. We did a population-based study to quantify the burden of young adult cancers worldwide. We defined young adult cancers as those occurring between the ages of 20 and 39 years because these individuals will have passed puberty and adolescence, but not yet experienced the effects of hormonal decline, immune response deterioration, or organ dysfunction associated with chronic health conditions. Global, regional, and country-specific (n=184) data estimates of the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths that occurred in 2012 among young adults were extracted in four 5-year bands from the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 for all cancers combined and for 27 major types as defined by the International Classification of Disease, tenth revision. We report the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths overall and by sex alongside corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) per 100 000 people per year. We also present results using four levels of the Human Development Index (HDI; low [least developed], medium, high, and very high [most developed]), which is a composite indicator for socioeconomic development comprising life expectancy, education, and gross national income. 975 396 new cancer cases and 358 392 cancer-associated deaths occurred among young adults worldwide in 2012, which equated to an ASR of 43·3 new cancer cases per 100 000 people per year and 15·9 cancer-associated deaths per 100 000 people per year. The burden was disproportionally greater among women and the most common cancer types overall in terms of new cases were female breast cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, leukaemia, and colorectal cancer; in terms of

  16. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

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    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. Results The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Conclusions Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects. PMID:27203435

  17. Depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risks of comorbidity in a population-based representative sample of Mexican Americans.

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    Olvera, Rene L; Williamson, Douglas E; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Vatcheva, Kristina P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    We examined the prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and associations between them in a population-based representative cohort of Mexican Americans living on the United States-Mexico border. The sample in this cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1,768 Mexican American adults (≥ 18 years of age) assessed between the years 2004 and 2010, with whom we tested our central hypothesis of a significant relationship between obesity and depression. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) with a cutoff score of ≥ 16 for depression and a cutoff score of ≥ 27 for severe depression. We categorized body mass index (BMI) values as obese (≥ 30kg/m(2)) and later subdivided the obese subjects into obese (30-39 kg/m(2)[inclusive]) and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association definition requiring at least 3 of the following: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose. Weighted data were analyzed to establish prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Univariate and multivariable weighted regression models were used to test potential associations between these disorders. Using weighted prevalence, we observed high rates of depression (30%), obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (45%). Univariate models revealed female gender (P = .0004), low education (P = .003), low HDL level (P = .009), and increased waist circumference (P = .03) were associated with depression. Female gender (P = .01), low education (P = .003), and morbid obesity (P = .002) were risk factors for severe depression and remained significant in multivariable models. In this large cohort of Mexican Americans, obesity, female gender, and low education were identified risk factors for depression. These indicators may serve as targets for early

  18. Prevalence, correlates and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon: findings from a national population-based study.

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    Costanian, Christy; Bennett, Kathleen; Hwalla, Nahla; Assaad, Shafika; Sibai, Abla M

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to examine the prevalence, associated risk factors and complications of diabetes, as well management and preventive care in Lebanon, a small, middle-income country of the Mediterranean region. Using a comprehensive multi-dimensional questionnaire, a cross-sectional national survey of 2195 Lebanese adults aged ≥25 years was conducted based on the WHO STEPwise guidelines. The outcome variable, diabetes, was self-reported. Measures for diabetes management included frequency of blood glucose testing and regular eye and foot exams. Macrovascular and microvascular complications were also recorded. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 8.5% (95%CI=7.3-9.7). Factors associated with an increased risk of having diabetes were: being divorced or widowed (OR=2.56; 95%CI=1.07-5.42) compared to single, being obese (OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.00-2.57), and having a family history of diabetes (OR=3.40;95%CI=2.48-5.19). Vigorous physical activity significantly decreased the odds of diabetes (OR=0.42; 95%CI=0.24-0.72). Diabetes management and self-care goals were as follows: 82% were not measuring their blood sugar via dextro on a daily basis, 64.2% did not have a foot exam within the past year, and 52.4% did not obtain the recommended yearly eye exam. The most common complications included heart disease (27.8%) and retinopathy (16.6%). Prevalence of diabetes in Lebanon was comparable to that found in the West, yet remained lower than estimates in other resource-rich neighboring countries. Adherence to management and self-care measures was sub-optimal resulting in high complication rates. Contextual factors play a role in increasing diabetes risk. Population-based interventions to enhance and promote self-management behaviors are essential to improve complication rates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Prevalence, risk factors and the bother of lower urinary tract symptoms in China: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuliang; Hu, Hao; Xu, Kexin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Na, Yanqun; Kang, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consist of storage, voiding and postmicturition symptoms and cause discomfort in approximately 15.8 to 82.0 % of adults worldwide. Despite the wide range in prevalence rates, certain potential risk factors for LUTS have been identified, advanced age being the most noted one. However, the true extent of symptom discomfort among the affected population may be underestimated because of the considerable underreporting of the problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and discomfort caused by LUTS in China. This population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in five geographical regions of China. A stratified, clustered, systematic sample of individuals aged ≥18 years was selected to answer demographic questionnaires and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Male/Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Long Form. A total of 3,023 participants (1,551 men; 1,472 women) were included in this study, and 61.2 % (61.2 % men; 61.1 % women) reported at least one LUTS. The prevalence of storage symptoms (59.8 % men; 60.5 % women) was greater than that of voiding (23.6 % men; 8.8 % women) plus postmicturition symptoms (14.6 % men; 6.3 % women). Nocturia (58.2 % men; 56.9 % women) was the most common specific LUTS. Advanced age, alcohol consumption and smoking were risk factors for LUTS among participants of both sexes. Enlarged prostate, diabetes mellitus and lower education levels correlated positively with LUTS in men, whereas higher parity and hypertension correlated positively with LUTS in women. Subjects with LUTS had great discomfort. Nocturia was the least bothersome symptom in both sexes, whereas nocturnal enuresis and urge urinary incontinence were the most bothersome in men and women respectively. Lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent in China and many known risk factors are associated with these bothersome symptoms. However, the perception of the extent

  20. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in northeast China: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Liang; Xing, Ying-Qi; Wu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Hao-Yuan; Luo, Yun; Sun, Ming-Shuo; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Yang, Yi

    2017-03-23

    Dyslipidemia is an important independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to explore the current prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia and its associated influence factors in northeast China. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we adopted a multi-stage, stratified sampling method to obtain a representative sample of 4052 permanent residents aged 40 years and over from different urban and rural regions in Dehui City of Jilin Province. All subjects completed a questionnaire and were examined for risk factors. Continuous data were presented as means ± standard deviations (SD) and compared using the Student's t-test. Categorical variables were presented as proportions and compared using the Rao-Scott-χ 2 test in different subgroups. The associated influence factors for the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia were evaluated through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 62.1% overall, with 33.5, 43.9, 0.6, and 8.8% for high total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively. Among those with dyslipidemia, the proportion of subjects who were aware, treated, and controlled was 14.4, 33.9, and 19.9%, respectively. Overweight or obesity (OR = 2.156; 95% CI: 1.863, 2.533), hypertension (OR = 1.643; 95% CI: 1.425, 1.893), or diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.173; 95% CI: 1.661, 2.844) increased the prevalence of dyslipidemia, also these participants were more likely to be aware of their condition, however, this did not increase the likelihood of treatment and control. Living in urban areas and higher education level also increased the awareness of dyslipidemia. Personal history of coronary heart disease was the strongest influence factors associated with better awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia. Overweight or obesity (OR = 0.404; 95% CI

  1. Remission, continuation, and incidence of eating disorders during early pregnancy: A validation study on a population-based birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Torgersen, Leila; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to validate previously published rates of remission, continuation, and incidence of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy. The previous rate modeling was done by our group (Bulik et al. 2007) and yielded participants halfway into recruitment of the planned 100,000 pregnancies in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This study aimed to internally validate the findings with the completed cohort. Methods 77267 pregnant women enrolled at 17 weeks gestation between 2001 and 2009 were included. Participants were split into a “training” sample (n=41243) based on participants in the MoBa version 2 dataset of the original study and a “validation” sample (n=36024) comprising individuals in the MoBa version 5 dataset that were not in the original study (Bulik et al. 2007). Internal validation of all original rate models involved fitting a calibration model to compare model parameters between the “training” and “validation” samples as well as bootstrap estimates of bias in the entire version 5 dataset. Results Remission, continuation, and incidence estimates from the “training” sample remained stable when evaluated via a split sample validation procedure. Pre-pregnancy prevalence estimates in the “validation” sample were 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.0% for bulimia nervosa (BN), 3.3% for binge eating disorder (BED), and 0.1% for purging disorder (EDNOS-P). In early pregnancy, estimates were 0.2% for BN, 4.8% for BED, and eating disorders during pregnancy. Eating disorders during pregnancy were relatively common, occurring in nearly 1 in every 20 women, although almost all were cases of BED. Pregnancy was a window of remission from BN but a window of vulnerability for onset and continuation of BED. Training to detect the signs and symptoms of eating disorders by obstetricians/gynecologists and interventions to enhance pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

  2. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Joshi, Mark D; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Njau, Elijah K; Otieno, C Fredrick; Njeru, Erastus K; Mutai, Kenneth K

    2013-04-20

    Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi's largest slum. We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of  ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of  ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45-54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women.Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings

  3. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  4. Domestic violence against women in eastern India: a population-based study on prevalence and related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Bontha V

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against women is now widely recognised as an important public health problem, owing to its health consequences. Violence against women among many Indian communities on a regularly basis goes unreported. The objective of this study is to report the prevalence and other related issues of various forms of domestic violence against women from the eastern zone of India. Methods It is a population-based study covering both married women (n = 1718 and men (n = 1715 from three of the four states of Eastern India selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Interviews were conducted using separate pre-piloted structured questionnaires for women (victimization and men (perpetration. Women were asked whether their husband or any other family members committed violent acts against them. And men were asked whether they had ever perpetrated violent acts against their wives. Three principle domestic violence outcome variables (physical, psychological and sexual violence were determined by response to a set of questions for each variable. In addition, data on socio-economic characteristics were collected. Descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate analyses were done. Results The overall prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual and any form of violence among women of Eastern India were 16%, 52%, 25% and 56% respectively. These rates reported by men were 22%, 59%, 17% and 59.5% respectively. Men reported higher prevalence of all forms of violence apart from sexual violence. Husbands were mostly responsible for violence in majority of cases and some women reported the involvement of husbands' parents. It is found that various acts of violence were continuing among majority of women who reported violence. Some socio-economic characteristics of women have significant association with the occurrence of domestic violence. Urban residence, older age, lower education and lower family income are associated with

  5. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (polfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor self-perception, history of smell loss, head trauma and pregnancy are potential risk factors for olfactory disorders. PMID:23135536

  6. Prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Tracey; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Lavy, Christopher; Polack, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Musculoskeletal impairments (MSI) are the leading contributor to global years lived with disability. Comparable epidemiological data on MSI is lacking, and are needed to inform health and rehabilitative services. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of MSI in Telangana State, India. A population-based survey used probability proportionate to size and compact-segment sampling to select 51 clusters of 80 individuals (all ages). Participants were screened using seven questions and any participant who screened positive underwent standardized examination by a physiotherapist for MSI presence, severity and diagnosis. Data were also collected on vision and hearing impairment, depression and self-reported difficulties with physical functioning. The prevalence of MSI was 19.6% (95% CI: 16.7-22.8%) and this increased with age. The majority (82%; 574/699) of MSI was classified as mild, 11% as moderate and 7% as severe. Over half (57%) of MSI diagnoses were acquired non-traumatic causes, with degenerative joint disease being the most common. There was a high unmet need for physiotherapy services (3% attended vs. 40% recommended). One-fifth (21%) of MSI cases also had at least one of vision (10%) or hearing (11%) impairment or depression (3%). MSI is common among persons living in Mahabubnagar District, particularly older adults. These estimates can inform public health initiatives for the planning of health and rehabilitation services. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction Risk in Mainland China: Prevalence and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunni; Tong, Jiali; Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe; Xie, Yu

    2017-11-01

    the first large-scale, nationally based epidemiologic study of female sexual dysfunction in mainland China. The limitations of the study design included an overpowered study caused by the large sample, the under-representation of younger and unmarried women, and no information on the women's partners, their values and knowledge, and detailed medical conditions. The prevalence rate of female sexual dysfunction in mainland China was modest overall, although variations existed across regions and social groups. Zhang C, Tong J, Zhu L, et al. A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction Risk in Mainland China: Prevalence and Predictors. J Sex Med 2017;14:1348-1356. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in central Poland, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Flaga, Stanisław; Fudala, Małgorzata; Szczuchniak, Wiktor; Stoiński, Jan; Rosołowska, Anita; Wójcik, Jacek; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Ryglewicz, Danuta

    2016-08-11

    Comprehensive epidemiologic data for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Poland are limited. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MS in the Swietokrzyskie Region (central Poland). This study identified MS cases every year between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The study area population on the prevalence day (December 31, 2014) was 1,263,176 (646,506 women and 616,670 men). A total of 1462 patients with a clinically definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald's criteria (2005), recorded in the Polish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, were considered for estimation of crude, age- and sex-specific prevalence, and incidence. The overall crude prevalence rate of confirmed MS patients was 115.7/100,000 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 111.2-121.4). A significantly higher prevalence was recorded in females (159.6/100,000; 95 % CI, 151.1-165.3) than in males (69.7/100,000; 95 % CI, 62.4-77.3) (P < 0.001). Age-adjusted rates for the Polish and European Standard Population were 109.8/100,000 (95 % CI, 105.4-114.8) and 106.6/100,000 (95 % CI, 101.1-111.2), respectively. The female/male ratio was 2.4. The mean annual incidence was 4.2/100,000 (95 % CI. 3.7-4.4). The incidence and prevalence of MS in the Swietokrzyskie region confirm that central Poland is a high risk area for MS. Compared with previous epidemiologic studies from Poland, the prevalence of MS has increased during recent years.

  9. Population-based, inception cohort study of the incidence, course, and prognosis of mild traumatic brain injury after motor vehicle collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, John David; Boyle, Eleanor; Carroll, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    . PARTICIPANTS: All adults (N=1716) incurring an MTBI in a motor vehicle collision between November 1997 and December 1999 in Saskatchewan. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age- and sex-stratified incidence rates, time to self-reported recovery, and prognostic factors over a 1-year follow......OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, course, and prognosis of adult mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) caused by motor vehicle collisions. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based, inception cohort study. SETTING: The province of Saskatchewan, Canada, with a population of about 1,000,000 inhabitants...

  10. Epidemiology of Polymyalgia Rheumatica 2000-2014 and Examination of Incidence and Survival Trends Over 45 Years: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheel, Shafay; Shbeeb, Izzat; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2017-08-01

    To determine time trends in the incidence and survival of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) over a 15-year period in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and to examine trends in incidence of PMR in the population by comparing this time period to a previous incidence cohort from the same population base. All cases of incident PMR among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents in 2000-2014 were identified to extend the previous 1970-1999 cohort. Detailed review of all individual medical records was performed. Incidence rates were age- and sex-adjusted to the US white 2010 population. Survival rates were compared with the expected rates in the population of Minnesota. There were 377 incident cases of PMR during the 15-year study period. Of these, 64% were female and the mean age at incidence was 74.1 years. The overall age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence of PMR was 63.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 57.4-70.4) per 100,000 population ages ≥50 years. Incidence rates increased with age in both sexes, but incidence fell after age 80 years. There was a slight increase in incidence of PMR in the recent time period compared to 1970-1999 (P = 0.063). Mortality among individuals with PMR was not significantly worse than that expected in the general population (standardized mortality ratio 0.70 [95% CI 0.57-0.85]). The incidence of PMR has increased slightly in the past 15 years compared to previous decades. Survivorship in patients with PMR is not worse than in the general population. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Annual incidence rate of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a longitudinal population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterland, Arjen L.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Voordouw, Bettie A. C.; Kroon, Jojanneke; Veldhuis, Joris; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal incidence studies of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) performed in mental health service organizations are prone to confounding factors not found in research performed in the general population. To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) over a 10-year period of SSD (broadly defined)

  12. The Prevalence of Painful Incidents among Young Recreational Gymnasts

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Chrystal; McMurtry, C Meghan; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although children experience pain during their daily life, research has generally focused on medical pain. Sport-related pain has not been widely studied in children and research has not examined the occurrence of painful incidents in gymnastics. The prevalence of painful incidents among children in recreational gymnastics classes and accompanying coach responses were recorded.METHODS: Sixty-one children between five and 10 years of age were observed at a gymnastics club. A checkl...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  14. Development in incidence of breast cancer in non-screened Danish women, 1973-2002--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels; Langballe, Oline; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on the incidence rates of breast cancer overall and by histology in a population of unscreened women constituting approximately 80% of the total population of women in Denmark from 1973-2002, utilizing the files of the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence...... no disproportionate changes by histology in any age group from 1988-2002. Thus, previous reports of a disproportionate increase in lobular breast cancer could not be confirmed in a non-screened population, whereas important changes over the past decade in the age-specific incidence pattern of breast cancer particular...... rates of breast cancer increased throughout the period, and further, marked changes in the age-specific incidence pattern were observed, where the plateau and change of slope around the age of 46-48 in 1973-1981 shifted to around age 64-66 years in 1994-2002. Age-period-cohort modeling indicated...

  15. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  16. Increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in central serous chorioretinopathy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Ni; Lian, Iebin; Chen, Yi-Chiao; Ho, Jau-Der

    2015-02-01

    To investigate peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) using a population-based database. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, longitudinal data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. The study cohort comprised 835 patients with CSR and the control cohort comprised 4175 patients without CSR from January 2000 to December 2009. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors for CSR, and stratified Cox regression models were applied to examine whether patients with CSR have an increased chance of peptic ulcer disease and hypertension development. The identifiable risk factors for CSR included peptic ulcer disease (adjusted odd ratio: 1.39, P = 0.001) and higher monthly income (adjusted odd ratio: 1.30, P = 0.006). Patients with CSR also had a significantly higher chance of developing peptic ulcer disease after the diagnosis of CSR (adjusted odd ratio: 1.43, P = 0.009). Peptic ulcer disease and higher monthly income are independent risk factors for CSR. Whereas, patients with CSR also had increased risk for peptic ulcer development.

  17. Concomitant NSAID use during antipsychotic treatment and risk of 2-year relapse - a population-based study of 16,253 incident patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Petersen, Liselotte; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials have indicated antipsychotic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among incident patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to study, in a population-based setting, whether concomitant use of NSAIDs or paracetamol, changed 2-year relapse risk...... for schizophrenia. METHODS: We identified all incident patients with schizophrenia in Denmark diagnosed 1996-2012 initiating antipsychotic treatment within the year after diagnosis. We calculated concomitant treatment intervals for antipsychotic and NSAID or paracetamol use. Hazard rate ratios (HRR) were estimated...... using Cox regression adjusted for important covariates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 2-year relapse, i.e. (re)-hospitalizations with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Among 16,235 incident patients with schizophrenia using antipsychotics, 1480 (9.1%) used NSAIDs and 767 (4.7%) paracetamol. Concomitant use of NSAIDs...

  18. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Increasing incidence, decreasing surgery rate, and compromised nutritional status: A prospective population-based cohort study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, surgery rate, and anthropometry at diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Patients diagnosed between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 in Eastern Denmark, Funen, and Aarhus were included from a backgro......Background: The aim was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, surgery rate, and anthropometry at diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Patients diagnosed between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 in Eastern Denmark, Funen, and Aarhus were included from...... a background population of 668,056 children evaluation of incidence, treatment, and surgery rate, a subcohort from Eastern Denmark was extracted for comparison with a previously published population-based cohort from the same geographical area (1998–2006). Results: In all, 130 children...... in the rate of initiating immunomodulators (IM) within the first year (29.0/100 person-years versus 69.2, P nutritional status at diagnosis compared with the general...

  19. Thyroid Cancer Incidences From Selected South America Population-Based Cancer Registries: An Age-Period-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Karin da Mota Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC has increased substantially worldwide. However, there is a lack of knowledge about age-period-cohort (APC effects on incidence rates in South American countries. This study describes the TC incidence trends and analyzes APC effects in Cali, Colombia; Costa Rica; Goiânia, Brazil; and Quito, Ecuador. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series, and the crude and age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. Trends were assessed using the estimated annual percentage change, and APC models were estimated using Poisson regression for individuals between age 20 and 79 years. Results: An increasing trend in age-standardized incidence rates was observed among women from Goiânia (9.2%, Costa Rica (5.7%, Quito (4.0%, and Cali (3.4%, and in men from Goiânia (10.0% and Costa Rica (3.4%. The APC modeling showed that there was a period effect in all regions and for both sexes. Increasing rate ratios were observed among women over the periods. The best fit model was the APC model in women from all regions and in men from Quito, whereas the age-cohort model showed a better fit in men from Cali and Costa Rica, and the age-drift model showed a better fit among men from Goiânia. Conclusion: These findings suggest that overdiagnosis is a possible explanation for the observed increasing pattern of TC incidence. However, some environmental exposures may also have contributed to the observed increase.

  20. Prevalence, incidence, and autoimmune comorbidities of celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Louise; Bech, Bodil H; Jensen, Thomas Møller

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe and identify potential trends with respect to prevalence, incidence, age, sex, and autoimmune comorbidity of celiac disease (CD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study of CD using data from The National Patient Register. Patients...

  1. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  2. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to

  3. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  4. Prevalence, incidence and molecular identification of root-knot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is a widely grown vegetable in Pakistan. However, its production is severely constrained by root knot nematodes (RKNs). Accurate identification of RKNs is essential for an appropriate control program. The current study evaluated the prevalence, incidence and diversity of RKNs of tomato crops grown in the Khyber ...

  5. Improvements in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Not Experienced by Nonmetropolitan Women: A Population-Based Study From Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Brynn; Samadder, N Jewel; Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Pappas, Lisa; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality by community-level factors such as metropolitan status. This analysis utilized data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from Utah. We included patients diagnosed with CRC from 1991 to 2010. To determine whether associations existed between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan county of residence and CRC incidence, Poisson regression models were used. CRC mortality was assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. CRC incidence rates did not differ between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties by gender (males: 46.2 per 100,000 vs 45.1 per 100,000, P = .87; females: 34.4 per 100,000 vs 36.1 per 100,000, P = .70). However, CRC incidence between the years of 2006 and 2010 in nonmetropolitan counties was significantly higher in females (metropolitan: 30.4 vs nonmetropolitan: 37.0 per 100,000, P = .002). As compared to metropolitan counties, the incidence of unstaged CRC in nonmetropolitan counties was significantly higher in both males (1.7 vs 2.8 per 100,000, P = .003) and females (1.4 vs 1.6 per 100,000, P = .002). Among patients who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2010, metropolitan counties were found to have significantly increased survival among males and females, but nonmetropolitan counties showed increased survival only for males. While we observed a decreasing incidence of CRC among men and women in Utah, this effect was not seen in women in nonmetropolitan areas nor among those with unstaged disease. Further studies should evaluate factors that may account for these differences. This analysis can inform interventions with a focus on women in nonmetropolitan areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Epidemiology of stroke in the elderly in the Nordic countries. Incidence, survival, prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Engstad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review what is known at present with respect to incidence, survival, risk factors and prevalence among the elderly stroke patients in the Nordic countries.Method: This article is based mainly on literature identified through search engines (Mc Master Plus, Cochrane Library, Medline and PubMed, restricted to first-ever stroke in Nordic population-based studies and having applied to the standard WHO definition, a prospective study design and no upper age limit.Results: Data from the Nordic countries show an incidence rate of 1250 to 1796/100 000 in the age group 75-84, and 1628 to 2234 in those above 85 years. The incidence rates are higher among men, but women are expected to contribute more to incident cases due to their higher life expectancy. If the age-specific incidence of stroke remains stable, the proportion of stroke patients aged 80 years and older may reach 50% in a few decades. The elderly stroke patients have a higher 30-days case fatality, and a higher risk of dependency. Better treatment of stroke patients has improved the survival over the last two decades. The prevalence is expected to increase due to the decrease in lethality, a slower fall in incidence and a higher proportion of elderly. Cardiovascular risk factors increase with age. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke mortality in the elderly. Cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation is the most common stroke subtype in the elderly. Lifestyle risk factors are less prevalent in the older stroke patients.Conclusion: The growing proportion of elderly stroke patients is a major challenge for future stroke care. The elderly stroke patients have a different risk factor profile compared to younger stroke patients. Treatment should focus on regaining independency. The age-specific epidemiology of stroke needs to be studied further in large studies in order to plan for future health care.

  7. Acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and long-term prognosis: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Jakob; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Andersen, Marianne; Kristensen, Lars Ø; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Lars; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2016-09-01

    Valid data on acromegaly incidence, complications and mortality are scarce. The Danish Health Care System enables nationwide studies with complete follow-up and linkage among health-related databases to assess acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and mortality in a population-based cohort study. All incident cases of acromegaly in Denmark (1991-2010) were identified from health registries and validated by chart review. We estimated the annual incidence rate of acromegaly per 10(6) person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For every patient, 10 persons were sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used. Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2-50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/10(6) persons (95% CI: 3.6-4.1)) among the 405 cases remained stable. The prevalence in 2010 was 85 cases/10(6) persons. The patients were at increased risk of diabetes mellitus (HR: 4.0 (95% CI: 2.7-5.8)), heart failure (HR: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4-4.5)), venous thromboembolism (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5.0)), sleep apnoea (HR: 11.7 (95% CI: 7.0-19.4)) and arthropathy (HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6)). The complication risk was also increased before the diagnosis of acromegaly. Overall mortality risk was elevated (HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7)) but uninfluenced by treatment modality. (i) The incidence rate and age at diagnosis of acromegaly have been stable over decades, and the prevalence is higher than previously reported. (ii) The risk of complications is very high even before the diagnosis. (iii) Mortality risk remains elevated but uninfluenced by mode of treatment. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria...... have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Method: Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977......-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. Results: We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014...

  9. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori, and incidence of hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer over 28 years in a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenstein, Susan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Rosenstock, Steffen J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. Materials and methods: A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30–60, in 1982–3. Mental vulnerabili......: A vulnerable personality raises risk for hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer, in part because of an association with health risk behaviors. Its impact is seen in ‘idiopathic’ and Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcers, and in acute surgical cases.......Objective: To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. Materials and methods: A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30–60, in 1982–3. Mental vulnerability......, Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration were determined at baseline; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug use, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and alcohol consumption both at baseline and in 1993–4. Hospital diagnoses of incident ulcer through 2011 were detected...

  10. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of

  11. Incidence and prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the incidence and temporal trends of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the general population in Denmark. Methods: Using nationwide registry data, we estimated the number of patients with incident PsA within each 1-year period between 1997 and 2011 and calculated the rate of PsA...... cases within gender and age subgroups. Incidence rates were presented per 100 000 person-years. Results: There was a female predominance ranging from 50.3% (1998) to 59.2% (2010), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47-50 years. We identified a total of 12 719 patients with PsA (prevalence=0.......22%), including 9034 patients where the PsA diagnosis was made by a rheumatologist (prevalence=0.16%). Incidence rates of PsA (per 100 000 person-years) increased from 7.3 in 1997 to a peak incidence of 27.3 in 2010. Incidence rates were highest for women and patients aged 50-59 years, respectively. The use...

  12. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

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    de Moraes Suzana Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults, with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35, perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10, recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62 and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29. The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727 (p Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our

  13. Association of a Family History of Atrial Fibrillation With Incidence and Outcomes of Atrial Fibrillation: A Population-Based Family Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Hung; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Chou, I-Jun; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Yeh, Yung-Hsin

    2017-08-01

    The heritability of atrial fibrillation (AF), the contribution of genetic and environmental factors, and the association of a family history of AF with prognosis are unclear. To measure genetic and environmental factors in the familial aggregation of AF and to estimate the association of a family history of AF with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). In this Taiwanese nationwide population-based study among more than 23 million people, a custom data set was obtained using the data of all patients having a diagnosis of AF recorded between January 1996 and December 2013 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study population comprised all 23 422 955 individuals registered with the database in 2013, of whom 177 770 had a diagnosis of AF and were included in the heritability estimation. From the latter, a subgroup of patients having newly diagnosed AF with a first-degree relative affected by AF between 2000 and 2010 were selected and matched 1:4 to controls without a family history for estimating MACE-free survival. The dates of analysis were January 2010 to December 2013. The prevalence and relative risk of AF in relatives of patients with AF, as well as the relative contributions of heritability and shared and nonshared environmental factors to AF susceptibility. Also measured was MACE-free survival after AF was diagnosed. In total, 1510 patients (204 [13.5%] female; mean [SD] age, 57.9 [9.2] years) had newly diagnosed AF with a first-degree relative affected by AF. Individuals with a first-degree relative affected by AF had a relative risk of 1.92 (95% CI, 1.84-1.99) for AF. The accountability for the phenotypic variance of AF was 19.9% for genetic factors (heritability), 3.5% for shared environmental factors, and 76.6% for nonshared environmental factors. After matching for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, previous stroke, and anticoagulation, incident AF patients with vs without an affected first-degree relative had

  14. Population Based Trends in the Incidence of Hospital Admission for the Diagnosis of Hepatorenal Syndrome: 1998–2011

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    Manish Suneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Hepatorenal syndrome carries a high risk of mortality. Understanding the incidence and mortality trends in hepatorenal syndrome will help inform future studies regarding the safety and efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions. Design and Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified hospitalizations from January 1998–June 2011 with a primary diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome. To characterize the incidence trends in monthly hepatorenal syndrome hospitalizations, we fit a piecewise linear model with a change point at January 2008. We examined hospital and patient characteristics before and after the change point. Results. Hospital admissions with a diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome increased markedly between September of 2007 and March of 2008. Comparing patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome prior to 2008 with those after 2008, we found that length of stay increased while the mortality of patients admitted for hepatorenal syndrome decreased. Conclusion. The revision of the diagnostic criteria for hepatorenal syndrome may have contributed to the increase in the incidence of admissions for hepatorenal syndrome. However, the changes in the principles of hepatorenal syndrome management may have also contributed to the increase in incidence and lower mortality.

  15. Incidence, risk, and associated factors of depression in adults with physical and sensory disabilities: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ching Shen

    Full Text Available Physical disability has been associated with the risk of depression. We examined the incidence, risk, and associated factors of depression in Taiwanese adults with physical/sensory disabilities.Two national databases were used to retrospectively analyze 749,491 ≥20-year-old Taiwanese with physical/sensory disabilities in 2002-2008. The incidence of depression was analyzed by univariate Poisson regression. Risk factors of depression were followed up through 2014 and examined with a Cox proportional hazards model.Among the study subjects, the incidence of depression was 6.29 per 1000 person-years, with 1.83 per 1000 person-years corresponding to major depression. The subjects' depression risk was affected by disability type, disability severity, gender, age, education, marital status, aboriginal status, monthly salary, residence urbanization level, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI. Subjects with rare diseases, mild disability, female gender, age 35-44 years, a high school education level, divorced/widowed status, non-aboriginal status, a NT$22,801-28,800 monthly salary, a highly urbanized residence area, or a CCI≥3 were at higher risk for depression.Adults with physical/sensory disabilities have a 3.7-fold higher incidence of depression than the general population. Social services departments and family members should take extra measures toward preventing and treating depression in this subpopulation.

  16. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record

  17. Incidence of Hospitalization Due to Child Maltreatment in Taiwan, 1996-2007: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wan-Lin; Huang, Yu-Tung; Feng, Jui-Ying; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known regarding the epidemiology of child maltreatment in Asian countries. This study aimed to examine the incidence of hospitalization coded as due to child maltreatment in Taiwan. Methods: We used inpatient claims data of the National Health Insurance for the years 1996 through 2007 for estimation. Hospitalization of…

  18. Epidemiology of glaucoma in sub-saharan Africa: prevalence, incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  19. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M.; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E.; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma. PMID:23741130

  20. Incidence of diabetic ketosis and ketoacidosis in Caucasian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kruljac

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed to analyze incidence and characteristics of patients with diabetic ketosis (DK and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA in Caucasian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: Studied population included 261,749 adults. DK criteria included plasma glucose >13.9 mmol/L and ketonuria >2, while in DKA bicarbonate <18 mEq/L or pH<7.30 was also required. Hyperglycemic crises without these criteria were defined as non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKH. Results: During a 5-year period, we observed 630 episodes of DK and 215 episodes of DKA. Only 8.6% of DK episodes and 34.4% of DKA were attributed to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Patients with T1DM were younger, leaner, majority had newly diagnosed disease, and hyperglycemia was the main cause of admission. Standardized incidence ratio for DK was 48.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.5-52.1 and 17.0 (95% CI 14.9-19.4 for DKA. Incidence for both DK and DKA was increasing with age. In patients younger than 50, the incidence of DK and DKA was similar. However, dramatic rise in the incidence of DK was observed in both sexes after the age of 50. When compared with patients with NKH, the patients with DK had higher serum pH and bicarbonates. Patients with T2DM had a risk of 0.8% for developing DKA and 2.9% for DK over 5-year period. Conclusions: Our study showed that DK and DKA are not uncommon in Caucasian adults and the majority of episodes were contributed to T2DM. Incidence of DK is far more higher than the incidence of DKA in patients older than 50, who predominantly have T2DM. Moreover, patients with DK have higher serum pH and bicarbonates, both of which imply that DK and DKA are distinct clinical entities in patients with T2DM. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of these clinical entities.

  1. Orthostatic change in blood pressure and incidence of atrial fibrillation: results from a bi-ethnic population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Agarwal

    Full Text Available Autonomic fluctuations are associated with the initiation and possibly maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF. However, little is known about the relationship between orthostatic blood pressure change, a common manifestation of autonomic dysfunction, and incident AF.We examined whether supine-to-standing changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP are associated with incident AF in 12,071 African American and white men and women aged 45-64 years, enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risks in Communities (ARIC study. Orthostatic hypotension (OH was defined as a supine-standing drop in SBP by ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure by ≥10 mmHg. AF cases were identified based on study scheduled 12-lead ECG, hospital discharge ICD codes, and death certificates through 2009.OH was seen in 603 (5% at baseline. During an average follow-up of 18.1 years, 1438 (11.9% study participants developed AF. Incident AF occurred more commonly among those with OH than those without, a rate of 9.3 vs. 6.3 per 1000 person years, (p<0.001. The age, gender, and race adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI of AF among those with OH compared to those without was 1.62 (1.34, 2.14. This association was attenuated after adjustment for common AF risk factors to HR 1.40 (1.15, 1.71, a strength similar to that of diabetes or hypertension with AF in the same model. A non-linear relationship between orthostatic change in SBP and incident AF was present after multivariable adjustment.OH is associated with higher AF incidence. Whether interventions that decrease OH can reduce AF risk remains unknown.

  2. Meeting physical activity guidelines and the risk of incident knee osteoarthritis: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, K E; Hootman, J M; Helmick, C G; Murphy, L B; Theis, Kristina A; Schwartz, T A; Kalsbeek, W D; Renner, J B; Jordan, J M

    2014-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability and joint pain. Although other risk factors of knee OA have been identified, how physical activity affects incident knee OA remains unclear. Using data from the first (1999-2004) and second (2005-2010) followup periods of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project study, we tested the association between meeting physical activity guidelines and incident knee outcomes among 1,522 adults ages ≥45 years. The median followup time was 6.5 years (range 4.0-10.2 years). Physical activity at baseline (moderate-equivalent physical activity minutes/week) was calculated using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire. Incident knee radiographic OA (ROA) was defined as the development of Kellgren/Lawrence grade ≥2 in a knee at followup. Incident knee symptomatic ROA (sROA) was defined as the development of ROA and symptoms in at least 1 knee at followup. Weibull regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for interval-censored data. In multivariable models, meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) physical activity guidelines (≥150 minutes/week) was not significantly associated with ROA (HR 1.20 [95% CI 0.92-1.56]) or sROA (HR 1.24 [95% CI 0.87-1.76]). Adults in the highest level (≥300 minutes/week) of physical activity had a higher risk of knee ROA and sROA compared with inactive (0 to guidelines was not associated with incident knee ROA or sROA in a cohort of middle-aged and older adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Increased Incidence of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Adult Patients following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

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    Yi-Ching Tung

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN in patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the risk factors of the development of HZ and PHN in patients after TBI. This population-based, longitudinal analysis was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (consisting of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from 1996 to 2010. Using the longitudinal National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study to evaluate the incidence of HZ and PHN in adult TBI patients and controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to compare differences in the development of HZ and PHN. The effects of gender, comorbidity and surgery on the risk of HZ and PHN development were assessed by subgroup analyses. Over a 15-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of HZ in 28,234 TBI patients (604.00/100,000 person-years was significantly higher than 34,085 controls (322.21/100,000 person-years (P<0.0001, by log-rank test. Females showed a significantly higher incidence of HZ than males (p for interaction = 0.0010. The time to HZ development in the follow-up period was 5.9 years in TBI patients compared to 9.9 years in the control set (p <0.0001. TBI patients were 2.93 and 2.11 times likely to develop HZ and PHN, respectively, than the general population. The incidences of HZ and PHN in TBI patients were also significantly greater than for controls in the CCI = 0 subgroup. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based cohort study to reveal that TBI is an independent risk factor for HZ and PHN in TBI patients, especially in females. Physician should pay attention to the possibility of HZ and PHN in TBI patients and be aware that HZ vaccination early after brain trauma may lower the incidence of HZ and PHN.

  4. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  5. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Folkestad, Lars; Gaustadnes, Mette; Vejlstrup, Niels; Stochholm, Kirstine; Østergaard, John R; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2015-12-02

    Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014. The annual median incidence was 0.19/100,000 (range: 0.0-0.7) which increased significantly with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04, p Marfan syndrome during the study period is possibly due to build-up of a registry. Since early diagnosis is essential in preventing aortic events, diagnosing Marfan syndrome remains a task for both pediatricians and physicians caring for adults.

  6. Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury Across the Full Disease Spectrum: A Population-Based Medical Record Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibson, Cynthia L.; Brown, Allen W.; Ransom, Jeanine E.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Perkins, Patricia K.; Mandrekar, Jay; Malec, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Extremely few objective estimates of traumatic brain injury incidence include all ages, both sexes, all injury mechanisms, and the full spectrum from very mild to fatal events. Methods We used unique Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage resources, including highly sensitive and specific diagnostic coding, to identify all Olmsted County, MN, residents with diagnoses suggestive of traumatic brain injury regardless of age, setting, insurance, or injury mechanism. Provider-linked medical records for a 16% random sample were reviewed for confirmation as definite, probable, possible (symptomatic), or no traumatic brain injury. We estimated incidence per 100,000 person-years for 1987–2000 and compared these record-review rates with rates obtained using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data-systems approach. For the latter, we identified all Olmsted County residents with any CDC-specified diagnosis codes recorded on hospital/emergency department administrative claims or death certificates 1987–2000. Results Of sampled individuals, 1257 met record-review criteria for incident traumatic brain injury; 56% were ages 16–64 years, 56% were male, 53% were symptomatic. Mechanism, sex, and diagnostic certainty differed by age. The incidence rate per 100,000 person-years was 558 (95% confidence interval = 528–590) versus 341 (331–350) using the CDC data system approach. The CDC approach captured only 40% of record-review cases. Seventy-four percent of missing cases presented to hospital/emergency department; none had CDC-specified codes assigned on hospital/emergency department administrative claims or death certificates; 66% were symptomatic. Conclusions Capture of symptomatic traumatic brain injuries requires a wider range of diagnosis codes, plus sampling strategies to avoid high rates of false-positive events. PMID:21968774

  7. First epidemiological analysis of breast cancer incidence and tumor characteristics after implementation of population-based digital mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, Stefanie; Heindel, Walter; Batzler, W.U.; Decker, T.; Hense, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to epidemiologically evaluate the impact of digital mammography screening on incidence rates and tumor characteristics for breast cancer. Materials and methods: the first German digital screening units in the clinical routine were evaluated during the implementation period by using data from the cancer registry to compare the incidence rate of breast cancers and prognostic characteristics. 74% of women aged 50-69 within the region of Muenster/Coesfeld/Warendorf were invited between 10/2005 and 12/2007 for initial screening; 55% participated (n = 35961). Results: in 2002-2004 the average breast cancer incidence rate (per 100000) was 297.9. During the implementation of screening, the rate rose to 532.9 in 2007. Of the 349 cancers detected with screening, 76% (265/349) were invasive compared to 90% (546/608) of cases not detected with screening during the same period. 37% (97/265) of cancers detected in the screening program had a diameter of ≤ 10 mm and 75% (198/265) were node-negative compared to 15% (79/546) and 64% (322/503), respectively, in cancers detected outside the screening program. The distribution of invasive tumor size (pT categories) and the nodal status differed with statistical significance between cancers detected in and outside the program (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). (orig.)

  8. Prevalence and predictors of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease in a prospective population-based inception cohort from 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Laszlo; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Kiss, Lajos S; Pandur, Tunde; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence, length and predictors of hospitalization in the biological era in the population-based inception cohort from Veszprem province. METHODS: Data of 331 incident Crohn’s disease (CD) patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were analyzed (median age at diagnosis: 28; IQR: 21-40 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. RESULTS: Probabilities of first CD-related hospitalization and re-hospitalization were 32.3%, 45.5%, 53.7% and 13.6%, 23.9%, 29.8%, respectively after one, three and five years of follow-up in Kaplan-Meier analysis. First-year hospitalizations were related to diagnostic procedures (37%), surgery or disease activity (27% and 21%). Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis (HR = 1.32, P = 0.001) and perianal disease (HR = 1.47, P = 0.04) were associated with time to first CD-related hospitalization, while disease behavior change (HR = 2.38, P = 0.002) and need for steroids (HR = 3.14, P = 0.003) were associated with time to first re-hospitalization in multivariate analyses. Early CD-related hospitalization (within the year of diagnosis) was independently associated with need for immunosuppressives (OR = 2.08, P = 0.001) and need for surgeries (OR = 7.25, P < 0.001) during the disease course. CONCLUSION: Hospitalization and re-hospitalization rates are still high in this cohort, especially during the first-year after the diagnosis. Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis was identified as the pivotal predictive factor of both hospitalization and re-hospitalization. PMID:26109815

  9. Incidence of fractures among epilepsy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study in the General Practice Research Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souverein, Patrick C; Webb, David J; Petri, Hans; Weil, John; Van Staa, Tjeerd P; Egberts, Toine

    2005-02-01

    To compare the incidence of various fractures in a cohort of patients with epilepsy with a reference cohort of patients not having epilepsy. Patients were included in the epilepsy cohort if they had at least one diagnosis of epilepsy in their medical history and had sufficient evidence of "active" epilepsy (use of antiepileptic drugs, diagnoses) after the practice was included in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Two reference patients were sampled for each patient with epilepsy from the same practice. Primary outcome was the occurrence of any fracture during follow-up. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate incidence density ratios (IDRs). The study population comprised 40,485 and 80,970 patients in the epilepsy and reference cohorts, respectively. The median duration of follow-up was approximately 3 years. The overall incidence rate in the epilepsy cohort was 241.9 per 10,000 person-years. This rate was about twice as high as that in reference cohort: age- and sex-adjusted IDR, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.81-1.98). When comparing IDRs among the different groups of fractures, the highest relative-risk estimate was found for hip and femur fractures (adjusted IDR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.41-3.24). IDRs were consistently elevated across age and sex groups and across fracture subtypes. The overall risk of fractures was nearly twice as high among patients with epilepsy compared with the general population. The relative fracture risk was highest for hip and femur. Further study is necessary to elucidate whether this elevated risk is due to the disease, the use of antiepileptic drugs, or both.

  10. Lansoprazole use and tuberculosis incidence in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink: A population based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tom A; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Langan, Sinead; Thomas, Sara; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-11-01

    Recent in vitro and animal studies have found the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole to be highly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Omeprazole and pantoprazole have no activity. There is no evidence that, in clinical practice, lansoprazole can treat or prevent incident tuberculosis (TB) disease. We studied a cohort of new users of lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink to determine whether lansoprazole users have a lower incidence of TB disease than omeprazole or pantoprazole users. Negative control outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) and herpes zoster were also studied. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounding by a wide range of factors. We identified 527,364 lansoprazole initiators and 923,500 omeprazole or pantoprazole initiators. Lansoprazole users had a lower rate of TB disease (n = 86; 10.0 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 8.1-12.4) than omeprazole or pantoprazole users (n = 193; 15.3 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 13.3-17.7), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.68 (0.52-0.89). No association was found with MI (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.08) or herpes zoster (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.06). Limitations of this study are that we could not determine whether TB disease was due to reactivation of latent infection or a result of recent transmission, nor could we determine whether lansoprazole would have a beneficial effect if given to people presenting with TB disease. In this study, use of the commonly prescribed and cheaply available PPI lansoprazole was associated with reduced incidence of TB disease. Given the serious problem of drug resistance and the adverse side effect profiles of many TB drugs, further investigation of lansoprazole as a potential antituberculosis agent is warranted.

  11. Diabetes and risk of cancer incidence: results from a population-based cohort study in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Vicentini, Massimo; Manicardi, Valeria; Gallo, Marco; Chiatamone Ranieri, Sofia; Greci, Marina; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-10-25

    Aim of this study was to compare cancer incidence in populations with and without diabetes by cancer site. Furthermore, we aimed at comparing excess risk of cancer according to diabetes type, diabetes duration and treatment, the latter as regards Type 2 diabetes. By use of the Reggio Emilia diabetes registry we classified the resident population aged 20-84 at December 31 st 2009 into two groups: with and without diabetes. By linking with the cancer registry we calculated the 2010-2013 cancer incidence in both groups. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) by cancer site, type of diabetes, diabetes duration, and as concerns Type 2 diabetes, by treatment regimen were computed using Poisson regression model and non-diabetic group as reference. The cohort included 383,799 subjects without diabetes and 23,358 with diabetes. During follow-up, we identified 1464 cancer cases in subjects with diabetes and 9858 in the remaining population. Overall cancer incidence was higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (IRR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.15-1.29), with similar results focusing on subjects with at least 2-year diabetes duration. Cancer sites driving overall increased risk were liver, pancreas, Colon rectum, and bladder in both sexes, corpus uteri for females. There was also suggestion of an increased risk for kidney cancer in females and a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Excess risk was found in patients with Type 2 diabetes, more marked among insulin users, especially with combined therapy. We observed an increasing risk for diabetes duration up to 10 years from diagnosis (IRR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.29-1.61) and a subsequent decrease to moderate-higher risk (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04-1.30). Our study indicates that the strength of association depends on specific cancer site. Insulin, monotherapy or combined therapy, per se or as an indication of poor blood glucose control, in addition to diabetes duration, may play a role in the association of diabetes and

  12. Prognostic value of interferon-γ release assays, a population-based study from a TB low-incidence country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Thomas Stig; Lillebaek, Troels; Langholz Kristensen, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    individuals and data on all TB cases in Denmark from 2005 to 2012 and determined the predictive value of the QFT for coprevalent TB (0-90 days after testing) and incident TB (>90 days). RESULTS: Coprevalent TB was diagnosed in 10.7% (183/1703) and 0.3% (38/13 463) cases with a positive and negative QFT......, respectively. For the QFT-positive cases, coprevalent TB was more frequent among persons 35  years (19.3% vs 7.2%, pvalues (PPV...

  13. Meckel-Gruber Syndrome : a population-based study on prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, clinical features, and survival in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Braz, Paula; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Pierini, Anna; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

    Meckel-Gruber Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal ciliopathy characterized by the triad of cystic renal dysplasia, occipital encephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of

  14. Hypertension in the very old; prevalence, awareness, treatment and control: a cross-sectional population-based study in a Spanish municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado, Alba; López, Flora; Miravet, Sonia; Oriol, Pilar; Fuentes, M Isabel; Henares, Belén; Badia, Teresa; Esteve, Lluis; Peligro, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on hypertension in the very elderly is sparse. Until recently evidence of benefits from pharmacological treatment was inconclusive. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension in subjects aged 80 or more, the proportion of awareness, treatment and control. Explanatory variables associated with good control were also studied. Methods Cross sectional, population-based study, conducted in Martorell, an urban Spanish municipality, in 2005. By simple random sampling...

  15. Incidence, trends and severity of primary postpartum haemorrhage in Australia: A population-based study using Victorian Perinatal Data Collection data for 764 244 births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Margaret; McDonald, Susan J; Pollock, Wendy; Cullinane, Fiona; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2018-05-22

    Increasing incidence and severity of postpartum haemorrhage, together with postpartum haemorrhage-associated morbidities, have been reported in many high-resource countries. In-depth analysis of such factors in Victorian births since 2002 was lacking. Our aim was to determine the incidence and trends for primary postpartum haemorrhage (World Health Organization and International Classification of Diseases 10th revision, Australian Modification definitions) for all confinements in Victoria, Australia, for the years 2003-2013 and the incidence and trends for severe postpartum haemorrhage (≥1500 mL) for 2009-2013. In this population-based cross-sectional study de-identified data from the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection were analysed for confinements (excluding terminations) from 2003 to 2013 (n = 764 244). Perinatal information for all births ≥20 weeks (or of at least 400 g birthweight if gestation was unknown) were prospectively collected. One in five women (21.8%) who gave birth between 2009 and 2013 experienced a primary postpartum haemorrhage and one in 71 women (1.4%) experienced a severe primary postpartum haemorrhage. The increasing trends in incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage, severe primary postpartum haemorrhage, blood transfusion, admission to an intensive care or high dependency unit and peripartum hysterectomy were significant (P primary postpartum haemorrhage. The highest incidence was experienced by women who had an unplanned caesarean section birth. Women who had a forceps birth had the highest incidence of severe primary postpartum haemorrhage. The incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage, severe primary postpartum haemorrhage and associated maternal morbidities have increased significantly over time in Victoria. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement and a rural area in Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Breiman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban area, given crowding and suboptimal access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: During 2007-9, we conducted population-based surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural area in western Kenya. Participants had free access to study clinics; field workers visited their homes biweekly to collect information about acute illnesses. In clinic, blood cultures were processed from patients with fever or pneumonia. Crude and adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: In the urban site, the overall crude incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi bacteremia was 247 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation (pyo with highest rates in children 5-9 years old (596 per 100,000 pyo and 2-4 years old (521 per 100,000 pyo. Crude overall incidence in Lwak was 29 cases per 100,000 pyo with low rates in children 2-4 and 5-9 years old (28 and 18 cases per 100,000 pyo, respectively. Adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2-4 year old urban children (2,243 per 100,000 pyo which were >15-fold higher than rates in the rural site for the same age group. Nearly 75% of S. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic urban slum and rural comparison showed dramatically higher typhoid incidence among urban children <10 years old with rates similar to those from Asian urban slums. The findings have potential policy implications for use of typhoid vaccines in increasingly urban Africa.

  17. No increase in the incidence of acute kidney injury in a population-based annual temporal trends epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Kianoush; Shao, Min; Li, Guangxi; Williams, Amy W; Rule, Andrew D; Kremers, Walter K; Malinchoc, Michael; Gajic, Ognjen; Lieske, John C

    2017-09-01

    Recent literature suggests an increase in the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated population-based trends of AKI over the course of nine years, using a validated electronic health record tool to detect AKI. All adult residents (18 years of age and older) of Olmsted County, Minnesota (MN), admitted to the Mayo Clinic Hospital between 2006 and 2014 were included. The incidence rate of AKI was calculated and temporal trends in the annual AKI incident rates assessed. During the nine-year study period, 10,283, and 41,847 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit or general ward, with 1,740 and 2,811 developing AKI, respectively. The unadjusted incidence rates were 186 and 287 per 100,000 person years in 2006 and reached 179 and 317 per 100,000 person years in 2014. Following adjustment for age and sex, there was no significant change in the annual AKI incidence rate during the study period with a Relative Risk of 0.99 per year (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.01) for intensive care unit patients and 0.993 per year (0.98-1.01) for the general ward patients. Similar results were obtained when the ICD-9 codes or administrative data for dialysis-requiring AKI was utilized to determine incident cases. Thus, despite the current literature that suggests an epidemic of AKI, we found that after adjusting for age and sex the incidence of AKI in the general population remained relatively stable over the last decade. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence of invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre population-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; El Tayeb, Muna Ahmed; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Biggs, Holly M; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Breiman, Robert F; Campbell, James I; Cosmas, Leonard; Crump, John A; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Fields, Barry S; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Hertz, Julian T; Van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Im, Justin; Jaeger, Anna; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Kabore, Leon Parfait; Keddy, Karen H; Konings, Frank; Krumkamp, Ralf; Ley, Benedikt; Løfberg, Sandra Valborg; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Niang, Aissatou Ahmet; Nichols, Chelsea; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Jin Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Raminosoa, Tiana Mirana; Razafindrabe, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco; Sampo, Emmanuel; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Sow, Amy Gassama; Sarpong, Nimako; Seo, Hye Jin; Sooka, Arvinda; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Tall, Adama; Teferi, Mekonnen; Thriemer, Kamala; Warren, Michelle R; Yeshitela, Biruk; Clemens, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2017-03-01

    Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites). We used census data and health-care records to define study catchment areas and populations. Eligible participants were either inpatients or outpatients who resided within the catchment area and presented with tympanic (≥38·0°C) or axillary temperature (≥37·5°C). Inpatients with a reported history of fever for 72 h or longer were excluded. We also implemented a health-care utilisation survey in a sample of households randomly selected from each study area to investigate health-seeking behaviour in cases of self-reported fever lasting less than 3 days. Typhoid fever and iNTS disease incidences were corrected for health-care-seeking behaviour and recruitment. Between March 1, 2010, and Jan 31, 2014, 135 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and 94 iNTS isolates were cultured from the blood of 13 431 febrile patients. Salmonella spp accounted for 33% or more of all bacterial pathogens at nine sites. The adjusted incidence rate (AIR) of S Typhi per 100 000 person-years of observation ranged from 0 (95% CI 0-0) in Sudan to 383 (274-535) at one site in Burkina Faso; the AIR of iNTS ranged from 0 in Sudan, Ethiopia, Madagascar (Isotry site), and South Africa to 237 (178-316) at the second site in Burkina Faso. The AIR of iNTS and typhoid

  19. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Contribution of dietary amino acids composition to incidence of cardiovascular outcomes: A prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Bahadoran, Z; Ghasemi, A; Azizi, F

    2017-07-01

    Considering the limited data on the cardiovascular effects of dietary amino acid intakes, we assessed possible association of dietary amino acids with the risk of cardiovascular (CVD) events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006-2008); demographic, lifestyle and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and follow-up examination (2012-2014). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary amino acids. Mean total protein intake was 76.9 ± 27.5 g/d, and dietary protein had no significant association with the risk of CVD (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.65-2.31, and HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.19-1.41, in the second and third tertiles, respectively). After adjustment of potential confounders, the amino acid pattern with higher load of glycine, cysteine, arginine and tryptophan, was negatively associated with CVD (HR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.88, P for trend = 0.08). Higher intake of sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine), and potentially cardioprotective amino acids (arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine and tyrosine) corresponded to 73% (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.86) and 74% (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78) decreased risk of CVD events. Higher intake of glutamic acid and proline (% of dietary total protein) increased the risk of CVD (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.64, and HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.10-1.60, respectively). These novel data provide evidence to suggest that amino acid composition of diet may modify the risk of CVD events. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of

  1. Socioeconomic variation in incidence of primary and secondary major cardiovascular disease events: an Australian population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Soga, Kay; Joshy, Grace; Calabria, Bianca; Attia, John; Wong, Deborah; Banks, Emily

    2016-11-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects disadvantaged people, but reliable quantitative evidence on socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence in Australia is lacking. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic variation in rates of primary and secondary CVD events in mid-age and older Australians. Baseline data (2006-2009) from the 45 and Up Study, an Australian cohort involving 267,153 men and women aged ≥ 45, were linked to hospital and death data (to December 2013). Outcomes comprised first event - death or hospital admission - for major CVD combined, as well as myocardial infarction and stroke, in those with and without prior CVD (secondary and primary events, respectively). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome in relation to education (and income and area-level disadvantage), separately by age group (45-64, 65-79, and ≥ 80 years), adjusting for age and sex, and additional sociodemographic factors. There were 18,207 primary major CVD events over 1,144,845 years of follow-up (15.9/1000 person-years), and 20,048 secondary events over 260,357 years (77.0/1000 person-years). For both primary and secondary events, incidence increased with decreasing education, with the absolute difference between education groups largest for secondary events. Age-sex adjusted hazard ratios were highest in the 45-64 years group: for major CVDs, HR (no qualifications vs university degree) = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.77) for primary events, and HR = 1.49 (1.34-1.65) for secondary events; myocardial infarction HR = 2.31 (1.87-2.85) and HR = 2.57 (1.90-3.47) respectively; stroke HR = 1.48 (1.16-1.87) and HR = 1.97 (1.42-2.74) respectively. Similar but attenuated results were seen in older age groups, and with income. For area-level disadvantage, CVD gradients were weak and non-significant in older people (> 64 years). Individual-level data are important for quantifying socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence, which

  2. Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anoushka Singh*, Lindsay Tetreault*, Suhkvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Aria Nouri, Michael G FehlingsToronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada  *These authors contributed equally to this paper Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a traumatic event that impacts a patient's physical, psychological, and social well-being and places substantial financial burden on health care systems. To determine the true impact of SCI, this systematic review aims to summarize literature reporting on either the incidence or prevalence of SCI. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant literature published through June 2013. We sought studies that provided regional, provincial/state, or national data on the incidence of SCI or reported estimates of disease prevalence. The level of evidence of each study was rated using a scale that evaluated study design, methodology, sampling bias, and precision of estimates. Results: The initial search yielded 5,874 articles, 48 of which met the inclusion criteria. Forty-four studies estimated the incidence of SCI and nine reported the prevalence, with five discussing both. Of the incidence studies, 14 provided figures at a regional, ten at a state or provincial level and 21 at a national level. The prevalence of SCI was highest in the United States of America (906 per million and lowest in the Rhone-Alpes region, France (250 per million and Helsinki, Finland (280 per million. With respect to states and provinces in North America, the crude annual incidence of SCI was highest in Alaska (83 per million and Mississippi (77 per million and lowest in Alabama (29.4 per million, despite a large percentage of violence injuries (21.2%. Annual incidences were above 50 per million in the Hualien County in Taiwan (56.1 per million, the central Portugal

  3. Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Nazeri, Pantea; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2018-01-30

    There is an interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dietary sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratio and the risk of HTN and CVD in a general population of Iranian adults. In this prospective cohort study, adults men and women with complete baseline data were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6.3 years for incidence of HTN and CVD outcomes. Dietary sodium and potassium were assessed using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary sodium, potassium and their ratio and risk of outcomes. During the study follow-up, 291 (15.1%) and 79 (5.0%) new cases of HTN and CVD were identified, respectively. No significant association was observed between usual intakes of sodium, potassium and dietary Na/K ratio with the incidence of HTN. There was no significant association between dietary intakes of sodium and potassium per se and the risk of CVD, whereas when dietary sodium to potassium ratio was considered as exposure in the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, and participants in the highest compared to lowest tertile had a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-4.14). Our findings suggest that high dietary Na/K ratio could contribute to increased risk of CVD events.

  4. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and risk of incident epilepsy: a population-based, open-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoulas, George E; Toulis, Konstantinos A; Mccorry, Dougall; Kumarendran, Balachadran; Thomas, G Neil; Willis, Brian H; Gokhale, Krishna; Gkoutos, George; Narendran, Parth; Nirantharakumar, Krishnarajah

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship between incident epilepsy and type 1 diabetes in British participants. Using The Health Improvement Network database, we conducted a retrospective, open-cohort study. Patients who were newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus at the age of ≤40 years were identified and followed-up from 1 January 1990 to 15 September 2015. These patients, identified as not suffering from epilepsy at the time of diagnosis, were randomly matched with up to four individuals without type 1 diabetes mellitus, based on age, sex and participating general practice. A Cox regression analysis was subsequently performed using Townsend deprivation index, cerebral palsy, head injury and learning disabilities as model covariates. The study population consisted of a total of 24,610 individuals (4922 with type 1 diabetes and 19,688 controls). These individuals were followed up for a mean of 5.4 years (approximately 132,000 person-years of follow up). Patients with type 1 diabetes were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with epilepsy during the observation period compared with controls (crude HR [95% CI]: 3.02 [1.95, 4.69]). The incidence rate was estimated to be 132 and 44 per 100,000 person-years in patients and controls, respectively. This finding persisted after adjusting for model covariates (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 3.01 [1.93, 4.68]) and was also robust to sensitivity analysis, excluding adult-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 1 diabetes are at approximately three-times greater risk of developing epilepsy compared with matched controls without type 1 diabetes. This should be considered when investigating seizure-related disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: a population-based prospective study of middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Levitan, Emily B; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A

    2010-09-01

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that chocolate intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and observational studies have found an inverse association between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure (HF). We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,823 women aged 48 to 83 years without baseline diabetes or a history of HF or myocardial infarction who were participants in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. In addition to answering health and lifestyle questions, participants completed a food-frequency questionnaire. Women were followed from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2006, for HF hospitalization or death through the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers. Over 9 years of follow-up, 419 women were hospitalized for incident HF (n=379) or died of HF (n=40). Compared with no regular chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.95) for women consuming 1 to 3 servings of chocolate per month, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.93) for those consuming 1 to 2 servings per week, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.62) for those consuming 3 to 6 servings per week, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.73 to 2.08) for those consuming ≥1 servings per day (P=0.0005 for quadratic trend). In this population, moderate habitual chocolate intake was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed with intake of ≥1 servings per day.

  6. Fracture Incidence and Characteristics in Young Adults Aged 18 to 49 Years: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Melton, L Joseph; Achenbach, Sara J; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee

    2017-12-01

    Although fractures in both the pediatric and, especially, the elderly populations have been extensively investigated, comparatively little attention has been given to the age group in between. Thus, we used the comprehensive (inpatient and outpatient) data resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to determine incidence rates for all fractures among young adult (age range, 18 to 49 years) residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2009 to 2011, and compared the distribution of fracture sites and causes in this young adult cohort with those for older residents aged 50 years or older. During the 3-year study period, 2482 Olmsted County residents aged 18 to 49 years experienced 1 or more fractures. There were 1730 fractures among 1447 men compared with 1164 among 1035 women, and the age-adjusted incidence of all fractures was 66% greater among the men (1882 [95% confidence interval 1793-1971] versus 1135 [95% CI 1069-1201] per 100,000 person-years; p age ≥50 years who sustained a fracture in 2009 to 2011. Younger residents (aged 18 to 49 years), when compared with older residents (aged ≥50 years), had a greater proportion of fractures of the hands and feet (40% versus 18%) with relatively few fractures observed at traditional osteoporotic fracture sites (14% versus 43%). Vertebral fractures were still more likely to be the result of moderate trauma than at other sites, especially in younger women. In conclusion, whereas pediatric and elderly populations often fracture from no more than moderate trauma, young adults, and more commonly men, suffer fractures primarily at non-osteoporotic sites due to more significant trauma. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy Ameliorated the Incidence of Chronic Hepatitis in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chin Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a National Health Insurance Research Database-based Taiwanese nationwide population-based cohort study to evaluate whether Chinese herbal medicine (CHM treatment decreased the incidence of chronic hepatitis in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. A total of 81171 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer within the defined study period. After randomly equal matching, data from 13856 patients were analyzed. Hazard ratios of incidence rate of chronic hepatitis were used to determine the influence and therapeutic potential of CHM in patients with breast cancer. The patients with breast cancer receiving CHM treatment exhibited a significantly decreased incidence rate of chronic hepatitis even across the stratification of age, CCI score, and treatments. The cumulative incidence of chronic hepatitis for a period of seven years after initial breast cancer diagnosis was also reduced in the patients receiving CHM treatment. The ten most commonly used single herbs and formulas were effective in protecting liver function in patients with breast cancer, where Hedyotis diffusa and Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San were the most commonly used herbal agents. In conclusion, our study provided information that western medicine therapy combined with CHM as an adjuvant modality may have a significant impact on liver protection in patients with breast cancer.

  8. Impact of a partial smoke-free legislation on myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and case-fatality in a population-based registry: the REGICOR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Agüero

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death, and smoking its strongest modifiable risk factor. Our aim was to determine the impact of the Spanish 2006 partial smoke-free legislation on acute myocardial infarction (AMI incidence, hospitalization and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in Girona, Spain.Using a population-based registry (the REGICOR Study, we compared population incidence, hospitalization, and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in the pre- and post-ban periods (2002-2005 and 2006-2008, respectively by binomial regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors. We also analyzed the ban's impact on the outcomes of interest using the AMI definitions of the American Heart Association (AHA/European Society of Cardiology (ESC and the World Health Organization (WHO-Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases (MONICA.In the post-ban period, AMI incidence and mortality rates significantly decreased (relative risk [RR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-0.97 and RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.71-0.94, respectively. Incidence and mortality rates decreased in both sexes, especially in women, and in people aged 65-74 years. Former and non-smokers (passive smokers showed diminished incidence rates. Implementation of the ban was not associated with AMI case-fatality. Models tended to be more significant with the WHO-MONICA than with the AHA/ESC definition.The 2006 Spanish partial smoke-free legislation was associated with a decrease in population AMI incidence and mortality, particularly in women, in people aged 65-74 years, and in passive smokers. These results clarify the association between AMI mortality and the enactment of a partial smoke-free legislation and reinforce the effectiveness of smoking regulations in preventing CHD.

  9. Ten-year incident osteoporosis-related fractures in the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study - comparing site and age-specific risks in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jerilynn C; Langsetmo, Lisa; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Goltzman, David; Kovacs, Christopher S; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Josse, Robert G; Brown, Jacques P; Leslie, William D; Kreiger, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    Population-based incident fracture data aid fracture prevention and therapy decisions. Our purpose was to describe 10-year site-specific cumulative fracture incidence by sex, age at baseline, and degree of trauma with/without consideration of competing mortality in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study adult cohort. Incident fractures and mortality were identified by annual postal questionnaires to the participant or proxy respondent. Date, site and circumstance of fracture were gathered from structured interviews and medical records. Fracture analyses were stratified by sex and age at baseline and used both Kaplan-Meier and competing mortality methods. The baseline (1995-97) cohort included 6314 women and 2789 men (aged 25-84 years; mean±SD 62±12 and 59±14, respectively), with 4322 (68%) women and 1732 (62%) men followed to year-10. At least one incident fracture occurred for 930 women (14%) and 247 men (9%). Competing mortality exceeded fracture risk for men aged 65+years at baseline. Age was a strong predictor of incident fractures especially fragility fractures, with higher age gradients for women vs. men. Major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) (hip, clinical spine, forearm, humerus) accounted for 41-74% of fracture risk by sex/age strata; in women all MOF sites showed age-related increases but in men only hip was clearly age-related. The most common fractures were the forearm for women and the ribs for men. Hip fracture incidence was the highest for the 75-84 year baseline age-group with no significant difference between women 7.0% (95% CI 5.3, 8.9) and men 7.0% (95% CI 4.4, 10.3). There are sex differences in the predominant sites and age-gradients of fracture. In older men, competing mortality exceeds cumulative fracture risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Related factors and incidence risk of acute myocardial infarction among the people with disability: A national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Chiu, Li-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-11-06

    Cardiovascular disease has always been a leading cause of death worldwide. Because the mobility of people with disability is relatively decreased, their risk of cardiovascular disease is increased. This study investigated the risks and relevant factors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among people with disability. This is a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data analysis. This study focused on 798,328 people with disability who were aged 35 and above during 2002-2008 and were registered in the National Disability Registration Database; the relevant medical data from 2000 to 2011 were acquired from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A Cox proportional hazards model was adopted for analyzing the relative AMI risks among different disability types and finding latent risk factors. The results indicated that the AMI incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) among people with disability was 2.48. Men had an AMI incidence rate of 2.68 per 1000 patient-years, which was significantly higher than that of women (2.21; pdisability aged 65 and above had an AMI risk that was 5.01-6.03 times the risk for people with disability aged below 45. Disabled indigenous people had a relatively higher AMI risk (HR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19-1.52). The AMI risk for people with disability with a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 4 and above was 5.89 times (95% CI=5.56-6.25) the risk for those with a CCI of 0. Compared with people with physical disabilities, people with visual impairment and people with dysfunctional primary organs had significantly higher AMI risks (HR=1.15; HR=1.66). This study found that people with disability who were male, aged 65 and above, married, indigenous, with physical disabilities, with high comorbidity, or with high disability levels had relatively higher AMI risks than other people with disability. The research outcomes can be used as references by public health authorities to improve the engagement of people with disability in AMI

  11. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women

    OpenAIRE

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Berk, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is h...

  12. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at age 4 years. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At age 4 years, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At age 4 years, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at age 4 years was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and age 4 years in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  13. Neighborhood walkability, deprivation and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a population-based study on 512,061 Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Mezuk, Briana; Ohlsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood walkability has been associated with increased physical activity, but only a few studies have explored the association between walkability and health outcomes related to physical activity, such as type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively assessed neighborhood walkability and the 4-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a sample of 512,061 Swedish adults aged 18 years and older. Neighborhoods were defined by 408 administratively defined geographical areas in the city of Stockholm. We found a negative association between walkability and type 2 diabetes (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.13-1.55) that remained significant after adjusting for neighborhood deprivation. This association, however, no longer remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual socio-demographic factors. These results were also confirmed using a co-sibling design. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the potential effect of a broader array of the neighborhood built environment on health outcomes related to physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Virani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, five cancer types—breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer—contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. We found that breast (average annual percent change (AAPC: 3.1% and colorectal cancer (female AAPC: 3.3%, male AAPC: 4.1% are increasing while cervical cancer (AAPC: −4.4% is decreasing nationwide. However, liver and lung cancers exhibit disproportionately higher burdens in the northeast and north regions, respectively. Lung cancer increased significantly in northeastern and southern women, despite low smoking rates. Liver cancers are expected to increase in the northern males and females. Liver cancer increased in the south, despite the absence of the liver fluke, a known factor, in this region. Our findings are presented in the context of health policy, population dynamics and serve to provide evidence for future prevention strategies. Our subnational estimates provide a basis for understanding variations in region-specific risk factor profiles that contribute to incidence trends over time.

  15. Incidence and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Iran and Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis is one of the major public health concerns in many countries, however the available and effective treatment is known. Tuberculosis typically determined with socio-economic problems such as war, malnutrition and HIV prevalence. In Iran, many progresses are carried to control tuberculosis but, different factors such as immigration from neighboring countries are affective to tuberculosis infection. Objectives In this paper, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis is evaluated in different regions of Iran and neighboring countries. Methods The data are collected from different and valid sources such as Scopus, Pubmed and also many reports from world health organization (WHO and center of disease control and prevention (CDC for a period of 25 years (1990 - 2015 evaluated for Iran and neighboring countries. Results This study as a descriptive- analytical research is conducted cross- sectional among Iran and neighboring countries since 1990. The information is obtained from exact and valid informative data from web of sciences. The east and west border countries of Iran which are faced with war and immigration in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq are source of tuberculosis infection that effect on tuberculosis prevalence in Iran. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and Excel 2013. Conclusions The incidence of tuberculosis in Iran has been decreased because of many controlling actions such as BCG vaccination, electronic reporting system for tuberculosis and free access to tuberculosis medication. Some of Iran neighboring countries such as Tajikistan and Pakistan have the highest incidence of tuberculosis which known as a challenge for tuberculosis control in Iran while Saudi Arabia and Turkey have the lowest incidence.

  16. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  17. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  18. Influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet quality in childhood on the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XiuYun; Bastian, Kerry; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011. Students' diet quality was assessed using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported, and internalizing and externalizing disorders were diagnosed by a physician. We applied Cox regression to examine the associations of the health behaviors with the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders between 2003 and 2011. Of the 4861 participating students, 23.7% and 9.4% had a diagnosis of internalizing and externalizing disorders, respectively. The incidences of internalizing and externalizing disorders were higher among students who were less physically active and spent more time using computers and video games. These findings suggest that promoting an active lifestyle in childhood may contribute to the prevention of both internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meckel-Gruber Syndrome: a population-based study on prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, clinical features, and survival in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal ciliopathy characterized by the triad of cystic renal dysplasia, occipital encephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of...... diagnosis is important for timely counseling of affected couples regarding the option of pregnancy termination and prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 3 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.174....

  20. Constipation - prevalence and incidence among medical patients acutely admitted to hospital with a medical condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients.......To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients....

  1. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence in western Turkey: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrutbas, Ali E; Bozkurt, Ali I; Tas, Erdogan; Acar, Cenk I; Alkis, Okan; Coban, Kazim; Cetinel, Bulent; Aybek, Zafer

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in western Turkey. This cross-sectional, population-based survey was carried out between May and October 2012. A random sample of 2128 women and men aged ≥18 years was selected from the health registries. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data, comorbid conditions, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence symptoms, body mass index, vital signs, and dipstick urinalysis was developed. The questions were answered by the participants, and remaining data were provided by the site staff. International Continence Society definitions were used. A total of 1571 (74%) individuals agreed to participate, and analysis were carried out on 1555 people (636 men [40.9%] and 919 women [59.1%]) after 16 individuals with a nitrite-positive dipstick test were excluded. Lower urinary tract symptoms were reported by 71.0% of the study population. The prevalence of storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms were 56.1% (44.2% men, 64.1% women), 39.3% (40.9% men, 37.8% women) and 30.7% (38.6% men, 28.7% women), respectively. The most prevalent storage symptom was urgency, which was reported by 29.3% of the study population (20.1% men, 35.6% women). The prevalence of urge, stress and mixed urinary incontinence were: 6.5% (3.9% men, 8.2% women), 14.1% (3.9% men, 21.2% women) and 5.6% (0.8% men, 9.0% women), respectively. The present study is the first and largest population-based survey evaluating the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in Turkey. Our findings show these symptoms are highly prevalent in western Turkey. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  3. [Prevalence of acute coronary heart disease among farmers in Panyu, Guangzhou: a 20-year population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mulan; Li, He; Shi, Meiling; He, Yongquan; Liao, Jianyong; Yang, Jie; Jiang, Xiaxing; Guo, Chengye; Mai, Jingzhuang; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2014-03-01

    To monitor the incidence change of acute coronary heart events in the all-ages farmers in Panyu District, Guangzhou City during 1991-2001 and 2010-2011. The surveillance on the same defined population as that from the PRC-USA cooperative epidemiologic project on the cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases 30-year ago was carried out in Panyu, Guangzhou in 1991-2001 and 2010-2011. The crude incidence of acute coronary events and the age-standardized incidence rate were calculated by the year, gender and age, and standardized with the world standard population age distribution. Incidences at the two different periods were compared. The annual average changing rate of the incidence was obtained by the regression analysis methods. In the 11 consecutive years of 1991-2001, a upward trend on the incidence of acute coronary events among the farmers in women in Panyu District was found (P acute coronary events in the year of 2010-2011 was significantly higher than that in the year of 1991 to 2001 [34.06 per 100 000 (age-adjusted rate as 28.50 per 100 000) versus 16.14 per 100 000 (age-adjusted rate as 16.57 per 100 000), P acute coronary events in males was noticed in 75-79 age group, and in 80-84 age group in females. Comparing to the period of 1991-2001, the largest incidence increases appeared in the age groups of 35-39 and 75-79 years in males, while in the age groups of 50-54 and 65-69 years in females. Up to 47.37% (36/76) events occurred on the age group older than 75 years, raised by 40.44% comparing to that in 1991-2001 (33.73%, 56/166). The incidence of acute coronary events among farmers in Panyu District is at middle or low level of China but there is an increasing trend in acute coronary incidence from 1991 to 2011. Our results suggest that the prevention and treatment on acute coronary syndrome should be strengthened, and especially on the age group with the largest increase of disease incidence.

  4. The incidence and prevalence of psychiatric disorders in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    -based studies, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.9% (95% CI: 8.76%-35.0%), while it was 14.8% for alcohol abuse, 5.83% for bipolar disorder, 23.7% (95% CI: 17.4%-30.0%) for depression, 2.5% for substance abuse, and 4.3% (95% CI: 0%-10.3%) for psychosis. CONCLUSION: This review confirms that psychiatric......BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with lower quality of life, more fatigue, and reduced adherence to disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to estimate the incidence and prevalence of selected comorbid psychiatric...... disorders in MS and evaluate the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Knowledge databases and reference lists of retrieved articles. Abstracts were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers, followed by full-text review. Data were abstracted...

  5. A population-based prevalence study of hepatitis A, B and C virus using oral fluid in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoilin, Sophie; Hutse, Veronik; Vandenberghe, Hans; Claeys, Francoise; Verhaegen, Els; Cock, Liesbet de; Loock, Frank van; Top, Geert; Damme, Pierre van; Vranckx, Robert; Oyen, Herman van

    2007-01-01

    Ten years after the first seroprevalence study performed in Flanders, the aim of this cross sectional study was to follow the evolution of hepatitis A, B and C prevalence. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies was measured in oral fluid samples collected by postal survey. Using the National Population Register, an incremental sampling plan was developed to obtain a representative sampling of the general population. A total of 24,000 persons were selected and 6,000 persons among them contacted in a first wave. With 1834 participants a response rate of 30.6% was achieved. The prevalence was weighted for age and was 20.2% (95% CI 19.43-21.08) for hepatitis A, 0.66% (95% CI 0.51-0.84) for hepatitis B surface antigen and 0.12% (95% CI 0.09-0.39) for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis A and C in the Flemish population is lower in 2003 compared with the results of the study performed in 1993. The difference may be due to a real decrease of the diseases but also to differences in the methodology. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains stable. Considering the 30% response rate and the high quality of the self-collected samples as reflect of a good participation of the general population, saliva test for prevalence study is a good epidemiological monitoring tool

  6. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Chua, Kia-Chong; Dewey, Michael E; Liu, Zhaorui; Mayston, Rosie; Valhuerdi, Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%). We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period influences

  7. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Valhuerdi, Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    Background Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. Methods Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. Results 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72–98% responding by site. The ‘at risk’ cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4–7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988–1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002–1.059, I2 = 0.0%). Conclusions We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous

  8. Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Isaac; Jotheeswaran, Amuthavalli T; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. Methods We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3–5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. Findings 12 887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11 718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34 718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4–2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9–15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56–5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4–19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56–1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61–0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81–0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1

  9. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Prince

    Full Text Available Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause, and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence.Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later.9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site, generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015 did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%.We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period

  10. The use of alendronate is associated with a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus--a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling has been linked to glucose metabolism in animal studies, but the results of human trials were inconclusive. Bisphosphonates may play a role in glucose metabolism through their impacts on bone remodeling enzymes. In this study, we aimed to examine the influence of alendronate usage on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among osteoporotic patients.A retrospective cohort study was designed to include osteoporotic patients without DM from a population-based cohort containing 1,000,000 subjects. Patients treated with alendronate (exposed group, N=1,011 were compared with those who received no treatment (age and gender matched non-exposed group, N=3,033. Newly diagnosed DM was identified from medical records by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9CM code. The incidence of DM in both groups was calculated for comparison.The non-exposed group had a significantly higher incidence of DM (Odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.03~1.41 when compared with the exposed group. In subgroup analysis, the DM risk reduction in exposed group was only significant among those younger than 65 years and those without hypertension or dyslipidemia. Patients who were prescribed alendronate more than or equal to 3 times had demonstrated a significant reduction in DM risk.Our study showed alendronate might yield a protective effect for incident DM. This effect became insignificant in patients with older age, dyslipidemia or hypertension. The underlying mechanism needs further exploration with prospective data for confirmation of the observed findings.

  11. Incidence and Classification of New-Onset Epilepsy and Epilepsy Syndromes in Children in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1980–2004: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine C.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.-L.; Nickels, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and classification of new-onset epilepsy, as well as the distribution of epilepsy syndromes in a population-based group of children, using the newly proposed Report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology 2005–2009. Methods We identified all children residing in Olmsted County, MN, 1 month through 17 years with newly diagnosed epilepsy from 1980–2004. For each patient, epilepsy was classified into mode of onset, etiology, and syndrome or constellation (if present). Incidence rates were calculated overall and also separately for categories of mode of onset and etiology. Results The adjusted incidence rate of new-onset epilepsy in children was 44.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year. Incidence rates were highest in the first year of life and diminished with age. Mode of onset was focal in 68%, generalized/bilateral in 23%, spasms in 3% and unknown in 5%. Approximately half of children had an unknown etiology for their epilepsy, and of the remainder, 78 (22%) were genetic and 101 (28%) were structural/metabolic. A specific epilepsy syndrome could be defined at initial diagnosis in 99/359 (28%) children, but only 9/359 (3%) had a defined constellation. Conclusion Nearly half of childhood epilepsy is of “unknown” etiology. While a small proportion of this group met criteria for a known epilepsy syndrome, 41% of all childhood epilepsy is of “unknown” cause with no clear syndrome identified. Further work is needed to define more specific etiologies for this group. PMID:21482075

  12. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100-125 mg/dL. The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; pdiabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes.

  14. Prevalence, risk factors and impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a population-based study in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minhu; Xiong, Lishou; Chen, Huixin; Xu, Angao; He, Longjun; Hu, Pinjin

    2005-07-01

    There are few data on the epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South China. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of GERD symptoms in South China and to evaluate the impact on health-related quality of life. A face-to-face interview was carried out in South China using a validated Chinese version of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire to assess the prevalence of GERD symptoms. A randomly clustered sampling of permanent inhabitants aged 18 to 90 years was carried out under stratification of urban and suburban areas. The impact of GERD symptoms on health-related quality of life was evaluated using the Chinese version of SF-36. A total of 3338 residents (1468 M, 1870 F) were investigated. Mean age of the responders was 42.6 +/- 16.4 years; response rate was 95%. The prevalence of heartburn and/or acid eructation occurring at least weekly was 6.2%. The age- and gender-adjusted point prevalence of GERD symptoms in South China is 2.3% (95% CI, 1.8%, 2.8%) according to the definition in this study. There was no difference in prevalence between male (2.6%) and female (2.4%) subjects and there was no significant association between age and prevalence of GERD symptoms. Divorced/widowed/separated subjects (OR 4.61; 95% CI, 2.15%, 9.89%) and subjects with a heavy burden of work (OR 3.43, 95% CI, 1.72%, 6.84%) were significantly more likely to report GERD symptoms. As compared with the general population, subjects with GERD symptoms experienced considerable impairment in quality of life. The prevalence of GERD symptoms in South China was much lower than that reported in Western countries. GERD had a negative impact on quality of life.

  15. Prevalence of dementia in Latin America, India, and China: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Acosta, Isaac; Dewey, Michael E; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, AT; Li, Shuran; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina; Kumar, P Senthil; Valhuerdi, Adolfo; Prince, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Studies have suggested that the prevalence of dementia is lower in developing than in developed regions. We investigated the prevalence and severity of dementia in sites in low-income and middle-income countries according to two definitions of dementia diagnosis. Methods We undertook one-phase cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 years and older (n=14 960) in 11 sites in seven low-income and middle-income countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Dementia diagnosis was made according to the culturally and educationally sensitive 10/66 dementia diagnostic algorithm, which had been prevalidated in 25 Latin American, Asian, and African centres; and by computerised application of the dementia criterion from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). We also compared prevalence of DSM-IV dementia in each of the study sites with that from estimates in European studies. Findings The prevalence of DSM-IV dementia varied widely, from 0·3% (95% CI 0·1–0·5) in rural India to 6·3% (5·0–7·7) in Cuba. After standardisation for age and sex, DSM-IV prevalence in urban Latin American sites was four-fifths of that in Europe (standardised morbidity ratio 80 [95% CI 70–91]), but in China the prevalence was only half (56 [32–91] in rural China), and in India and rural Latin America a quarter or less of the European prevalence (18 [5–34] in rural India). 10/66 dementia prevalence was higher than that of DSM-IV dementia, and more consistent across sites, varying between 5·6% (95% CI 4·2–7·0) in rural China and 11·7% (10·3–13·1) in the Dominican Republic. The validity of the 847 of 1345 cases of 10/66 dementia not confirmed by DSM-IV was supported by high levels of associated disability (mean WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II score 33·7 [SD 28·6]). Interpretation As compared with the 10/66 dementia algorithm, the DSM-IV dementia criterion might underestimate

  16. The Epidemiology of Trachoma in Darfur States and Khartoum State, Sudan: Results of 32 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Balgesa Elkheir; Osman, Kamal Hashim; Macleod, Colin; Hassan, Awad; Bush, Simon; Dejene, Michael; Willis, Rebecca; Chu, Brian; Courtright, Paul; Solomon, Anthony W

    2016-12-01

    To complete the baseline trachoma map of Sudan by estimating the prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors in the five Darfur States and Khartoum State. Using a standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we undertook a cross sectional, community-based survey in each of 32 evaluation units (EUs) covering all accessible districts. We enumerated a total of 84,568 individuals, with 73,489 people (86.9%) examined from 20,242 households in 908 villages. The highest prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) in children was found in El Fashir district (18.7%), and the lowest in El Malha district (0.0%). Five districts (El Fashir, Zalinji, Azoom, Maleet, and El Koma) were in the three EUs that had TF prevalences above the 10% threshold at which the World Health Organization recommends mass treatment with azithromycin, together with facial clean3liness and environmental improvement interventions, for at least 3 years. The highest trachomatous trichiasis prevalence in adults was found in the EU composed of Forbranga and Habillah (1.2%), and the lowest in the EU composed of As-salam and Belale districts in South Darfur (0.0%). TF in children was independently associated with younger age, unimproved sanitation in the household, having ≥5 children in the household, outside annual maximum temperatures Darfur, but in general the prevalence throughout Darfur and Khartoum was low.

  17. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

  18. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  19. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  20. The Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in San Francisco County, California: The California Lupus Surveillance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Era, Maria; Cisternas, Miriam G; Snipes, Kurt; Herrinton, Lisa J; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G

    2017-10-01

    Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the US have varied widely. The purpose of this study was to conduct the California Lupus Surveillance Project (CLSP) to determine credible estimates of SLE incidence and prevalence, with a special focus on Hispanics and Asians. The CLSP, which is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a population-based registry of individuals with SLE residing in San Francisco County, CA, from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Data sources included hospitals, rheumatologists, nephrologists, commercial laboratories, and a state hospital discharge database. We abstracted medical records to ascertain SLE cases, which we defined as patients who met ≥4 of the 11 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE. We estimated crude and age-standardized incidence and prevalence, which were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. The overall age-standardized annual incidence rate was 4.6 per 100,000 person-years. The average annual period prevalence was 84.8 per 100,000 persons. The age-standardized incidence rate in women and men was 8.6 and 0.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. This rate was highest among black women (30.5), followed by Hispanic women (8.9), Asian women (7.2), and white women (5.3). The age-standardized prevalence in women per 100,000 persons was 458.1 in blacks, 177.9 in Hispanics, 149.7 in Asians, and 109.8 in whites. Capture-recapture modeling estimated 33 additional incident cases and 147 additional prevalent cases. Comprehensive methods that include intensive case-finding provide more credible estimates of SLE in Hispanics and Asians, and confirm racial and ethnic disparities in SLE. The disease burden of SLE is highest in black women, followed by Hispanic women, Asian women, and white women. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. The incidence rate of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy: a nationwide population-based Danish cohort study 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, A.M.; Lohse, N.; Obel, N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newer antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV carry a lower risk of inducing drug resistance mutations. We estimated changes in incidence rates (IRs) of new mutations in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Population-based data...... were obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish HIV Sequence Database. We included treatment-naive patients initiating HAART after December 1997 and computed time to first drug resistance mutation, identified as new mutations detected within 1 year after a 60-day period of treatment.......077). The IR of PI resistance decreased from 7.5 (1.4-21.8) in 1999 to 2.9 (0.7-11.4) in 2002-2003 (P=0.148). The IRs were low for specific resistance mutations, except for M184V (IR 5.6 [4.0-7.9]) and K103N (IR 8.2 [5.6-12.0]). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acquired drug resistance has decreased among HIV...

  2. The use of Chinese herbal medicine as an adjuvant therapy to reduce incidence of chronic hepatitis in colon cancer patients: A Taiwanese population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsai-Hui; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Hen-Hong; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2017-04-18

    There is a decided lack of in-depth studies to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant therapy on the incidence of chronic hepatitis in patients with colon cancer. The aim of this study is to assess whether CHM treatment decreased the incidence of chronic hepatitis in colon cancer patients who received conventional Western medical treatment. A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study of colon cancer patients receiving Western medicine treatment in conjunction with CHM treatment, using data provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database, was conducted. A total of 61676 patients were diagnosed with colon cancer in Taiwan within the defined study period, from 1997 to 2010. After randomly equal matching for age, sex, excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, chronic hepatitis before colon cancer diagnosis date, receiving acupuncture and/or moxibustion and taking CHM for less than 30 days, data from 155 patients were analyzed. Hazard ratios of incidence rate of chronic hepatitis were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products in treating patients with colon cancer. CHM used for patients with colon cancer exhibited significantly decreased incidence rates of chronic hepatitis [hazard ratio (HR)=0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.38-0.74], with multivariate adjustment, compared to those without CHM use. The protective effect of CHM treatment with statistical significance across the stratification of age, gender, co-morbidity and treatment modality was noted. The cumulative incidence of chronic hepatitis was also reduced in patients with colon cancer receiving CHM treatment during a five-year period. In this study, we provide the ten most used single herbs and herbal formulas that were prescribed for patients with colon cancer; moreover, we identify the eight single herbs and five formulas used in CHM treatment which significantly decreased incidence of chronic

  3. Prevalence of cluster headache in the Republic of Georgia: results of a population-based study and methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Z; Dzagnidze, A; Kukava, M

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the general-population prevalence of cluster headache in the Republic of Georgia and discuss the advantages and challenges of different methodological approaches. In a community-based survey, specially trained medical residents visited 500 adjacent households in the capital...... with possible cluster headache, who were then personally interviewed by one of two headache-experienced neurologists. Cluster headache was confirmed in one subject. The prevalence of cluster headache was therefore estimated to be 87/100,000 (95% confidence interval

  4. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  5. Prevalence of Depressive Disorder in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: A National Population-Based Cohort Study 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Jiang, He-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Huang, Chun-Jen

    Diabetes mellitus, a chronic and disabling disease, is epidemic worldwide. Depressive disorder affects the productivity of workers and leads to disability. This study investigated the prevalence of depressive disorder among persons with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. We extracted service claims data for subjects who had at least 2 ambulatory care service claims or 1 inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and at least 1 ambulatory or inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. From 2000-2010, the prevalence of depressive disorder increased from 3.50-4.07% in people with type 2 diabetes, and from 1.05-2.27% in the general population. The higher prevalence of depressive disorder in persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with being female; residence in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan; residence in urban areas; the comorbidities of hemiplegia or paraplegia, cerebrovascular disease, and anxiety disorder; Charlson Comorbidity Index scores ≥1; diabetes duration >9 years; and the use of rapid-acting insulin injection therapy. The prevalence of depressive disorder is higher among persons with type 2 diabetes than the general population. Consequently, more public health attention should be devoted to the prevention and treatment of this debilitating disease in persons with type 2 diabetes, especially those with the earlier mentioned risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A.; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the

  7. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands : A 30-year population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other

  8. Age-specific symptom prevalence in women 35–64 years old: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedel Hans

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom prevalence is generally believed to increase with age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the age specific prevalence of 30 general symptoms among Swedish middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional postal questionnaire study in seven Swedish counties in a random sample of 4,200 women 35–64 years old, with 2,991 responders. Thirty general symptoms included in the Complaint Score subscale of the Gothenburg Quality of Life Instrument were used. Results Four groups of age specific prevalence patterns were identified after adjustment for the influence of educational level, perceived health and mood, body mass index, smoking habits, use of hormone replacement therapy, and use of other symptom relieving therapy. Only five symptoms (insomnia, leg pain, joint pain, eye problems and impaired hearing increased significantly with age. Eleven symptoms (general fatigue, headache, irritability, melancholy, backache, exhaustion, feels cold, cries easily, abdominal pain, dizziness, and nausea decreased significantly with age. Two symptoms (sweating and impaired concentration had a biphasic course with a significant increase followed by a significant decrease. The remaining twelve symptoms (difficulty in relaxing, restlessness, overweight, coughing, breathlessness, diarrhoea, chest pain, constipation, nervousness, poor appetite, weight loss, and difficulty in urinating had stable prevalence with age. Conclusion Symptoms did not necessarily increase with age instead symptoms related to stress-tension-depression decreased.

  9. The incidence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in a population-based cohort study of people age 50 years and over in Nakuru, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Wing, Kevin; Bastawrous, Madeleine; Rono, Hillary; Weiss, Helen A; Macleod, David; Foster, Allen; Peto, Tunde; Blows, Peter; Burton, Matthew; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-03-23

    The epidemic rise of diabetes carries major negative public health and economic consequences particularly for low and middle-income countries. The highest predicted percentage growth in diabetes is in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region where to date there has been no data on the incidence of diabetic retinopathy from population-based cohort studies and minimal data on incident diabetes. The primary aims of this study were to estimate the cumulative six-year incidence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and DR (Diabetic Retinopathy), respectively, among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya. Random cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size were used to select a representative cross-sectional sample of adults aged ≥50 years in 2007-8 in Nakuru District, Kenya. A six-year follow-up was undertaken in 2013-14. On both occasions a comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed including LogMAR visual acuity, digital retinal photography and independent grading of images. Data were collected on general health and risk factors. The primary outcomes were the incidence of diabetes mellitus and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy, which were calculated by dividing the number of events identified at 6-year follow-up by the number of people at risk at the beginning of follow-up. Age-adjusted risk ratios of the outcomes (DM and DR respectively) were estimated for each covariate using a Poisson regression model with robust error variance to allow for the clustered design and including inverse-probability weighting. At baseline, 4414 participants aged ≥50 years underwent complete examination. Of the 4104 non-diabetic participants, 2059 were followed-up at six-years (50 · 2%). The cumulative incidence of DM was estimated at 61 · 0 per 1000 (95% CI: 50 · 3-73 · 7) in people aged ≥50 years. The cumulative incidence of DR in the sample population was estimated at 15 · 8 per 1000 (95% CI: 9 · 5-26 · 3) among those without DM at baseline

  10. Prevalence of Fibromyalgia: A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, Utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Lahr, Brian D; Wolfe, Frederick; Clauw, Daniel J; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Barton, Debra L; St Sauver, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to estimate and compare the prevalence of fibromyalgia by two different methods, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Methods The first method was a retrospective review of medical records of potential cases of fibromyalgia in Olmsted County using Rochester Epidemiology Project (from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009) to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia in clinical practice. The second method was a random survey of adults in Olmsted County using the fibromyalgia research survey criteria to estimate the percentage of responders who met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Results Of the 3,410 potential patients identified by the first method, 1,115 had a fibromyalgia diagnosis documented in the medical record by a health care provider. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia by this method was 1.1%. By the second method, of the 2,994 people who received the survey by mail, 830 (27.6%) responded and 44 (5.3%) met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population of Olmsted County by this method was estimated at 6.4%. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the rate at which fibromyalgia is being diagnosed in a community. This is also the first report of prevalence as assessed by the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Our results suggest that patients, particularly men, who meet the fibromyalgia research survey criteria are unlikely to have been given a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. PMID:23203795

  11. Estimating micro area behavioural risk factor prevalence from large population-based surveys: a full Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seliske

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important public health goal is to decrease the prevalence of key behavioural risk factors, such as tobacco use and obesity. Survey information is often available at the regional level, but heterogeneity within large geographic regions cannot be assessed. Advanced spatial analysis techniques are demonstrated to produce sensible micro area estimates of behavioural risk factors that enable identification of areas with high prevalence. Methods A spatial Bayesian hierarchical model was used to estimate the micro area prevalence of current smoking and excess bodyweight for the Erie-St. Clair region in southwestern Ontario. Estimates were mapped for male and female respondents of five cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS. The micro areas were 2006 Census Dissemination Areas, with an average population of 400–700 people. Two individual-level models were specified: one controlled for survey cycle and age group (model 1, and one controlled for survey cycle, age group and micro area median household income (model 2. Post-stratification was used to derive micro area behavioural risk factor estimates weighted to the population structure. SaTScan analyses were conducted on the granular, postal-code level CCHS data to corroborate findings of elevated prevalence. Results Current smoking was elevated in two urban areas for both sexes (Sarnia and Windsor, and an additional small community (Chatham for males only. Areas of excess bodyweight were prevalent in an urban core (Windsor among males, but not females. Precision of the posterior post-stratified current smoking estimates was improved in model 2, as indicated by narrower credible intervals and a lower coefficient of variation. For excess bodyweight, both models had similar precision. Aggregation of the micro area estimates to CCHS design-based estimates validated the findings. Conclusions This is among the first studies to apply a full Bayesian model to complex

  12. Leg length, skull circumference, and the incidence of dementia in Latin America and China: A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Dewey, Michael E; Guerchet, Maelenn M; Liu, Zhaorui; Llibre Guerra, Jorge J; Prina, A Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. Cross-sectional studies indicate inverse associations with dementia risk, but there have been few prospective studies. Population-based cohort studies in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken, with ascertainment of incident dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. Of the original at risk cohort of 13,587 persons aged 65 years and over, 2,443 (18.0%) were lost to follow-up; 10,540 persons with skull circumference assessments were followed up for 40,466 person years, and 10,400 with leg length assessments were followed up for 39,954 person years. There were 1,009 cases of incident dementia, and 1,605 dementia free deaths. The fixed effect pooled meta-analysed adjusted subhazard ratio (ASHR) for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.66-0.97) and for skull circumference was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.84-1.25), with no heterogeneity of effect between sites (I2 = 0%). Leg length measurements tended to be shorter at follow-up, particularly for those with baseline cognitive impairment and dementia. However, leg length change was not associated with dementia incidence (ASHR, per cm 1.006, 95% CI 0.992-1.020), and the effect of leg length was little altered after adjusting for baseline frailty (ASHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-0.99). A priori hypotheses regarding effect modification by gender or educational level were not supported. However, the effect of skull circumference was modified by gender (M vs F ASHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98), but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized with a greater protective effect of larger skull dimensions in men. Consistent findings across settings provide quite strong support for an

  13. Population-based incidence and comparative demographics of community-associated and healthcare-associated Escherichia coli bloodstream infection in Auckland, New Zealand, 2005 – 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is a major human pathogen, both in community and healthcare settings. To date however, relatively few studies have defined the population burden of E. coli bloodstream infections. Such information is important in informing strategies around treatment and prevention of these serious infections. Against this background, we performed a retrospective, population-based observational study of all cases of E. coli bacteremia in patients presenting to our hospital between January 2005 and December 2011. Methods Auckland District Health Board is a tertiary-level, university-affiliated institution serving a population of approximately 500,000, within a larger metropolitan population of 1.4 million. We identified all patients with an episode of bloodstream infection due to E. coli over the study period. A unique episode was defined as the first positive E. coli blood culture taken from the same patient within a thirty-day period. Standard definitions were used to classify episodes into community- or healthcare-associated E. coli bacteremia. Demographic information was obtained for all patients, including: age; gender; ethnicity; length of stay (days); requirement for intensive care admission and all-cause, in-patient mortality. Results A total of 1507 patients had a unique episode of E. coli bacteremia over the study period. The overall average annual incidence of E. coli bacteremia was 52 per 100,000 population, and was highest in the under one year and over 65-year age groups. When stratified by ethnicity, rates were highest in Pacific Peoples and Māori (83 and 62 per 100,000 population respectively). The incidence of community-onset E. coli bacteremia increased significantly over the study period. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 9% (135/1507), and was significantly higher in patients who had a hospital-onset E. coli bacteremia. Conclusions Our work provides valuable baseline data on the incidence of E. coli bacteremia in our locale

  14. Population-based incidence and comparative demographics of community-associated and healthcare-associated Escherichia coli bloodstream infection in Auckland, New Zealand, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deborah A; Lim, Alwin; Wiles, Siouxsie; Roberts, Sally A; Freeman, Joshua T

    2013-08-21

    Escherichia coli is a major human pathogen, both in community and healthcare settings. To date however, relatively few studies have defined the population burden of E. coli bloodstream infections. Such information is important in informing strategies around treatment and prevention of these serious infections. Against this background, we performed a retrospective, population-based observational study of all cases of E. coli bacteremia in patients presenting to our hospital between January 2005 and December 2011. Auckland District Health Board is a tertiary-level, university-affiliated institution serving a population of approximately 500,000, within a larger metropolitan population of 1.4 million. We identified all patients with an episode of bloodstream infection due to E. coli over the study period. A unique episode was defined as the first positive E. coli blood culture taken from the same patient within a thirty-day period. Standard definitions were used to classify episodes into community- or healthcare-associated E. coli bacteremia. Demographic information was obtained for all patients, including: age; gender; ethnicity; length of stay (days); requirement for intensive care admission and all-cause, in-patient mortality. A total of 1507 patients had a unique episode of E. coli bacteremia over the study period. The overall average annual incidence of E. coli bacteremia was 52 per 100,000 population, and was highest in the under one year and over 65-year age groups. When stratified by ethnicity, rates were highest in Pacific Peoples and Māori (83 and 62 per 100,000 population respectively). The incidence of community-onset E. coli bacteremia increased significantly over the study period. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 9% (135/1507), and was significantly higher in patients who had a hospital-onset E. coli bacteremia. Our work provides valuable baseline data on the incidence of E. coli bacteremia in our locale. The incidence was higher that that

  15. Past History of Ocular Trauma in an Iranian Population-Based Study: Prevalence and its Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Mohazzab-Torabi, Saman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of a history of ocular trauma and its association to age, sex, and biometric components. Materials and Methods: Residents of Shahroud, Iran aged 40–64 years, were sampled through a cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling. Three hundred clusters were randomly selected, and 20 individuals were systematically selected from each cluster. The subjects underwent optometric and ophthalmic examinations, and ocular imaging. A history of ocular trauma was determined through personal interviews. Results: The prevalence of a history of trauma and blunt trauma, sharp trauma, and chemical burns were 8.57%, 3.91%, 3.82%, and 1.93%, respectively. After adjusting for age, the rate of all types of trauma was significantly higher for males. Only the prevalence of chemical burns significantly decreased with aging. A history of hospitalization was stated by 1.64% of the subjects. The axial length was significantly longer in cases with a history of trauma. The corneal curvature was significantly larger in cases with a history of sharp trauma and chemical burns. The prevalence of corneal opacities was significantly higher among cases with a history of the blunt trauma odds ratio (OR = 2.33) and sharp trauma (OR = 4.46). Based on corrected visual acuity, the odds of blindness was 3.32 times higher in those with a history of ocular trauma (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable proportion of the 40–64-year-old population reported a history of ocular trauma. This observation has important health implications. Blindness, corneal opacities, and posterior subcapsular cataract were observed more frequently among these cases, and they demonstrated differences in some ocular biometric components. PMID:26180480

  16. A population-based study of childhood sexual contact in China: prevalence and long-term consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O

    2008-07-01

    This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in 1999-2000. The data from this survey on both adult-to-child and peer-to-peer sexual contact before age 14 were subjected to descriptive and multivariate analyses that were adjusted for both sampling weights and sampling design. The overall prevalence of reported childhood sexual contact was 4.2%, with prevalence higher among men (5.1%) than among women (3.3%) and higher among those aged 20-29 years (8.3%). Childhood sexual contact was associated with multiplex consequences, including hyper-sexuality (high levels of masturbation, thoughts about sex, varieties of sexual practices, partner turnover), adult sexual victimization (unwanted sex, unwanted sexual acts, sexual harassment), sexual difficulties (genitor-urinary symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunctions), and psychological distress. Psychological distress was largely mediated by adult sexual victimization, sexual difficulties, and hyper-sexuality. Despite the relatively modest prevalence of childhood sexual contact among Chinese adults, the association with multiplex adult outcomes suggests that much as in the West early sexual contact is a significant issue. The findings underscore the importance of public education about childhood sexual contact and abuse in China. The findings suggest a need for public health campaigns that tackle the stigma associated with being abused and encourage victims to report abusive behavior to proper sources. The findings are also consistent with new efforts to alleviate the negative long-term impact of childhood sexual abuse.

  17. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  18. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streel, Sylvie; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Hoge, Axelle; Majerus, Sven; Kolh, Philippe; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20-69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010-2012). A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves "financially in need." Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups.

  19. Prevalence of Immediate-Type Food Allergy in Korean Schoolchildren in 2015: A Nationwide, Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Lee, Ji Young; Jeon, Hyun Young; Yang, Hea Kyoung; Lee, Kee Jae; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate-type food allergy (FA) among schoolchildren in Korea. A nationwide, cross-sectional study was performed in September 2015. A stratified random sample of 50,000 participants was selected from children and adolescents aged 6-7 years (n=17,500), 9-10 years (n=17,500), 12-13 years (n=7,500), and 15-16 years (n=7,500). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on the detailed history of immediate-type FA. A total of 32,001 (64.0%) responded to the questionnaire survey, and 29,842 children (59.7%) were analyzed after adjusting for missing data. The number of the cases in each age group was 9,671 (6-7 years), 9,756 (9-10 years), 5,169 (12-13 years), and 5,246 (15-16 years). The prevalence of lifetime perceived FA was 15.82%. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA was 4.06% in total, with 3.15% in 6- to 7-year-olds, 4.51% in 9- to 10-year-olds, 4.01% in 12- to 13-year-olds, and 4.49% in 15- to 16-year-olds. Among individual food items, peanut (0.22%) was the most frequent causative food, followed by hen's egg (0.21%), cow's milk (0.18%), and buckwheat (0.13%). Among the food groups, fruits (1.41%), crustaceans (0.84%), tree nuts (0.32%), and fish (0.32%) were the most common offending foods. The prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis was 0.97%. The most frequent causative food of anaphylaxis was peanut (0.08%), followed by cow's milk (0.07%), buckwheat (0.06%), and hen's egg (0.06%), while fruits (0.28%), crustaceans (0.18%), tree nuts (0.12%), and fish (0.09%) were the most commonly responsible food groups. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA and food-induced anaphylaxis in Korean schoolchildren in 2015 was 4.06% and 0.97%, respectively. Peanuts, cow's milk, hen's egg, fruits, crustaceans, and tree nuts are common allergens. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  20. Copeptin is associated with kidney length, renal function, and prevalence of simple cysts in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (β=-2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.3 to -0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (β=-1.2; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (β=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (β=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in northeast China: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Liang; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Xing, Ying-Qi; Wu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Hao-Yuan; Yang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension has been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to analyze the current prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in northeast China. This cross-sectional survey adopted the multistage stratified random cluster sampling method to obtain a representative sample of adults aged 40 years or older in the general population of northeast China. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg, or self-reported use of antihypertensive medications in the last 2 weeks irrespective of BP. Altogether 4052 participants were included with weighted prevalence of hypertension of 57.3%. Among them, 47.4% were aware of their condition; 78.8% took antihypertensive medication, but only 10.2% had their blood pressure controlled. Individuals who were overweight/obesity, with dyslipidemia, or diabetes were at a higher risk of hypertension; these people also more likely to be aware of their condition. Subjects with a personal history of stroke were more inclined to receive antihypertensive medication, but that did not necessarily translate to well-controlled hypertension. Moreover, dyslipidemia (OR = 0.600; 95% CI: 0.375, 0.960) were associated with poor hypertension control. Subjects using combination of antihypertensive medications (OR = 2.924; 95% CI: 1.606, 5.325) or with a family history of coronary heart disease were more likely to have their blood pressure controlled. Our study identified a high prevalence of hypertension in northeast China. Although awareness and treatment rates improved over the last decade, the control rate remained disproportionately and unacceptably low.

  2. Depression and anxiety among migrants in Austria: a population based study of prevalence and utilization of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkenaar, Marlies M E; Maier, Manfred; Kutalek, Ruth; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Ristl, Robin; Pichlhöfer, Otto

    2013-10-01

    Although migrants form a large part of the Austrian population, information about mental health of migrants in Austria is scarce. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of dysphoric disorders (depression and anxiety) and the corresponding utilization of health care services of Eastern European, western and other migrants with the non-migrant population in Austria. We performed a telephone survey on a random sample of the general population of Austria aged 15 years and older (n=3509) between October 2010 and September 2011. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and utilization of health care services in the last 4 weeks was inquired. 15.0% of our sample had a migration background. Female migrants from Eastern Europe, first and second generation, had a higher prevalence of dysphoric disorders (29.7% and 33.4% respectively) than Austrian women (15.2%) (p<0.001). The prevalence in the other migrant groups did not differ significantly from the Austrian population. There was no gender difference in dysphoric disorders in the Austrian population. After adjustment for age and chronic diseases, having a dysphoric disorder was associated with a higher utilization of health care services among migrant and Austrian women, but not among men. Because of the explorative nature of the study multiple testing correction was not performed. The reason for health care utilization was not assessed. Mental health of female migrants from Eastern Europe should be studied in more detail; men could be an underserved group, both in migrants and Austrians. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: a population-based study.

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    Glaesmer, H; Riedel-Heller, S; Braehler, E; Spangenberg, L; Luppa, M

    2011-10-01

    Information on the prevalence and risk factors for depressive disorders in old age is of considerable interest for the assessment of future needs of the health care system. The aim of the study is to determine age- and gender-specific prevalence of major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD), and depressive symptoms, and to analyze risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. A representative sample of the German population of 1,659 individuals aged 60 to 85 years were visited at home and answered self-rating questionnaires. Depressive symptoms and syndromes (MD, MiD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were determined with linear regression models for the total sample and for men and women separately. Depressive symptoms were found in 28.7% of the participants, while 6.6% were affected by MD or MiD. The highest prevalence of MD and depressive symptoms was found in the oldest age groups. MiD showed an unsteady course across age groups in both sexes. In the total sample as well as in the male subsample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increasing age, lower household income, an increasing number of medical conditions, and lower social support. In women only, the number of medical conditions and lacking social support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are common in old age and occur on a spectrum ranging from very mild forms to MD. The potential modifiability of a number of risk factors for depressive symptoms opens possibilities of secondary prevention such as treatment of chronic diseases as well as support in requirements of daily living.

  4. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

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    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  5. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-07-01

    Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the 'gold standard'). Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005-2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005-2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical information and variation in case ascertainment across population subgroups are

  6. Prevalence of Immediate-Type Food Allergy in Korean Schoolchildren in 2015: A Nationwide, Population-based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Minji; Lee, Ji Young; Jeon, Hyun-young; Yang, Hea-kyoung; Lee, Kee-Jae; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate-type food allergy (FA) among schoolchildren in Korea. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional study was performed in September 2015. A stratified random sample of 50,000 participants was selected from children and adolescents aged 6-7 years (n=17,500), 9-10 years (n=17,500), 12-13 years (n=7,500), and 15-16 years (n=7,500). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on the detailed history of immediate-type FA. Results A tota...

  7. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the...... currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.246....

  8. Prevalence of Untreated Surgical Conditions in Rural Rwanda: A Population-Based Cross-sectional Study in Burera District.

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    Maine, Rebecca G; Linden, Allison F; Riviello, Robert; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mody, Gita N; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Kansayisa, Grace; Ntaganda, Edmond; Niyonkuru, Francine; Mubiligi, Joel M; Mpunga, Tharcisse; Meara, John G; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2017-12-20

    In low- and middle-income countries, community-level surgical epidemiology is largely undefined. Accurate community-level surgical epidemiology is necessary for surgical health systems planning. To determine the prevalence of surgical conditions in Burera District, Northern Province, Rwanda. A cross-sectional study with a 2-stage cluster sample design (at village and household level) was carried out in Burera District in March and May 2012. A team of surgeons randomly sampled 30 villages with probability proportionate to village population size, then sampled 23 households within each village. All available household members were examined. The presence of 10 index surgical conditions (injuries/wounds, hernias/hydroceles, breast masses, neck masses, obstetric fistulas, undescended testes, hypospadias, hydrocephalus, cleft lip/palate, and clubfoot) was determined by physical examination. Prevalence was estimated overall and for each condition. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with surgical conditions, accounting for the complex survey design. Of the 2165 examined individuals, 1215 (56.2%) were female. The prevalence of any surgical condition among all examined individuals was 12% (95% CI, 9.2-14.9%). Half of conditions were hernias/hydroceles (49.6%), and 44% were injuries/wounds. In multivariable analysis, children 5 years or younger had twice the odds of having a surgical condition compared with married individuals 21 to 35 years of age (reference group) (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.26-4.04; P = .01). The oldest group, people older than 50 years, also had twice the odds of having a surgical condition compared with the reference group (married, aged >50 years: OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.28-4.23; P = .01; unmarried, aged >50 years: OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.02-5.52; P = .06). Unmarried individuals 21 to 35 years of age and unmarried individuals aged 36 to 50 years had higher odds of a surgical condition compared with the

  9. Population-based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in an urban slum in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

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    Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (Pslums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention.

  10. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakouris, Nikos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ordovas, Jose M; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors (ConvRFs), including smoking, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), body mass index (BMI), physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Design A case–control study. Setting The general Greek population of the EPIC study. Participants and outcome measures 477 patients with medically confirmed incident CHD and 1271 controls participated in this study. We estimated the ORs for CHD by dividing participants at higher or lower GRS and, alternatively, at higher or lower ConvRF, and calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) as a measure of deviation from additivity. Results The joint presence of higher GRS and higher risk ConvRF was in all instances associated with an increased risk of CHD, compared with the joint presence of lower GRS and lower risk ConvRF. The OR (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4) for smoking, 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8) for hypertension, 4.1 (2.8 to 6.1) for T2DM, 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) for lower physical activity, 2.0 (1.3 to 3.2) for high BMI and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In all instances, RERI values were fairly small and not statistically significant, suggesting that the GRS and the ConvRFs do not have effects beyond additivity. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to CHD, operationalised through a multilocus GRS, and ConvRFs have essentially additive effects on CHD risk. PMID:24500614

  11. Shift work and the incidence of prostate cancer: a 10-year follow-up of a German population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Thomas; Rabstein, Sylvia; Wichert, Katharina; Erbel, Raimund; Eisele, Lewin; Arendt, Marina; Dragano, Nico; Brüning, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-11-01

    Objectives We investigated the association of shift and night work with the incidence of prostate cancer using data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study from the highly industrialized Ruhr area in Germany. Methods Participants of the baseline survey were recruited between 2000-2003. A follow-up survey including, a detailed interview on shift and night work, was conducted from 2011-2014. We included 1757 men who did not report a history of prostate cancer at baseline. We assessed shift- and night-work exposure up to time of the baseline interview. Incident prostate cancers were recorded from baseline through September 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) of shift- and night-work exposure using Cox proportional hazards regression with age at event as timescale, adjusting for smoking status, family history of prostate cancer, education (≤13, 14-17, ≥18 years), and equivalent income (low, medium, high). Results We observed a twofold increased HR for prostate cancer among shift and night workers. Ever employment in shift work was associated with HR 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-3.67 and night work with HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42-3.64. HR increased steadily with duration of employment in shift or night work. Stratifying analyses by preferred midpoint of sleep, yielded strongly elevated HR among subjects with early sleep preference, although these analyses were limited by small number of cases. Conclusions We identified increased risks for prostate cancer among men with employment in shift or night work. HR were strongly elevated among long-term employed shift workers and men with early preferred midpoint of sleep.

  12. Trends in incidence of diabetes in pregnancy and serious perinatal outcomes: a large, population-based study in Ontario, Canada, 1996-2010.

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    Feig, Denice S; Hwee, Jeremiah; Shah, Baiju R; Booth, Giliian L; Bierman, Arlene S; Lipscombe, Lorraine L

    2014-06-01

    Women with diabetes in pregnancy have high rates of pregnancy complications. Our aims were to explore trends in the incidence of diabetes in pregnancy and examine whether the risk of serious perinatal outcomes has changed. We performed a population-based cohort study of 1,109,605 women who delivered in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2010. We categorized women as gestational diabetes (GDM) (n = 45,384), pregestational diabetes (pre-GDM) (n = 13,278), or no diabetes (n = 1,050,943). The annual age-adjusted rates of diabetes in pregnancy were calculated, and rates of serious perinatal outcomes were compared between groups and by year using Poisson regression. The age-adjusted rate of both GDM (2.7-5.6%, P women with no diabetes, women with pre-GDM and GDM faced an increased risk of congenital anomalies (relative risk 1.86 [95% CI 1.49-2.33] and 1.26 [1.09-1.45], respectively), and perinatal mortality remained elevated in women with pre-GDM (2.33 [1.59-3.43]). The incidence of both GDM and pre-GDM in pregnancy has doubled over the last 14 years, and the overall burden of diabetes in pregnancy on society is growing. Although congenital anomaly rates have declined in women with diabetes, perinatal mortality rates remain unchanged, and the risk of both remains significantly elevated compared with nondiabetic women. Increased efforts are needed to reduce these adverse outcomes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori, and incidence of hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer over 28 years in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Susan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Rosenstock, Steffen; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30-60, in 1982-3. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration were determined at baseline; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug use, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and alcohol consumption both at baseline and in 1993-4. Hospital diagnoses of incident ulcer through 2011 were detected using the Danish National Patient Registry. Ulcers were diagnosed in 166 subjects, including 83 complicated by bleeding or perforation. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted associations were significant for mental vulnerability (Hazard Ratio (HR) 2.0, 95% Confidence Interval 1.4-2.8), Helicobacter pylori (HR 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3), smoking (HR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1), heavy drinking (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.4), abstinence (HR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.5), non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (HR 2.1, CI 1.5-3.0), and sedentary lifestyle (HR 1.9, CI 1.4-2.7). Adjusted for all behavioral mediators, the HR for mental vulnerability was 1.5 (CI 1.0-2.2, p = .04). Mental vulnerability raised risk in Helicobacter pylori seropositive subjects and those exposed to neither Helicobacter pylori nor non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs; its impact was virtually unchanged when analysis was limited to complicated ulcers. A vulnerable personality raises risk for hospital-diagnosed peptic ulcer, in part because of an association with health risk behaviors. Its impact is seen in 'idiopathic' and Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcers, and in acute surgical cases.

  14. Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey

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    Nsakashalo-Senkwe Mutale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs, such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%, and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%. The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92] for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23] for 45 + years age group. Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57 (95%CI [1.44, 4.57]. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age

  15. Incidence of low- and high-energy fractures in persons with and without HIV-infection: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit E; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    significantly increased after HAART-exposure, IRR of 1.8 (95% CI; 1.5-2.1). The increased risk in HAART-exposed patients was not associated with CD4 cell count, prior AIDS, tenofovir or efavirenz exposure, but with comorbidity and smoking. CONCLUSIONS:: HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture......OBJECTIVE:: To compare fracture risk in persons with and without HIV-infection and to examine the influence of HAART initiation on risk of fracture. DESIGN:: Population-based nationwide cohort study using Danish registries. METHODS:: Outcome measures were time to first fracture at any site, time...... to first low-energy and high-energy fracture in HIV-infected patients (n¿=¿5,306) compared with a general population control cohort (n¿=¿26,530) matched by sex and age during the study period 1995 to 2009. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS:: HIV-infected...

  16. A population-based study of the prevalence of HPV in three districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Belli T; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Das, Bhudev C; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection among women from three districts of Tamil Nadu (Erode, Salem, and Namakkal). Between January 27, 2007, and December 15, 2009, 1800 women aged 20-70years who had normal cervical cytology were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. Participants completed interviews and provided first void urine samples for assessment of HPV infection. Among 1699 eligible samples, 179 (10.5%) were HPV positive. HPV16 was the most common type (affecting 68 [4.0%] women), followed by HPV6 (58 [3.4%]). Among the 179 HPV-positive women, 71 (39.7%) were aged 36-45years. An annual income of less than 25 000 INR was significantly associated with HPV infection in all three districts (PTamil Nadu. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of diabetic retinopathy in a population-based survey of older people in Nakuru, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, Wanjiku; Bastawrous, Andrew; Peto, Tunde; Leung, Irene; Yorston, David; Foster, Allen; Kuper, Hannah

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among people aged ≥ 50 years in Nakuru, Kenya. Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was used to select 100 clusters of 50 people aged ≥ 50 years during 2007-2008. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Participants underwent dilated slit lamp biomicroscopy (SLB) by an ophthalmologist and digital retinal photography. Images were graded for DR at the Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre, UK. Diagnosis of DR was based on retinal images where available, otherwise on SLB. Anthropometric measures, including random glucose, and lifestyle factors were measured. We examined 4414 adults (response rate 88.1%), of whom 287 had diabetes. A total of 277 of these were screened for DR by SLB, and 195 also underwent retinal photography. The prevalence of any DR diagnosed by retinal images among diabetics was 35.9% (95% confidence interval, CI, 29.7-42.6%). The most common grade of DR was mild/moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR; 22.1%, 95% CI 16.1-29.4%), while severe NPDR and proliferative DR were less frequent (13.9%, 95% CI 10.0-18.8%). SLB significantly underdiagnosed DR compared to retinal photography, particularly for milder grades. Of 87 individuals with DR, 23 had visual impairment (visual acuity <6/12). DR was associated with younger age, male sex, duration and control of diabetes, and treatment compliance. Coverage of photocoagulation in those needing immediate laser was low (25%). DR remains a threat to sight in people with diabetes in this elderly Kenyan population. Screening diabetics may enable those requiring treatment to be identified in time to preserve their sight.

  18. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status.METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934, conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more was measured using a numerical scale (0-10 and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor. For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%, Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%.RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%:49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5% and lumbar region (29.5%; with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001 a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0, a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7, joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1 and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0. A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001.CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population.

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iranian professional drivers: results from a population based study of 12,138 men.

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    Iraj Mohebbi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is evident that professional driving is associated with substantial changes in lifestyle habits. Professional drivers are prone to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its complications because their working environment is characterized by numerous stress factors such as lack of physical activity due to working in a fixed position, disruption in diet, and irregular sleep habits. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of MetS among long distance drivers residing in West Azerbaijan province in Iran. MATERIALS: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among professional long distance drivers, 12138 participants were enrolled in this cross sectional study. The MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. RESULTS: Among 12138 participants, 3697 subjects found to be MetS. The crude and age-adjusted rates of MetS were 30.5% and 32.4% respectively. Based on Body mass index (BMI, 5027 subjects (41.4% were overweight (BMI ≥ 25.01-30 kg/m2, and 2592 (21.3% were obese (BMI ≥ 30.01 kg/m2. The presence of central obesity was more common than other components. The associations of MetS with BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences were significant in the logistic regression. By increasing BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences, odds ratio of MetS was increased. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that MetS has become a noteworthy health problem among Iranian long distance drivers. This might be due to the following facts: sitting in a fixed position for long hours while working, cigarette smoking, job stress, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyle and also for early detection and appropriate interventions.

  20. The Prevalence and Correlates of Frailty in Urban and Rural Populations in Latin America, China, and India: A 10/66 Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Prina, A Matthew; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velasquez, Ivonne Z; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, A T; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Prince, Martin J

    2018-04-01

    There have been few cross-national studies of the prevalence of the frailty phenotype conducted among low or middle income countries. We aimed to study the variation in prevalence and correlates of frailty in rural and urban sites in Latin America, India, and China. Cross-sectional population-based catchment area surveys conducted in 8 urban and 4 rural catchment areas in 8 countries; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India. We assessed weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low energy consumption, but not hand grip strength. Therefore, frailty phenotype was defined on 2 or more of 4 of the usual 5 criteria. We surveyed 17,031 adults aged 65 years and over. Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (95% confidence inteval 14.6%-15.7%). Prevalence was low in rural (5.4%) and urban China (9.1%) and varied between 12.6% and 21.5% in other sites. A similar pattern of variation was apparent after direct standardization for age and sex. Cross-site variation in prevalence of frailty indicators varied across the 4 indicators. Controlling for age, sex, and education, frailty was positively associated with older age, female sex, lower socioeconomic status, physical impairments, stroke, depression, dementia, disability and dependence, and high healthcare costs. There was substantial variation in the prevalence of frailty and its indicators across sites in Latin America, India, and China. Culture and other contextual factors may impact significantly on the assessment of frailty using questionnaire and physical performance-based measures, and achieving cross-cultural measurement invariance remains a challenge. A consistent pattern of correlates was identified, suggesting that in all sites, the frailty screen could identify older adults with multiple physical, mental, and cognitive morbidities, disability and needs for care, compounded by socioeconomic disadvantage and catastrophic healthcare spending. Copyright © 2017. Published

  1. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: A population based study in rural Bangladesh

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    Kabir Zarina N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the associated factors of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS in low-income countries, yet the World Health Organization identifies depressive disorders as the second leading cause of global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their predictors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of rural Bangladeshi pregnant women. Methods The study used cross-sectional data originating from a rural community-based prospective cohort study of 720 randomly selected women in their third trimester of pregnancy from a district of Bangladesh. The validated Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure ADS, and a trait anxiety inventory to assess general anxiety symptoms. Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire at the respondents' homes. Results Prevalence of ADS was 18% and AAS 29%. Women's literacy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.95, poor partner relationship (OR 2.23, 95% CI 3.37-3.62, forced sex (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.75, physical violence by spouse (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80, and previous depression (OR 4.62 95% CI 2.72-7.85 were found to be associated with ADS. The associated factors of AAS were illiteracy, poor household economy, lack of practical support, physical partner violence, violence during pregnancy, and interaction between poor household economy and poor partner relationship. Conclusion Depressive and anxiety symptoms are found to occur commonly during pregnancy in Bangladesh, drawing attention to a need to screen for depression and anxiety during antenatal care. Policies aimed at encouraging practical support during pregnancy, reducing gender-based violence, supporting women with poor partner relationships, and identifying previous depression may ameliorate

  3. Prevalence of sleepiness while driving four-wheel motor vehicles in Fiji: a population-based survey (TRIP 9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Josephine; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Jackson, Rod

    2013-08-01

    Sleepiness has been shown to be a risk factor for road crashes in high-income countries, but has received little attention in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the prevalence of sleepiness and sleep-related disorders among drivers of four-wheel motor vehicles in Fiji. Using a two-stage cluster sampling roadside survey conducted over 12 months, we recruited a representative sample of people driving four-wheel motor vehicles on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire sought self-report information on driver characteristics including sleep-related measures. The 752 motor vehicle drivers recruited (84% response rate) were aged 17-75 years, with most driving in Viti Levu undertaken by male subjects (93%), and those identifying with Indian (70%) and Fijian (22%) ethnic groups. Drivers who reported that they were not fully alert accounted for 17% of driving, while a further 1% of driving was undertaken by those who reported having difficulty staying awake or feeling sleepy. A quarter of the driving time among 15-24-year-olds included driving while sleepy or not fully alert, with a similar proportion driving while chronically sleep deprived (ie, with less than five nights of adequate sleep in the previous week=27%). Driving while acutely or chronically sleep deprived was generally more common among Fijians compared with Indians. Driving while not fully alert is relatively common in Fiji. Sleepiness while driving may be an important contributor to road traffic injuries in this and other low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates from population-based tuberculosis prevalence survey in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Addo, Samuel Ofori; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Mosi, Lydia; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2017-12-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively. Out of 361 isolates, 165 (45.7%) MTBC and 120 (33.2%) NTM (made up of 14 different species) were identified to the species levels whiles 76 (21.1%) could not be completely identified. The MTBC comprised 161 (97.6%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4 (2.4%) Mycobacterium africanum. Isoniazid and rifampicin monoresistant MTBC isolates were 18/165 (10.9%) and 2/165(1.2%) respectively whiles 11/165 (6.7%) were resistant to both drugs. Majority 42/120 (35%) of NTM were M. fortuitum. DST of 28 M. avium complex and 8 M. abscessus complex species revealed that all were susceptible to macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin) and aminoglycosides (kanamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin). Our research signifies an important contribution to TB control in terms of knowledge of the types of mycobacterium species circulating and their drug resistance patterns in Ghana.

  5. Prevalence and causes of ocular morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a population-based survey.

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    Kahaki Kimani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ocular morbidity (OM describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2011. Trained teams moved from house to house examining and questioning residents on ocular morbidity and health-seeking behavior. Data were collected on standardized proformas and entered into a database for analysis. RESULTS: 3,691 people were examined (response rate 91.7%. 15.52% (95% CI 13.86-16.92 had at least one ocular morbidity in at least one eye. The leading cause was presbyopia which affected 25.11% (95% CI 22.05-28.45 of participants over 35 and increased with age. Other leading causes of OM were conditions that affected the lens (32.58% and the conjunctiva (31.31%. No association was found between educational attainment or employment and OM. 9.63% (7.87-11.74 self-reported an ocular morbidity in the previous six months and 45.94% (95% CI 37.1-55.04 stated that they had sought treatment for the condition. CONCLUSION: A large number of people were affected by an ocular morbidity in this survey. Most of these people could potentially be managed in their own communities through primary care services (e.g. those with presbyopia. Further work is required to understand the best way of providing an effective, equitable service for ocular morbidity.

  6. Population-based incidence of Type 2 diabetes and its associated risk factors: results from a six-year cohort study in Iran

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    Saadat Navid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middle East is estimated to have the largest increase in prevalence of diabetes by 2030; yet there is lack of published data on the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in this region. This study aimed to estimate Type 2 diabetes incidence and its associated risk factors in an Iranian urban population. Methods Among 3307 non-diabetics ≥ 20 years (mean age 42 ± 13 years, 42% males, glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline in 1999–2001 and at two consecutive phases in 2001–2005 and 2005–2008. Diabetes and glucose tolerance status were defined according to the ADA 1997 criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent variables associated with incident diabetes and their odds ratios (OR. Results After median follow-up of 6 years, 237 new cases of diabetes were ascertained corresponding to an age and sex standardized cumulative incidence of 6.4% (95%CI: 5.6–7.2 and incidence rate of 10.6 (9.2–12.1 per 1000 person years. Besides classical diabetes risk factors, female sex and low education level significantly increased risk of diabetes in age adjusted models. In full model, the independent predictors were age [OR, 95%CI: 1.2 (1.1–1.3], family history of diabetes [1.8 (1.3–2.5], body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 [2.3 (1.5–3.6], abdominal obesity [1.9 (1.4–2.6], high triglyceride [1.4 (1.1–1.9], Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG [7.4 (3.6–15.0], Isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT [5.9 (4.2–8.4] and combined IFG and IGT [42.2 (23.8–74.9]. Conclusion More than 1% of the Iranian urban population older than 20 years develops Type 2 diabetes each year. Combination of IFG and IGT was the strongest predictor of incident diabetes among the modifiable risk factors.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated to back pain in adults from the northeast of São Paulo, Brazil: a population-based study

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    Alberto De Vitta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Back pain has become a serious public health problem. Objective: To determine the prevalence of back pain in a population-based sample of subjects over 20 years old living in the city of Bauru (São Paulo, Brazil and to analyze the associations to variables- sociodemographic, ergonomic and lifestyle-related - and to morbidity. Methods: a cross-sectional study which evaluated 600 adults over 20 years old, both gender and living in the city. We used a structured protocol and the Nordic questionnaire. Also, we developed a descriptive analysis, bivariate and multivariate by binary logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of back pain was of 50.3% (CI 46.3 to 54.3, since 42.3% (CI 36.9 to 48.0 in men and 57.6% (CI 51.9 to 63.0 in women, with statistical significant difference (p = 0.001. Different variables remained in final models when assessed by gender. For male to be widowed and divorced and smoking habits and, for women to be widowed and divorced, to work in seated position and to perform occupational activities that demand carrying and lifting weight. Conclusion: We verified high prevalence in back pain in the population of Bauru and high association to widowed/divorced in both gender, with women performing occupational activities usually or always in seated position, those who carry or lift weight in work and men who smoke.

  8. [Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Clóvis Arlindo de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household) random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR) expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7) reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years), not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  9. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Colin; Yalen, Chelsea; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C W; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-01-01

    The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  10. Has the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain changed over the last 15 years (1993-2006)? A Spanish population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Silvia; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Ríos-Luna, Antonio; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and time trend of invalidating musculoskeletal pain in the Spanish population and its association with socio-demographic factors, lifestyle habits, self-reported health status, and comorbidity with other diseases analyzing data from 1993-2006 Spanish National Health Surveys (SNHS). We analyzed individualized data taken from the SNHS conducted in 1993 (n = 20,707), 2001 (n = 21,058), 2003 (n = 21,650) and 2006 (n = 29,478). Invalidating musculoskeletal pain was defined as pain suffered from the preceding 2 weeks that decreased main working activity or free-time activity by at least half a day. We analyzed socio-demographic characteristics, self-perceived health status, lifestyle habits, and comorbid conditions using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain in Spanish adults was 6.1% (95% CI, 5.7-6.4) in 1993, 7.3% (95% CI, 6.9-7.7) in 2001, 5.5% (95% CI, 5.1-5.9) in 2003 and 6.4% (95% CI 6-6.8) in 2006. The prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain among women was almost twice that of men in every year (P postural hygiene, physical exercise, and how to prevent obesity and sedentary lifestyle habits should be provided by Public Health Services. This population-based study indicates that invalidating musculoskeletal pain that reduces main working activity is a public health problem in Spain. The prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain was higher in women than in men and associated to lower income, poor sleeping, worse self-reported health status, and other comorbid conditions. Further, the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain increased from 1993 to 2001, but remained stable from the last years (2001 to 2006).

  11. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Macleod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys.We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji.We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18% reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97% individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%. iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation.Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  12. Protein expression profile and prevalence pattern of the molecular classes of breast cancer - a Saudi population based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Tamimi, Dalal M; Shawarby, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Ayesha; Hassan, Ammar K; AlOdaini, Amal A

    2010-01-01

    tumor. Subtyping by use of this immunohistochemical panel revealed a prevalence pattern that is unique to our population; luminal tumors comprised only 19.9%, and the unclassified group (penta negative) 42.8%, a distribution which is distinctive to our population and in contrast with all Western studies. The presence of a predominant unclassified group also suggests that the currently used molecular analytic spectrum may not completely encompass all molecular classes and there is a need to further refine and develop the existing classification systems

  13. Prevalence and nature of anaemia in a prospective, population-based sample of people with diabetes: Teesside anaemia in diabetes (TAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S C; Smith, D; Nag, S; Bilous, M T; Winship, S; Wood, A; Bilous, R W

    2010-06-01

    Anaemia occurs in 25% of people attending hospital diabetes clinics, but this may not be representative of all people with diabetes. We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in a prospective population-based sample stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the 4-point Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. All 7331 patients on our district register were stratified by eGFR. Seven hundred and thirty were approached by letter on two occasions. Two hundred and thirty-four (32%) returned questionnaires and blood samples. Responders (R), non-responders (NR) and the whole cohort (C) were similar: mean +/- sd age R 61.7 +/- 12.7 years; NR 61.3 +/- 15.1 years; C 61.8 +/- 14.2 years; diabetes duration R 8.8 +/- 8.6 years; NR 8.2 +/- 7.9 years; C 7.5 +/- 7.8 years, Type 1 diabetes R 10.1%, NR 10.8%, C 9.4%. Anaemia was defined using World Health Organization criteria: haemoglobin 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Anaemia was as a result of erythropoietin deficiency in 34%, abnormal haematinics in 40% and was unexplained in 26% of patients. Five per cent of the patients had anaemia below the treatment threshold of 11 g/dl. The prevalence of unrecognized anaemia in population-based cohorts is lower than that in hospital-based studies. Current clinical surveillance in the UK is failing to detect anaemia in stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2).

  14. High Prevalence but Insufficient Treatment of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results of a Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Claudia; Liebold, Anne; Takses, Angela; Strauch, Ulrike G.; Obermeier, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Background. Iron-deficiency anemia is described to be a common problem in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is frequently associated with a reduced quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in a population-based cohort at time of first diagnosis and during the early course of the disease. Methods. As far as available, lab values of patients registered in the population-based “Oberpfalz cohort” were screened. In anemic patients, we further investigated all laboratory results to differentiate between iron deficiency and other reasons for anemia. All patients with any kind of anemia were interviewed separately according to symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia and administration of iron. Results. In total, we evaluated hemoglobin values of 279 patients (183 Crohn's disease, 90 ulcerative colitis, and 6 indeterminate colitis). Lab data which allowed further differentiation of the type of anemia were available in 70% of anemic patients, in 34.4% values of iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation had been measured. At time of first diagnosis, an iron-deficiency anemia was diagnosed in 26 of 68 patients with anemia (38.2%, 20 CD, 4 UC, and 2 IC patients), but only 9 patients (34.6%) received subsequent iron therapy. After one year, 27 patients were identified to have an iron-deficiency anemia (19 CD, 8 UC), 20 of them were treated with iron (71.4%). Of 9 patients with proven iron-deficiency anemia at time of first diagnosis and subsequent administration of iron, 5 (55.5%) had iron-deficiency anemia despite permanent treatment after one year. In total, 38 patients (54.3%) did not receive any iron substitution at all despite of proven iron-deficiency anemia, and only 13 patients of 74 patients were treated with intravenous iron (17.6%). Conclusion. We found a high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia at different points during the early course of disease in this population-based cohort of

  15. Prevalence, Incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittchen, H.U.; Becker, E.S.; Lieb, R.; Krause, P.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Despite an abundance of clinical research on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. few epidemiological data provide estimates of the prevalence, incidence, co-morbidity, stability and correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in the community. Aims. To describe the prevalence,

  16. Effect of a culture-based screening algorithm on tuberculosis incidence in immigrants and refugees bound for the United States: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A

    2015-03-17

    Before 2007, immigrants and refugees bound for the United States were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative/culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a culture-based algorithm. To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Immigrants and refugees with TB. Comparison of the increase of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, a total of 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative/culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees bound for the United States by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 to 629. This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Implementation of the culture-based algorithm may have substantially reduced the incidence of TB among newly arrived, foreign-born persons in

  17. Obesity and overweight prevalence and its association with undiagnosed hypertension in Shanghai population, China: a cross-sectional population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Xu, Jiying; Yao, Haihong; Guo, Yanfei; Chen, Minna; Lu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obese subjects in the Shanghai population of China and its association with undiagnosed hypertension, by taking age, gender and place of residence (urban or suburban) into account. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in 2007. The sample included 13,359 participants aged 15-69 years.Weight, height, and blood pressure were recorded, and information about gender, age and place of residence was obtained. Overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated by the body mass index (BMI) definition recommended by Working Group on Obesity in China (normal weight, 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2); overweight, 24-27.9 kg/m(2); obesity, ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Undiagnosed hypertension was defined by China criteria in accord with that of WHO-ISH (subjects with systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of overweight or obesity with undiagnosed hypertension by adjusting for age, gender and place of residence. The overall overweight, obesity, and undiagnosed hypertension prevalence were 27.6% (95% CI: 26.8-28.4), 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2-7.0), and 15.5% (95% CI: 14.9-16.1), respectively. Compared to normal weight subjects, the odds ratios (OR) for subjects who were overweight and had hypertension was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.10-2.59); that for obesity and hypertension was 4.27 (95% CI: 3.66-4.99). These data suggest that overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with undiagnosed hypertension are high in our study population.

  18. Longitudinal Trends in the Prevalence of Detectable HIV Viremia: Population-Based Evidence From Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandormael, Alain; Bärnighausen, Till; Herbeck, Joshua; Tomita, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Tanser, Frank

    2018-04-03

    The prevalence of detectable viremia has previously been used to infer the potential for ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. To date, no study has evaluated the longitudinal change in the prevalence of detectable viremia within the HIV-positive community (PDV+) and the entire population (PDVP) using data from a sub-Saharan African setting. In 2011, 2013, and 2014, we obtained 6752 HIV-positive and 15415 HIV-negative test results from a population-based surveillance system in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. We quantified the PDV+ as the proportion of the 6752 HIV-positive results with a viral load >1550 copies/mL and the PDVP as the proportion of the 6752 HIV-positive and 15415 HIV-negative results with a viral load >1550 copies/mL. Between 2011 and 2014, the PDV+ decreased by 16.5 percentage points (pp) for women (from 71.8% to 55.3%) and 10.6 pp for men (from 77.8% to 67.2%). However, a steady rise in the overall HIV prevalence, from 26.7% to 32.4%, offset the declines in the PDV+ for both sexes. For women, the PDVP decreased by only 2.1 pp, from 21.3% to 19.2%, but for men, the PDVP actually increased by 1.6 pp, from 14.6% to 16.2%, over the survey period. The PDV+, which is currently being tracked under the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, may not be an accurate indicator of the potential for ongoing HIV transmission. There is a critical need for countries to monitor and report the prevalence of detectable viremia among all adults, irrespective of HIV status.

  19. A Population-based Survey of the Prevalence, Potential Risk Factors, and Symptom-specific Bother of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Adult Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe; Li, Zhaoai; Gong, Jian; Liu, Qing; Liu, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are few in China, and none has been conducted nationwide. To estimate the prevalence and potential risk factors of LUTS and the bother they impose on adult women in China. This is the second analysis of a population-based cross-sectional survey on urinary incontinence conducted between February and July 2006 in six regions of China. Cluster samples were randomly selected for interviews. No intervention was implemented. A modified Chinese Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire was administered. The participants were asked about the presence of individual LUTS and rated their symptom bother. Descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and multivariate logistic regressions were used for data analysis. A total of 18 992 respondents (94.96%) were included. The prevalence of any LUTS, storage symptoms, or voiding symptoms was 55.5%, 53.9%, and 12.9%, respectively, and increased with age. Nocturia was the most common symptom (23.4%), followed by urgency (23.3%) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI; 18.9%). Nocturia was most frequently rated as bothersome (93.0%) but was generally minor (80.5%). Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were most frequently reported as severe (11.5% and 10.8%) or moderate (18.5% and 16.8%) bothers. Any LUTS were more prevalent in urban women (57.1% vs 53.9%). Multiple factors increased the odds of bother and individual LUTS, and older age and coexisting pelvic organ prolapse were strong predictors (pfactors influenced bother and individual LUTS. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms is high and increases with age in adult women in China. Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence were most frequently regarded as severe or moderate bothers and should be targeted for medical intervention. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Population-based study of birth prevalence and factors associated with cleft lip and/or palate in Taiwan 2002-2009.

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    Ruoh-Lih Lei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facial cleft deformities, including cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate (CP, are common congenital birth anomalies, especially in Asia. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of CL/P and CP and to identify associated factors in Taiwan. METHODS: This population-based epidemiological study retrospectively analyzed birth data obtained from the Department of Health in Taiwan for years 2002-2009. Frequency distribution, percentages and related predictors were investigated, and findings were presented by types of cleft deformities. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with cleft deformities. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of cleft deformities among 1,705,192 births was 0.1% for CL/P and 0.04% for CP over the 8-year study period. Higher prevalence of CL/P or CP was observed with multiple pregnancies, being male for CL/P, being female for CP, gestational age ≤37 weeks and lower birth weight (<1.5 kg. Both CL/P and CP were significantly associated with gestational age <37 weeks and birth weight<1.5 kg (all P <0.0001. CL/P was significantly associated with multiple parities (P = 0.0004-0.002. Male newborns and female newborns were significantly associated with CL/P and CP, respectively (both P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence for congenital cleft deformities in study subjects was 0.1%, in keeping with high rates in Asia. Results suggest the need for awareness and early identification of those at high risk for cleft deformities, including newborns with gestational age <37 weeks, weighing <1.5 kg at birth and women with multiple parities, as a potential strategy to counter long-term adverse effects on speech and language in this population.

  1. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  2. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of sleep disorders and seizure disorders in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    was 3.09% (95% CI: 2.01-4.16%). For sleep disorders we evaluated 18 studies; none were population-based. The prevalence ranged from 0-1.6% for narcolepsy, 14.4-57.5% for restless legs syndrome, 2.22-3.2% for REM behavior disorder, and 7.14-58.1% for obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: This review......BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that comorbid neurologic disorders are more common than expected in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid seizure disorders and sleep disorders in persons with MS and to evaluate the quality of studies...... suggests that seizure disorders and sleep disorders are common in MS, but highlights gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of these conditions in MS worldwide. Other than central-western Europe and North America, most regions are understudied....

  3. Prevalence of chronic cough in relation to upper and lower airway symptoms; the Skövde population-based study

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    Mats eBende

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic cough in relation to upper airway symptoms, in a cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. Another aim was to relate coughing to other explanatory variables and risk factors. A random sample of 1900 inhabitants from the age of 20, stratified for age and gender, was recruited. Subjects were invited for clinical examinations that included questions about general odor intolerance, respiratory symptoms, and smoking habits, and a smell identification test. In total, 1387 volunteers (73% of the sample were investigated. The overall prevalence of self-reported chronic cough was 6.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 5.0-7.6%. Female gender, age, height, BMI, and smoking were significantly related to cough. Furthermore, nasal blockage, nasal secretion, sneezing, asthma, odor and cold air sensitivity, and aspirin intolerance also related to cough with statistical significance, indicating a close connection between chronic cough and upper airway symptoms. In keeping with other studies, this study demonstrates that chronic cough is a widespread problem in society, and is about twice as common in women than in men.

  4. Calibrated prevalence of infertility in 30- to 49-year-old women according to different approaches: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, A; Lopez-Villaverde, V; Rueda, M; Moya-Garrido, M N

    2015-11-01

    How does the estimated prevalence of infertility among 30- to 49-year-old women vary when using different approaches to its measurement? The prevalence of women with difficulties in conceiving differed widely according to the measurement approach adopted. Establishing the true magnitude of infertility as a public health problem is challenging, given that it is not categorized as a disability or chronic condition and may be largely unreported. The time required to conceive is an increasingly frequent concern among couples of reproductive age. Population-based studies do not consider multiple approaches to infertility measurement in the same sample. A face-to-face cross-sectional population-based survey of 443 women aged between 30 and 49 years residing in Huelva, southern Spain, was carried out. The sample size estimation was based on an assumed prevalence of infertility of 19%, a sampling error of ±4.84 percentage points, a design effect of 1.8 and a 95% confidence level. The information was collected in 2011. Self-reported information was gathered on socio-demographic data, pregnancy history, time required to become pregnant and perception of difficulties in becoming pregnant. Eight approaches to the estimation of infertility prevalence were considered: diagnosed infertility, subjective infertility, 1-year infertility, primary infertility, secondary infertility and subfertility based on the time taken to conceive (6, 12 or 24 months). Calibration estimators (indirect estimation techniques) were used to extrapolate the infertility prevalences to the whole of Spain. The response rate was 61.05%. Among 30- to 49-year-old Spanish women, 1.26% had a clinical diagnosis of infertility, 17.58% did not achieve pregnancy in 1 year (1-year infertility), 8.22% perceived difficulties in procreation (subjective infertility), 6.12% had not succeeded in having biological children (primary infertility) and 11.33% had not been able to have another biological child (secondary

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Halal Camila S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilin city. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through a multi-stage sampling method all individuals 20 years and over living at the selected households at the urban area of the city were interviewed regarding past and current socio-economic indicators; demographic characteristics; nutritional and behavioural habits; and history of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.Hp infection was ascertained through the 13C-UBT. Due to the high prevalence, data were analysed through robust Poisson regression. All analyses took into account the family clustering of the data. Results Among 563 eligible individuals, 363 agreed to perform the 13C-UBT (refusal rate of 35.5%. Refusals were associated with female sex, consumption of mate drinking, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection was 63.4% (95%CI 59.3%–69.3%. In crude analyses, prevalence was associated with increasing age, non-white skin colour, lower current family income, lower education level, higher size of the family, low socio-economic conditions in childhood, higher number of siblings and attendance to day-care centres in childhood, and presence of dyspeptic symptoms. In adjusted analysis the level of education of the father was inversely associated with the infection, whereas number of siblings and attendance to day-care centre in childhood were directly associated with it. Non-white skin colour remained significantly associated with increased prevalence even after allowing for past and current socio-economic characteristics, age and sex. Compared to non-symptomatic individuals, those

  6. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Frances; Doherty, Michael; Grainge, Matthew J; Lanyon, Peter; Zhang, Weiya

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to review the worldwide incidence and prevalence of SLE and variation with age, sex, ethnicity and time. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines was carried out using Medical Subject Headings and keyword search terms for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus combined with incidence, prevalence and epidemiology in August 2013 and updated in September 2016. Author, journal, year of publication, country, region, case-finding method, study period, number of incident or prevalent cases, incidence (per 100 000 person-years) or prevalence (per 100 000 persons) and age, sex or ethnic group-specific incidence or prevalence were collected. The highest estimates of incidence and prevalence of SLE were in North America [23.2/100 000 person-years (95% CI: 23.4, 24.0) and 241/100 000 people (95% CI: 130, 352), respectively]. The lowest incidences of SLE were reported in Africa and Ukraine (0.3/100 000 person-years), and the lowest prevalence was in Northern Australia (0 cases in a sample of 847 people). Women were more frequently affected than men for every age and ethnic group. Incidence peaked in middle adulthood and occurred later for men. People of Black ethnicity had the highest incidence and prevalence of SLE, whereas those with White ethnicity had the lowest incidence and prevalence. There appeared to be an increasing trend of SLE prevalence with time. There are worldwide differences in the incidence and prevalence of SLE that vary with sex, age, ethnicity and time. Further study of genetic and environmental risk factors may explain the reasons for these differences. More epidemiological studies in Africa are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin C deficiency in north and south India: a two centre population based study in people aged 60 years and over.

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    Ravilla D Ravindran

    Full Text Available Studies from the UK and North America have reported vitamin C deficiency in around 1 in 5 men and 1 in 9 women in low income groups. There are few data on vitamin C deficiency in resource poor countries.To investigate the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in India.We carried out a population-based cross-sectional survey in two areas of north and south India. Randomly sampled clusters were enumerated to identify people aged 60 and over. Participants (75% response rate were interviewed for tobacco, alcohol, cooking fuel use, 24 hour diet recall and underwent anthropometry and blood collection. Vitamin C was measured using an enzyme-based assay in plasma stabilized with metaphosphoric acid. We categorised vitamin C status as deficient (28 µmol/L. We investigated factors associated with vitamin C deficiency using multivariable Poisson regression.The age, sex and season standardized prevalence of vitamin C deficiency was 73.9% (95% confidence Interval, CI 70.4,77.5 in 2668 people in north India and 45.7% (95% CI 42.5,48.9 in 2970 from south India. Only 10.8% in the north and 25.9% in the south met the criteria for adequate levels. Vitamin C deficiency varied by season, and was more prevalent in men, with increasing age, users of tobacco and biomass fuels, in those with anthropometric indicators of poor nutrition and with lower intakes of dietary vitamin C.In poor communities, such as in our study, consideration needs to be given to measures to improve the consumption of vitamin C rich foods and to discourage the use of tobacco.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Population-based prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria: implications for cervical cancer control programs and human papilloma virus immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J O; Ojemakinde, K O; Ajayi, I O; Omigbodun, A O; Fawole, O I; Oladepo, O

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. All women aged ≥15 years in each household in Idikan, Ibadan, were invited to participate in a population-based study. Structured questionnaires were administered to all consenting women. Conventional cervical Papanicolaou smears obtained from sexually active women were classified using the 2001 Bethesda system. The diagnoses were correlated with sociodemographic data and risk factors. Of 2,870 women aged ≥15 years estimated to live in Idikan, 1,204 sexually active women consented to pelvic examination and cervical smears. Results were available for 1,104 women (mean age: 39.8 years). Mean ages at menarche, first sexual intercourse and first pregnancy were 16.1, 20.3 and 20.7 years, respectively. Cytological results were categorized into atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical glandular cells 22 (1.99%); low-grade 43 (3.89%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) 17 (1.54%); invasive cancer 2 (0.18%) and normal 593 (53.8%) and reactive changes 427 (38.7%). The prevalence of epithelial abnormalities is 7.6%. Significant host-related factors in those with HSIL and invasive cancer included older age (mean 56.2 years), high parity and gravidity, lack of formal education and being divorced (p prevalence data and local risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in a Nigerian population, which will be useful for planning future cervical cancer control programs. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Flourishing or floundering? Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among a population-based sample of adult cancer survivors 6months after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Allison W; Girgis, Afaf; D'Este, Catherine; Zucca, Alison C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of anxiety, depression and comorbid anxiety-depression among adult cancer survivors six months following diagnosis, and identify the individual, disease, health behaviour, psychological and social factors associated with psychological morbidity. A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors was recruited from two state-based cancer registries in Australia. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with registry data. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 28% (95% CI: 23%-33%). Specifically, 24% (95% CI: 19%-29%) of survivors were identified as cases on anxiety (irrespective of depression), 14% (95% CI: 9%-19%) as cases on depression (irrespective of anxiety) and 10% (95% CI: 5%-15%) as cases on comorbid anxiety-depression. In addition to mental health history prior to cancer, modifiable health behaviours (physical activity, smoking status), psychological (helplessness-hopelessness, anxious preoccupation coping) and social (low positive social interaction) characteristics were stronger indicators of psychological morbidity than survivors' individual or disease characteristics. Psychological morbidity was assessed by self-report screening instrument rather than clinical interview. The extent to which psychological morbidity is age-related versus cancer-related cannot be determined without a gender- and age-matched control group. Although lower than previously reported, psychological morbidity is prevalent six months after a cancer diagnosis and emphasises the need for routine psychosocial assessment throughout the cancer trajectory to identify those at increased risk or in need of immediate intervention. Physical activity, smoking cessation and coping skills training interventions warrant further exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence of low and high-energy fractures in persons with and without HIV infection: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit E; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Obel, Niels

    2012-01-28

    To compare fracture risk in persons with and without HIV infection and to examine the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation on risk of fracture. Population-based nationwide cohort study using Danish registries. Outcome measures were time to first fracture at any site, time to first low-energy and high-energy fracture in HIV-infected patients (n = 5306) compared with a general population control cohort (n = 26 530) matched by sex and age during the study period 1995-2009. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture [IRR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-1.7] compared with population controls. The relative risk was lower in HIV-monoinfected patients (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4) than in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients (IRR 2.9, 95% CI 2.5-3.4).Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had increased risk of low-energy fracture, IRR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.4-1.8) and 3.8 (95% CI 3.0-4.9). However, only HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had increased risk of high-energy fracture, IRR of 2.4 (95% CI 2.0-2.9). Among HIV-monoinfected patients the risk of low-energy fracture was only significantly increased after HAART exposure, IRR of 1.8 (95% CI 1.5-2.1). The increased risk in HAART-exposed patients was not associated with CD4 cell count, prior AIDS, tenofovir or efavirenz exposure, but with comorbidity and smoking. HIV-infected patients had increased risk of fracture compared with population controls. Among HIV-monoinfected patients the increased risk was observed for low-energy but not for high-energy fractures, and the increased risk of low-energy fracture was only observed in HAART-exposed patients.

  12. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of cancer in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer incidence and prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cancer in persons with MS and review the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge...

  13. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischeamic heart disease and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Davidsen, Michael; Andersen, Lisbeth V.

    2015-01-01

    of these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the past 20...... years (beginning in 1980). A prevalent case is defined as a subject surviving the first year after the incident diagnosis. Regarding IHD, age-standardised incidence rates declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 for both sexes (females 445 to 340/100,000, males 822 to 678/100,000), reflecting...

  14. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Hughes, James P; Gonzales, Marco A; Garcia, Patricia J; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2009-02-03

    Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18-29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%-12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%-14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%-3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23-2.09; > or = 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12-3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.72; > or = 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%-50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially

  15. The Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in New York County (Manhattan), New York: The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirly, Peter M; Wan, Isabella; Sahl, Sara; Buyon, Jill P; Belmont, H Michael; Salmon, Jane E; Askanase, Anca; Bathon, Joan M; Geraldino-Pardilla, Laura; Ali, Yousaf; Ginzler, Ellen M; Putterman, Chaim; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G; Parton, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based registry designed to determine the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2007 and the incidence from 2007 to 2009 among residents of New York County (Manhattan), New York, and to characterize cases by race/ethnicity, including Asians and Hispanics, for whom data are lacking. We identified possible SLE cases from hospital records, rheumatologist records, and administrative databases. Cases were defined according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria, or the treating rheumatologist's diagnosis. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-standardized, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case underascertainment. By the ACR definition, the age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates of SLE were 62.2 and 4.6 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Rates were ∼9 times higher in women than in men for prevalence (107.4 versus 12.5) and incidence (7.9 versus 1.0). Compared with non-Hispanic white women (64.3), prevalence was higher among non-Hispanic black (210.9), Hispanic (138.3), and non-Hispanic Asian (91.2) women. Incidence rates were higher among non-Hispanic black women (15.7) compared with non-Hispanic Asian (6.6), Hispanic (6.5), and non-Hispanic white (6.5) women. Capture-recapture adjustment increased the prevalence and incidence rates (75.9 and 6.0, respectively). Alternate SLE definitions without capture-recapture adjustment revealed higher age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates (73.8 and 6.2, respectively, by the SLICC definition and 72.6 and 5.0 by the rheumatologist definition) than the ACR definition, with similar patterns by sex and race/ethnicity. The MLSP confirms findings from other registries on disparities by sex and race/ethnicity, provides new estimates among Asians and Hispanics, and provides estimates using the

  16. Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors associated with risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude A Mellins

    Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across

  17. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayinuer Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47% with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13% with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59% with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%, HPV-51 (0.08%, HPV-31 (0.07%, HPV-58 (0.07%, and HPV-39 (0.06%. Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52% and 256 participants (28.99%, respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05. Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection.

  18. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2016-12-01

    In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. Four dietary patterns were identified, called " Starchy-Sugar ", " Prudent ", " Western ", and " Sugary drinks ". High scores for the " Western " pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). " Meats/Cheeses " and " Snacks/Alcohol " patterns emerged in people with obesity. The findings suggest that high adherence to the " Western " pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population.

  19. Population-based assessment of prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-08-09

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of individuals aged 30 years and older in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one urban and three rural locations in which 10,293 subjects were examined. All the subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and a detailed interview by trained professionals. Pterygium was defined as fleshy fibro vascular growth, crossing the limbus, and typically seen on the nasal conjunctiva in either eye. Data were analyzed for 5586 subjects who were aged 30 years and older at the time of participation. The mean age of the participants was 47.5 years (SD 13 years; range 30-102 years). In total, 46.4% were male, 56.7% had no education, 52.2% of them were involved in outdoor occupations, and 25% belonged to urban area. The prevalence of pterygium was 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-12.6). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of pterygium among older age groups, rural residents (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; P > 0.01), and those involved in outdoor occupations (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2, P protective effect (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7; P Protecting the eyes from sunlight may decrease the risk of pterygium. However, the important public health challenge is to encourage the use of this protection as a routine in developing countries such as India.

  20. Prevalence of pica and rumination behaviors in German children aged 7-14 and their associations with feeding, eating, and general psychopathology: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andrea S; Poulain, Tanja; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Hilbert, Anja

    2018-04-19

    Despite potentially severe medical consequences of pica and rumination disorder (RD), little is known about their prevalence and association with other psychopathology in childhood. As a part of a larger population-based study, 804 children aged 7-14 years and their parents were asked about their experience of pica and RD behaviors, and associated eating, feeding and general psychopathology. A total of 12.31 and 11.49% of the participants reported having engaged in pica or RD behaviors, respectively, at least once. Recurring pica or RD behaviors had been experienced by 4.98 and 1.49% of the participants, respectively. The behaviors showed a significant but small correlation with one another (r = 0.28, p ARFID) were significant but small (pica: r = 0.18, RD: r = 0.27, both p ARFID diagnosis (both behaviors 12.0%). However, correlations with restraint and eating, weight, and shape concern were non-significant (all p > 0.05). Additionally, RD behavior was positively correlated with emotional and conduct problems (r = 0.15 and 0.22, both p ARFID to deepen the understanding of their presentation and to ascertain diagnostic validity.

  1. Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

  2. Does Hospitalization Predict the Disease Course in Ulcerative Colitis? Prevalence and Predictors of Hospitalization and Re-Hospitalization in Ulcerative Colitis in a Population-based Inception Cohort (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Laszlo; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Kiss, Lajos S; Balogh, Mihaly; Pandur, Tunde; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-09-01

    Limited data are available on the hospitalization rates in population-based studies. Since this is a very important outcome measure, the aim of this study was to analyze prospectively if early hospitalization is associated with the later disease course as well as to determine the prevalence and predictors of hospitalization and re-hospitalization in the population-based ulcerative colitis (UC) inception cohort in the Veszprem province database between 2000 and 2012. Data of 347 incident UC patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were analyzed (M/F: 200/147, median age at diagnosis: 36, IQR: 26-50 years, follow-up duration: 7, IQR 4-10 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Probabilities of first UC-related hospitalization were 28.6%, 53.7% and 66.2% and of first re-hospitalization were 23.7%, 55.8% and 74.6% after 1-, 5- and 10- years of follow-up, respectively. Main UC-related causes for first hospitalization were diagnostic procedures (26.7%), disease activity (22.4%) or UC-related surgery (4.8%), but a significant percentage was unrelated to IBD (44.8%). In Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis disease extent at diagnosis (HR extensive: 1.79, p=0.02) or at last follow-up (HR: 1.56, p=0.001), need for steroids (HR: 1.98, p<0.001), azathioprine (HR: 1.55, p=0.038) and anti-TNF (HR: 2.28, p<0.001) were associated with the risk of UC-related hospitalization. Early hospitalization was not associated with a specific disease phenotype or outcome; however, 46.2% of all colectomies were performed in the year of diagnosis. Hospitalization and re-hospitalization rates were relatively high in this population-based UC cohort. Early hospitalization was not predictive for the later disease course.

  3. Prevalence of high, medium and low-risk medical conditions for pneumococcal vaccination in Catalonian middle-aged and older adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ochoa-Gondar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Updated population-based data on the frequency and distribution of risk factors for pneumococcal disease is scarce. This study investigated the prevalence of distinct comorbidities and underlying risk conditions related to an increasing risk of pneumococcal disease among Catalonian middle-aged and older adults. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study including 2,033,465 individuals aged 50 years or older registered at 01/01/2015 in the Catalonian Health Institute (Catalonia, Spain. The clinical research database of the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP database was used to identify high-risk (asplenia and/or immunocompromising conditions and other increased-risk conditions (chronic pulmonary, cardiac or liver disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and/or smoking among study subjects. Results Globally, 980,310 (48.2% of the 2,033,465 study population had at least one risk condition of suffering pneumococcal disease (55.4% in men vs 42.0% in women, p < 0.001; 41.7% in people 50–64 years vs 54.7% in persons 65 years or older, p < 0.001. An amount of 176,600 individuals (8.7% had high-risk conditions (basically immunocompromising conditions. On the other hand, 803,710 persons (39.5% had one or more other risk conditions. In fact, 212,255 (10.4% had chronic pulmonary diseases, 248,377 (12.2% cardiac disease, 41,734 (2.1% liver disease, 341,535 (16.8% diabetes mellitus, 58,781 (2.9% alcoholism and 317,558 (15.6% were smokers. Conclusion In our setting, approximately 50 % of overall persons 50 years or older may be considered at-risk population for pneumococcal disease (almost 10 % have high-risk conditions and 40 % have other risk conditions.

  4. Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of velamentous and marginal cord insertions: a population-based study of 634,741 pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Ebbing

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for anomalous insertions of the umbilical cord, and the risk for adverse outcomes of these pregnancies. DESIGN: Population-based registry study. SETTING: Medical Birth Registry of Norway 1999-2009. POPULATION: All births (gestational age >16 weeks to <45 weeks in Norway (623,478 singletons and 11,263 pairs of twins. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and odds ratios (ORs for risk factors and adverse outcomes based on logistic regressions adjusted for confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Velamentous or marginal cord insertion. Abruption of the placenta, placenta praevia, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, operative delivery, low Apgar score, transferral to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, malformations, birthweight, and perinatal death. RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal cord insertion was 7.8% (1.5% velamentous, 6.3% marginal in singleton pregnancies and 16.9% (6% velamentous, 10.9% marginal in twins. The two conditions shared risk factors; twin gestation and pregnancies conceived with the aid of assisted reproductive technology were the most important, while bleeding in pregnancy, advanced maternal age, maternal chronic disease, female foetus and previous pregnancy with anomalous cord insertion were other risk factors. Velamentous and marginal insertion was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes such as placenta praevia (OR = 3.7, (95% CI = 3.1-4.6, and placental abruption (OR = 2.6, (95% CI = 2.1-3.2. The risk of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and delivery by acute caesarean was doubled, as was the risk of low Apgar score, transferral to NICU, low birthweight and malformations. For velamentous insertion the risk of perinatal death at term was tripled, OR = 3.3 (95% CI = 2.5-4.3. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of velamentous and marginal insertions of the umbilical cord was 7.8% in singletons and 16.9% in twin gestations, with marginal insertion being more

  5. Prevalence and association of refractive anisometropia with near work habits among young schoolchildren: The evidence from a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Lee

    Full Text Available Lifestyle behaviour may play a role in refractive error among children, but the association between near work habits and refractive anisometropia remains unclear.We estimated the prevalence of refractive anisometropia and examined its association with near work activities among 23,114 children in the Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei who were grade 2 elementary school students at baseline in 2013 and 2014. Baseline data on demographics, medical history, parental history and near work habits were collected by parent-administered questionnaire survey. Refractive status was determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. Refractive anisometropia was defined as the spherical equivalent difference ≥ 1.0 diopter between eyes.The prevalence of refractive anisometropia was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0% to 5.6%. The prevalence and severity of refractive anisometropia increased with both myopic and hyperopic refractive error. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that refractive anisometropia was significantly associated with myopia (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% CI, 2.53-3.51, hyperopia (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.98-2.83, degree of astigmatism (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.005-1.006, amblyopia (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.06-3.12, male gender (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-0.99 and senior high school level of maternal education (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92. Though anisometropic children were more likely to spend more time on near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29 and to have less eye-to-object distance in doing near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.30, these associations became insignificant after additional adjustment for ocular, demographic and parental factors.The present study provides large-scale, population-based evidence showing no independent association between refractive anisometropia and near work habits, though myopia is associated with refractive anisometropia.

  6. The prevalence of cervical myelopathy among subjects with narrow cervical spinal canal in a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study: the Wakayama Spine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiji; Yoshimura, Noriko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Noboru; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Minamide, Akihito; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Akune, Toru; Yoshida, Munehito

    2014-12-01

    A narrow cervical spinal canal (CSC) is a well-known risk factor for cervical myelopathy (CM). However, no epidemiologic data of the CSC based on a population-based cohort are available. The purpose of the study was to investigate the age-related differences in CSC diameters on plain radiographs and to examine the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities including cervical cord compression and increased signal intensity (ISI) as well as the clinical CM with the narrow CSC. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the baseline survey of the Wakayama Spine Study that was performed from 2008 to 2010 in a western part of Japan. Finally, a total of 959 subjects (319 men and 640 women; mean age, 66.4 years) were included. The outcome measures included in the study were the CSC diameter at C5 level on plain radiographs, cervical cord compression and ISI on sagittal T2-weighted MRI, and physical signs related to CM (eg, the Hoffmann reflex, hyperreflexia of the patellar tendon, the Babinski reflex, sensory and motor function, and bowel/bladder symptoms). The age-related differences of CSC diameters in men and women were investigated by descriptive statistics. The prevalence of MRI abnormalities and clinical CM was compared among the groups divided by the CSC diameter (less than 13, 13-15, and 15 mm or more). In addition, a logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association of the CSC diameter with cervical cord compression/clinical CM after overall adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. The CSC diameter was narrower with increasing age in both men and women. The prevalence of cervical cord compression, ISI, and the clinical CM was significantly higher in the narrower CSC group. The prevalence of cervical cord compression, ISI, and CM among subjects with CSC diameter less than 13 mm was 38.0%, 5.4%, and 10.1%, respectively. In the logistic model, the CSC diameter was a significant predictive factor for the

  7. Augmented Cross-Sectional Prevalence Testing for Estimating HIV Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, R.; Lagakos, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of an HIV incidence rate based on a cross-sectional sample of individuals evaluated with both a sensitive and less-sensitive diagnostic test offers important advantages to incidence estimation based on a longitudinal cohort study. However, the reliability of the cross-sectional approach has been called into question because of two major concerns. One is the difficulty in obtaining a reliable external approximation for the mean “window period” between detectability of HIV infection ...

  8. Review article: the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the incidence of gastric cancer across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S E; Morrison-Rees, S; Samuel, D G; Thorne, K; Akbari, A; Williams, J G

    2016-02-01

    There is little up-to-date review evidence on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori across Europe. To establish regional and national patterns in H. pylori prevalence across Europe. Secondly, to establish trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence and, thirdly, to report on the relationship between H. pylori prevalence and age group across Europe. A review of H. pylori prevalence from unselected surveys of adult or general populations across 35 European countries and four European regions since 1990. Secondly, an analysis of trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and in gastric cancer incidence from cancer registry data. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was lower in northern and western Europe than in eastern and southern Europe (P Europe from 1993 to 2007 was 2.1% with little variation regionally across Europe (north 2.2%, west 2.3%, east 1.9% and south 2.0%). Sharp increases in age-related prevalence of H. pylori often levelled off for middle age groups of about 50 years onwards, especially in areas with high prevalence. This review shows that H. pylori prevalence is much higher in less affluent regions of Europe and that age-related increases in prevalence are confined to younger age groups in some areas. There were sharp reductions in both H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence throughout Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in The Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Bech, Sara Brynhild Winther; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2008-01-01

    A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively.......A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively....

  10. Contributions of incidence and persistence to the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity is the result of preceding incidence of newly developed obesity and persistence of obesity. We investigated whether increasing incidence and/or persistence during childhood drove the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic....

  11. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; von Kries, Rüdiger; Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Straube, Andreas; Radon, Katja

    2010-02-09

    Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  12. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years. Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%, watched television (90% or listened to music (90% daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  13. Prevalence and Burden of Gait Disorders in Elderly Men and Women Aged 60–97 Years: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kiechl, Stefan; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Willeit, Johann; Scherfler, Christoph; Gasperi, Arno; Rungger, Gregorio; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. Methods In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60–97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Results Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%–36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (pgait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%–28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%–21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%–12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%–76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%–39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4–7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7–18.7; pgait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Conclusions Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower cognitive function, depressed mood, and diminished quality of life. PMID:23894511

  14. Prevalence and burden of headache disorders in Lithuania and their public-health and policy implications: a population-based study within the Eurolight Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastenytė, Daiva; Mickevičienė, Dalia; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Thomas, Hallie; Andrée, Colette; Steiner, Timothy J

    2017-12-01

    The Eurolight project assessed the impact of headache disorders in ten EU countries, using the same structured questionnaire but varying sampling methods. In Lithuania, sample selection employed methods in line with consensus recommendations for population-based burden-of-headache studies. The survey was cross-sectional. We identified, from the Residents' Register Service, a sample of inhabitants of Kaunas city and surrounding Kaunas region reflecting age (in the range 18-65 years), gender and rural/urban distributions of Lithuania. Medical students called unannounced at their homes and conducted face-to-face interviews employing a structured questionnaire. Of 1137 people in the pre-identified sample, 573 (male 237 [41.4%], female 336 [58.6%]; mean age 40.9 ± 13.8 years) completed interviews (participation proportion: 50.4%). Gender-adjusted 1-year prevalences were: any headache 74.7%; migraine 18.8%; tension-type headache (TTH) 42.2%; all headache on ≥15 days/month 8.6%; probable medication-overuse headache (pMOH) 3.2%. Migraine (OR: 3.6) and pMOH (OR: 2.9) were associated with female gender. All headache types except TTH were associated with significantly diminished quality of life. Migraine caused a mean 4.5% loss in paid worktime per affected male and 3.5% per affected female. Lost per-person times due to TTH were much less, but to pMOH and other headache on ≥15 days/month much higher. Among the entire workforce, lost productivity to migraine was estimated at 0.7%, to TTH 0.3% and to pMOH or other headache on ≥15 days/month 0.5%. The total of 1.5% may translate directly into lost GDP. Alternative calculations based on headache yesterday (with little recall error) produced, for all headache, a corroborating 1.7%. Similar losses from household work would also drain the nation's economy. Our findings were comparable to those from earlier studies using similar methods in Russia and Georgia. The multiple burdens from headache in Lithuania indicate

  15. Prevalência e fatores associados a sintomas depressivos em adultos do sul do Brasil: estudo transversal de base populacional Prevalence of depressive symptons and associated factors among southern Brazilian adults: cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton José Rombaldi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos e examinar fatores associados em uma população adulta do sul do Brasil, foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional, incluindo 972 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, idade entre 20 e 69 anos, moradores na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. A seleção amostral teve os setores censitários do município como unidades amostrais primárias e os domicílios como unidades secundárias. O questionário incluiu variáveis socioeconômicas, comportamentais e nutricionais. As prevalências dos sintomas depressivos tristeza, ansiedade, falta de energia, falta de disposição, pensar no passado e preferir ficar em casa, na população de Pelotas, foram, respectivamente, de 29,4%, 57,6%, 37,4%, 40,4%, 33,8% e 54,3%. Concluiu-se que as prevalências de sintomas depressivos foram elevadas e os indivíduos do sexo feminino, idade avançada, fumantes e obesos mostraram-se associadas à maioria dos desfechos. A depressão é um importante problema de saúde publica e o conhecimento de como a sintomatologia depressiva se distribui na população e os fatores associados à sua presença podem ajudar no melhor entendimento da fenomenologia dos transtornos depressivos e a traçar estratégias de prevenção e intervenção.To identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and examine associated factors in a Southern Brazilian adult population, a cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, including 972 subjects, men and women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling strategy relied on the census tracts of the city as primary sampling units and households as the secondary units. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, behavioral and nutritional variables. The prevalence of sadness, anxiety, loss of energy, lack of will to do things, thinking about the past, and wishing to stay at home were 29.4%, 57

  16. Incidence of HIV-1 infection and changes in prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual risk behaviours and RTIs may have contributed to HIV-1 transmission in this community. The data collected may help to inform the future design and evaluation of various intervention measures. Keywords: Africa, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, chlamydia, epidemiological synergy, gonorrhoea, incidence, sequelae

  17. The prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in women in Morocco, 1995-2016: Model-based estimation and implications for STI surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Aziza; El-Kettani, Amina; Hançali, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Youbi, Mohamed; Rowley, Jane; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Taylor, Melanie; Mahiané, Guy; Stover, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco’s national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. Methods Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. Results In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612–37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0–3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000–2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. Conclusions Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal

  18. The prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in women in Morocco, 1995-2016: Model-based estimation and implications for STI surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Aziza; El-Kettani, Amina; Hançali, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Youbi, Mohamed; Rowley, Jane; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Taylor, Melanie; Mahiané, Guy; Stover, John; Korenromp, Eline L

    2017-01-01

    Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco's national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612-37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0-3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000-2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal programmatic screening, which should help update and re

  19. Distribution, incidence, prevalence and default of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The study showed that the majority (38.7%) of patients with diabetes on the public sector register were from the district of eThekwini. Positive correlations were found between the prevalence of diabetes, the mortality rate and the number of defaulters (patients with diabetes who did not return for regular treatment).

  20. The impact of cancer incidence and stage on optimal utilization of radiotherapy. Methodology of a population based analysis by the ESTRO-HERO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Josep M; Barton, Michael; Grau, Cai

    2015-01-01

    -HERO project. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from Australian Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CCORE) were used. Population based stages at diagnosis from the cancer registries of Belgium, Slovenia, the Greater Poland region of Poland, and The Netherlands were used to assess the OUP...... in stage at diagnosis across countries. The most important impact on the OUP by country was due to changes in relative frequency of tumours rather than stage at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology can be adapted using European data, thus facilitating the planning of resources required to cope...

  1. Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Hans Wijbrand

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature on the incidence and prevalence of and mortality associated with eating disorders. Recent findings General-practice studies shove that the overall incidence rates of anorexia nervosa remained stable during the 1990s,

  2. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, and cascade of care in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional, population-based study in rural and urban Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alison J; Crampin, Amelia C; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Kayuni-Chihana, Ndoliwe; Musicha, Crispin; Tafatatha, Terence; Branson, Keith; Lawlor, Debbie A; Mwaiyeghele, Elenaus; Nkhwazi, Lawrence; Smeeth, Liam; Pearce, Neil; Munthali, Elizabeth; Mwagomba, Beatrice M; Mwansambo, Charles; Glynn, Judith R; Jaffar, Shabbar; Nyirenda, Moffat

    2018-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is in rapid demographic transition, and non-communicable diseases are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the burden of diabetes, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and multimorbidity, their treatment, and their associations with lifestyle and other factors in Malawi, a very poor country with a predominantly rural-but rapidly growing urban-population, to identify high-risk populations and inform appropriate interventions. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we enrolled all adults (≥18 years) residing in two defined geographical areas within Karonga District and Lilongwe city. All adults self-defining as usually resident in the study areas were eligible, and recruited at household level. Participants were interviewed, had anthropometry and blood pressure measured, and had fasting blood samples collected. The study outcomes were prevalence estimates and risk ratios for diabetes (defined as fasting blood glucose of at least 7·0 mmol/L or self-report of a previous diagnosis of diabetes), hypertension (systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg, or self-report of current antihypertensive medication), overweight (BMI of 25·0-29·9 kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI of 30·0 kg/m 2 or more), and multimorbidity (two or more of the above conditions) by location-specific (urban vs rural), age-specific, and sex-specific groups, calculated using negative binomial regression. We used χ 2 likelihood ratio tests to assess heterogeneity by age, location, and sex. Between May 16, 2013, and Feb 8, 2016, we enrolled 15 013 (62%) of 24 367 eligible urban adults in Lilongwe and 13 878 (88%) of 15 806 eligible rural adults in Karonga District. Overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were highly prevalent, more so in urban residents, the less poor, and better educated than in rural, the poorest, and least educated participants. 18% of urban men (961 of

  3. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China: data from 1·7 million adults in a population-based screening study (China PEACE Million Persons Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiapeng; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Xinyue; Linderman, George C; Wu, Chaoqun; Cheng, Xiuyuan; Mu, Lin; Zhang, Haibo; Liu, Jiamin; Su, Meng; Zhao, Hongyu; Spatz, Erica S; Spertus, John A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-12-09

    Hypertension is common in China and its prevalence is rising, yet it remains inadequately controlled. Few studies have the capacity to characterise the epidemiology and management of hypertension across many heterogeneous subgroups. We did a study of the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China and assessed their variations across many subpopulations. We made use of data generated in the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE) Million Persons Project from Sept 15, 2014, to June 20, 2017, a population-based screening project that enrolled around 1·7 million community-dwelling adults aged 35-75 years from all 31 provinces in mainland China. In this population, we defined hypertension as systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg, or self-reported antihypertensive medication use in the previous 2 weeks. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were defined, respectively, among hypertensive adults as a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension, current use of antihypertensive medication, and blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg. We assessed awareness, treatment, and control in 264 475 population subgroups-defined a priori by all possible combinations of 11 demographic and clinical factors (age [35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-75 years], sex [men and women], geographical region [western, central, and eastern China], urbanity [urban vs rural], ethnic origin [Han and non-Han], occupation [farmer and non-farmer], annual household income [education [primary school and below, middle school, high school, and college and above], previous cardiovascular events [yes or no], current smoker [yes or no], and diabetes [yes or no]), and their associations with individual and primary health-care site characteristics, using mixed models. The sample contained 1 738 886 participants with a mean age of 55·6 years (SD 9·7), 59·5% of whom were women. 44·7% (95% CI

  4. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  5. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Palma-Padilla, Virginia; Carreón-Cruz, Rogelio; Ortega-Alvárez, Manuel Carlos; Mejía-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically trained to register, capture, and encode information. For each of these jurisdictions, the frequency, average annual age-standardized incidence (AAS) and average annual incidence per period by sex and, age, were calculated (rates per 1,000,000 children/years). In total 2,615 new cases of cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio generally >1, but in some tumors there were more cases in females (retinoblastoma, germ cells tumors). The principal groups of neoplasms in seven jurisdictions were leukemias, central nervous system tumors (CNS tumors), and lymphomas, and the combined frequency for these three groups was 62.6 to 77.2%. Most frequently found (five jurisdictions) was the North American-European pattern (leukemias-CNS tumors-lymphomas). Eight jurisdictions had AAS within the range reported in the world literature. The highest incidence was found for children underless than five year of age. In eight jurisdictions, leukemia had high incidence (>50). The AAS of lymphomas was between 1.9 to 28.6. Chiapas and Guerrero had the highest AAS of CNS tumors (31.9 and 30.3, respectively). The frequency and incidence of neuroblastoma was low. Chiapas had the highest incidence of retinoblastoma (21.8). Germ-cell tumors had high incidence. The North American-European pattern of cancers was the principal one found; the overall incidence was within the range reported worldwide. In general but particularly in two jurisdictions (Yucatán and Chiapas), it will be necessary to carry out studies concerning the

  6. Prevalence of H. pylori Infection and Atrophic Gastritis in a Population-based Screening with Serum Biomarker Panel (GastroPanel®) in St. Petersburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Laslo D; Lukyanchuk, Ruslan; Sablin, Oleg A; Araslanova, Elena I; Eklund, Carita; Hendolin, Panu; Paloheimo, Lea; Syrjänen, Kari

    2016-08-01

    Russian Federation is among the high-incidence countries for gastric cancer (GC), with the incidence being projected to continue increasing. Using a non-invasive blood test with four stomach-specific biomarkers (pepsinogen-I (PG-I) and -II (PG-II), amidated gastrin-17 (G-17) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) IgG antibodies) in a hospital-based screening setting, we aimed to determine the prevalence of GC risk conditions: HP-infection and atrophic gastritis (AG). A population-derived cohort of 918 asymptomatic subjects (646 women and 272 men) with a mean age of 51.8 years (range=26-83) was examined with the GastroPanel® (GP) test. GP results were verified by gastroscopy and biopsies (the Updated Sydney System (USS) classification for all test-positive AG cases and for random 5% test-negatives (n=